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# Ball-Flight The clubface Orientation at Impact

The clubface (CF) orientation at impact and the true clubpath (CP) orientation at impact determine the balls flight. The true CP orientation at impact is calculated by the following equation: True CP = HSP [AA * TAN (90 VSP)] The initial ball -flight direction will be approximately 75 to 35 percent in the direction of the CF orientation at impact relative to the true CP orientation at impact. A driver will be closer to the 75 percent and a wedge closer to the 35- percent. The ball will then curve away from the true CP orientation.

## Controlling the CF Orientation at Impact:

It is much harder to learn to control the CF orientation at impact than it is to learn to control the true CP orientation at impact. The release type is key to being able to consistently and repetitively control the CF orientation at impact. A release type that requires more timing and hand-eye-coordination will make it harder to consistently and repetitively control the CF orientation at impact. Release types listed in order of easiest to hardest to control the CF orientation at impact are listed below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stable Release (also called a Push Release, Drive Release) Slap-Hinge Release Flip Release Cross-Over Release (also called a Roll Release) Flip / Cross-Over Combination Release

All golfers are using one of the methods to stabilize their CF orientation at impact. The Stable Release might be the hardest release to learn. However, once learned provides the most consistent and repetitive way to control the CF orientation at impact. The Stable Release is least timing-dependent of all release types and it's very possible to eliminate one side of the course with this kind of release.

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## Learning the Stable Release:

To lean the Stable Release you have to master certain biomechanics (body, arms, hands/wrists motions and positions) during the golf swing. The stable release can be analyzed by studying the position of the hands/wrists, arms, and club at various positions (i.e. pre-impact, impact, and post-impact).

Background Information:
Forearms: Shown below is pronation and supination of the forearm. Supination of the forearm is

turning the palm up; pronation of the forearm is turning the palm down.

Wrists: Shown below is deviation of the wrists. Radial deviation is cocking the wrist (moving

the thumb toward the forearm); ulnar deviation is an uncocked wrist (moving the thumb away from the forearm).

Shown below is the extension (dorsi flexion) and flexion of the wrists. Flexion of the

wrist is a bowing or arching of the wrist; extending is bending or cupping the wrist.

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Ulnar and Radial Deviation: Ulnar deviation (un-cocking) promotes flexion (bowing). Radial deviation (cocking) promotes dorsal flexion (cupping).

Full ulnar deviation requires slight palmar flexion and slight supination of the forearm. Full radial deviation requires slight dorsal flexion and slight pronation of the forearm.

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When analyzing pre-impact, impact, and post-impact positions, you can observe the following in the various release types:

Pre-Impact Positions:
Bowed - The left wrist appears bowed (entering into flexion) do to a high amount of supination and flexion. Cupped The left wrist is pronated (palm down) and in extension. Flat The left wrist is just slightly into flexion and looks slightly cupped.

Impact Positions:
Bowed The left wrist is bowed due to a combination of left wrist flexion and supination. Cupped The left wrist is cupped with a distinct angle between the back of he wrist and the left forearm. Flat The left wrist appears to be between bowed and slightly cupped.

## Post Impact Positions:

Bowed/Driving The left wrist is bowed with the clubshaft aligned toward the left shoulder. The left arm is extended away from the chest causing less rotation of the arms. Bowed/Rolling The left wrist is cupped and the left arm rolls/rotates faster than the body. Flip The left wrist is cupped and the clubshaft is passing the left forearm.

## The Stable Release:

Left wrist ulnar deviation and flexion is combined with supination of the forearm. Supination must be accompanied by flexion to keep the club on-plane. A weak grip requires far more supination of the left forearm to square the clubface. The left wrist remains solid or moves to a more solid position while the body engine provides the rotational force through the impact area. The wrist positions can vary though impact and post impact as follows:

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Bowed Stable Release The left wrist is either bowed or moving toward a bowed position through impact. The shaft does not pass the left forearm until very late in the swing. Cupped Stable Release The left wrist is slightly cupped through impact. Flat Stable Release The left wrist is supinated only half as much as in the Bowed Stable Release. The clubface gets squared early by releasing the lag earlier. Just prior to impact, they explode their left wrist/forearm to keep the club from passing the left forearm.

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