Jean-François Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics Author(s): Nikolaus Bacht Reviewed work(s): Source: Perspectives of New

Music, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 226-249 Published by: Perspectives of New Music Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25164530 . Accessed: 21/03/2012 12:07
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Lyotard's Jean-Fran?ois of John Cage's Adaptation Aesthetics

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Nikolaus

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the international symposium on Post-Modern Performance, held November 17-20, 1976 at the Center for Twentieth Century AT Studies of the University ofWisconsin-Milwaukee, Raymond Federman a work entitled Voices Within Voices.1 The work is of rather presented epigonal character, loosely combining linguistic diction reminiscent of Samuel Beckett and a performance set-up immediately recognizable as sat in the audience; his reaction, as influenced by John Cage. Cage I remem related by another auditor, was the following: "In Milwaukee,
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that Lyotard's portrayal of in a venomously anti reaction to Federman Cage's implicates Cage modernist rhetoric that is absent from his own work. Lyotard devised this aesthetic doctrine. it remained dedicated to expressing the lack of meaning for a subject. This opens the intriguing possibility that the origins of Lyotard's theory of a "postmod ernist avant-garde. especially in those predating The Postmodern Condi tion (1979).Cage's Aesthetics Adaptation of John Lyotard's 227 contribution . as he put it. It should not be overseen. in other words. after all. our auditor now Having rushes headlong it"?the into blatantly underdetermined modern. John Cage. . withdrew his support from the work." "affirmative aesthetics" or "libidinal aesthetics" (esth?tique libidi nale). very much as between Schoenberg Adorno."2 We to Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard. and anyone who influenced him in anyway was always readily acknowledged. which is a sure sign that he took lit tle or no notice of Lyotard. the names of friends had almost con ceptual significance for Cage.knowing fullwell that its objectivations might appear funny to his recipients. that the and affection was not reciprocal. . however. by contrast. as a theory of the avant-garde. designated "aesthetics of intensi ties. and at the same time funny. protesting that. In Lyotard's texts from the "inten unserious" phase. It seems. as Lyotard's private documents are not published or even archived yet. Cage never introduced Lyotard into his circle of friends. with uncharacteristic vehemence. stood up afterwards and. just as his postmodernist aesthetics that has become so influential. Unfortunately. could lie to some degree in an "intensively unserious" reading of Cage.4 At that time.3 Instances of such reckless reasoning can be found in abundance in account Lyotard's writings. who held a Senior Fellowship at the in 1976 and had been invited by the University ofWisconsin-Milwaukee of the International Symposium on Post-Modern Perfor organizers mance to participate in a panel discussion with Cage. perhaps even intensively so. ." to this point maintained descriptive restraint. Cage is omnipresent as a standard sively bearer for a peculiar aesthetic doctrine. however. nor did he ever mention him in his writings.5 The passage quoted above cer tainly is unserious. conclusions: "In short owe this work?"was romantic. despite its clever deconstructive apparatus. it personal relations." programmati cally articulated only a few years after his encounter with Cage at the International Symposium on Post-Modern Performance and fiercely debated ever since. Lyotard was aiming at an "intensively unserious" discourse. we do not know how deeply they knew each other and when exactly they firstmet. To determine whether Lyotard was indeed harnessing Cage to his would of course be helpful to have more information about their cause. who was with us there." or "postmodernism as avant-garde.

The only existing musicological contribution on the subject is an article by Hermann Danuser entitled "The Postmodernity of John Cage: The Experimental Artist as Seen by Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard. reception of early excites historical reflection. the aesthetics of intensi ties might not even have materialized without his influence. despite some local criticism. they are undoubtedly aware that a thor ough critical examination of Lyotard's early writings could show the author of The Postmodern Condition and The Diff?rend (1984)7 in a bad light. Fervent advocates of postmodernism in Germany. where he received numerous academic honors9?is similar. a distinction which Welsch & Co. to furnish an example from Europe. heavily indebted reassertion ofMarxism within a largely postmodernist society and culture.12 Judging Lyotard passes no judgment upon them. To date."17 Danuser puts an odd twist on the matter: for him.16 This paucity of critical attention to the aesthetics understanding of probably because of intensities also to Lyotard in his extends to the discipline of musicology. this association of a self-professed French avant-garde thinker with an established.228 PerspectivesofNew Music Cage serves not just as its focal figure. arguably. the fact that Lyotard drew upon Cage counts as evidence for the lat . it is also his most overtly anti-Marxist phase. Lyotard's earlywritings. Wolfgang Welsch and his school. neither of which In some quarters. have styled Lyotard as a postmodernist idol through skilful academic publicity.8 best considered a false academic start.More critical writers like Peter Dews see Lyotard's "inten ingly a sively unserious" thought as a philosophical dead-end. especially in Lyotard's reception in the English-speaking world?and strik North America. are in philosophical secondary literature at Lyotard is avoided formore tangible reasons. is.14 Mark Roberts's unpublished and little known doc toral dissertation on Lyotard's aesthetics does not explore the Cage link although the study contains a chapter on music. American avant-garde artist remains on under-explored. this is of course due to the "intensive" tone of these texts "unserious" and Lyotard's style of argumentation. In most cases.6 but generally simply disregarded.15 Even Fredric Jameson. assert with remarkable verve. plays down Lyotard's early phase. and in particular his articles the aesthetics of intensities. if controversial. however.11 The Lyotard Reader contains none of the early art icles.13 and the publications dedicated specifically to the political dimension of Lyotard's thought and career pay no attention to these articles despite their obvi ous political agenda.10 Those with who professional interest in consolidating postmodernist theory studiously ignore this phase: not even an expository account is provided in the stan dard introductions. jeopardizing the assertion of a postmodernist paradigm distinct from the Frankfurt School.

21 a publication that is essen tial to an understanding of Cage but. an assumption that. is revealed as problematic even by simple chronological considerations. as we shall see below. The anal ysis presented here will focus on Lyotard's articles from the early 1970s thatwere published in 1973 in an anthology entitled Des dispositifspulsion nels}* Lyotard was evidently familiarwith Silence (1961). Danuser has to work with an a priori assumption of postmodernist potential inCage's aesthet ics. The concluding section offers some reflections on the consequences for our view of both Cage and ter's supposed postmodernity. a multitude of different typefaces. thereby applying writing techniques based on the latter's chance operations. In the preface to Notations. To strategy underlying Lyotard's appropriation of Cage's this strategy."22 textwhich Lyotard heard in a performance by Cage and David Tudor in June 1972. with the exception of "MUREAU.23 The first section of the present article proves by means of intertextual analysis that Lyotard incorporates a number of Cage's key ideas into his own texts. The second and third sections expose the discursive aesthetics.Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 229 any furthercritical investigation into the aesthetics of intensities. he outlines edito rial rules which can also be seen as the guiding principles of his notational experiments: arrangement and formatting of the brief commentaries accompanying most of the examples are.19 A Tear from Monday (1967)20 and even Notations (1969). and intensities is used to enhance the immediate effect of writing. a compilation of 269 avant-garde scores gathered by Cage for the Foundation for Contemporary Performance Arts. To make his point. substantial comparative groundwork needs to be done prior to Lyotard. leaving them as much as possible of their immediacy. in addition. little read. in order to transcend the boundaries between written words and notated sound. The aim of these experiments was to develop a form of notation that frees sounds and words from the domination of writing. Writing and Chance Cage's writing experiments offer a particularly suitable point of departure for our analysis. the fourth section addresses the cultural-historical explain context of the aesthetics of intensities. letter sizes.24 . Thus.Writings by Cage that were published after 1973 and more recent developments of a Cage's thought are bracketed out. while working on the aesthetics of intensities. unfortunately. determined by chance operations. just as ifLyotard had exerted influence on Cage and not Cage on Lyotard.

Some fine artistsworking in his orbit inNew York were involved in similar projects. and can thus instantaneously even paragraphs. traditionally formed theoretical text. rendered in italics. Cage provided only performance direc tions but no pre-produced material. In "History of Experimental Music accounts for the compositional States" technique (1958). Cage and his friends were influenced by James Joyce come. The impression of discontinuity and be identified immediacy is intensified by sudden semantic disruptions (Example 1). In Interestingly. Nonetheless. however. until the publication of Notations. explanatory remarks. footnotes. Already in the late 1950s. Only the collage principle is used. Cowell's collage technique aptly describes how Cage. in the 1970s. Its discontinuous texture. produce a continuity from composed blocks provided by him. who. enhanced by typographical devices. "[Some works by Cowell] to those currently in use by Boulez and indeterminate inways analogous Stockhausen. which. are directly set against critical annotations is composed of syntactically simple. The arrangement of the textual blocks is not determined by chance opera . especially in his early in the United and middle phase. is supposed to make a strongly immediate effect.25 Cage are employed by Cowell inMosaic Quarter. whilst the indeterminacy prin is not to be understood as a "Mosaic" ciple is ignored. the title "Mosaic" terms of content. concluding sections. later. indetermi nacy was achieved by Cage no more through choice but through chance operations. derives its poignancy exactly from its formal design. and eventually over tions. in anyway they choose.230 PerspectivesofNew Music Cage was neither the only nor the firstone to undertake such experi ments. How ever. Remarks Schoenberg made in his analysis and counter point class. Cage does not comply with all the principles advanced in the preface to Notations and in his remarks on Cowell's Mosaic Quartet. and are italicized. in the 1910s and 1920s. Yet. Cowell's aleatoric methods. unmistakably alludes to theMosaic Quartet." a text by Cage from 1963. Cage himself has indicated what great importance Cowell's mosaic/collage technique had for his treatment of words: "Mosaic. has organized words into texts. it is an uncompromising polemical reckoning of Cage with Schoenberg.27 and St?phane Mallarm?. or transitional. "Mosaic" Cage deliberately avoids introductory. pioneered the extension of syntactical and formal means of literary expression. it is important to note that the American composer Henry Cowell also greatly influenced Cage's writing experiments."26 Cage has of course advanced. subor dinate clauses. stereotypes. where the perform ers. Quotations as foreign material. refers only to the article's form. For example: Cowell's Mosaic Quartet. Yet. mostly short sentences.

Vienna the city. world in which self-made what I nearly die of disgust. he lists three unpublished works. " A TEAR FROM MONDAT. relevant descriptions their own pains. Sitting in the of the ladies. having new structures made nor the desire Two him structure (process).all honored Schoenberg gave him pride and joy. . "Be aristocrat. Anton Webern." But: ascribing I want successes to himself. for you Berg. and definitions He wouldn't if one enter him. Troubled 5000 marks in connection quickly. . left the by begin by getting doctors because Strang. being a real musician music. Think and needing it over. / wonder an American sure you keep her. as long as he was meant being talking. though they were I learned pupils' in number but reminded him too of his diminished book and power. had a cold.Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 231 establish could a unified terminology and. to others. Of former times when EXAMPLE 1: JOHN CAGE : "MOSAIC. Even the fact that I write so many very harmful deviation me should from this principle. Mrs. was For. praises two." Before decisions asthma acting. His students worshipped it impossible Alban he that when he said "My purpose his words he examined seemed all in teaching you is tomake helpful to write music. who to describe a house So lived there. is to compose. Methods (Hauer). living-room Schoenberg with the third his feelings regarding praise. rather than devastating. granting he died. he Ruthless honesty. letters is a well by "This from my pupils. Schoenberg structures neoclassically. PAGE 45 . Schoenberg was them. begins: said. Schoenberg insisted. Some by others. after among dinner. The by European twelve-tone method functional contiguities." you'd say to the Aggressiveness. though malodorous. that there be no further knitting. aged seventy-six then do the possibilities... . finding preferable to that bestowed talking. right and left. and if you find it works. he said. Leaving He was a after her. continue be in such a way also. . it. To literate and having was intended are an ear educated him. were knitting. A nd though any one who means to me as often as possible (for Vm always certainly write glad of that). and discusses self-praise. that I don*t have that those to answer! He said she should vote whether that he would remaining would in the class.. smiling. leave the she might it should room. This opponents. to renounce years before free entry into to replace structural: the means the functional qualities dividing to make wholes of tonal harmony. singular pleasure. These make qualities Not into parts. Becoming and citizen didn't remove a prince his distaste for democracy that sort of thing. His Harmonielehre a teachers sole reward.

organizes his short. Dice (1897). he writes: The fairest. theology and expression. but by Cage." and the calculated interplay of aleatoric determination and indeterminacy."30 Lyotard concludes as follows: "The designation of the present item is: affirmation 13. avoids foot niques: although notes. Of former times when a prince stood as art"29 a protector before an artist. A second drawing (another throw of the dice) has permitted me to establish the diachronic series of the ideas' appearance. Several dimensions are left undetermined: the duration of each item.33 Lyotard's large-scale attempt to turn the aesthetics of intensi ties into a fully-fledged political philosophy. indifference)would occupy place of the series. indifference. as the following quotation by Lyotard reveals: "I have determined six ideas (dialectics. the chromatism (one would have been able to conceive of several writing types). Even Boulez's "Schoenberg isDead" as the following and objective text in comparison with "Mosaic. alas bygone. n belonging to which idea (for example. suggests that this writing experiment is not primarily inspired by Mallarm?'s A (1974). etc. I wonder whatyou^d say to theworld in which I nearly die of disgust. and will concern us later. Next a drawing (little papers carrying the numbers 1 to 20) has determined which item. The "items" are arranged to a text according to the scraps results of chance operations. Becoming an American citizen didn't remove his distaste for democracy and that sort ofthing."31 The concept of affirmation is a Cagean one." and "Notes sur le retour et le capital" discours. position." chance operations have been used to form these texts.A firstdrawing has assigned to each of these items the face of a dice. for example. but hard to decide with certainty. days of Some texts in Lyotard's collection of essays entitled Des dispositifspul sionnels closely resemble Cage's "Mosaic" in terms of both form and style textual tech (Example 2). Lyotard has studied Cage's he uses paragraphs. affirmation) under which I have distrib uted all my reflexions in the form of items. Its use in "Adorno come diavolo. number 5 or number 14.32 Throw of the une figure de A few other texts from Des dispositifs pulsionnels?"Sur "La dent. in a collage.232 Perspectives of New Music 8 seems a (1952) friendly by Cage. Perhaps chance operations also played a part in the structuring of Economie libidinale . Without doubt. powerful sentences into blocks?designated or paper "items" by him?and juxtaposes them like stones in a mosaic. la paume." written in the same style as "Adorno come (all dating from 1972)?are It is very likely. criticism." a self text illustrates: "He"?Schoenberg?"was example from Cage's made aristocrat. he italicizes quotations. whether diavolo. the duration of the blanks-silences which separate them.

? la crise de toutes les fonctionsde m?diation. dans la musique et sur des r?gles minutieusement observ?es pesant baroque. les objets les plus diff?rents/indiff?rents. des son. cens?e ils sont les ? chefs-d' du mat?riau uvre et de ?. PAGE108 . Ils sont rement. Mais dialectiquement. la parfaite permet en relation pas de classique la fabrication ils dans ?mis forme. Les abstrait harmonies sont ? comparer aux expressions de circons parfaites et encore plus ? Vargent dans V?conomie. du dimensions le d?coupage selon les degr?s r?gles 1/2 renversement et de du principe les de la s?rie ? toutes a une fois contre la chaleur Schoenberg parl? et contre son air piteux. ne sont de septi?me de dominante. est celle animale de la musique Sa froideur du rescap?. du mat?riau. ne r?sout La critique de l'?conomie de mettre que l'argent de la loi de la valeur. des faire. dit Adorno. La dissonance moderne. la musique nouvelle. errante de silence des lacunes dans la dysfonctionnant. audible. un instant. de dominante ils sont au contraire les analogues. accords de tonale. l'octave de de en 12 tant que non pas aux tons. et sur le produit la conciliation le culte. rien. dans la phase pr?sente." DES DISPOSITIFSPULSIONNELS.Cage's Aesthetics Adaptation of John Lyotard's 233 Schoenberg. EXAMPLE 2: JEAN-FRAN?OIS LYOTARD: "ADORNO COME DIAVOLO. quelque chose comme le ? garanti fait main ? au ch?teau va venir en bouteille r?actionnai qui distinguer. Leur caract?re langage en m?diation et leur crise les rend capables d'intervenir partout tance du estprofond?ment li?e. naturels. Et le m?me disposition machines d?traque. que laquelle ? son ? abstraction politique enseigne est l'abstraction d'?change. Les la monnaie. incarnent d?crit. comme marchandises. ? l'inverse de la chaleur webernienne. se la dialectique d'Aesthetische Theorie. proche est celle de ces eaux o? dit Adorno. la froideur schoenbergienne Or l'universalisation conduite talisme ? ses extr?mes cons?quences : c'est une formule du kapi le kapital plonge toute chose selon le seul calcul. Ce artisanaux. certaines marchandises dans l'?conomie industrielle et en objets de c'est dans en L'argent prestige. l'accord ?carts de consonance. mais r?put?s l'abstraction l'indiff?rence l'?changeabilit? r?trogradation. pour la loi de la valeur visible. Il faut bouleverser les param?tres de cette ?quation adornienne. Machines ? ?v?nements o? blancs Tinguely dit Schoenberg halte ? la dialectique. c'est leur usage qu'Adorno cynique ? ou le la culture.

"39 It is important to note that Lyotard's theory of compositional pro cesses is a deliberate misinterpretation of Freud. incidentally.. changed. Just likeCage. Thanatos "reveals itself in leaps of tension. keeps the primary processes in his sway. and exclusive. represented by Stravinsky. in a roles in Lyotard's tactics. Cage already in Webern's Klangfarbenmelodie. superimposition. faithfully inherited from Cage. Decisive In apart from the protagonist Cage. Dodeca phonic composition. frees desire and the primary processes of life. and a radical faction. strident sounds.40 Freud's classic text on Eros and Thanatos. really exaggerated. love-drive (or Schoenberg)."36 and Cage. creates with ymous out a single thought of a work or a composition." (1961). . for instance.Dissonances. the death-drive (or Cage). "We began. Lyotard splits squares the avant-garde into a traditional faction. are played by Freud and Nietzsche. the domination of time. the avant-garde. His music is anon inclusive. affirmative and Thanatos. In Beyond thePleasure Principle (1920). Lyotard introduces the psychoanalytic con into his theory of the avant-garde: Eros. is pre-subjective.234 Perspectives of New Music Historiography and Compositional Processes Given Lyotard's adoption of Cage's writing techniques. is bracketed out of the tradi Var?se. composing means "filtering and binding. in that which Klossowski calls intensities. i. musico-historiographical with Cage's. The schema employed by Lyotard. "by increasing ."37 Lyotard has made a great effort to substantiate this simplistic view of music history. the cepts Eros and Thanatos is seen as subjective. "Plusieurs silences" (1972).35 This idea is a transparent borrowing from Cage's article "Rhythm etc. excluding entire regions of the sonorous universe as noise. ugly silences." it says there. and Cage events. categorize Lyotard the entire occidental musical tradition under the heading of "domination of time.34 Webern tional avant-garde by Lyotard: in a tendency that could be seen to emerge he writes. . Satie.e. represented by Schoenberg and the Darmstadt School. Time-sense Both ber."38 By contrast. rhythm and the organization of the destroys musical artwork. by embedding the anti thetic notions of traditional composition as domination of time. the differences between the sounds making a Klangfarbenmelodie. and intensive. After that there was no longer any fixed structure: just parts in any num and duration. down to the last detail. and the Americans. critical. and of desires what he lacks. both love . theory of compositional processes. taking the next logical step. and composition in general. represents an erotic secondary process. it is not surpris ing that correspondences can be found even on a substantive level. which purportedly destroys the domination of time. does not express itself but produces.

to form a cosmos and a musik?"4S The Ancient Greek notion of musik? returns us to Lyotard's black-and-white historiogra phy. for the concert of the organism (the 'psychic apparatus'). or the transvaluator of all (musical) values. i. a non Allzumenschliches." makes a noise. whereas in Thanatos.. for a theory not of desire as lack. The death-drive is not silent. Even desire is thought of 41 in terms of a quantitative-qualitative mechanic. which Lyotard fillsby positing monism of power?with all the arbitrariness the term "posit ing" implies.. monism. that it is deaf to composition. and in particular lateNietzsche's. linguistic fashion. was authority: "There . At some points in Freud's writing. Lyotard asserts. it finds and non-linguistically. anti-Wagnerian. i. will to power. Lyotard discerns potential for a non-dualistic conception of the death-drive. are defined in duaHstic terms.. the articuli (the notes) are separated." he writes: and death-drive. "when Nietzsche desired this tragic. Voltairian-Paulinian Mosaic music. is twisted to avoid contradictions with Cage's "story" about his visit of an anechoic chamber wherein he could listen to the sound of his own organism and thus experience that silence has no factual existence. Lyotard ignores completely the pro found influence of Eastern thought and medieval mysticism on Cage. albeit with little elegance." simplifies Lyotard.46which he seeks to corroborate with Nietzsche's a certain phase.44 Freud's notion of the death-drive therefore denotes the fact that "energy has no earfor unity. While Lyotard agrees expression unconsciously with Freud's dualistic definition of the love-drive. is "in healthy condition. Conceptual hurdles are cleared effortlessly.43 Cage Zarathustra. but as production. represented in conscious. But as soon as Nietzsche exceeds this 'phase. the body of Thanatos-Zarathustra Cage. Thus emerges a blank. which in fact shaped his non-dualistic inclination and his notion of com position as process. and arranged. Desire as production..e. he defines the death drive inmonistic terms.' as soon as . which Lyotard claims to derive from becomes Freud. which. affirmative phase.42 This is a crucial point in Lyotard's argument: his emphasis on themonistic character of the death-drive enables a theoretical synthe sis (or rather conflation) of Freud's notion of desire with Cage's. desire is in Eros by Lyotard. intellectual. however. as Lyotard kindly informs us. Freud's conviction that the death-drive is silent. to the principle of lack and to the void inwhich the organs. critical. secondary and primary processes. becomes Wille zur Macht. sober. according to Freud. In "Notes sur leRetour et le Capital. The essential difference between the drives.e.Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 235 Nietzsche's "The problem of the death-drive is in Freud constrained in a structural metaphor (the system of the psychic apparatus). that of Menschliches. lies in their respective modes of representation.

"50 we will improve the world. resembles Charles's: just as the latter. "Saying Yes" entails yielding to contingent material facticity. not only our collective consciousness is In to be affirmed. attempts ing of Cage through Heidegger at applying the latters' terminology." The individual. The grammatical subject of the aphorism stands in the first person plural and is evoked three times: "us. needs Cage." signifies a motivational rather than imperative attitude toward other social agents." other words. but affirmation. Charles's Nietzschean exegesis Lyotard." "together. as Cage suggests elsewhere in a witty reference to C. indulge in a "collective consciousness. . he no longer needs critique. but also our being in a world described as "Chaos. Lyotard's further scrutiny. Not surprisingly. the document of the social-philosophical thought. terminol Affirmation and Presence Affirmation. as a social one. . and especially. Lyotard is especially disturbed by Charles's read and L?vinas. is defined not merely as an aesthetic attitude by Cage. which is deeply rooted in the and theological tradition. has no dominant role. G. Jung and with the grand naivety characteristic of his social thought. strips them of their original context. already present in early usage. and Cage needs Nietzsche. . the authorial "Let us ." if we. ." even if?p%oci (a term denoting structuring first principles) becomes an-?p%oci . a French scholar who has published widely on Cage since the 1950s. are repudiated by the philosophical remains "within in his view. Ifwe "say Yes to our presence together.48 Lyotard's method. especially his commingling of Nietzschean ogy and Cage's concepts of affirmation and presence. themusic of Cage.236 Perspectives of New Music he occupies his inactuality proper. . though distinct from the collective. Lyotard decidedly opposes the interpreta tions of Daniel Charles. Yet whatever we make of this. and gives them an idiosyncratic slant (a and the Freudian-Nietzschean slant. . however. "Saying Yes" is very much a collec tive attitude. even grammatically. As the aphorism indicates. Historiography notion of composition as process are particularly clear instances of this critical tools need method. With this claim. he tendentiously selects key concepts by Cage."49 "Saying Yes" becomes a central theme inA Tear from Mon dimension of Cage's day." "our. Lyotard seems to be saying."47 Nietzsche. According to Cage's aphorism. as we have seen). This is as an concisely and programmatically expressed in the aphorism quoted to the present article: "Let us say Yes to our presence together epigraph in Chaos. nihilism. but also.

School." To Lyotard's notion explain what constitutes of Thanatos. affirmation is equated with terms denoting a more dynamic thrust. after all. are deemed by Lyotard capable of and Cage's destroying the "domination of time. a deconstruction of the would say "nihilistic"?philosophy of the Frankfurt negative?Lyotard a deconstruction of European music with its work concepts. inwhat respect is that a de construction?"S3>does not imply or contemporary deconstruction Jacques Derrida's quasi-dialectical methods of literary criticism. and the world. When Cage speaks of revolution. Lyotard's question: "What Cage looks for in the I Ching. term that Lyotard uses synonymously with affirmation is However." events in particular." and of overcoming the historical this stage of "composition as affirmation.We have already seen that the radical American avant-garde. etc." which.where of their importance and consequence."51 Cage attempted with the greatest possible integrity to set examples of such immediate The ries with Another There is no Cagean concept that Lyotard embraces more emphatically than the concept of affirmation. Quite ." Yet there is a wide semantic hia tus in the way the two thinkers employ this particular concept.Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 237 affirmation of the unpredictable?or "Chaos"?in his life and art. the aesthetics of intensities is also designated "affirmative aesthetics. as we shall see below. regardless casting dies. Another such para phrase. In Lyotard. a subversive surrender ing to the powers that be. and traditions. we traced secondary process. and he does so very often. This shift of meaning is reflected in the temporal-philosophical implications of the concept of affirmation. When destructive acts were suggested to Cage. he typically reacted with laid-back comments such as: "It's too dra matic.One of them is "transvaluation. capability. non-committal and nonviolent. is a lethal force in Lyotard. Commitment" How (1961): "The question is immediately are you to say Yes to no matter what going unpredictability.What Lyotard looks for in Cage's affirma tion of contingency is rather a deconstruction of discourses which render events in art and life predictable and necessary. . . it is always one of passive resistance. appears in the "Lecture on . car it all the inhumanity with which it is charged in Nietzsche. were made by decisions. drawing lots. intentions. The "Lecture on Commitment" and many other textsmake crystal clear that such an affirmative attitude to life and art is strictly non-instrumental."52 aphorism can thus be understood as a paraphrase of Cage's ideas on chance that highlights their intrinsic social meaning. one that places less emphasis on the relationship between individ ual and collective and more on chance. especially inA Tear fromMonday. which in Cage expresses love for mankind Undoubtedly. "deconstruction.

54 In the early 1970s. i. the "Now. Cage postulates a Already compositional technique both new and related to the past. it is gone. Lyotard could not have heard a more as a mute "text." Cage says in the "Juilliard Lecture" (1952). Lyotard assigns to affirmation a specific temporal mode. intensively and pleasurably experienced. This is equally true of Lyotard's qualification of the concept of pres ence. This kind of the temporality of Thanatos." it advanced writing experiment than "MUREAU. Lyotard's presence is inde pendent. for an event of Cage. it is capable only needs the power of before and after. to say notion that it might have does not sever the present from temporal continuity. autonomous and self-affirming. This shows Cage's indebtedness to Schoenberg.." one a defense wall built against meaning. in a reaction against the overestimation of knowledge Lyotard's the least. The concept is an important one in Cage. and it renounces anticipation. markedly interpretive. of the primary processes and of avant-garde. compositional rationality. Tradition and the past bear no importance whatsoever in thismode. after his firstaleatoric compositions. Lyotard merely associates discursive surfaces. "MUREAU" attentively to realize that a detemporalizing tendency is. of history. or listen to. However. Lyotard reports that this force and Tudor's could be felt in Cage performance of "MUREAU" (Example 3). Cage based on memory.238 Perspectives of New Music of undoing presence is the radical example in consistently with his line of reasoning. which hardly introduction of aesthetics."57 temporal continuity. it pushes culture back into nature and dis solves the borders between art and Ufe.55 in "The Future of Music: Credo" (1937). Cage's conceal his radicalization of Cage's art and lifedo not aim at a complete dissolution of chance operations into . Its main capacity is that of for getting. on the contrary. not from." or presence. but presence stands in Cage not in an antithetical relationship with tradition and history. indeed resembles to read. who. this attitude still prevails: "We need not destroy the past. A transvaluating force. If his understanding of presence squared with Lyotard's. "At any moment itmight reappear and seem to be and be the present. propagated the liberation of compositional rationality from tradition?a liberation of.56 Fifteen years later. Cage would in fact betray the social politics epitomized in the aphorism "Let us sayYes to our presence together in Chaos." Evidently.e. he mediates it with past and future.

erations d gwalky In verse there is no inherent music eofsttakestak es aman to make a room silent It takes to makearoomlt a IS A Young the appETITEFOR and IsHe OeysseemorningYou hear screamo ppetite f great hawka yd<jh bcdyShelie lencel t would be noblest to sing bein^i a neighbor with thewindTo hear u it wood The triosteum a singing! or twob mtryTheysays to his team lives he day to-wee. BReathing. May it be such. he thinksthose issued have forthThe owl touches the wakes reverb bugs stops. t choing .i?ppl ing rustle hink larmedand makes life seem serene and grandinex pr?s S ibly serene and grand CLppaA&ntty afrai dtu?th mote vlgon and promise bellslee uttering that sign-like note verwarm and mo?At not much o? the toad ev so ch that word "sound" and am the scene eaply enriched for the listeningof of liferingter viMusicand mel in melody ein the next townand fire al 1 her senses n k swhich they do not rememberee eeach recess o openest F THE WOODA Ea what various we heard there deep in distinct sounds echo along the shore ymORE THAN A Rodnd a sa stead thewoodshnAND cr ieket-1 ike soundhunseen and unheard y. wha screaming notes rending the ai rThis suggests t perpetual and thr produceA thrumming beyond fbwo/spiritwould instances mi IL Trees crea* oughimportant Every one can CAlltomind note thi thir? confined to this ringingWe. summe* ola it suggests into the woodsThere is even ?n the in^a^dne?A kumT/ieea have been so many empty music-halls heard from th mosqu??oe?' e depth of the woodnigHT ?HE toward nightthe? r hour has svimity who a so bus i Iy 1 ungs sweet flowingfrom farther or nearerhuRR mkumming past IED RIPPLING NOtes in the yardas we passed under itsatand sat do wn to hear the wind roar swift and steadya seestw peA^o/twier he never oof them is perhaps heaiD COMMUNicated so disTINCtly through the oar t o the air across the river directly his eardif f erently sounda against EXAMPLE 3: JOHN CAGE: "MUREAU. could not hear thehlrdsls season? Little e frogs begin to peep toward sundown noonhorn is heard from shore to shoreof perchwith a loud. to-weecalling ard over high open ??btd&da. PAGE 35 .y ?n?tead of the drum thensav with youn pa truck ndat every postt ed der oglects young birdsfroma g birdswith in the meantime o pi at so piercingders ato sing in earnest acheTheyo seven now chU AS ISu gddd gheasu s iot ei gh c n ch siYou woul d thiNK MUSIC woe being born again off roads are still heard at eve 'Echo is an independent?oundRhyme.Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 239 MUREAU itself sparrowsitA gRCbbeak"betrays by that peculiar squeakariEFFECT measures OF SLIGHTEst soundness hear! Does tinkling ingpleasaWe it not rather hear us? sWhen he hears the telegraph.and tell his story and ningrcRlckets breathe himself breathe A shriU loud alarm is incessantly t repeated hovers from over the pond heheroic tne cZtar metallic scream they vent off with a shriller chuck ch craikThey go off with a hoARSer uck noair hear sharp." Ml WRITINGS c67~:>72.

denial of consumption. hap for sexual liberation. of Mao doing physical exercise for propaganda a greater stir in the French non that caused. . Lyotard argues. happens ismovement . Cage's thought. colours without 'work intentions.240 Perspectives of New Music Cultural-Historical Context Lyotard was fully aware of this. What there . . after a full century of modern avant-garde theory and practice. One could argue that. hip and yippies. and friendship. madmen. music without domi words. pop artists. the super the These sentences place Cage?the man."59 "inhuman. refusal of'work. The aesthetics of intensities is part of what Lyotard intensities: "a vast subterranean movement . only such radicalizations permit self-presentation as an avant-gardist. image parliamentary opposition than inChina): "When Mao swims through the Yang-tse-Kiang.." "Dionysos" or "Zarathustra")?directly into the context of the student uprisings in Paris in 1968. and his proclamation postmodernist avant-garde only a few years after the publications on the aesthetics of intensities. A new figure emerges: the inhuman. 'masters'"? Nietzsche's slowing nation. Even his most extreme experiments destroy only the notion of the work. an interpretation that one-sidedly emphasises the strategic aspects of the aesthetics of intensities would be incomplete. May Only one figure ismissing to complete Lyotard's revolutionary panop ticum: Mao Tse-Tung. experimental painters. movements in the original]. . then broadcast by Chinese state reasons (an television. his body produces a noise."S8 Cage's Schoenbergian idea of forgetting becomes in Lyotard total loss of mem ory. "Anything goes. a cultural-historical reading must also be attempted. Lyotard's declaration of death to the modernist avant and a of the age of postmodernity garde. occupations. One single hour of their Ufe pies contains more intensityand less intention than a thousand words of a pro fessional philosopher. internees.. calls the politics of down of produc tion. squattings [English Herren?"of today are: outsiders.. Dionysos. As philosophical theories are historical documents. fitwell into such an explanatory pattern. whereas the aesthetics of intensities must "destroy also thework of theworks and of the non-works. ority and exteriority ceases to exist. production of sounds. penings [English in the original]. r?int?gration of society and nature becomes dissolution of society in nature. parasites." Lyotard might have thought. and an image." "superman.' (illusory?) communes.. perhaps. and arranged into a collage Cage's ideas on silence. and the opposition of interi . None theless. he did not consider his aesthetics radical enough.' The . Despite his admiration for Cage. continues representation. ." (one could add "the transvaluator of all values.

"64 The motives of the dissolution of the self and of returning to nature become very strong: "No self-consciousness. for instance. happen to have the same rhythm. Cage's ments that also have a tone similar to Lyotard's desperation. we neither want to win nor to attain this phase in his life "purgatory."62 In the end. .61 he also called anything. of an ultra-leftist thinker and political activist at the sight of the failure of Marxism Leninism. Lyotard became increasingly doubtful as to whether there was an alternative to capitalism. may well appear funny to us. Living . we just want to make music together. We . Maoism. They are not of course to be understood as scholarly literature. Transvaluation. or as philosophical happen ings. A shocking quotation by Eisenhower on Indo-China is juxtaposed with the sentence: "Tears: a global enterprise." which. on child prostitution in American army camps. .we may happen to lose it.Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 241 and music without appearance.. as will be remembered. but the capacity of sonori ties. underneath this "intensive unseriousness. or might it perhaps also be understood as a reaction to some hitherto undetected constituent of Cage's thought? are docu lectures and writings from 1967-1972 Surprisingly. Being able to do the crawl presents not power over. still remain open?questions that enable us to push the analysis further: Was Lyotard really only attracted by certain Cagean concepts to which a radicalizing discourse could easily be attached? Or did Lyotard respond to something not to be sought on the conceptual surface. however. Yet. the Cold War. not to say desperation. and all this is as good as the polyrhythmic inventions of the Rite of Spring. he said in an interview in 1976. relating bare factswithout any personal comment. When we swim side by side with a friend ."6? Even ifone concedes that Cage was a great admirer ofMao. such pas sages appear grotesque. and the 1968 movement. a tone of resignation can be felt. not domination. the aesthetics of intensi ties reveals deep disappointment.. but as written collages. and Vietnam. A text at the end of A Tear from Monday entitled "Diary: How to Improve theWorld 1967"63 shows Cage (You Will Only Make Matters Worse) Continued disturbed about the state of the capitalistic world and about World gravely War II. Adopting the styleof a news presenter. Cage trainshis attention. but on a more profound level of Cage's thought? In other words: Is Lyotard's affinityto Cage merely an externally motivated theoretical construction. may Concluding Thoughts The cultural-historical context of the aesthetics of intensities goes a good way towards explaining Lyotard's strategies. Some questions.

242 Perspectives of New Music None of Cage's textsfrom the 1960s like animals. whether The Postmodern Condition. but they should be studied? intensively yet seriously. it would be na?ve to repudiate the aesthetics of intensities because of its crude strategical disposi tion. For the historical evaluation of Cage's thought?a project currently farfrom completion?Lyotard's ideas are perhaps not entirely irrelevant. . continued 1967" reads as if has mimesis of the state of themodern world. These questions cannot even be conjecturally answered here. . "Diary . Lyotard scholars will need to investigate whether Cage's later impulse also affects Lyotard's theories. . In Cage had attempted a stylistic view of such historical sensitivityon the part of Cage. The analysis put forward in this article might also have serious conse quences for the conventional view of Lyotard. becoming touchable. The Diff?rend and related texts could be seen as restating the earlier ideas in a more "serious" form?in short: whether indeed Cage must be seen as having kicked off postmodernism in its peculiar Lyotardian form." a more discontinuous texture.

"Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard. ed. 1. Bettina Varwig and Martin Wendte for their responses to the original paper. Wolfgang Welsch. Cf. 5. 7. Brian Brock. 22. 3. The selection of . 1973). May 2000. "Voices Within Voices. Andrew Benjamin (Oxford: Blackwell. on Knowledge 4. Cf. "Philosophy and Painting in the Age of their to an Idea of Postmodernity. Jiirg Stenzl. (Milwaukee: University 2. Raymond Federman." Moderne Signatur des gegenw?rtigen Zeitalters." Performance inPostmodern Culture. 1989)." The Experimentation: Contribution ed. 1983). tr. Peter Koslowski. im Feld von "Nach welcher Moderne? 1987). Lyotard. English Translation: The Diff?rend: Phrases in Dispute. Bernd Lutz and Nobert Retlich (Stuttgart: Metzler. 159-98."Munich University. Le Diff?rend (Paris: Editions de Minuit. Cf. Some doctoral students ofWelsch have made an effort to develop a postmodernist aesthetics. "Preface. I would like to thank Reinhold Brinkmann. Lyotard. 1988). Unsere postmoderneModerne (Weinheim: VCH. reprint of Paris: Union g?n?rale d'?di tions." Metzler Philosophen-Lexikon: Von den Vorsokratikern bis zu den neuen Philosophen. October 2000. 8. Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard (Hamburg: Junius. 6." Des dispositifs pulsionnels (Paris: ?ditions Galilee. 237-57. 1989). "Sur une figure de discours.Georges Van Den Abbeele (Manchester: Manchester University Press. ed. Michel Benamou modern Culture. Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard. 115. Christine Pries andWolfgang Welsch." Performance in Post and Charles Caramello ed. The Postmodern Condition: A Report (Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1995). 1994. Lyotard Reader. Lyotard. Kl?rungsversuche oder Postmoderne? Zur Architektur und Philosophie. 1977). of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. 192. 543-6. Spaemann and Reinhard L?w 1986). 1986). and at the International Symposium on "Music and Cultural Iden tity. Queen's University Belfast.Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 243 Notes This is a revised and expanded version of a paper read at the Royal Musi cal Association Irish Chapter Meeting. Walter Reese-Sch?fer. Robert (Weinheim: Acta Humaniora. Michel Benamou. VCH.

North Carolina: Duke University Press. University of California at San Diego and Berkeley. ed. Adorno. 1998). (Cf. 188. however. tics (London: Routledge. Professor. Andrew 1992).. Lyotard: Towards a Postmodern Philosophy (Cambridge: Polity. Professor. .. Lyotard. 13. 1993). Lyotard (Vienna: Passagen. 1992. Visiting Atlanta.D. The Postmodern Condition. 1987). Kant. 16. 11. ed. 10. Wisconsin-Milwaukee. 12. University of California at Irvine.. Das Erhabene: Zwischen Grenzerfahrung und Gr??enwahn (Weinheim: VCH.. Hermeneutics. The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham. Maria I. Binghamton. Univer University of sityofMontreal. 1974-6. Visiting 1990. "Foreword" to Lyotard. 1991). Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard: Toward a Libidinal Aesthetic (Ph. Paraesthetics: Foucault. 1998).. or. Sean Homer. 1987). dissertation. Baltimore. 15. Emory University. quite tendentious. Senior Fellow. 1978-80. Aguado. David Carroll. 1986. State University of New York at Stony Brook. ed. 1987). Postmodernism. Derrida (New York: Bill Readings. Logics of Disintegration: Post-Structuralist Thought and theClaims ofCritical Theory (London: Verso. State University of New York. Andrew Benjamin. For a bal anced critique of Jameson cf. Christine Pries and Klaus Bartels. Mark Roberts. 1993-5. and Johns Hopkins University. eds. University Professor. 1991). The Lyotard Reader. Wellek Library Lectures and Distinguished Professor in the French Department. Fredric Jameson.244 PerspectivesofNew Music Lyotard's writings on which their studies are based is. eds. Chris Rojek and (Minneapolis: University Bryan Turner. Visiting 1989. Postmodernism (Cambridge: Polity. 9. Routledge. 1994). State University of New York. Judging Lyotard (London: Routledge. vii-xxi. Fredric Jameson: Marxism. Yale University. and Visiting Professor. Stony Brook. Peter Dews. Professor. Bill Benjamin. Visiting ofMinnesota. Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard: Political Writings Readings. P. 14. JamesWilliams. Visiting Professor. The Politics ofJean-Fran?ois Lyotard (London: 1998). ofMinnesota Press. ?sthetik des Erhabenen: Burke. Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard (London: Prentice Hall. 1976. 1996). Visiting Professor. 1989)). Stuart Sim. Introducing Lyotard: Art and Poli Methuen.

" tr. in the United States. "Notes sur le retour et le capital" ("Notes on Return and Kapital" no.: Wesleyan University Press. Telos 19 "La dent. 21. 1967). no page numbers. Cage. 20. "Mosaic. 25. Sub-Stance 15 (1976): 105-10). Cage." Des dispositifs pulsionnels. Hermann "Die Postmodernit?t des John Cage: Der Danuser. Otto Kolleritsch (Vienna: Universal Edition. Wesleyan University Press. "Plu Semiotext(e) 3. . 1984). Driftworks (New une figure de discours" has not been translated into English. Cage. A Tear from Monday: New Lectures and Writings (Middletown. Anne Knap and Michel Benamou.Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 245 17. 1972)). 18. (1974): 127-37). ed. in der Sicht Jean-Fran?ois Lyotards. Lyotard. All translations from Des dispositifs pulsionnels on the aesthetics of intensities are my own. Roger McKeon. "Sur McKeon. 28. This does not necessarily imply a criticism of existing translations." Des dispositifs pulsionnels. 1993). 27. Pierre Boulez. Conn. 1969). 71. Silence. Conn. "MUREAU." 23. la paume" ("The Tooth. tr. ed. This emerges from "Notes sur le retour et le capital.: >67->72 Writings 35-56. (New York: Something Else.Robert Hurley. "Sch?nberg 45-6. 29. Cage. 1 (1978): 44-53). Cage. "Mosaic. Cage. Lyotard might also have known a tape recording of "MUREAU" from 1972 (John Cage. 142-59. Des dispositifspulsionnels." tr. 226. Cage. They are: "Adorno come diavolo" ("Adorno as the Devil." K?nstler experimentelle und Neubestimmung: Der Fall "Postmoderne" in Wiederaneignung derMusik. M: (Middletown. and "Plusieurs silences. Conn. 1961). John Cage speaks ?MUREAU" (Hattingen: S Press. Joseph Maier. John Cage. 26. the Palm. and ed. 91-110). sieurs silences" ("Several Silence 19. Roger Silences. 24. Notations 22. York: Semiotext(e)." Silence. "History of Experimental Music 67-75. 43-9. (Middletown." tr." A Tear fromMonday. "Preface. 1973).: Wesleyan University Press." Notations." isDead. Cage. 201." The Score 6 (1952): 18-22.

California: University of California Press. This is implied in Cage's understanding of Satie's music as "time that's just time" (Cage. "Sur une figure de discours. 37. St?phane Mallarm?. 40. tr. 41. "La pulsion de mort se marque dans des sautes de tension. 127. 1993). "Adorno as the Devil. est toujours filtrer et lier. 32. Cf. 132." . Lyotard." A Tear from Monday. tr. "History of Experi mental Music in theUnited States. 197-8." 31. 80-1). and ed. laids" (Lyotard. "Notes 215-27. "Rhythm etc. 34. exclure comme bruits des 38. libidinale ?conomie English translation: Libidinal (London: Athlone." 43. "A Throw of the Dice. sur le retour et le capital." 198). "Forerunners of Modern Music." 132." Des dispositifspulsionnels. 1994). Lyotard." 75. 42. stri dences. 63. Lyotard. 124-45. On Lyotard cf." 116-7." quantitative-qualitative" 221)." 131-2. 35. silences vraiment exag?r?s.. Principle. Cf. and comm. "Notes sur le retour et le capital. "Adorno as the Devil. ce que Klossowski appelle des intensit?s. "Composer enti?res de l'univers sonore" (Lyotard.Cage des events. "Notes sur le retour et le capital. Cage. tr." 224. "Adorno come diavolo." Silence. "Adorno come cha r?gions v?lo. la probl?matique de la pulsion de mort reste coinc?e structurale (le syst?me dit de l'appareil psy dans un m?taphore le jeu des pulsions lui-m?me pens? en termes de m?canique chique). "Adorno as the Devil. "Erik Satie. "Rhythm etc. 1961)." 199).Dissonances. also Cage. made with reference to musical structures "allagermanica." "Chez Freud." 128-9). Iain Hamilton 1974). (Paris: ?ditions de Minuit. (Lyotard. Lyotard. Grant Economy. 36. Lyotard." Collected Poems.246 PerspectivesofNew Music 30. 33. James tulate. and in his pos to abolish watches or at least the way we use them (Cage. Beyond the Pleasure Strachey (New York: Liveright. Sigmund Freud." Silence.. 39. "Mosaic. "Plusieurs silences. Henry Weinfield (Berkeley. Lyotard.

Lyotard's black. no. anti ?poque non affirmative. point to its central flaw. "Plusieurs silences. 2 1992): 149)." to Improve theWorld 50." 204). no. is certainly followed by Lyotard: "you ferret out a basic definition of everything that has so far been called philosophy [in the present context." (You Will 15." which Deathridge.and-white historiography reminds me of the "high stakes game of philosophical roulette. 49. 195. Cage. Cf. sobre. Cf.Mais quand Nietzsche enjambe 'l'?poque." A Year from Monday. "Plusieurs silences. 3 (July-September 1971): 69-112. l'?poque a d?sir? cette musique Nietzsche wagn?rienne. music]. influx nerveux" (Lyotard. "Il y a eu un moment. 48. 51. "Sur une figure de discours. c'est la musique de critique qu'il lui faut." 197). mais c'est Paffirmatif. "Where Silence.Adaptation of John Lyotard's Cage's Aesthetics 247 43. understands as the historical method of the postmodern ists. . ." 212-3. ce n'est plus la . applied to music. "Musique et an-archie." Cambridge Opera Journal 4. . Then you simply announce the end of philosophy [or music]" (Cf. (July 47. au 45. . 44. "La pulsion de mort est simplement le fait que l'?nergie nya pas d'oreille pour Vunit?." There are two rules pertaining to the "philosophi cal roulette. voltairienne-paulinienne-mos?ique. John Cage. "Plusieurs silences." the second of which." 116-7. "Dans une chambre an?cho?de. John Deathridge. vide dans lequel les organes. A Tear from Monday. Cage. but presumably refers to Daniel Charles. . "Plusieurs silences. pour le concert de l'organisme (de 'l'appareil psychique"). and reject it.' vient occuper son inactuaUt?-intempestivit? propre. d'Humain. tragique. est sourde ? sa composition. Lyotard. critique." Bulletin de la Soci?t? Fran?aise de Philosophie 65. Lyotard." 211). "Diary: How Matters Worse) 1965. o? intellectuelle. or "posties. "Wagner and the Postmodern. Cage" (Lyotard. 46. Only Make 113. c'est-?-dire au manque. are We Going? And What Are We Doing?. Lyotard leaves his source unmentioned. le corps de Cage (qui se portait bien) bruit: pulsations sanguines. . les articuli (les notes) seraient d?coup?s et arrang?s pour faire un cosmos et une musike" (Lyotard. referring to Rorty. trop humain. "Lecture on Commitment.

ed. "About Music Criticism. Cage. se inventions "Plusieurs 62. 61. Intensit?ten (Berlin: Merv?. . "deconstruction. refus de 'travailler. Notations." Style and Idea: Arnold Schoenberg. 3-6. apparence." Silence." 226. is spaced out in the original. Dionysos" et le capital. Cf. "Notes sur le retour et le capital. Lyotard. "Notes ?merge une nouvelle sur le retour figure: 60. souterrain . . squattings. intern?s? Il y a plus ??intensit? et moins d'intention dans une heure de leur vie que dans mille mots d'un phil osophe l'inhumain. 54. . no page numbers. printed next to an example from Boulez's lerne Sonate pour Piano. "vaste mouvement sans contrepartie ? la consommation.. .nous ne voulons ? cot? d'un ami. "The Future ofMusic: Credo. . 9." A Tear from Monday. 53. Leonard Stein (London: Selected Writings of Faber and Faber. appendix to the German edition o? Economie libidinale (Lyotard. nous approprier rien. puis ." 214). Arnold Schoenberg. .' les 'ma?tre? d'aujourd'hui: marginaux. . uvre^ "Juilliard Lecture. production de sons. peintres exp?rimentaux. . et rhythme. "D?truire l' uvre.' Voici les 'hommes de surcro?t. hippies et yippies. son corps fait du "Quand Mao bruit.. parasites. saisies 59. 382). le surhumain. mouvement de lib?ration sexuelle. Cage." 226-7). fous. de couleur sans 'intention d' uvre." cized. uvres et des non 56. au m?me tant?t a sans rien vaincre du tout. "Adorno as the Devil. professionel. 1984). du Sacre du printemps" polirhythmiques (Lyotard. occupations. . Nageant rien que cela est aussi bon que les d?croche. . 1984). Lyotard. 106.' commu naut?s (illusoires?). . Cage. Freinages ? la production. l'opposition de l'int?rieur et de l'ext?rieur se d?fait. "Plusieurs silences." 205-7). 58. 191-2. . sances de sonorit?s Savoir crawler n'est Pas domination. Lyotard. traverse le Yang-ts?-Kiang ? la nage. 57. un mais pas pouvoir-sur.248 PerspectivesofNew Music 52. mais d?truire aussi l' uvre des (Lyotard. ce qui se passe est mouvement et musique m?tamorphose. Avec eux (Lyotard. 1978). silences. ?konomie des Wunschs (Bremen: Impuls-Verlag. Cf. here itali 55. mais faire de lamusique ensemble. de mots. happenings. pop.. tant?t nous sommes ." 136. .

145-62. "Diary: How Matters Worse) Continued 1967." A Tear from Monday. Cage. Cage." 156. to Improve theWorld 64. to Improve theWorld 65. "Diary: How Matters Worse) Continued 1967. (You Will (You Will Only Make Only Make .Lyotard's Adaptation of John Cage's Aesthetics 249 to Improve theWorld 63. Cage. "Diary: How (You Will Only Make Matters Worse) Continued 1967." 161.

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