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Q1. What is the definition, purpose, nature of management? Ans.

Definition:-Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individual can working together in groups, efficiently accomplishes the selected aim. This basic definition needs to be expanded:1. As manager people carry out the managerial function of planning, organising, staffing, leading, controlling. 2. Management is applied to managers at all level of organisation. 3. Management is applied to any kind of organisation. 4. The aim of the entire manager is to create surplus. 5. Managing is concerned with productivity i.e. effectiveness and efficiency. NATURE OF MANAGEMENT: - The nature or salient features of management are given below:1. Management is universal. Management is required in every form of group activity whether it is a family, a club, a government, an army, or business enterprise. The approach or style may differ from one organisation to another. 2. Management is purposeful. Management exists for achievement of specific objectives. It means towards the accomplishment of predetermined goals. All the activities of management are goal oriented. 3. Management is a unifying force. The essence of management lies in the coordination of individual efforts into a team. Management reconciles the individual goals with organisation goals. It integrates human and other resources. 4. Management is a social process. Management is done by people, through people and for people. It is a social process because it is concerned with interpersonal relations. Human effort is the most important element in organisation. 5. Management is multidisciplinary. Management has to deal with human behavior under dynamic conditions. Therefore it is depend upon wide knowledge derived from several disciplines like engineering, sociology, psychology, mathematics, economics etc. 6. Management is a continuous process. Management is dynamic and on-going process. The cycle of management continues to operate as long as there are organized actions for achievement of group goals. 7. Management is intangible. Management is unseen or invisible force. It cannot be Seen but felt everywhere in the form of results. 8. Management is situational. Efficient management is always situational or contingency management because there is no one best way of doing things. A successful manager must take into account situational differences. 9. Management is essentially an executive function. It deals with active direction and control of the activities of people to attain predetermined objectives. Management is the technique of by which the objective of human group are determined, clarified and accomplished. 10. Management is an art as well as a science. Management contains a systematic body of theoretical knowledge as well as practical application of such knowledge. PURPOSE OF MANAGEMENT The purpose of management is given below:1. Optimum utilization of resources. The most important objective of management is to use the various resources of the enterprise in a most economic way. If we utilize all the properly like use of man material machine and money that will help a business to earn sufficient profits to satisfy various interests i.e. proprietor, customers, employees etc. 2. Growth and development of business. The business is growth only when management uses proper planning, organising, direction and controlling. 3. Better quality goods. The aim of the management is to produce better quality of products at the minimum cost. Thus it removes all type of wastage in the business. 4. Ensuring regular supply of goods. It checks the artificial scarcity of goods within permissible limit. 5. Discipline and moral. The management maintains the discipline and boosts the moral of individuals by applying the principles of decent realization and delegation of authority. It motivates the employees through monetary and non monetary incentives. 6. Mobilizing best talent. The employments of experts in various fields will help in enhancing the efficiency of various factor of production. There should be proper environment to encourage good persons to join the enterprise.

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Top level management consist of board of directors. It brings out new situations and converts recourses into outputs. Is management is art or science? Ans. Another important purpose of management is to prepare a prospective plane. Management is personalized process. 2) It contains underlying principles and theories developed through continuous observation. Management as a science: . Management as an art: . iii. and chief executive may be an individual e. Physics. d. In every organisation there is a managerial hierarchy or chain of command which consists of several level of authority. The management levels may be classified as: 1. The aim of management is improving the performance of each and every factor of production. The main functions of middle level management are: 2. Top level 2.Art involves the practical application of personal skills and knowledge to achieve concrete results. To design broad structure of the organisation. finance manager branch manager. 4) The organized body of knowledge can be taught and learnt in the classroom and outside. Middle level 3.g. Promotion of research and development. Formulate and approve master budget. Minimize the element of risk. b. Low or Supervisory level 1. general manager etc. Middle level management comprises departmental or divisional heads e. managing directors. Improving performance. the main functions of top management are: a. e. Decide the distribution of products. iv. ii. The level of management may differ from organisation to organisation. Management involves the function forecasting. Like any other art management is creative. Through the exact future can never be predicted yet on the basis of previous experience and existing circumstance. personnel manager.The essential elements of science are as follows: 1) Science is a systematized body of knowledge pertaining to a particular field of inquiry. Like any other artist. The function of art is to effect change and to achieve desired results. Planning for future.g. No management should feel satisfied with two days work. mathematics. area sales manager etc. What are the managerial functions at the different level of organisation? Ans.7. plant manager. Future performance will depend upon present work. works manager. Thus the main elements of an art are: a) Personal b) Practical know –how c) Result orientation d) Creativity e) Constant practice aimed at perfection Management is basically an art because of the following reasons: i. It is the practical way of doing specific things. Q3. Top level management. and economics are some example of science. Middle level management. 3) The principles have universal applicability. Analyze and interpret changes in the external environment of the organisation. Art represent how of human behavior to do work. Management undertakes the research and development to take lead over its competitors and meet the uncertainties of future. Page 2 . Q2. 9. They can be applied under different situation. c. 10. a manger applies his knowledge and skills to coordinate the effort of his people. office manager. experimentation and research. 8. Establish long term cooperate planes. marketing manager. chemistry. Every manager adopts his own approach towards problems depending upon his environmental conditions. Effective management leads to realization of organisational and other goals.

The managerial functions that use the level of management in the organisation are:The functions which describe managerial job. 4. Organising is the process of establishing harmonious authorityresponsibility relationships among the members of the enterprise. the various functions of low level management are a. sales officers. Organising is the important element of because it is through organising that a manager brings together the material and human resources required for achievement of desired goal. organising. leading. It precedes other functions because a manager plans before he acts. Leading is the managerial function of guiding. when put together make up the management process. To monitor and control the operating performance. To interpret and explain plans and policies formulated by top management. This process is analyzed into key functions of management like planning. In the process of directing and leading his subordinates. Planning is most basic function of management. accounts officers. To train motivate and develop supervisory personnel. Top level Planning organising Middle level Leading Top level controlling Fig. foremen. 3.3. What are the managerial skills of manager of manager? Ans. controlling. A plan is a predetermined future course of action. c. Organising. Managerial function at different level of organization Q4. 2. Controlling is the process of ensuring that the organisation is moving in the desired direction and that progress is being made towards the achievement of goals. supervising. d. The skills of an effective manager may be classified into four categories as given below:- Page 3 . b. Leading. To cooperate among themselves. Controlling. motivating and leading people towards the attainment of planned targets of performance. purchase officers etc. a manger takes active steps to ensure that the employees accomplish their tasks according to the established plans. These functions have been discussed below:1. Planning involves determining the objectives and selecting a course of action to achieve what to do. It is today’s design for tomorrow and an outline of steps to be taken in future. Low level management. It consists of supervisors . Planning. Several skills are therefore required in order to be a successful manager. The job of a manger has become very challenging. when to do and where it to be done.

Organising. of different function that is used in management. Conceptual skills comprise the ability to see the whole organisation and the interrelationships between its parts. Forecasting and choice of a course of action. Assigning the duties and activities to specific position and people. compensation. d. Such competence is necessary for rational decision making. c. b. 2. Determination of objectives. Human skills. integration. Conceptual skills also include the competence to understand a problem in all aspects. These skills require specialized knowledge and proficiency in the mechanics of a particular job. Planning involves determining the objectives and selecting a course of action to achieve what to do. The process of organising consists of following steps: a. Ability in programming and operating in computer is for instance a technical skill. Staffing. An awareness of the importance of human skills should be part a manager orientation and suck skills should be developed throughout the career. It precedes other functions because a manager plans before he acts.Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical skills Fig. Page 4 . There is no. Technical skills refer to the ability and knowledge in using the equipment. training. Conceptual skills. Establishing authority responsibility relationships throughout the organisation. e. Determining and defining the activities required for achievement of planned goals. to analyse the forces working in situation and to take broad view of the organisation. programmes. when to do and where it to be done. c. These are required to win co-operation of others and build effective work teams. Staffing consist of manpower planning. Staffing is the process of filling all positions in the organisation with adequate and qualified personnel. It consists of forecasting. decision making and problem solving. selection. Formulation of policies. A plan is a predetermined future course of action. Organising is the process of establishing harmonious authority-responsibility relationships among the members of the enterprise. Human skills are reflected in the way a manager perceives his superiors. b. recruitment. Q5. d. techniques and procedure involved in performing specific tasks. Planning is most basic function of management. Grouping the activities into logical and convenient units. Defining and fixing responsibility for performance. These skills refer to the ability to visualize the entire picture or to consider a situation in its totality. Lying down of procedures and standards of performance. 3. subordinates and peers. schedules etc. and 1. The process of planning consist of: a. These functions are as:Planning. Such skills help the manager to conceptualize the environment. Human skills consist of the ability to work effectively with other people both as individuals and as members of a group. 2. It is today’s design for tomorrow and an outline of steps to be taken in future. budgets. Technical skills. 3. What are the different functions of management? Ans. Organising is the important element of because it is through organising that a manager brings together the material and human resources required for achievement of desired goal. Managerial skills at various levels 1.

d. Common purpose. c. Controlling is the process of ensuring that the organisation is moving in the desired direction and that progress is being made towards the achievement of goals. This is necessary to avoid the waste of time. grouping and assigning the activities to be performed for attainment of objectives. e. This chain of superior and subordinate relationships is known as chain of command. a manger takes active steps to ensure that the employees accomplish their tasks according to the established plans. What are organisation and the nature of organisation? Ans. Division of labour. Controlling. b. The total work of an organisation is divided into functions and subfunctions. d.e. creating the willingness to work for certain objectives. It is the process of determining. c. Leading. Page 5 S ta din g . Coordination is a rational process of pulling together the different parts of an organisation and unifying them into a team to achieve predetermined goals in an effective manner. It is bound as common purpose. Coordination. Nature of organisation. Every organisation exists to accomplish some common goals. arranging. It also provides benefits of specialization. Finding variances between the two. It is subordinate to the position above it and superior to the one below it. Communication i. 4. Staffing function has become important with growing size of organisation. Leading is the managerial function of guiding. motivating and leading people towards the attainment of planned targets of performance. Taking corrective action for correcting deviations. supervising. Leadership the behavior of employees. Motivating i. The authority of every position is defined. energy and resources. The process of leading consists of following steps: a.e. 5. Planning nt co ng lli ro ga or ni n zi planning Coordination ffi ng g Le a Fig. nature of coordination Q6. Establishing standards for measuring work performance.maintenance of employees. Organisation as process refers to one of the important functions of management. The main characteristics of organisation are: 1. b. Measurement of actual performance. Issuing orders and instruction. just like the architectural plan of building. It is a group of interacting and interdependent individuals working toward a common goal. establishing understanding with employees regarding plans and their implementation. The 2. In the process of directing and leading his subordinates. Authority structure. 3. It is the skeleton framework of an enterprise. designed to achieve common goal. There is an arrangement of position into a graded series. technological advancement and recognition of human factor in industry. Organisation as structure refers to the network relationships among individuals and positions in an organisation. Coordination is the essence of management. 6. Super visioning people at work. The process of controlling involves the following steps: a. structure must reflect these objectives as enterprise activities are derived from them.

social. These rules and regulations may be in writing or implies from customary behavior. The structure must be designed to work efficiently in changing environment. 8. Communication. political and legal factors. People. Page 6 . There is a mechanism for coordinating different activities and parts of an organisation so that it functions as an integrated whole. Therefore activity groupings and authority provisions must take into account the limitations and customs of people.4. An organisation is basically a group of persons. An organisation functions in an environment comprising economic. Every organisation has some rules and regulations for orderly functioning of people. Environment. 5. 7. Every organisation has its own channels of communication. Rules and regulations. Coordination. Such channels 6. are necessary for mutual understandings and cooperation among the members of an organisation.