UTILIZATION OF UNMARKETABLE POTATOES FOR PREPARATION OF INSTANT POTATO SOUP POWDER

by

Sajan Palanchoke

Food Technology Instruction Committee
Institute of Science and Technology Tribhuvan University, Nepal
2008

Utilization of Unmarketable Potatoes for Preparation of Instant Potato Soup Powder

A dissertation submitted to the Food Technology Instruction Committee in Tribhuvan University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B. Tech. in Food Technology

by Sajan Palanchoke

Food Technology Instruction Committee
Institute of Science and Technology Tribhuvan University
Dharan, Hattisar, Nepal

December 2008

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Tribhuvan University Institute of Science and Technology

Food Technology Instruction Committee
Central Campus of Technology, Dharan

Approval Letter

This dissertation entitled “Utilization of Unmarketable Potatoes for Preparation of Instant Potato Soup Powder” presented by Sajan Palanchoke has been accepted as the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the B. Tech. in Food Technology.

Dissertation Committee

1. Chairperson (Mrs. Geeta Bhattarai, Lecturer)

2. External examiner (Mr. Bhisma Nanda Baidhya, Prof.)

3. Supervisor ( Mr. Shyam Kumar Mishra, Lecturer)

Date: December, 2008
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Acknowledgements
It is my great privilege to work for the present investigation under the expert guidance and kind supervision of lecturer Shyam Kumar Mishra, Central Campus of Technology, Dharan. I express my deep sense of gratitude to him for his soulful advice, painstaking efforts, fruitful discussion and constant encouragement during the course of work and also highly indebted and grateful for his personal efforts and sacrifice of his most precious and valuable time to have made it possible to bring the experiment to completion. To me it is a matter of great satisfaction and pleasure to express my humble gratitude to Associate Professor Dr. Ganga Kharel, Asst. Dean, Central Campus of Technology. I also gratefully express my sincere gratitude to Mrs. Geeta Bhattarai, Chairperson, Food Technology Instruction Committee, Mr. Pushpa Prasad Acharya, Chairman, Department of Quality Control Surendra Bahadur Katawal Associate Professor, Lecturer Pashupati Mishra, Assistant Campus Chief and Lecturer, Basanta Kumar Rai (Central Campus of Technology, Dharan) for their support to work. I am very much conscious to express my department and thanks to all the teachers and staff members Hari Khanal, Sujan Dhakal and all my friends especially Rajkumari Shah, Bimala Pokhrel, Roshna Ojha, Sussanna K.C., Amit Bhusan Suman, Santosh Dahal and kindly juniors Rewati Raman Bhattarai, Sudip Thaguna, Nawaraj Gautam, Roshan Shrestha and Mahalaxmi Pradhananga for their helping hands. Finally, I am highly indebted to my parents and all family members for their constant support, encouragement and frequent inspirations in this endeavor, by which I am able to stand at this point of life.

Sajan Palanchoke

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Abstract
Potato flour is a highly versatile raw material that can be used in several processed food products. Unmarketable potatoes were turned into flour and used to prepare instant potato soup powder. The samples of potatoes were studied for peeling losses from different peeling methods viz; hand peeling, abrasive peeling and mashing peeling, chemical characteristics between potatoes and its flour and functional properties of the flour. The abrasive peeling method was more economical for producing potato flour due to its higher yield compared to other two peeling methods. The chemical composition of the potato (dry basis) and the flour varied significantly. Slight variations in functional properties between the different sizes of flour particle were observed. The recipies for the standardization of instant potato soup powder (IPSP) were worked out by mixing potato flour made from unmarketable potatoes with ingredients like salt, citric acid and msg in different proportions. The best IPSP recipe was selected on the basis of higher sensory score for prepared soups on 9-point Hedonic scale. The results indicated the recipie containing 3.33 parts of flour (m/v), 1.33 parts of salt (m/v), 0.04 parts of citric acid (m/v), 0.13 parts of msg (m/v) and 100 parts of water (v/v) was rated superior from different optimizing steps. The potato flour particle size of 150µm was found to be superior among the other two particle sizes. The cost of production per 100g of IPSP was Rs 30.3. It is estimated to serve 3 liters of soup from 100g of instant potato soup powder.

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Contents
Approval letter… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ....iii Acknowledgements… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ... iv Abstract… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ... v List of Tables and Figures… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ix 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 General Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem ................................................................................................. 2 1.3 Objective of the study ....................................................................................................... 3 1.3.1 General objective ..................................................................................................... 3 1.3.2 Specific objectives .................................................................................................. 3 1.4 Significance of the study .................................................................................................. 4 1.5 Limitations of the study .................................................................................................... 4 2 Literature review ................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Historical background....................................................................................................... 5 2.2 Structure of Potato Tuber ................................................................................................. 6 2.3 Chemical Composition of Potato...................................................................................... 8 2.4 Nutritive Value of Potatoes and Potato Flour................................................................... 9 2.5 Potatoes in Nepal ............................................................................................................ 11 2.5.1 Geography and Production zones .......................................................................... 12 2.5.1.1 Physical Geography ................................................................................................. 12 2.5.1.2 Climate ........................................................................................................................ 13 2.5.1.3 Regional Distribution of Potato Production ..................................................... 13 2.5.2 Production Systems and Constriants .................................................................... 14 2.5.2.1 Land Use and Land Tenure ................................................................................... 14 2.5.2.2 Cropping Calendar ................................................................................................... 15 2.5.2.3 Cropping Patterns and Fertility ............................................................................ 15 2.5.2.4 Occurrence and Control of Potato Diseases and Pests .................................. 17 2.5.3 Varieties and Seed Systems .................................................................................. 18 2.5.3.1 Varieties ...................................................................................................................... 18 2.5.3.2 The "Informal" Seed System................................................................................. 19 2.5.3.3 The "Formal" Seed System.................................................................................... 20 2.5.4 Consumption, Storage and Marketing .................................................................. 21 2.5.4.1 Consumption .............................................................................................................. 21 2.5.4.2 Storage ......................................................................................................................... 21 2.6 Grading and Marketing of Potatoes ................................................................................ 22 2.6.1 Size Grading of Potatoes ....................................................................................... 22 2.6.2 Economics of Grading ........................................................................................... 23 2.6.3 Potatoes preferences of Consumers ....................................................................... 23

2.7 Utilization of Potatoes .................................................................................................... 24 2.7.1 Food uses: fresh, "frozen", dehydrated .................................................................. 24 2.7.2 Non-food uses: Glue, animal feed and fuel-grade ethanol .................................... 26 2.7.3 Seed potatoes: renewing the cycle ......................................................................... 26 2.7.4 Potato flour ............................................................................................................ 26 2.7.4.1 Methods of Manufacture ......................................................................................... 27 2.7.4.2 Uses of Potato flour .................................................................................................. 29 3 Materials and methods ........................................................................................................ 30 3.1 Raw materials ................................................................................................................. 30 3.1.1 Collection of raw materials.................................................................................... 30 3.2 Preparation of Potato Powder ......................................................................................... 30 3.2.1 Cleaning ................................................................................................................. 32 3.2.3 Peeling and slicing ................................................................................................. 32 3.2.4 Blanching and pretreatment of the potato slices.................................................... 32 3.2.5 Dehydration ........................................................................................................... 32 3.2.6 Size Reduction and Sieving ................................................................................... 32 3.2.7 Preparation of Instant Potato Soup Powder (IPSP) ............................................... 32 3.3 Analytical method .......................................................................................................... 33 3.3.1 Physical Parameter ................................................................................................ 33 3.3.1.1 Dimensions, sp. gr., shape of the tubers, peeling loss and flour yield ....... 33 3.3.1.2 Determination TSS (Total Soluble Solid) .......................................................... 33 3.3.1.3 Determination of Gelatinization temperature of potato flour ....................... 34 3.3.1.4 Determination of water absorption capacity of flours of different size ..... 34 3.3.1.5 Determination of Bulk density of flours of different size .............................. 34 3.3.2 Chemical parameters ........................................................................................... 34 3.3.2.1 Determination of moisture content, protein content, crude fiber Reducing sugar, sugar,sugar,Total sugar, Starch, vitamin C and Ash content ................................... 34 3.4 Optimization of ingredients in Instant Potato Soup Preparations ................................... 35 3.4.1 Optimization of water ............................................................................................ 35 3.4.2 Optimization of salt ............................................................................................... 36 3.4.3 Optimization of citric acid ..................................................................................... 36 3.4.4 Optimization of monosodium glutamate (msg) ..................................................... 36 3.4.5 Optimization of potato flour particle size……………………………………... 36 3.5 Sensory evaluations ........................................................................................................ 36 3.5.1 Sensory evaluation of Peeled Potatoes by different methods ................................ 36 3.5.2 Sensory evaluation of the instant potato soup preparations .................................. 36 3.6 Statistical Analysis ......................................................................................................... 37 3.7 Cost Calculation ............................................................................................................. 37 4 Results and Discussion ........................................................................................................ 38 4.1 Physical Characteristics of Unmarketable potato (Solanum tuberosum) ........................ 38 4.2 Chemical composition of Potato and Potato flour ........................................................... 40 4.3 Effect of Flour Particle size on Bulk Density and Water Absorption ............................. 41 4.4 Sensory Evaluation ......................................................................................................... 43

4.4.1 Sensory Evaluation of Peeled Potatoes, peeled by different methods ................... 43 4.4.2 Optimization of Water Amount in Potato Soup .................................................... 43 4.4.3 Optimization of Salt Amount in Potato Soup ........................................................ 45 4.4.4 Optmization of Citric Acid Amount in Potato Soup ............................................. 46 4.4.5 Optimization of MSG Amount in Potato Soup ...................................................... 47 4.4.6 Optimization of Potato Flour Particle Size in Potato Soup .................................... 48 5 Conclusions and Recommendations .................................................................................. 51 5.1 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 51 5.2 Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 51 6 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 53 References ............................................................................................................................ 56 APPENDICES...................................................................................................................... 61 Appendix A ........................................................................................................................... 61 Appendix B ............................................................................................................................ 62 Appendix C ............................................................................................................................ 63 Appendix D ........................................................................................................................... 65 Appendix E ............................................................................................................................ 67 Appendix F ............................................................................................................................ 69 Appendix G ........................................................................................................................... 71 Appendix H ........................................................................................................................... 73 Appendix I ............................................................................................................................. 75 Appendix J ............................................................................................................................. 81 Appendix K ........................................................................................................................... 82 Appendix L ............................................................................................................................ 86 Appendix M ........................................................................................................................... 87 Appendix N ........................................................................................................................... 89

List of Tables and Figures Tables Table 2.1 Proximate analysis of white potatoes .................................................................... 8 Table 2.2 Inorganic Constituents of Potatoes ..................................................................... 10 Table 2.3 Cropping Calender in Nepal ................................................................................ 15 Table 2.4 Utilization of U.S. Potato Crops ......................................................................... 25 Table 4.1 Physical Characteristics of Unmarketable potato ............................................... 38 Table 4.2 Physical Characteristics of Unmarketable potato. ............................................... 39 Table 4.3 Chemical composition* of Potato and Potato flour ............................................ 41 Table 4.4 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist =5)* . 43 Table 4.5 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist =5)* . 44 Table 4.6 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist =5)* . 45 Table 4.7 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist =5)* . 46 Table 4.8 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist =5)* . 47 Table 4.9 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist =5)* . 49 Table B.1: The Average Chemical Composition of Flours Produced From Potatoes Grown In Various Areas of USA ..................................................................................................... 62 Table D.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of water amount in potato soup ....................................................................................................................... 65 Table D.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of water amount in potato soup .......................................................................................................... 65 Table D.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of water amount in potato soup. ....................................................................................................................... 65 Table D.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall acceptance in the optimization of water amount in potato soup ................................................................................................. 66 Table D.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of water amount in potato soup ............................................................................................................................ 66 Table E.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup ............................................................................................................................ 67 Table E.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup ........................................................................................................ 67 Table E.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup ............................................................................................................................ 67 Table E.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall acceptance in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup ..................................................................................................... 68 Table E.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup ............................................................................................................................ 68

Table F.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup ........................................................................................................ 69 Table F.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup ................................................................................................... 69 Table F.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup ......................................................................................................... 70 Table F.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall accepatance in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup .......................................................................................... 70 Table F.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup ........................................................................................................... 70 Table G.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup ............................................................................................................................ 71 Table G.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup .......................................................................................................... 71 Table G.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup ............................................................................................................................ 71 Table G.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall acceptance in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup .................................................................................................... 72 Table G.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup ............................................................................................................................ 72 Table H.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup .................................................................................................... 73 Table H.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup ........................................................................................... 73 Table H.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup .................................................................................................... 73 Table H.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall acceptance in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup ................................................................................ 74 Table H.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup .................................................................................................... 74 Table I.1 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of water amount in potato soup 75 Table I.2 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup ... 76 Table I.3 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup ....................................................................................................................................... 77 Table I.4 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup .. 78 Table I.5 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup ............................................................................................................................ 79 Table I.6 Scores of sensory attributes in the sensory evaluation of the peeled potatoes. ..... 80 Table J.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for of the grade points for the peeled potatoes appearance ............................................................................................................................ 81

Table K.1 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for the ash content of potato and potato flour...................................................................................................................... 82 Table K.2 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for the crude fibre of potato and potato flour ........................................................................................................................... 82 Table K.3 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances)for the starch content of potato and potato flour...................................................................................................................... 83 Table K.4 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for the reducing sugar content of potato and potato flour ..................................................................................................... 83 Table K.5 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances)for total sugar of potato and potato flour ........................................................................................................................... 84 Table K.6 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for vitamin C of potato and potato flour ........................................................................................................................... 84 Table K.7 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for protein content of potato and potato flour ........................................................................................................................... 85 Table K.8 One way Anova (no blocking) for peeling losses between hand peeling, the abrasive peeling and mashing peeling .................................................................................. 85 Table L.1 Cost calculation of potato flour ............................................................................ 86 Table L.2 Cost calculation of instant potato soup powder (IPSP) ....................................... 86 Table M.1 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of water ..................................... 87 Table M.3 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of citric acid .............................. 87 Table M.4 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of msg ........................................ 88 Table M.5 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of flour particle size. ................ 88 Table N.1: Functional properties of Potato flour .................................................................. 89 Figures Fig 2.1 Structure of Potato Tuber ........................................................................................... 7 Fig 3.1 Methodology for the preparation of instant potato soup powder ............................ 31 Fig 3.2 Preparation of Soup from instant potato soup powder............................................. 33 Fig 4.1 Effect of potato flour particle size on bulk density ................................................. 42 Fig 4.2 Effect of potato flour particle size on water absorption ........................................... 42 Fig C.1 A grading scale for peeled potatoes description of the quality grades for peeled Potatoes potatoes ................................................................................................................... 64

Part I
Introduction
1.1 General introduction Potato is the term which applies either to the starchy tuberous crop from the perennial plant Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, or to the plant itself. Potato is the world's most widely grown tuber crop, and the fourth largest food crop in terms of fresh produce after rice, wheat, and maize ('corn') (Anon. 1, 2008). Potato is a versatile, carbohydrate-rich food highly popular worldwide and prepared and served in a variety of ways. Freshly harvested, it contains about 80 percent water and 20 percent dry matter. About 60 to 80 percent of the dry matter is starch. On a dry weight basis, the protein content of potato is similar to that of cereals and is very high in comparison with other roots and tubers. In addition, the potato is low in fat. Potatoes are rich in several micronutrients, especially vitamin C - eaten with its skin; a single medium sized potato of 150 g provides nearly half the daily adult requirement (100 mg). The potato is a moderate source of iron, and its high vitamin C content promotes iron absorption. It is a good source of vitamins B1, B3 and B6 and minerals such as potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, and contains folate, pantothenic acid and riboflavin. Potatoes also contain dietary antioxidants, which may play a part in preventing diseases related to ageing, and dietary fiber, which benefits health. (Prokop, 2008). Potatoes produce more nutrition, energy and edible biomass per unit area and time than any other major crop (Anderson, 2008).Potatoes contain lower levels of phytic acid than other plant foods and reasonable amounts of all the essential amino acids except methionine and cystine. (Kulkarni et al., 2008).The nutritional value per 100g potato is 80 Kcal (320 kJ).(Anon. 1, 2008). World potato production reached a record 320 million tonnes in 2007.Consumption has increased: from an average of 9 kg/person in 1961-63 to over 14 kg/person nowadays. Long taken for granted in developed countries, the potato has the potential to relieve the pressure of increasing cereal prices on the poorest people and contribute significantly to food security. World potato production and consumption are currently expanding more slowly than global population. (Prakash, 2008).

The United Nations is appealing for continued global attention on the role the potato can play in providing food security and eradicating poverty in helping to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. It said the potato is a staple, nutritious food that can provide poor people with an inexpensive food that can stop hunger and keep people healthy (Schlein, 2008). Hundreds of millions of people in the developing countries are facing crisis as the cost of their staple foods continues to rise. Rice prices have almost doubled during 2008 and wheat prices are climbing rapidly. But the price of the potato, the world’s third most important food crop, has remained stable ( Prokop, 2008). In Nepal potato is grown over an area of 1,53,534 ha with an annual average production

of 1,943,246 t with an average yield of 12.6 t/ha (FAOSTAT, 2008). By estimated 2003
data, Nepal's population of slightly more than 25 million people consumed 1,650,000 metric tons of potatoes, or about 65 kilograms (kg) annual per capita consumption (Brown and Scheidegger, 1995). Different sized potatoes are produced at farm level. Consumer preferences of the potatoes are high for large and medium sized potatoes. At farm level it is not preventable to produce grade A and B potatoes without the production of grade D potatoes (unmarketable) (Devraj et al., 2007). In potato production small tubers are considered as losses because of low marketability characteristics (Haravani and Ahmadabad, 2008). Unmarketable potatoes (<2.5cm) due to their small size are difficult to handle and so fetch low price to the grower and are considered as waste (Dev Raj et al., 2007). The economics of grading potatoes often poses certain problems for the producer. Sorting out the top premium quality tubers leaves a residue of potatoes of rather low general grade quality which often commands a relatively low price, even though when the residue is usually of adequate quality to allow for their use in various processed products (Kross, 1952). The exact statistics of such losses is not clear in Nepal. This study was carried out in order to offer a solution for reducing potato losses. 1.2 Statement of the problem Unmarketable potatoes due to their small size are difficult to handle and are considered as not suitable for fresh market. So they fetch low price to the grower and are considered as waste. There was urgent need to utilize unmarketable potatoes for preparation of value added products. (Devraj et al., 2007).

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Furthermore small tubers show a greater weight loss during storage relative to that of the larger tubers in same storage environment (Wiersema et al., 1987).This prompts for the immediate processing of such potatoes after harvesting. Slow increase in world food production and declining rates of yield growth in main food crops threaten world food security. Land and water constraints, underinvestment in rural infrastructure and agricultural innovation lack of access to agricultural inputs, and weather disruptions are impairing productivity growth and the needed production responses. These factors, combined with sharp increases in food prices in recent years, have added to concerns about the food and nutrition situation of people around the world, especially the poor in developing countries. (Braun et al., 2008). As cereal prices rise, potatoes have the potential to be the affordable food for the developing countries. So optimum utilization of the produced potatoes is necessary. International trade in potatoes and potato products still remains thin relative to production, as only around 6 percent of output is traded. (Prakash, 2008). Processing of potato can increase the trade of potato products. In many developing countries, and especially in urban areas, rising levels of income are driving a "nutrition transition" toward more energy-dense foods and prepared food products. As part of that transition, demand for potato is increasing. (Dr Anderson, 2008). In Nepal, by most accounts, potato seed generally consists of either smaller tubers culled from a previous harvest (especially at higher altitudes), or smaller potatoes purchased from ware markets (more common at lower altitudes) (Anon. 4, 2000). No attention has been paid to prepare the value added products and emphasize the food use of the unmarketable potatoes. 1.3 Objective of the study 1.3.1 General objective The main objective of this research work is to prepare a value added product from unmarketable potatoes. 1.3.2 Specific objectives 1. To study peeling loss of the unmarketable potatoes from different peeling methods. 2. To study the total cost for formulation of new product and determine how economic is it.

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3. To prepare potato powder and formulate a product; Instant Potato Soup Powder. 1.4 Significance of the study The processing of unmarketable potatoes prevents colossal loses, adds value to the produce and gives better returns to the growers. In the present context of food insecurity and malnutrition, the utilization of the waste going and sound unmarketable potatoes by some value addition can contribute to meet the complex challenge of reducing poverty and ending hunger and malnutrition in a sustainable manner. This technological approach can be easily and economically applied in small scale, creating additional employment opportunities. Also this work introduces a new value added commodity prepared from potatoes. 1.5 Limitations of the study Despite the importance of the study, several inevitable circumstances limit the scope of the work. The limitations are: a. b. The study is limited to only a single potato variety, due to time constrains. The sampling was done at the local region of Dharan, so it may not represent the whole population in general. c. The study is only to prepare a product; the potatoes can also be processed into other varieties of products which couldn’t be done due to lack of time and adequate knowledge.

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Part II
Literature review

2.1 Historical background The origin of the potato was the South American continent. Various species of wild tuberbearing Solanums are found in Central America, Mexico, and as far north as Colorado. But before the coming of Columbus the potato was not cultivated outside of South America. Possibly 2000 years before the Spanish conquest the native South Americans brought potatoes under cultivation. In 1537, the Spaniards first came in contact with the potato in one of the valleys of the Andes. (Smith, 1976). The diffusion of the potato from the Andes to the rest of the globe reads like an adventure story, but it began with a tragedy. The Spanish conquest of Peru between 1532 and 1572 destroyed the Inca civilization and caused the deaths - from war, disease and despair - of at least half the population. The conquistadores came in search of gold, but the real treasure they took back to Europe was Solanum tuberosum. The first evidence of potato growing in Europe dates from 1565, on Spain's Canary Islands. By 1573, potato was cultivated on the Spanish mainland. Soon, tubers were being sent around Europe as exotic gifts - from the Spanish court to the Pope in Rome, from Rome to the papal ambassador in Mons, and from there to a botanist in Vienna. Potatoes were grown in London in 1597 and reached France and the Netherlands soon after. But once the plant had been added to botanical gardens and herbalists' encyclopedias, interest waned. European aristocracy admired its flowers, but the tubers were considered fit only for pigs and the destitute. Superstitious peasants believed the potato was poisonous. At the same time, however, Europe's "Age of Discovery" had begun, and among the first to appreciate potatoes as food were sailors who took tubers to consume on ocean voyages. That is how the potato reached India, China and Japan early in the 17th century. The potato also received an unusually warm welcome in Ireland, where it proved suited to the cool air and moist soils. Irish immigrants took the tuber - and the name, "Irish potato" - to North America in the early 1700s. (FAO, 2008). The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was introduced to coastal southern Asia in the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century by European (initially Portuguese) mariners, but the

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historical record for roughly the following two centuries is complicated by the word itself (Purseglove, 1968). The first unambiguous evidence of potato cultivation in Nepal dates to 1793, in records by a British Colonel Kirkpatrick (Akius et. al. 1990, cited in Khatri and Rai 2000, p. 61). The potato remained a relatively minor and unrecognized crop in Nepal for over 150 years, until the first official attempt to improve potato production in Nepal occurred in 1962 under a program sponsored jointly by Nepal and India. In 1972 the National Potato Development Programme was founded by the Government of Nepal, focusing on the production of higher quality potato seed tubers. Over the past few decades, potato has become the fastest growing staple crop in Nepal. (Chapagain, 2001). 2.2 Structure of potato tuber As the potato plant grows, its compound leaves manufacture starch that is transferred to the ends of its underground stems (or stolons). The stems thicken to form a few or as many as 20 tubers close to the soil surface. The number of tubers that actually reach maturity depends on available moisture and soil nutrients. Tubers may vary in shape and size, and normally weigh up to 300 g (10.5 oz) each. At the end of the growing season, the plant's leaves and stems die down to the soil level and its new tubers detach from their stolons. The tubers then serve as a nutrient store that allows the plant to survive the cold and later regrow and reproduce. Each tuber has from two to as many as 10 buds (or "eyes"), arranged in a spiral pattern around its surface. The buds generate shoots that grow into new plants when conditions are again favorable. (FAO, 2008) Morphologically the tuber is a fleshy stem bearing buds or eyes in the axils of scale-like leaves which soon shed, leaving a ridge or leaf scar subtending the bud. (Clark, 1921). The anatomy of the potato plant, including the tuber, has been described in detail by Artschwager (1918 and 1924) and others. The tuber itself is essentially an abruptly thickened underground stem closely resembling the aerial stem of the plant (Talburt et al, 1975). Externally the tuber clearly shows its relation to the aerial stem. Each eye is a rudimentary scale leaf or leaf scar with its auxiliary buds. As on the stem, these are arranged in a right-handed or left-handed spiral around the tuber, 13 eyes to 5 turns of the helix (5/13 phyllotaxy). Each eye contains at least three buds together with protecting scales. (Schwimmer et al, 1957).

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The principal areas in the mature tuber from the exterior inward are the periderm, cortex, vascular cylinder, perimedullary zone and central pith. The periderm is 6 to 10 cell layers thick acting as a protective area over the surface of the tuber. Small lenticel-like structures occur over the surface of the tuber. Small lenticel-like structures occur over the surface of the tuber. These develop in the tissue under the stomates and are initiated in the young tuber when it still has an epidermis. Periderm thickness varies considerably between different varieties. Cultural conditions also, however, influence thickness of periderm rendering this characteristic too variable to use for variety identification (Fig 2.2).The cortex is a narrow band of storage tissue next to the periderm. The outer layers of cells contain protein crystals, tannins, pigments in colored varieties, and some starch. The vascular cylinder and the perimedullary zones are narrow. These zones contain secondary xylem and phloem. The principal region of storage parenchyma is immediately inside the vascular ring (Talburt et al, 1975). Tuber growth is largely due to enlargement of the perimedullary zone and is of procambial origin (Reeve et al, 1973). The pith consists of a small central core with arms of medullary parenchyma radiating from it. The cells are low in starch, high in water, and are more translucent than other tissues (Talburt et al, 1975).

Fig. 2.1 Structure of potato tuber

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2.3 Chemical composition of potato Starch, comprising some 65 to 80 percent of the dry weight of the potato tuber, is calorically the most important nutritional component. The two main or perhaps sole components of the starch, amylose and amylopectin, are present in a ratio of 1:3 (McCready and Hassid, 1947). Of the minor constituents of the starch granule only phospho9rus has been shown to be chemically combined with the starch (Posternak, 1951).The sugar content of potatoes may vary from only trace amounts to as much as ten percent of the dry weight of the tuber and thus 1/3 to ½ of the non-starch solids (Barker, 1938).Sucrose, glucose, and fructose comprise the major sugar of the potato (Schwimmer et al., 1954).Nonstarch polysaccharides largely comprise the cell wall and cementing substances between the cells of the tuber. These largely are (1).Cellulose is present in the cell wall and comprises 10-20% of the nonstarch polysaccharide of the potato (2) Crude fiber consists largely of cell wall components including suberin and lignin. Approximately one per cent of the dry weight of tubers is crude fiber although extremes of 0.2-3.5% have been found. (3) Pectic substances are polymers of galac-turonic acid with the carboxyl groups largely methylated. It ranges from 0.7 to 1.5% of the dry weight of the potato, the skin being especially high in this substance (Potter and McComb, 1957). (4)Hemicelluloses are mixed glycosidic chains containing combinations of glucuronic acid with xylose and of galacturonic acid with arabinose. Approximately 1% of the total crude polysaccharide of the potato is hemicellulose and occurs largely in the cell walls (Schwimmer and Burr, 1975). (5)Potatoes also contains ethanol-soluble oligosaccharides which consists of glucose and fructose residues (Schwimmer and Weston, 1956). Table 2.1 Proximate composition of white potatoes. Average percent Water Total solids Protein Fat Carbohydrate Total Crude fiber Ash 77.5 22.5 2.0 0.1 19.4 0.6 1.0 Range percent 63.2-86.9 13.1-36.8 0.7-4.6 0.02-0.96 13.3-30.53 0.17-3.48 0.44-1.9 (Source: Kroner and Volksen, 1950)

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The total nitrogen content of potatoes ranges from one to two percent of the dry weight. About 1/3 to ½ of the total nitrogen is present as protein. The proteins of potato tubers are comprised of about 60-70% globulins and 20-40% glutelins with no albumins or prolamines present. Amino acid composition of these two fractions differs: glutelins contain more cystine, aspartic acid, proline, and tryptophan than do the globulins. Free ammo acids amounted to 40—50% of nonprotein N (Tavrovyskaya, 1964).The bulk of non protein fraction, comprising up to two-thirds of the total nitrogen, is present as free amino acids as shown by work of Ashford and Levitt (1965).21 amino acids have been identified as normal constituents of the alcohol soluble nitrogen of potato tuber tissue (Dent et al., 1947). The average fat content (ether-extractible matter of the potato is in the neighborhood of 0.01 percent on a fresh weight basis, with a range of about 0.02 to 0.2 percent (Schwimmer and Burr, 1967) of which 40% linoleic, 30%linolenic, 5% oleic, and 25% saturated acids are present (Highlands et al., 1954). In addition to the amino and fatty acid the following organic acids have been found in potaotes: citric, isocitric, ascorbic, lactic, malic, tartaric, succinic, oxalic, hydroxymalonic, aconitic, phytic, alpha ketoglutaric, quinic, caffeic, and chlorogenic (Kroner and Volksen, 1950). The total acid content in the juice of potatoes is several times greater than the content of acids capable of being initially titrated and is 0.84-1.15% calculated as citric acid. One medium sized potato contains 20 mg. of vitamin C (Mc cay, 1956).The phenolic compounds of poatatoes are associsated with the color of the raw poataotes. Tyrosine, the major monohydric phenol of potatoes, is present in the inner portion of the tuber and constitutes 0.1 to 0.3 % of the dry weight of the potato. The inorganic constituents or mineral content of potatoes are tabulated in table 2.2. 2.4 Nutritive value of potatoes and potato flour Nature has designed only a few foods that are capable of nourishing the great population of the world. Of these, the white potato is one. Beneath its skin are liberal stores, not only of energy, but of nitrogen and a high quality protein that will support growth and health. Valuable minerals are there such as iron and magnesium and essential vitamins such as vitamin C and several of the B vitamins. These are ample reasons why nutritional deficiencies are little known in the countries whose populations depend on potatoes as their basic food. The composition of potatoes varies as to varieties, storage, season, soils, and

9

fertilization. However, average values to remember for the chief components of potatoes are: protein and protein-like substances, two percent; carbohydrates about 18 percent; fat, one-tenth of one percent; and water almost 80 percent. In addition of course are the vitamins and minerals in potatoes, expressed in milligrams.The high water content of potatoes should be noted, because when potatoes are compared in values to a food such as rice which is nearly dry, the impression given is unfair. For instance, potatoes with two percent protein would appear inferior to rice with sevent percent protein. For a truer comparison, one should multiply the values of potatoes by five. This gives a value of ten percent for the protein. If the quality of the protein is equally good, this explains why millions of men can live on a diet comprised mostly of rice and others can thrive equally well or even better upon a diet rich in potatoes. This matter of expressing chemical values on a moist or dry basis is well known to food chemists, but it is poorly understood by those who are not accustomed to thinking in these terms.(McCay, 1956). Table 2.2 Inorganic constituents of potatoes. Dry Basis (mg per 100 gm.) P Ca Mg Na K Fe S Cl Zn Cu Si Mn Al 43.0-605 10-120 46-216 0-332 1394-2825 3-18.5 43-423 45-805 1.7-2.2 0.6-2.8 5.1 -17.3 0.18-8.5 0.2-35.4 Br B I Li As Co Ni Mo Dry Basis (ppm.) 4.8-8.5 4.5 -8.6 0.5 -3.87 Trace 0.35 0.065 0.26 0.26

(Source: Lampitt and Goldenberg, 1940) Although potato flour is used in the baking industry, it has not been used much in home cookery and is not widely available in retail stores. Hence, it is a product somewhat foreign to the housewife, but one that could be used. Potato flour has found some use in preparing special foods in mental hospitals for groups such as the spastic feeble-minded.It is very useful in making mixtures of high nutritive value. In these cases it is easily prepared

10

as a gruel with hot water on milk. Such gruels have special merit because they are slightly “sticky” and hence not easily rejected by those who must be fed regularly. (McCay, 1956). 2.5 Potatoes in Nepal Agriculture remains the mainstay of the national economy of Nepal, accounting for approximately 40 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 81 percent of employment (Chapagain, 2001). Most agricultural production is still characterized by relatively low mechanical and chemical inputs. Since the 1960s, productivity of major crops such as wheat, paddy rice, and sugarcane has grown in absolute terms, but relatively less than Nepal's neighboring South Asian countries which raised productivity at a faster rate with more rapid and intensive adoption of green revolution technologies (Chapagain, 2001). Agricultural production in Nepal has been enhanced by an expansion of land accessible to irrigation, from approximately 6,200 hectares in 1956 to nearly 583,000 hectares by 1990 (Anon. 2, 2008). In the 1970s, a national potato development programme, focused on improving the quality of seed potato, stimulated a rapid expansion of both cultivated area and production, which increased from 300 000 tonnes in 1975 to a record 1.97 million tonnes in 2006. The potato is now Nepal's second staple food crop, after rice, and per capita consumption has almost doubled since 1990 to 51 kg a year. Potatoes are widely grown in Nepal, at below 100 m altitude in the south to as high as 4 000 m in the northern mountains. The tuber is particularly favored by farmers in high hills areas (roughly 1 800 to 3 000 m): it is more productive than rice and maize and the cool climate is well suited to production of seed tubers for sale at lower altitudes. (FAO, 2008). Current and potential gains in agricultural productivity should, however, be considered in light of population growth, increasing at an annual rate of 2.3 percent as of 2003, and the diminishing quality of agricultural land. Population density is particularly high in the valleys and lowlands where the vast majority of the population of Nepal is concentrated. Potato, as a crop capable of high productivity relative to land and time, is likely to remain important to Nepal's food security and agricultural economy (Chapagain, 2001).

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2.5.1 Geography and production zones 2.5.1.1 Physical geography Nepal is a landlocked country of approximately 147,000 square kilometers located between China and India, "a yam caught between two rocks" (Anon. 2, 2008). However, for a small country, Nepal is a land of great physical diversity, from tropical plains in the south of less than 100 meters above sea level (masl) to hills and mountain ranges, reaching the world's highest peak, Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) at over 8,800 masl. The increasing elevation is not always uniform, but rather is characterized by a maze of mountains, hills, and lower altitude valleys, resulting in a wide diversity of ecotypes and strong variations over short horizontal distances. Differences in altitude, slope and aspect (the direction in which the slope of the land faces) can result in a tremendous diversity of soils, drainage, solar exposure, diurnal temperature regimes, and evapotranspiration conditions.

Nepal can be classified very generally into altitudinal zones which form roughly parallel belts from east to west, occasionally bisected by the country's river systems. These zones can be described as (Dhital 2000, pp. 7-10):

Terai (below 350 masl), the southern belt, forming the northern rim of the greater alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plain stretching from the Punjab of Pakistan and India to the delta of the Ganga (or Ganges) in Bangladesh, accounting for 17 percent of total land area, but 42 percent of cultivated land, much of it devoted to rice and wheat;

Low Hills (350 - 1,000 masl), characterized by river valleys which support rice, maize, and wheat, and in some areas double cropping of rice where irrigation is available;

Mid Hills (1,000 - 1,800 masl), with a warm climate that supports citrus, as well as maize, rice, wheat, finger millet, soybean, and some potato;

High Hills (1,800 - 3,000 masl), where potato becomes the most important crop, both for subsistence and commercial production, other crops including temperate fruits, barley, and buckwheat;

12

Mountains (above 3,000 masl), where permanent settlement is not common and agriculture is possible only in valleys along southeastern slopes, and people are otherwise dependent on livestock production and tourism.

2.5.1.2 Climate Although Nepal's latitudinal range is narrowly restricted from approximately 27° to 30° N, climatic variations, determined primarily by altitude, range from tropical and subtropical to cool temperate to permanent arctic cold. The complexity of factors which determine Nepal's climate can make it highly variable not only over space, but also over time. Local climatic variation is one of the most serious risk factors facing farmers in Nepal; hazards can include drought, extreme rain, and even hail (Dhital 2000, pp 8-10). Precipitation is determined by several factors, especially altitude, longitude, and local aspect. Up to approximately 3,000 masl, annual precipitation generally increases with greater altitude, but thereafter decreases. Longitude is a factor since the summer monsoon, generated by moist tropical air over the Bay of Bengal, decreases from east to west. At lower altitudes, eastern Nepal receives approximately 2,500 millimeters (mm) of rain annually, the Kathmandu area about 1,420 mm, and western Nepal about 1,000 mm. The monsoon, generally from June through September, is the most important source of precipitation to farmers, providing more than 70 percent of the annual precipitation received by the plains and lower altitude Himalayas. However, within this general pattern, local conditions can vary over short distances. Aspect is locally significant since slopes facing predominately east or south receive more precipitation, while slopes facing north toward Tibet are especially arid. Winter snowfalls in the Himalayas are also an important source of water for spring and summer crops, especially as more land has been made accessible to irrigation (Anon. 2, 2008). 2.5.1.3 Regional distribution of potato production Potatoes are widely grown throughout Nepal, from the southern terai at altitudes below 100 masl, to the northern mountains as high as 4,000 masl. The potato crop becomes relatively more important in the high hills areas (from roughly 1,800 to 3,000 masl), as it becomes more productive relative to staples such as rice, maize and finger millet. This altitude range is also well suited to the production of potatoes to be used as seed tubers in lower altitude areas, since viral degeneration generally occurs more slowly at higher

13

altitudes and storage is much less of a challenge. The harvest in the high hills area, from July to September, also complements the cropping calendar of the terai and low hills, where planting takes place from September through December (Dhital 2000, p. 12). 2.5.2 Production systems and constriants 2.5.2.1 Land use and land tenure As of 1998-99, land use distribution in Nepal was estimated by percentage as: Agriculture 27; Forest 38; Pasture 12; Other 23 (e.g. scrubland, permanent snow, and rock) (Khatri and Rai 2000, p. 5). Forests in Nepal are being lost very rapidly, by roughly half from 1950 to 1980 (Anon. 2, 2008). Maintaining a forest cover of approximately 38 percent has become a policy goal, but a difficult challenge as much of the remaining forest cover is in the terai, the destination over the past several decades of settlers from higher latitudes (Chapagain, 2001). Nepal's future agricultural sustainability will have to rely on the productivity of existing agricultural land, not new land developments.Nepal is still contending with a long history of feudalism, whereby landlords held most of the kingdom's agricultural land. Beginning in the 1950s, several legal remedies have been initiated by the state to limit land ownership and regulate rent paid by tenants, but with limited results. In some cases, legal reforms were expected well in advance of their passage, allowing landlords to redistribute surplus land (on paper) among relatives or to otherwise conceal ownership. The amount of land clearly redistributed under legal remedies has been estimated at less than two percent of all agricultural holdings (Chapagain, 2001). Due partly to the continued concentration of landholding, as well as the effects of a rapidly growing population on land division via inheritance, most agricultural land holdings are very small-scale and fragmented. A farm usually consists of several small nonadjacent parcels. According to the 1991 National Sample Census of Agriculture (cited by Chapagain, 2001), the average number of parcels per farm was nearly four, while the number of parcels per hectare was just above four. These figures are regionally variable, but that average is characteristic of the hills region where the potato crop is most important. Land fragmentation partly reflects a strategy to minimize risk by exploiting a wider range of ecologies, but can also be considered a structural challenge to agricultural modernization, as small and fragmented holdings can inhibit the adoption of new technologies, such as irrigation structures, to enhance production (Chapagain, 2001).

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2.5.2.2 Cropping calendar The great agro-ecological diversity of Nepal allows for potato cultivation to occur somewhere at any time of year. Potato is a winter crop in the terai and low hills, a spring and autumn crop in the mid hills, and a summer crop in the high hills and mountains. The duration of a crop is variable by variety, but is longer at higher altitudes. The generalized cropping calendar is summarized in Table 2.3 (Dhital 2000, p. 13). 2.5.2.3 Cropping patterns and fertility management Agriculture in Nepal remains predominately subsistence-based with minimal use of external inputs, depending on a close interrelationship among crops, forestry and livestock. Crops supply feed to livestock, while crop production depends on animal draft power and manure as fertilizer (Dhital 2000, p. 10). Forest management has long been an essential component of land management, given the extremely high potential for erosion facing most land in Nepal. Table 2.3 Cropping calender in Nepal Zone Altitude (masl) Planting Months Harvesting Months

Terai

Up

to

350 October

-

November January

-

February

Low

Hills 350

-

1,000 September

-

December December

-

March

Mid

Hills 1,000

-

1,800 January

-

February April

-

June

August

-

September November - December

High

Hills 1,800

-

2,200 February

-

March July

-

August

2,200

-

3,000 March

-

April July

-

September

Mountains

3,000

-

4,000 Late April - Early May September

-

October

(Source: Dhital, 2000)

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Given the extreme features of the physical geography above the terai and low hills, effectively isolating small communities, many farmers have had minimal access to either markets or wider social networks. That isolation, combined with the capricious climate across much of Nepal, has favored agricultural strategies driven more by risk aversion than profit seeking, although this situation is changing in some places with greater road access. Intercropping, as opposed to crop specialization, remains a common practice, especially at higher altitudes.The Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) has reported that studies conducted to assess the effects of intercropping various legume crops on the production of rice and potato did not provide evidence of enhanced yields of potatoes, though the grain and straw production of rice were both positively influenced by previous legume crops, and potatoes contributed a high share of food energy relative to time and land area. Two cropping patterns which provided high grain and straw yields of rice were: faba bean-potato-rice, and sweet lupine-potato-rice (Anon. 3, 2008). The Potato Development Section (PDS) of the Department of Agriculture has recommended soil amendments of either farmyard manure at the rate of 20 tons per hectare (T/HA) or commercial fertilizer at the approximate rate (by T/HA) of: Nitrogen 100; Phosphorous 100; and Potassium 60 (PDS, 2002, pp. 11-37). In practice, application depends on the availability of commercial fertilizer and/or animal resources and labor to apply manure. Since seed tubers are a major factor of production costs, farmers have to weigh the relative benefits of larger tubers, which produce faster initial growth and higher potential yields, but at higher cost. By most accounts, potato seed generally consists of either smaller tubers culled from a previous harvest (especially at higher altitudes), or smaller potatoes purchased from ware markets (more common at lower altitudes). General recommendations of potato crop spacing by the Department of Agriculture are to plant 2550 gram tubers 60-75 centimeters (cm) row to row and 20-30 cm plant to plant, for an overall seed rate of one to two tons per hectare. A crop stand of 30 main stems per square meter is considered optimal (ibid.).The recommended practice for harvesting is to cut haulms approximately ten days prior to harvest in order to promote maturation of the potato skin and therefore minimize bruising and damage during harvest. It is not reported to what extent this practice is followed. Potato harvesting in Nepal is predominately manual, as mechanization is rarely feasible in the steep and isolated areas where much of the crop is grown. (Anon. 4, 2008)

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2.5.2.4 Occurrence and control of potato diseases and pests This list is not complete, but includes several diseases and pests known to be serious constraints to potato cultivation in Nepal. Late Blight (LB), possibly the greatest biological constraint to potato cultivation worldwide, is caused by a fungus-like oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, which is a specialized pathogen of potato and, to a lesser extent, tomato (another member of the plant family Solanaceae). Late blight was first reported in Nepal between 1883 and 1897 and has been appearing as an epidemic since the mid 1990s (Ghimire et. al. 2003, p. 236). According to Dhital and Ghimire (1996, cited in Ghimire et. al. 2003), a nation-wide crop failure due to LB occurred in 1996, although production data reported by FAO for that year do not reflect a drop in either yields or production. Regional outbreaks are common, and cultivars once considered LB resistant are apparently becoming less so. Isolates of P. infestans collected during the 1999 and 2000 cropping seasons and characterized for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms provided evidence of the introductions of relatively new populations including both A1 and A2 mating types, possibly with implications regarding resistance to metalaxyl, a systemic fungicide widely used in LB control, though probably not widely used in the lower input cultivation of Nepal (Ghimire et. al. 2003). Several varieties selected by CIP for resistance to LB have been evaluated in Nepal, including CIP clones 387146.48, 387199.33, 388764.6, 387224.11 and 388764.26 (Khatri and Rai 2000, p. 63). Black Scurf is a fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, that attacks tubers, underground stems, and stolons of potato plants, especially in cool, damp soils. Although generally described as more of a cosmetic problem due to black irregular encrustations of fungal sclerotia, it has been described as a major concern, spreading from the plains into the hills of Nepal. Seed treatment of two percent acetic acid and 0.2 percent zinc sulfate or three percent boric acid alone has been reported as an effective control (Khatri and Rai 2000, p. 63), although these materials are probably not readily available to most farmers. Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) is the most destructive bacterial disease of potato and several other plants of economic importance. The bacterium identified in Nepal has been identified as Race 3, biovar 2. Yield losses have been reported as annually and spatially variable, but potentially capable 17 of nearly complete crop loss.

Due to its wide host range and a lack of resistant varieties, the disease is difficult to control, except via long-term rotation with non-host crops, use of disease-free planting material, and hygienic practices in general (Khatri and Rai 2000, p. 63). There is some evidence that non-solanaceous summer weeds might play a greater role as disease vectors than was previously assumed (Pradhanang et. al. 2000). Control efforts are challenging, but feasible with widespread community involvement. Vulnerability appears to correlate with soil amendments. Various treatments of urea, lime and stable bleaching powder (or SBP,) have been shown to correlate with varying degrees of infection of the highly susceptible variety "Kufri Jyoti" in a field naturally infested with R. solanacearum for over 15 years. A treatment of urea (428 kg/ha) and lime (5 t/ha) followed by SBP (25 kg/ha) seemed to provide a suppressant effect, though the use of SBP alone at the rate of 25 - 37 kg/ha might be more economically efficient (Anon.5, 1998). Viral Diseases. The common practice of keeping smaller potatoes (or larger potatoes cut into smaller pieces) from a general harvest for seed, with little regard for disease, favors the transmission of viral infection. Potato Virus X (PVX) has been reported as more serious in the hills, while PVY is prevalent in the lower altitude plains. PVM and PVS are found in both areas. Degeneration studies have indicated that yield can be decreased by 3.6 percent for each 10 percent increase in viral infection (Khatri and Rai 2000, p. 63). 2.5.3 Varieties and seed systems 2.5.3.1 Varieties Since the potato is of relatively recent origin to Asia, far fewer varieties are cultivated than in the potato's Andean homeland range. Brown and Scheidegger, writing in 1995, reported that only eight varieties were in local cultivation in Nepal, of which four were included in seed multiplication programs (Brown and Scheidegger 1995, p. 19). Nepal has very likely received, formally or through less formal diffusion, several varieties developed by the Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI) of India, including Kufri Jyoti, introduced to Nepal in the mid 1960s and currently considered the oldest and most widely grown of "improved varieties" (Dhital 2000, p. 47). Varieties that have been present for several generations are likely to bear several local names. Sikha Local and Gumda Local are popular varieties in the mid to high hills, both grown under various local names. Several other varieties persist from their introduction via the British colonial presence in India

18

several generations ago, e.g. Darjeeling Red Round and Magnum Bonum. Cultivar CIP379693.110 has more recently been introduced under the name P-110, recommended for cool tropical to warm tropical regions. NPI/T-0012 was introduced via Mexico as a testing material in the late 1960s and has since been maintained by farmers in the high hills of the western region. All of these cultivars belong to Solanum tuberosum spp. tuberosum, except NPI/T-0012, which may belong to the subspecies andigena (Dhital 2000, p. 47). This brief listing is by no means complete. A section of the 1996-97 annual report posted by the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) pertaining to varietal improvement efforts noted that sixteen local cultivars collected from different areas of Nepal were being used in trials, in addition to recently introduced varieties. Nonetheless, the introduction of new varieties is a recent effort in Nepal (Anon. 3, 2008). 2.5.3.2 The "Informal" seed system A "seed system" is broadly defined as "an interrelated set of components including breeding, management, replacement and distribution of seed." (Thiele, 1998, p. 84). Most tuber seed used in Nepal has been produced and distributed by farmers themselves (the informal system). The replacement interval can depend on several factors, such as a gradual decline in yields due to viral degeneration or a natural calamity such as hail, drought, or severe late blight (Rhoades 1985, cited in Dhital 2000, p.14). In the terai zones, farmers often depend for seed on the ware potato market in India, much of it based on potatoes kept in cold storage. In the mid-hills, farmers sometimes acquire new seed from the mountains, taking advantage of slower viral degeneration at higher altitudes. But even in the mid-hills, seed from the lower altitude terai probably accounts for a greater volume than seed from higher altitude sites (Brown and Scheidegger 1995, p. 9). Potato farmers at higher altitudes have traditionally been almost entirely self-sufficient in seed, depending either on a portion of their own harvests retained for seed, or very local exchanges. Varietal population structures at remote higher altitude locations have generally reflected minimal input from the formal system. Tubers retained for seed are usually small, typically ten to fifty grams (Dhital 2000, p. 14).

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2.5.3.3 The "Formal" seed system The formal system refers to seed tubers produced and distributed by state-sponsored institutions (possibly with some involvement of the private sector and/or non-government organizations). Seed from the formal sector has generally been subject to inspections and controls intended to assure that the seed is of the variety claimed, with low incidence of disease or pest infestation, of appropriate physiological age and otherwise viable. "Prebasic" and "basic" seed are multiplied into "certified seed," generally in the form of smaller seed tubers (tuberlets) available for distribution to farmers, although the precise definitions of these terms are locally variable. The higher altitude regions of Nepal, among the most isolated places in the world where access by road is extremely limited, pose an especially difficult challenge to any attempt by a formal system to make improved potato seed tubers more accessible to farmers. This limitation, combined with the advantages offered by higher altitudes being less subject to viral diseases, favors the placement of the last stages of seed multiplication by the formal system as close as possible to the ultimate users. Such locations, however, pose a challenge to regular supervision by a technical staff, leaving farmers with more responsibility for the management of any certified seed made available to them by the formal system. This effort, under the direction of NARC with assistance from the Swiss Development Corporation (SDC) and the International Potato Center (CIP), has depended on groups of farmers who receive training, but little subsequent supervision or direct incentives. Since many of these groups are located in mountainous regions, the "head points" in the traditional seed system, the goal is to inject the entire system with higher quality seed, including some of promising new varieties, and thereby to enhance yields widely throughout Nepal. Potato production by farmers involved in this effort seems to have improved significantly (Brown and Scheidegger, 1995 p. 17).
• •

A program is operated by NARC to provide certified seed. A history of recent efforts to distribute improved quality seed, with the current focus on Seed Producer Groups (SPGs), is well described in the CIP Program.

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2.5.4 Consumption, storage and marketing 2.5.4.1 Consumption By estimated 2003 data, Nepal's population of slightly more than 25 million people consumed 1,650,000 metric tons of potatoes, or about 65 kilograms (kg) annual per capita consumption. This is very high by world standards, about the same as Peru, within the potato's center of origin, and over twice the average consumption rate of India. Higher production in the high hills zone is reflected in higher consumption. Brown and Scheidegger (1995, p. 39) estimated that in 1991-92, per capita consumption was approximately 24 kg in the terai, and over twice that, 51 kg, in the hills and mountains. Production and consumption have considerably increased in both areas since then. The potato has been creatively adapted to Nepali cuisine, as for example ‘potato curry’ (Brown and Scheidegger, 1995). 2.5.4.2 Storage In keeping with the great diversity of agro-ecologies and agricultural practices in Nepal, there are several methods used to store potatoes. Generally, however, there is not much initial distinction between seed and ware potatoes; all are stored the same way. In the terai, at altitudes up to 350 masl where high temperatures do not allow for longerterm storage (more than perhaps two months), potatoes are usually sold soon after harvest. The cold storage industry, which has become very important to potato marketing in India, has yet to develop in Nepal. More recently introduced "improved varieties" are generally more susceptible to high storage temperatures (Dhital 2000, p. 16). In the low and mid hills (approximately 350 - 1,800 masl), farmers do not generally try to store potatoes for seed, but rather rely on seed obtained from other areas. At higher altitudes within this range, seed potato storage in partial diffused light is an old established practice, as potatoes are often kept in different layers in bamboo baskets. Diffused light promotes the growth of sprouts which are short and stout, ideal for viable seed tubers (ibid.). Longer-term storage becomes much more feasible in the high hills, above 1,800 masl. Several methods are used, including storage in darkness in any available space in a farmhouse, in clamps dug into the ground, or in some cases leaving potatoes unharvested in the field for an extended period, although this last option is uncommon due to a high

21

instance of rotting (ibid.).Although the viability of traditional methods generally increases with altitude, storage losses in general appear to be increasing due to growing infestations of several diseases and pests, e.g. late blight, bacterial wilt, soft rot (Erwinia spp.), dry rot (Fusarium spp.), and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) (ibid.). (Dhital, 2000). 2.6 Grading and marketing of potatoes The purpose of grading is to aid in standardization of a product and to facilitate marketing it. Sorting and packing potatoes to a set of recognized official standards enables producer and buyer to communicate more intelligently concerning the value of the product. An important aspect of grading is the use of a set of uniformly accepted standards. Grading is of direct benefit to all parties concerned in the buying and selling transaction (Smith, 1976). Profitable marketing of an agricultural commodity is an essential part of the total production program for the producer. Marketing provides the necessary step from the farm to the consumer. Without an efficient marketing procedure, even the finest quality crop can be an unprofitable one (Smith, 1976). Marketing in potato production begin with some vital decisions as choice of variety and planting practices which will affect tuber size, shape and consumer acceptance. Market demand for potatoes is made up of such factors as variety, color, size and shape of tuber, grade, uniformity, cooking quality, package size and type, cleanliness, and other quality factors. It also involves the form in which the commodity is marketed, i.e., fresh vs. one of the many processed forms of potato products (Schoenemann, 1976). In Nepal Although many farmers who grow potatoes do so for cash income (especially at lower altitudes in relatively accessible areas), there are not yet any organized marketing services or cooperative organizations to facilitate regular marketing. Such organizations could develop from the seed producer groups, farmers organized to multiply and distribute high quality seed tubers, but so far this subject has not yet been reported (Dhital, 2000). 2.6.1 Size grading of potatoes In addition to various physical grading of the product, modern grade standards for potatoes also provide for marketing in various tuber size classes. Sizing of potatoes has become a more widespread practice in recent years. The development of individual tuber sizing machines has led to marketing of potatoes in special count packs. It is now possible for a

22

buyer to purchase containers of potatoes with all tubers practically identical in weight and to a large degree identical in shape. This is of special value to the hotel and restaurant trade, where uniformity is required in preparing and serving baked potatoes. Housewives, too, often prefer buying packages of potatoes in which tubers are sized to definite limits (Eberhard and Eke, 1951). In potato production small tubers (smaller than 35 mm) are considered as losses because of low marketability characteristics (Haravani and Ahmadabad, 2008). At farm level it is not preventable to produce grade A and B potatoes without the production of grade D potatoes (unmarketable) (Devraj et al., 2007). In USA, it has been found that, whole potatoes, usually smaller than 1.5 inches in diameter, make up the greatest part of the potatoes that are canned. The potatoes used are not specifically grown for canning but are primarily the small sizes of potatoes not suitable for fresh market (Talburt, 1975). Since seed tubers are a major factor of production costs, In Nepal, farmers have to weigh the relative benefits of larger tubers, which produce faster initial growth and higher potential yields, but at higher cost. By most accounts, potato seed generally consists of either smaller tubers culled from a previous harvest (especially at higher altitudes), or smaller potatoes purchased from ware markets (more common at lower altitudes) (Anon. 4, 2008). 2.6.2 Economics of grading The economics of grading potatoes often poses certain problems for the producer. Sorting out the top premium quality tubers leaves a residue of potatoes of rather low general grade quality which often commands a relatively low price (Kross, 1952). The residue is usually of adequate quality to allow for their use in various processed products (Smith, 1976).Unmarketable potatoes due to their small size (<2.5cm) are difficult to handle and so fetch low price to the grower and are considered as waste (Devraj et al., 2007). 2.6.3 Potatoes preferences of consumers There has been much research in the area of determining consumer wants and desires relative to potato quality factors. These studies have involved such things as variety choice, color, size of tuber, shape, package type and size, cooking quality, and reaction to various types of defects. Among all these factors, most studies on consumer preferences for various

23

sized potato tubers indicate the desire for a medium-sized potato. The reasons most often given are: (1) right size for judging portions; (2) easy to peel and handle; (3) easily adapted to several cooking methods, and (4) less waste in peeling (Anon.6, 1948). For baking purposes at home a 7-10 oz. potato is preferred, while in the high class restaurant trade 1013 oz. is considered best (Eberhard and Eke 1951). 2.7 Utilization of potatoes Once harvested, potatoes are used for a variety of purposes, and not only as a vegetable for cooking at home. In fact, it is likely that less than 50 percent of potatoes grown worldwide are consumed fresh. The rest are processed into potato food products and food ingredients, fed to cattle, pigs and chickens, processed into starch for industry, and re-used as seed tubers for growing the next season's potato crop. (Anon. 7, 2008) Potato procesing for food uses is much more extensive in the United States than in any other country. (Hampson, 1966).The various ways in which potatoes are utilized in United States are tabulated in Table 2.4. 2.7.1 Food uses: fresh, "frozen", dehydrated FAO estimates that just over two-thirds of the 320 million tonnes of potatoes produced in 2005 were consumed by people as food, in one form or another. Home-grown or purchased in markets, fresh potatoes are baked, boiled or fried and used in a staggering range of recipes: mashed potatoes, potato pancakes, potato dumplings, twice-baked potatoes, potato soup, potato salad and potatoes au gratin, to name a few. But global consumption of potato as food is shifting from fresh potatoes to added-value, processed food products. One of the main items in that category goes by the unappetizing name of frozen potatoes, but includes most of the french fries ("chips" in the UK) served in restaurants and fast food chains worldwide. The production process is fairly simple: peeled potatoes are shot through cutting blades, parboiled, air dried, par fried, frozen and packaged. The world's appetite for factory-made french fries has been put at more than 11 million tonnes a year. Another processed product, the potato crisp ("chips" in the US), is the long-standing king of snack foods in many developed countries. Made from thin slices of deep-fried or baked potato, they come in a variety of flavours - from simple salted to "gourmet" varieties tasting of roast beef and Thai chili. Some crisps are produced using a dough made from dehydrated potato flakes. (Anon. 7, 2008).

24

Dehydrated potato flakes and granules are made by drying a mash of cooked potatoes to a moisture level of 5 to 8 percent. Flakes are used in retail mashed potato products, as ingredients in snacks, and even as food aid: potato flakes have been distributed as part of US international food assistance to more than 6,00,000 people. Another dehydrated product, potato flour, is ground from cooked, whole potatoes and retains a distinct potato taste. Gluten-free and rich in starch, potato flour is used by the food industry to bind meat mixtures and thicken gravies and soups. Modern starch processing can retrieve as much as 96 per cent of the starch found in raw potatoes. A fine, tasteless powder with "excellent mouth-feel", potato starch provides higher viscosity than wheat and maize starches, and delivers a tastier product. It is used as a thickener for sauces and stews, and as a binding agent in cake mixes, dough, biscuits and ice-cream. Finally, in eastern Europe and Scandinavia, crushed potatoes are heated to convert their starch to fermentable sugars that are used in the distillation of alcoholic beverages such as vodka and akvavit. (Anon. 7, 2008). Table 2.4 Utilization of U.S. potato crops. Types of Products Table stock (total) Chips and Shoestrings Dehydration Frozen French Fries Other frozen Products Canned potatoes Other canned products (hash, stews, soups) Starch and Flour Total Procesing Total fresh and procesing Livestock feed Seed Non Sales(On farm use) Seed Household Feed Shrinkage/loss Total Production % 35.7 11.5 10.5 20.2 3.2 0.9 0.9 0.9 48.0 83.8 1.2 6.7 1.7 0.3 0.1 6.1 100 (Source: Hampson, 1966) 25

2.7.2 Non-food uses: glue, animal feed and fuel-grade ethanol Potato starch is also widely used by the pharmaceutical, textile, wood and paper industries as an adhesive, binder, texture agent and filler, and by oil drilling firms to wash boreholes. Potato starch is a 100% biodegradable substitute for polystyrene and other plastics and used, for example, in disposable plates, dishes and knives. Potato peel and other "zero value" wastes from potato processing are rich in starch that can be liquefied and fermented to produce fuel-grade ethanol. A study in Canada's potato-growing province of New Brunswick estimated that 44,000 tonnes of processing waste could produce 4 to 5 million litres of ethanol. One of the first widespread uses of the potato in Europe was as farm animal feed. In the Russian Federation and other east European countries, as much as half of the potato harvest is still used for that purpose. Cattle can be fed up to 20 kg of raw potatoes a day, while pigs fatten quickly on a daily diet of 6 kg of boiled potatoes. Chopped up and added to silage, the tubers cook in the heat of fermentation. (Anon. 7, 2008). 2.7.3 Seed potatoes: renewing the cycle Unlike other major field crops, potatoes are reproduced vegetatively, from other potatoes. Therefore, a part of each year's crop - ranging from 5 to 15 percent, depending on the quality of the harvested tubers - is set aside for re-use in the next planting season. Most farmers in developing countries select and store their own seed tubers. In developed countries, farmers are more likely to purchase disease-free "certified seed" from dedicated suppliers. More than 13 per cent of France's potato growing area is used to produce seed potatoes, and the Netherlands exports some 700 000 tonnes of certified seed a year. (Anon. 8, 2008). 2.7.4 Potato flour Potato flour is the oldest commercial processed potato product. Its is widely used by the baking industry, in USA, although its growth has not kept pace with other segments of the potato processing industry .The name “potato flour” is also given to the product obtained by grinding dried, sliced potatoes (Rendle, 1945). Potato flour has long been associated with the baking of bread. It is well known that small amounts of added potato solids help to retain the freshness of bread. They also impart a distinctive, pleasing flavor and improved toasting qualities. The manufacturer of

26

potato flour faces several economic problems. In a process where over half of the cost of the final product is represented by the cost of the raw material, a rise in cost of this could be dangerous. The greatly increased production of other dehydrated products, such as granules, flakes and dice, has resulted in increased competition for the lower grade potatoes that previously were converted into potato flour or starch. Chemical composition of potato flour is given in Appendix B. 2.7.4.1 Methods of manufacture Raw material for potato flour consists of “culls” that remain after higher grade potatoes are removed for fresh market or other uses. Only in such areas as these, where large quantities of high-grade culls are available consistently, at a relatively stable low price, can a potato flour operation be economically conducted. However, to make potato flour of high quality only sound potatoes may be used. This means that a considerable amount of sorting and trimming must be done in order to upgrade even good cull potatoes. (Talburt and smith, 1975). Potatoes should be thoroughly washed to remove any adhering soil and to reduce the number of contaminating micro-organisms on the raw material. If dirt is carried into the peeling equipment, it will impede the performance of the peeling equipment and will increase wear and maintenance cost on the peeling machines. Water for the purpose of washing must be of potato quality. A plant handling 100tons/day of raw materials would need from 400,000 ton to millions gallons of water per 24hours. Spray washing, soaking, floatation washing and spray washing are the major methods of washing. (Loesecke, 1998) After washing peeling is an important preliminary step in the manufacture of various potato products, since the effectiveness and efficiency of peeling determine the yield of the finished product, the amount of waste, and the cost of waste disposal. The ideal peeling operation should only remove a very thin outer layer of the potato, leaving no eyes, blemishes, or other material for later removal by hand trimming. It should not significantly change the physical or chemical characteristics of the remaining tissue. Preferably peeling should use small amount of water and result in minimal effluent; compromises will have to be made in all of these aspects of peeling. (Talburt and smith, 1975). After washing, the potatoes are allowed to drain, usually on mesh conveyors, and they travel over an inspection belt where foreign material and defective tubers are removed. The more common peeling methods are abrasion, lye immersion and steam. Various methods

27

used in peeling of potatoes include abrasion peeling, oil peeling, flame peeling, brine peeling, steam peeling and lye peeling. Peeling loss is calculated in percentage basis by calculating the differences of raw and peeled weight of the potatoes. Potato size has an

important affect on peeling. As potato size decreases the surface area in the production volume increases inversely as the cube root of the average potato weight. Consequently, peel loses on small size potatoes increases dramatically. (Huxsoll and Smith, 1973). After peeling cooking of the potatoes are done. A well cooked potato is required for the “flaking” operation. Some plants have used a batch pressure cooker for this purpose. Potatoes were normally cooked about 15 to 20 minutes using 15 lb. per sq. in. steam pressure (Noel, 1922).Using steam at atmospheric pressure introduced above and below the potatoes, 45 minutes to 1 hour is required for adequate cooking of the potatoes. The cooked potatoes are then dried in a drum drier. The cooked mashed potato forms a coating on each spreader roll which in turn deposits the potato solids on the hot drum surface. In this process, any peel fragments remaining on the potatoes are collected on the bottom roll of the drier. The use of three or four spreader rolls effectively removes most of the peel fragments remaining in the cooked potato. The dried sheet of potato solids is removed from the drum surface by a doctor knife held in contact with the drum. It is then normally fed by a screw conveyor into the intake of a fan and conveyed by air to the milling system. The thin flakes are comminuted in some form of beater or hammer mill and then screened to the desired size. (Willard and Englar, 1959). In developed countries, potato flour is produced commercially using sophisticated methods such as drum drying and spray drying of pre-cooked mashed potatoes (Pyler and Willard, 1973). These methods have limited applications for village-level processing in developing countries. So, raw potato flours were made from potato by slicing, blanching, sulphitation, and drying in a hot air dehydrator (Kulkarni et al., 1988).Potatoes are washed thoroughly in water, hand-peeled using a stainless steel knife, and sliced with an automatic electric slicer. The slices are immersed in water to prevent enzymatic browning of the surface. The slices are sulphited to 1% sodium hydroxide by soaking them in a potassium methabisulphite solution. The blanched slices are drained and dehydrated at 60°C in a cabinet air-flow dehydrator. When the slices are placed in a single layer, it takes about three hours to reduce the moisture of the slices to below 10%.The dehydrated slices are ground to yield a flour of 70 mesh. The flour is then packed in 250-gauge polyethylene bags and stored in a refrigerator (Kulkarni et al., 1994).

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2.7.4.2 Uses of potato flour Baking ingredients, thickener, snack foods, breading fried foods etc. are the major uses of potato flour. A novel process involves the use of dehydrated potatoes in flour form to coat food particle in a fluidized bed cooking process. For example, potato flour can be used to coat the surfaces of potato chips cooked in a fluidized bed of solid particles of sodium chloride Nack (1964).

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Part III
Materials and methods

3.1 Raw materials The raw materials used in the experiment were the culls of potatoes dumped in market for selling at low price. 3.1.1 Collection of raw materials Potatoes sample (Local Helen variety) were collected from local vegetable markets in Dharan, in the month of July 2008. Sampling was done randomly and was analyzed for mean size. The mean sized potatoes with certain range(less than 35mm as Described by Haravani and Ahmadabad, 2008) were selected, which was supposed to be the representative of the samples collected from the markets. Plastic bags were used for holding the samples during collection. 3.2 Preparation of potato powder Selection of potatoes Washing

Grading to uniform size

Cooking with peel Abrasive Peeling Hand Peeling with steel Steam at atmospheric peeler pressure introduced Trimming below potatoes and Remove rots, green and recirculation from upside. other types of discolorations Pretreatment Mashing (3%NaCl +0.05% ascorbic acid) Preparation of slices Separation of peel by passing the mash through a sieve plate Blanching (80-85oC)

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Manual selection of peels if any

Cooling Pre-treatment of slices (0.2%KMS)

Draining of slices Spreading in a plate Dehydration (tray drier) 60 oC for 3 hours Dehydration in tray drier Curing/sweating

Grinding of slices Milling Sieving of flour

Flour

Mixing with citric acid, salt and msg.

Packing in plastic bag (250 gauge polyethylene bags)

Store in a refrigerator

Fig: 3.1 Methodology for the preparation of Instant Potato Soup Powder

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3.2.1 Cleaning Potatoes were washed in tap water to remove adhered soil and other impurities. 3.2.3 Peeling and slicing Peeling was done with the help of abrasive peeler, mashing process, and hand peeling (using hand operated stainless steel peeler). Peeled potatoes from abrasive peeler and stainless steel peeler were then sliced into slices of 1-2mm thickness. 3.2.4 Blanching and pretreatment of the potato slices Then sliced potatoes followed by slicing were directly put into 3% sodium chloride and 0.05% ascorbic acid to prevent enzymatic browning caused by polyphenol oxidase following blanching at 80-85oC for 3 min. Pre- treated slices were treated with 2000 ppm potassium metabisulphite (KMS) for 15 mins to prevent non- enzymatic browning during dehydration. The cooked and mashed potatoes were manually sorted for the peels and the peels were removed. Then it was spreaded in a plate and sent for dehydration in a tray drier. 3.2.5 Dehydration Treated slices for the preparation of potato flour were dried in tray drier at 60oC for 3 hours. (Kulkarni et al, 2008). 3.2.6 Size Reduction and sieving The dehydrated slices were ground in an electrical mixer grinder to yield flour. The flour was then sieved with standard sieves producing three sizes of flour viz, 150µm, 300 µm and 600 µm.the flours are then packed in 250-gauge polyethene bags (Kulkarni et al, 2008) and stored in a refrigerator. 3.2.7 Preparation of instant potato soup powder (IPSP) The prepared potato flour was used for the preparation of IPSP, by mixing with salt, citric acid and msg. (Fig 3.1. Flow sheet for potato flour production) and (Fig 3.2 Preparation of Potato Soup from Instant Potato Soup Powder).

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Boiling water

Add Instant potato soup powder

Add other ingredients

Stir 4-5 minutes while heating

Potato Soup

Serve in bowl

Fig 3.2 Preparation of Soup from Instant Potato Soup Powder. 3.3 Analytical method 3.3.1 Physical Parameter 3.3.1.1 Dimensions, specific gravity, shape of the tubers, peeling loss and flour yield Length and breadth of potato tubers were recorded with the help of a vernier caliper. Average weight of whole tuber was determined by weighing on an electronic balance. The specific gravity of tubers were determined by dividing the weight of tuber in air by the weight of water displaced and the results were multiplied by the density of water at the room temperature. The tubers were evaluated usually to ascertain their shape. The tubers were classified as round, oval, flat and irregular. Weighed amount of tubers were peeled and weight of the peel was recorded and calculated on the percentage basis as follows: Percent peel loss Raw weight-Peeled weight x100 Raw weight Yield of potato flour was calculated by drying known weight of potato slices in a dehydrator. After dehydration the chips were ground to flour and weight was measured and expressed as % yield on fresh weight basis. 3.3.1.2 Determination TSS (Total soluble solid) The TSS was measured by using Pocket refract meter (MC, China) and values were corrected to 20°C as per (Ranganna, 2001). The TSS of the potato flour was determined 33

by diluting the known quantity of powder with known volume of distilled water. Then the TSS was calculated by taking dilution into consideration. (Devraj et al, 2007). 3.3.1.3 Determination of gelatinization temperature of potato flour The temperature at which the potato flours became gelatinized was measured by placing 2g samples in a wide-mouthed test tube. Slurry of 10% concentration was prepared by adding distilled water and mixing thoroughly. The slurry was then heated in a boiling water bath with continuous monitoring of the rise in temperature with a thermometer. The temperature at which the slurry started to lose birefringence (i.e., appearance of transparency) was recorded. Similarly, the temperature at which the maximum transparency appeared was reported as the gelatinization temperature range. (Kulkarni et al, 2008). 3.3.1.4 Determination of water absorption capacity of flours of different size The water-absorption capacity of the flours was evaluated by placing 5-g samples in a centrifuge tube. Distilled water, 50 ml. was added and the resultant slurry was allowed to stand for one hour before centrifugation at 1,700 x g for 20 minutes. The supernatant was decanted and the amount of water in grams gained by a 100-g sample was determined. The effect of particle size on water absorption capacity was also determined for each sample. (Kulkarni et al, 2008). 3.3.1.5 Determination of bulk density of flours of different size The bulk density of the flour was determined by placing a sample in a 10-ml graduated cylinder with gentle uniform tapping during filling. The cylinder was filled to the mark and the weight of the flour was measured. The bulk density was calculated as mass by volume in grams per milliliter (g/ml). The average values of three de terminations are reported. The effect of particle size was also observed. (Kulkarni et al, 2008). 3.3.2 Chemical parameters 3.3.2.1 Determination of moisture content, protein content, crude fiber, reducing sugar, total sugar, starch, vitamin C and ash content The moisture contents of potato tubers as well as potato flour were determined as per AOAC (1975). Total protein content was determined by Kjeldahl micro distillation

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method as described Ranganna, (2000). The nitrogen content was multiplied by factor 6.25 to find crude protein. Crude protein= %N* 6.25 The crude fiber were determined as per Ranganna (2001).The reducing sugars were a determined by Lane and Eynon method as per Ranganna (2001). The total sugars of potato tubers as well as potato flour were determined by phenol sulphuric acid method as detailed by Sadasivam and Manickam (1996). Starch content and vitamin C was determined as detailed by Sadasivam and Manickam (1996). Ash contents of were determined as per Ranganna (2001) by using Muffle furnace (Ambassador, U.K). 3.4 Optimization of ingredients in instant potato soup preparations The potato flour of particle size 300 µm was used to prepare the soup. First of all, the basic ingredients were selected (salt, citric acid and msg for taste and flavor, and water for the soupy consistency).The amount of each ingredients required was determined in initial trials for general acceptance by some panelists who were familiar with the commodity served as soup.By this we got the rough relative amounts of the ingredients to be used and on the basis of the amounts, we formulated the recipes within narrow limits for the optimization of each ingredients. The recipes for the preparation of ready to serve potato soup powder were worked out by boiling/cooking potato flour in water followed by mixing of different ingredients like salt, citric acid and msg, in different proportions, varying one ingredient each time. Each type of recipe were sensorily evaluated and the optimum quantity of the varied ingredient was selected on the basis of the statistical analysis of sensory score for prepared soup. After selecting the best recipie, the best flour size was selected on the basis of statistical analysis of sensory score for prepared soup (from different flour sizes). The recepies for each sample for each sensory evaluation is given in Appendix M. 3.4.1 Optimization of water

Five samples of potato soup were prepared by incorporating 125 mL,150mL, 175mL, 200mL and 225mL water and the samples were coded as A,B,C,D and E respectively.

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3.4.2

Optimization of salt

Five samples of potato soup were prepared by incorporating 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5g salt and the samples were coded as A, B, C, D and E respectively. 3.4.3 Optimization of citric acid

Five samples of potato soup were prepared by incorporating 0, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.1 g citric acid and the samples were coded as A,B,C,D and E respectively. 3.4.4 Optimization of monosodium glutamate (msg)

Five samples of potato soup were prepared by incorporating 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 msg and the samples were coded as A, B, C, D and E respectively. 3.4.5 Optimization of potato flour particle size. Three samples of potato soup were prepared by incorporating the flour sizes of 150µm, 300 µm and 600 µm and the samples were coded as A, B and C respectively. 3.5 Sensory evaluations 3.5.1 Sensory evaluation of peeled potatoes by different methods Potatoes peeled with manual (with stainless steel peeling) and abrasive peeling methods were evaluated for the quality attribute of appearance after peeling according to “A Grading Scale for Peeled Potatoes” developed by Willard (1971). All together 10 panelists constituting of teachers, staff and fellow students of the institute were invited. At first the panelist were made familiar with the Scale to be used which is given in Appendix C. Each panelist was provided with coded sample and a sheet of sensory evaluation card. 3.5.2 Sensory evaluation of the instant potato soup preparations The instant potato soup preparations were evaluated for the quality attributes of appearance & clarity, color, flavor, mouth feel and overall acceptance on a 9-point Hedonic scale according to the method of Amerine et al (1965). A sensory panel constituting of teachers, staff and fellow students of the institute were invited. All together 10 panelists constituting of teachers, staff and fellow students of the institute, who had some experience in sensory evaluation of soup, thus could be considered as semi-trained panelists. The sensory evaluation was performed within 2 weeks time in which at first the panelist were made

36

familiar with the test and characteristics of a soup. The entire panelists were familiar with the other soup found in the market. Each panelist was provided with coded sample and a sheet of sensory evaluation card. The sensory evaluation of IPSP was done according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) as described by Mahony (1985). The specimen of score card is given in Appendix A. 3.6 Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were done by one way and two-way ANOVA by following CRD (Complete Randomized Design) (Cochran and Cox, 1967) using Genstat programming (The GenStat Discovery Edition 3) developed by VSN International Organization. The means were compared by L.S.D. method at 5% level of significance. The t-test was done by using Excel Microsoft Office 2003 programming. 3.7 Cost calculation Cost calculation of potato flour and instant potato soup powder is given in Appendix L.

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Part IV
Results and discussion
4.1 Physical Characteristics of unmarketable potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) Raw unmarketable potatoes (Local Helen variety) obtained from Dharan market which were used for preparation of the value added product were analyzed for length, breadth, tuber weight, TSS, no. of eyes per tuber, pulp color, specific gravity and the results are presented in Table 4.1. Several physical characteristics of raw potato can affect flour yield and quality. The potato’s weight can affect the peel percentage and peeling loss during processing, with small potatoes having the greatest loss. The potato tubers with fewer eye buds means less processing loss. (Kulkarni et al., 2008). The shape of these potatoes was oval, round and irregular. Table 4.1 Physical characteristics of unmarketable potatoes. S.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. Parameter Length, cm Breadth, cm Tuber weight, g Specific gravity No. of eyes per tuber Pulp color TSS Values 2.63 (0.17) 2.07 (0.15) 19.27 (0.485) 1.068 (0.024) 3.4 (0.63) Yellowish white 6 oBx (13 oBx)**

*Values are the means of three determinations. Figures in parentheses are the standard deviations. **The value in the parenthesis is for the potato flour. With machine peeling abrasively, varieties characterized by smooth, regular and shallow eyes produce the highest yields and the least peeling loss. (Smith, 1976). Thus the fewer eyes in unmarketable potato tubers mean less difficult and more efficient peeling. There are a number of factors contributing to quality of potatoes such as specific gravity or dry matter content. Mealy texture is associated with high solids content of potatoes. (Smith, 1976).

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The unmarketable potatoes were peeled by three different methods viz; hand peeling, abrasive peeling and mashing peeling. The results are presented in Table 4.2. Table 4.2 Physical characteristics of unmarketable potatoes. S.N. Peeling Methods Peeling, trimming losses (%) 1. Hand Peeling (stainless steel peeler) 2. 3. Abrasive Peeling Mashing Peeling 17.76b (0.25) 15.16c (0.76) 18.80(0.14) 14.03(0.25) 20.5a (0.5) 15.44(0.37) Flour yield (%)

* Values are the means of three determinations. Figures in parentheses are the standard deviations. Figures in the column bearing the different superscripts are significantly different (p= 0.05). The one way anova tables for the peeling losses of potato are given in Appendix K (Table K.8).The peeling losses are less for large potatoes than for smaller potatoes where other variables remain constant. Potatoes of higher grade and quality will usually yield more peeled products. Eye depth, skin type, shape and color also affect peeling. Various potato products have different peeling requirements. Peeling losses and costs are greater when the product must be speck-free as compared with a peeled product permitting a few flecks of skin or other minor defects. If potatoes are to be sliced for dehydration more internal surfaces are exposed so less than complete peeling can be tolerated.(Smith and Talburt, 1974). Peeling economy as influenced by size and grade of potatoes was studied by Werner (1950), using hand peeling. Three categories of potatoes in terms of size were separated such that each succeeding size had approximately twice the weight of the previous one. The yield of peeled product was 77 percent for small, 82 percent for medium, and 84 percent for large. The yield of peeled potatoes culls was approximately 76%. Although processed potatoes are not hand peeled, these findings may be useful in evaluating other peeling methods. Wright and Whiteman (1949) found that peeling losses vary considerably by variety when peeled by abrasion. Brown (1944) found a range of peeling losses for different

39

varieties by abrasion peeling, losses for which ranged from 11.9 to 22.7% for the same varieties and in the same order. From above two references we can conclude that abrasion peeling yields more peeled potatoes than the hand peeling. Similar result was obtained in this dissertation. But abrasive peeling method yields less peeled potatoes than other peeling methods like lye peeling and brine peeling. Also it was estimated that most of the labor costs in the preparation of potatoes for processing is for peeling and trimming labor so these steps of peeling and trimming should be studied keenly and cautiously applied for economic potato processing. (Eidt and MacArthur, 1944). No such studies has been done for the mashing peeling. By the data obtained we can conclude that this method is superior to hand peeling but not than abrasive peeling. The flour yield from the mashing peeled potatoes was lowest among the three peeling methods because the stickiness of the mashed potatoes caused losses by sticking to the handling and drying equipments used. 4.2 Chemical composition of potato and potato flour Raw unmarketable potatoes obtained from Dharan market which were used for preparation of the value added product were analysed for moisture content, protein content, ash content, crude fibre, starch, reducing sugar, total sugar and vitamin C given in Table 4.3. In comparison to the average composition of potatoes (as shown in Table 2.1) and potato flour (Appendix B, Table B.1) the analytical results were found to be a bit different. The mean values for three determinations of moisture contents of the potatoes and the flour made from it were found to be 82.06 and 9.3 respectively with standard deviations of 0.20 and 0.10 respectively. The chemical composition of potatoes varies with variety, soil type, area where grown, cultural practices, maturity, method of vine kill, storage environment, and other factors (Smith, 1975). The t-test tables for the chemical compositions of potato and its flour are given in Appendix K (Tables K.1,K.2, K.3, K.4, K.5, K.6 and K.7). Statistical analysis showed that the protein content, ash, crude fiber, starch, reducing sugar, total sugar and vitamin C contents were significantly different (p=0.05) between the fresh unmarketable potatoes and the flour made from it.

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Table 4.3 Chemical composition* of potato and potato flour. S.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Parameter Protein content (%) Ash content (%) Crude fiber (%) Starch (%) Reducing sugar (%) Total sugar (%) Vitamin C (mg/ 100g) Potato (dry basis) 10.92 a (0.85) 2.47 a (0.11) 4.89 a (0.08) 84.44 a (0.58) 1.22 a (0.11) 2.82 a (0.08) 140.8 a (4.87) Potato Flour 8.53 b (0.15) 1.96 b (0.15) 1.70 b (0.01) 74.04 b (0.05) 0.45 b (0.01) 1.11 b (0.09) 39.66 b (0.41)

* Values are the means of three determinations. Figures in parentheses are the standard deviations. Figures in the row bearing the different superscripts are significantly different (p= 0.05). The lower amount of the chemical constituents in the potato flour may be due to their losses in the processing steps. Much of the components like starch, sugars, minerals, proteins, amino acids and vitamin C etc are freed in the slicing and washing of sliced potatoes undergoing various treatments in water. Peeling and trimming are the sources of large amounts of such losses. (Talburt and Smith, 1975) The lower value of the vitamin C may be also due to heat destruction during dehydration as it is a heat labile compound. 4.3 Effect of particle size on bulk density and water absorption The functional properties of the potato flour for three different particle sizes are given in Appendix N (Table N.1).The bulk density is generally affected by the particle size and the true density of the matter in potato flour. The bulk density was found to be inversely proportional to the particle size of the potato flour, mean values of which were found as 0.95, 0.89 and 0.65 for particle sizes of 150,300 and 600 µm respectively. This is well depicted in Fig 4.1. Similar result was reported by Kulkarni et al., (2006). They studied the bulk density of potato flour made from Spunta variety of particle sizes 0.425mm and smaller than 0.425 and found bulk density as 0.748 and 0.862 respectively.

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Fig 4.1 Effect of potato flour particle size on bulk density. The water absorption of potato flour is important in the preparation of potato mash, snack foods, extruded foods, and bakery products, with higher absorption preferred for making mash. It generally depends on starch and protein contents and particle size. The water absorption was found to be inversely proportional to the particle size of the potato flour, mean values of which were found as 383,362 and 350 g/100g for particle sizes of 150, 300 and 600 µm respectively. This is well depicted in Fig 4.2. Similar result was reported by Kulkarni et al., (2006). They studied the water absorption of potato flour made from Spunta variety of particle sizes 0.425mm and smaller than 0.425 and found water absorption as 357.61 and 405.61 respectively.

Fig 4.2 Effect of potato flour particle size on water absorption.

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4.4 Sensory evaluation 4.4.1 Sensory evaluation of peeled potatoes, peeled by different methods Potatoes peeled by hand and abrasive peelings were evaluated for the quality attribute of appearance after peeling. The mean sensory scores so obtained for two samples of potatoes were subjected to statistical analysis and compared in terms of appearance. Scores of sensory attributes in the comparison of peeled potatoes from two methods are given in Appendix I (Table I.6). ANOVA Table for sensory scores of peeled potatoes from two methods are given in Appendix J (Table J.1) . A summarized analysis of difference (using LSD 5%) with respect to appearance is given in Table 4.4. Table 4.4 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between samples (panelist = 10)* Samples Attribute Peeled Potatoes from hand peeling Peeled Potatoes from LSD (5%)

abrasive peeling

0.603 Appearance 3.7 a(0.48) 3.39 a(0.48)

*Figures are arithmetic means with standard deviation in parenthesis. Figures in the row with different superscripts are significantly different at 5% level of difference. It can be seen from Table 4.4 that the two samples of potatoes were not significantly different (P<0.05) from one another. However the abrasively peeled potatoes have lower mean grade point than the potatoes peeled manually which indicates that the hand peeled potatoes were generally more acceptable in appearance than the abrasively peeled potatoes ( Appendix C). 4.4.2 Optimization of water amount in potato soup. Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of water amount in potato soup are given in Appendix I (Table I.1). ANOVA Tables for sensory scores of the soup preparations for optimization of water amount in potato soup are given in Appendix D (Table D.1, D.2, D.3, D.4 and D.5). The ANOVA Tables shows that there were no significant differences between the panelists which shows that there is coherence between the panelists in the sensory observations of

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the formulations but there are significant differences (at 5% level of significance) between formulations , except color. The variances between the samples in terms of taste and flavor may be due to the difference in water amount itself. The differences in consistency may be due to the water amount alterations in the formulations. Statistical analyses using LSD (5%) to find out the difference between the formulations with respect to color, taste, consistency, flavor and overall acceptance is given in Table 4.5 Table 4.5 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist = 5)* Formulation Attribute Color Taste Flavor Consistency A 4.8a (0.44) 5.8 a (0.44) 5.6 (0.54) 5.8 (0.44)
a a

B 5 a (0) 7.6 b(0.54) 7.2 (0.44) 8.2 (0.44)
b c

C 4.8 a (0.44) 5.6 a (0.54) 6.4 (0.54) 7.6 (0.54)
b b

D 5.2 a (0.44) 5.8 a (0.44) 5.8 (0.44) 6.6 (0.54)
c ab

LSD E 5.2a(0.44) 4.2c(0.44) 4.6 (0.54) 6.2 (0.44)
ac d

(5%) 0.599 0.560 0.650 0.716

Overall acceptance 5.8 a (0.44) 8.2 b(0.44) 7.6 b(0.54) 6.6 c(0.54) 6.2ac(0.44)

0.716

*Figures are arithmetic means of the scores. Figures in parentheses are standard deviations. Figures in the rows having the same superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance. In terms of superiority (at 5% level of significance) of the formulations with respect to color, taste, flavor, consistency and overall acceptance, following conclusion can be drawn: Color: A=B=C=D=E Taste: B>A=C=D>E Flavor: B>C and/or D>A and/or D>E Consistency: B=C>D and/or E>A and/or E Overall acceptance: B=C>D and/or E>A and/or E Based on the frequency of occurrence as ‘best’ in each attribute type and the weightage on each attribute for describing sensory quality, formulation ‘B’ appears to be the best formulation. In terms of consistency and overall acceptance formulations B and C are not significantly different but the mean score of formulation B is higher. So the amount of water incorporated in this formulation B was selected for potato soup preparation.

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4.4.3 Optimization of salt amount in potato soup. Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup are given in Appendix I (Table I.2). ANOVA Tables for sensory scores of the soup preparations for optimization of salt amount in potato soup are given in Appendix E (Table E.1., E.2, E.3, E.4 and E.5). The ANOVA Tables shows that there were no significant differences between the panelists which shows that there is coherence between the panelists in the sensory observations of the formulations but there are significant differences (at 5% level of significance) between formulations , except color and consistency. The similarity in consistency may be due to that water content selected from the previous sensory evaluation was incorporated in all the formulations. This is same for next two sensory evaluations, so this will not be further discussed. Statistical analyses using LSD (5%) to find out the difference between the formulations with respect to color, taste, consistency, flavor and overall acceptance is given in Table 4.6. Table 4.6 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist = 5)* Formulation Attribute A B C D LSD E 5.2 a(0.44) 6 b(0) 7.2 (0.83) 8.2 a(0.44) 6 b(0.83)
b

(5%) 0.599

Color Taste Flavor Consistency Overall acceptance

4.8a (0.44) 2.6 a(0.89) 4.8 (0.44) 8.2 a(0.44) 4.6 a(0.44)
a

5 a(0) 5.4 b(0.54) 5.4 (0.54) 7.8 a(0.44) 5 a(0.54)
a

4.8 a(0.44) 7.2 c(0.44) 7.2 (0.83) 7.6 a(0.54) 6.2 b(0.83)
b

5.2 a(0.44) 7.8 c(0.44) 7.4 (0.54) 7.8 a(0.44) 7.6 c(0.54)
b

6 0.764 0.793 0.684

0.957

*Figures are arithmetic means of the scores. Figures in parentheses are standard deviations. Figures in the rows having the same superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance. In terms of superiority (at 5% level of significance) of the formulations with respect to color, taste, flavor, consistency and overall acceptance, following conclusion can be drawn: Color: A=B=C=D=E Taste: D=C>E=B>A Flavor: D=C=E>B=A

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Consistency: A=B=C=D=E Overall acceptance: D>C=E>A=B Based on the frequency of occurrence as ‘best’ in each attribute type and the weightage on each attribute for describing sensory quality, formulation ‘D’ appears to be the best formulation. In terms of taste and flavor formulations D and C are not significantly different but the mean score of formulation D is higher. So the amount of salt incorporated in this formulation was selected for potato soup preparation. 4.4.4 Optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup. Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of citric acid level are given in Appendix I (Table I.3) ANOVA Tables for sensory scores of soup preparations for optimization of citric acid amount are given in Appendix F (Table F.1, F.2, F.3, F.4 and F.5). As citric acid amount was altered in all the formulations, heavy emphasis will be placed on the sensory attributes, taste and flavor. Statistical analyses using LSD (5%) to find out the difference between the formulations with respect to color, taste, consistency, flavor and overall acceptance is given in Table 4.7. Table 4.7 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist = 5)* Formulation Attribute Color Taste Flavor Consistency Overall acceptance 5.6 a (0.54) 5.4 a (0.54) 7.6 b(0.54) 7.8 b(0.44) 6.4 c(0.54) 0.722 A 5 a (0) 5.6 a (0.54) 5.8 a (0.44) 8.2 a (0.44) B 5 a (0.70) 5.8 a (0.44) 6 ab(0.00) 7.8 a (0.44) C 4.8 a (0.44) 7.4 b(0.54) 7.6 c(0.54) 7.6 a (0.54) D 5.2 a (0.44) 7.8 b(0.44) 7.8 c(0.44) 7.8 a (0.44) LSD E 4.8 a (0.44) 6.6 c(0.54) 6.6 b(0.54) 8.2 a (0.44) (5%) 0.621 0.656 0.656 0.684

*Figures are arithmetic mean with standard deviation in parenthesis. Figures in rows having similar superscripts are not significantly different at 5% level of significance. Based on above table, the grouping according to superiority can be carried out as follows: In terms of superiority (at 5% level of significance) of the formulations with respect to color, taste, flavor, consistency and overall acceptance, following conclusion can be drawn: Color: A=B=C=D=E

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Taste: D=C>E>A=B Flavor: D=C>E and/or B>A and/or B Consistency: A=B=C=D=E Overall acceptance: D=C>E>B=A Based on the frequency of occurrence as ‘best’ in each attribute type and the weightage on each attribute for describing sensory quality, formulation ‘D’ appears to be the best formulation. In terms of taste and flavor formulations D and C are not significantly different but the mean score of formulation D is highest. So the amount of citric acid incorporated in this formulation was selected for potato soup preparation. 4.4.5 Optimization of monosodium glutamate (MSG) amount in potato soup. Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of MSG are given in Appendix I (Table I.4). ANOVA Tables for sensory scores of soup preparation for optimization of MSG amount are given in Appendix G (Table G.1, G.2, G.3, G.4 and G.5). As MSG amount was altered in all the formulations, heavy emphasis will be placed on the sensory attributes, taste and flavor. Statistical analyses using LSD (5%) to find out the difference between the formulations with respect to color, taste, consistency, flavor and overall acceptance is given in Table 4.8. Table 4.8 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist = 5)* Formulation Attribute Color Taste Flavor Consistency Overall acceptance 7.6 a (0.54) 7.8 a (0.44) 7.4 a (0.89) 4.2 b (0.44) 3.8 b (0.44) 0.772 A 4.8a(0.44) 7.4 a (0.54) 7.2 a (0.83) 7.8 a (0.44) B 5 a (0.00) 7.6 a (0.54) 7.6 a (0.54) 8 a (0.70) C 4.8 a (0.44) 7.4 a (0.89) 7.4 a (0.89) 8.2 a (0.44) D 5.2 a (0.44) 4.2 b(0.44) 4.2 b (0.44) 7.8 a (0.44) LSD E 5.2 a (0.44) 3.8 b(0.44) 3.6 b (0.54) 7.6 a (0.54) (5%) 0.599 0.684 0.948 0.776

*Figures are arithmetic mean with standard deviation in parenthesis. Figures in rows having similar superscripts are not significantly different at 5% level of significance. Based on above table, the grouping according to superiority can be carried out as follows:

47

In terms of superiority (at 5% level of significance) of the formulations with respect to color, taste, flavor, consistency and overall acceptance, following conclusion can be drawn: Color: A=B=C=D=E Taste: B=A=C>D=E Flavor: B=A=C>D=E Consistency: A=B=C=D=E Overall acceptance: B=A=C>D=E In terms of taste, flavor and overall acceptance formulations A, B and C are not significantly different but the mean score of formulation B is the highest. So the amount of MSG incorporated in this formulation was selected for potato soup preparation. 4.4.6 Optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup. Potato soup prepared by using optimized levels of ingredients (150ml water, 2g salt, 0.06g citric acid and 0.2g msg) with 5g of flour of three different sizes were compared with each other in terms of sensory scores obtained from sensory evaluation in terms of color, taste, consistency, flavor and overall acceptance. The mean sensory scores so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis and compared with each other. Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of potato flour particle size are given in Appendix I Table (I.5). ANOVA Tables for sensory scores of potato soup preparation for different flour particle size are given in Appendix H (Table H.1, H.2, H.3, H.4 and H5). The ANOVA Tables shows that there were no significant differences between the panelists which shows that there is coherence between the panelists in the sensory observations of the formulations. Also there were no significant differences (at 5% level of significance) between formulations , except consistency and overall acceptance. This is because all the three formulations have the same ingredients. The difference in consistency may be due to difference in water absorption capacity of the different flour particle sizes. Statistical analyses using LSD (5%) to find out the difference between the formulations with respect to color, taste, consistency, flavor and overall acceptance is given in Table 4.9

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Table 4.9 Summary of LSD (5%) test for difference between formulation (panelist = 5)* Formulation Attribute Color Taste Flavor Consistency Overall acceptance A 5a(0.00) 7.6 a (0.54) 7.2 a (0.83) 7.8 a (0.83) 7.8 a (0.83) B 4.8 a (0.44) 7.4 a (0.54) 7.6 a (0.54) 7.4 a (0.54) 7.4 a (0.54) C 5.2 a (0.83) 7.6 a (0.54) 7.4 a (0.89) 6.2 b(0.44) 6.2 b(0.44)

LSD (5%) 0.776 0.821 1.065 0.903 0.903

*Figures are arithmetic mean with standard deviation in parenthesis. Figures in rows having similar superscripts are not significantly different at 5% level of significance. Based on above table, the grouping according to superiority can be carried out as follows: In terms of superiority (at 5% level of significance) of the formulations with respect to color, taste, flavor, consistency and overall acceptance, following conclusion can be drawn: Color: A=B=C Taste: A=B=C Flavor: A=B=C Consistency: A=B>C Overall acceptance: A=B>C In terms of consistency, formulations A and B are not significantly different but the mean score of formulation A is the highest. So the flour particle size (150 µm) used in this formulation was selected for potato soup preparation. In all of the five sensory evaluations of the soup formulations the mean sensory scores of the attribute color did not exceed 5.2. The color of the soup was the natural color from the potato flour. No manipulations were done in the color of the formulations. The reasons behind the less scoring of this attribute by the panelists may be because the pale yellow color of the soup which could not make the soup look attractive in appearance. Color is an important constituent of food. It is one of the characteristics of food seen by the consumer. Most of the foods and food products have their natural colors. During the processing of foods, some of the natural colors undergo changes and artificial approved colors are added by the food manufacturer to improve the appearance of the product (Swaminathan, 1999). It is obvious that, in the manufacture of potato soup artificial

49

approved colors may be added to improve the appearance of the soup. Therefore, color may not be the deciding quality attributes of the soup. It can be manipulated. Appearance of a food is important, but it is the flavor that ultimately determines the quality and acceptability of foods. No matter how safe, nutritious, inexpensive and colorful a food may be, if the flavor is undesirable, it is rejected. Even hungry and nutritionally deprived populations reject food that does not have the flavor of their choice. Flavors have insignificant nutritive value but they exert a great influence on food acceptance (Manay and Shadaksharaswamy, 1996). Since much heavier weightage has been given to flavor in the sensory attributes (Appendix I, Tables I.2, I.3, I.4 and I.5) it is customary to say the prepared potato soup represents the peculiar potato product.

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Part V
Conclusions and recommendations
5.1 Conclusions On the basis of results and discussions from the work conducted, following conclusions can be drawn: 1. A value added product, instant potato soup powder can be prepared from the waste going unmarketable potatoes. 2. Statistical analysis shows that the peeling, trimming losses from the hand peeling method using stainless steel was found to be significantly greater than the abrasive peeling methods, for unmarketable potatoes. 3. The chemical constituents of the potato are significantly reduced by the processing steps conducted for producing the potato flour. Such reduction in chemical constituents causes significant nutrient losses. 4. The bulk density and water absorption capacity are affected by the flour particle size. 5. From the optimization of various ingredients of the instant potato soup, the product containing a. 3.33 parts of flour (m/v) b. 1.33 parts of salt (m/v) c. 0.04 parts of citric acid (m/v) d. 0.13 parts of msg (m/v) e. 100 parts of water (v/v) was preferred in many respect. Five minutes of cooking in boiling water was found adequate for the soup preparation. 6. From the cost estimation, it was found that the average cost of the instant potato soup powder (IPSP) is Rs 30.3/100g. 5.2 Recommendations Based on the present study the following recommendations have been made: 1. Various methods of peeling potatoes could be studied.

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2. The comparative study could be done between the unmarketable potatoes and marketable potatoes. Also, the comparative study could be done between the unmarketable potatoes of different varieties. 3. Different uses of the prepared potato flour could be studied. 4. Storage stability and the shelf life of the prepared products can be studied.

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Part VI
Summary
The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an herbaceous annual that grows up to 100 cm (40 inches) tall and produces a tuber - also called potato - so rich in starch that it ranks as the world's fourth most important food crop, after maize, wheat and rice. Potato is a versatile, carbohydrate-rich food highly popular worldwide and prepared and served in a variety of ways. Potatoes produce more nutrition, energy and edible biomass per unit area and time than any other major crop. It is said the potato is a staple, nutritious food that can provide poor people with an inexpensive food that can stop hunger and keep people healthy. As the potato plant grows, its compound leaves manufacture starch that is transferred to the ends of its underground stems (or stolons). The stems thicken to form a few or as many as 20 tubers close to the soil surface. The number of tubers that actually reach maturity depends on available moisture and soil nutrients. Tubers may vary in shape and size, and normally weigh up to 300 g (10.5 oz) each. Different sized potatoes are produced at farm level. Consumer preferences of the potatoes are high for large and medium sized potatoes. In potato production small tubers are considered as losses because of low marketability characteristics. Unmarketable potatoes due to their small size (<2.5 cm) are difficult to handle and so fetch low price to the grower and are considered as waste. The exact statistics of such losses is not clear in Nepal. Also, small tubers pose some difficulties in storage as they show a greater weight loss during storage relative to that of the larger tubers in same storage environment. Also, international trade in potatoes and potato products still remains thin relative to production, as only around 6 percent of output is traded. Slow increase in world food production and declining rates of yield growth in main food crops threaten world food security. The sharp increases in food prices in recent years, have added to concerns about the food and nutrition situation of people around the world, especially the poor in developing countries. Intense competition for reduced international supplies of cereals and other agricultural commodities is driving worldwide food price inflation, which brings with it the risk of food shortages and social unrest in low-income countries. One strategy that could help reduce the risk is diversification of food production to nutritious and versatile staple crops that are less susceptible to the vagaries of international markets. One such crop is potato. 53

Owing to these facts, there was urgent need to utilize unmarketable potatoes for preparation of value added products aiming to potatoes prevents colossal loses, give better returns to the growers and contributing to meet the complex challenge of reducing poverty and ending hunger and malnutrition on in a sustainable manner. In this present dissertation work, potato flour was prepared from unmarketable potatoes. The unmarketable potatoes obtained from the local market of Dharan were washed thoroughly in water, peeled by three ways viz.,hand-peeled using a stainless steel peeler, abrasively peeled and peeled by mashing method. The potatoes were sliced manually and were directly put into 3% sodium chloride and 0.05% ascorbic acid following blanching at 80-85oC for 3 min. Pre- treated slices were treated with 2000 ppm potassium metabisulphite (KMS) for 15 mins .The slices were then drained and dehydrated at 60°C in a cabinet air-flow dehydrator by placing in a single layer which took about three hours to reduce the moisture of the slices to below 10%. The dehydrated slices were ground in an electrical mixer grinder to yield flour. The flour was then sieved with standard sieves producing three sizes of flour viz, 150µm, 300 µm and 600 µm.the flours are then packed in 250-gauge polyethene bags and stored in refrigerator. The potato flour of particle size 300 µm was used to prepare the soup. First of all, the basic ingredients were selected (salt, citric acid and msg for taste and flavor, and water for the soupy consistency).The amount of each ingredients required was determined in initial trials for general acceptance by some panelists who were familiar with the commodity served as soup. By this we got the rough relative amounts of the ingredients to be used and on the basis of the amounts, we formulated the recipies within narrow limits for the optimization of each ingredients varying one ingredient each time. On the basis of the statistical analysis of sensory score for prepared soup, the best soup recipie was selected. Statistical analysis showed that the ash, crude fiber, starch, reducing sugar, total sugar and vitamin C contents were significantly different (p=0.05) (lower) in the flour than the fresh unmarketable potatoes itself. From the cost estimation, it was found that the average cost of the instant potato soup powder (IPSP) is Rs 30.3/100g and as per our optimization of the water content (30ml/g) 100 g of the soup powder will serve about 3 liters of the soup. This appears to be much potential for the use of unmarketable potatoes in such types of value added products. In Nepal, such value added food use of the unmarketable potatoes hasn’t yet come up due to lack of related studies and knowledge among manufacturers and

54

public. The minimum investment and simple processing can produce such new product with value addition. This is the matter to be studied in more detail and applied practically in present context of abundant poverty, food price rise and food insecurity especially in developing countries like ours.

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Haravani, J. L., Ahmadabad, M. A. (2008). Applying Potato Losses in an Innovative Method for Enhancing Potato Yield and Profitability in Iran. Available from http://www.actahort.org/books/729/729_87.htm. Accessed on Nov. 26, 2008 Highlands, M., Licciardello, J., and Herb, S. 1954. Observations on the lipid constituents of white potatoes. Am. Potato J. 31, 353-357. Johnson, F. B., Hoffman, I., and Petrasovitz, A. (1968). Distribution of mineral constituents and dry matter in the potato tuber. Am. Potato J. 45, 287-292. Khatri, B.B. and Rai, G.P. (2000). Potato Production in Nepal. In: “Improving Efficiency of Potato Production and Marketing in Indonesia, The Philippines, Vietnam, and Nepal.” (Batt, P. J.; Laurence, R., Piggin, C.), pp. 5. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). Adelaide, South Australia. Kirkpatrick, M., Mountjoy, B., Albright, L., and Heinze, P. (1951). Cooking quality, specific gravity and reducing sugar content of early crop potatoes. U.S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 872. Kroner, W., and Volksen, W. (1950). The Potato. 2nd Edition Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leilpzig. Kross, J. I. (1952). At what grade does it pay to sell potatoes? J. Farm Econ. 34, No. 3, pp. 387-391 Kulkarni, K. D., Govinden, N. and Kulkarni, D. (2008). Production and use of raw potato flour in Mauritian traditional foods. Available from http://www.unu.edu/Unupress/food/8F172e/8F172E0d.htm. Accessed on Oct. 29, 2008 Lal Girdhari, Siddapa, G.S.and Tondon, G.LResear, New Delhi 110012 Lampitt, L., and Goldenberg, N. (1940). The composition of the potato. Chem. And Ind. 18, 748-761. Levitt, J. (1954). The cytoplasmic particulates and proteins of potato tubers. II. Nitrogen, phosphate and carbohydrate content. Physiol, Plantarum 7, 117-123. Loesecke, H . W. V. (1998). Drying and Dehydration of Foods. Allied Scientific Publishers, Vyas Nagar. pp 116-119 Mahony, M. O. (1985). Sensory evaluation of food, In: “Statistical methods and procedures”. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York

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Manay, N.S. and Shadaksharaswamy, M. (1998). Food Facts and Principles, New Age International (P) Limited Publishers. (1986). Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables, Indian Council of Agricultural Mccay, C. M. (1956). Mental Disorders in Later Life. Edited by O. J. Kalpan. Chap. 7. Standford Univ. Press, Standford, Calif. Pradhanang et. al. (2000). Pradhanang, P.M., Elphinstone, J.G. and Fox, R.T.V.. (2000). Identification of Crop and Weed Hosts of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in the Hills of Nepal. Plant Pathology. 49, 403-413. Prakash, A. (2008). Hidden Treasure, Global Potato Economy. Available from http://www.potato2008.org/en/potato/economy.html. Accessed on Nov. 26, 2008 Prokop, S. (2008). Hidden Treasure, Potatoes, nutrition and diet. Available from http://www.potato2008.org/en/potato/factsheets.html. Accessed on Nov. 26, 2008 Purseglove, J.W. (1968). Tropical Crops: Dicotyledons. Longman Group Limited. Essex, England . Available from Skip navigation, International Potato Center: world potato atlas. International Potato center: World Potato Atlas, Nepal. Available from http://research.cip.cgiar.org/confluence/display/wpa/Nepal?decorator=normal Accessed on Oct. 29, 2008. Ranganna, S. (2000). Hand Book of Analysis and Quality Control for Fruits and Vegetable Products 2nd ed. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. pp 21-24 Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A. (1996). Biochemical methods. 2nd edn, New Age Internatinal (P) Ltd., New Dehli Schlein, L. (2008). UN says Potato can Provide Food Security, Eradicate Proverty. Available from http://www.voanews.com/english/2008-11-06-voa28.cfm. Accessed on Nov. 26, 2008 Self, R., Rolley, H., and Joyce, A. (1963). Some volatile compounds from cooked potatoes, J. Sci. Food Agr. 14, 8-14. Smith, O. (1976). Potatoes: Production,Storing, Processing. 2nd edn, The AVI Publishing Company,INC., Westport, Connecticut, p 1,473,475-476 Srivastava,R.P. and Kumar, S.(2002).Fruit and Vegetable Preservation, Principles and Practices,3rd ed.International Book distributing Company,Lucknow,p 217 Swaminathan M. (1999) Food Science, Chemistry and Experimental Foods, The Bangalore Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd.

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Swaminathan M. (2000). Essential of Food and Nutrition. (1), The Bangalore Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd. Thiele, G. (1998). Informal Potato Seed Systems in the Andes: Why Are They Important and What Should We Do with Them? World Development (UK). 27 (1), 83-99. Elsevier Science Ltd. Great Britain. Unrau, A., and Nylund, R. (1957). The relation of physical properties and chemical composition to mealiness of the potato II. Chemical composition. Am. Potato J. 34, 303-311. Wiersema, S. G., Cabello, R. and Booth R. H. (1987). Storage Behaviour and subsequent field performance of small seed potatoes. J. Tropical Science. 27, 105-112.

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APPENDICES Appendix A
SENSORY EVALUATION SCORE SHEET FOR POTATO SOUP Hedonic Rating Test Date:......................... Name of the judge: ...........................……………………. Name of the product: Potato Soup Please test the following samples of soup and check how much you like or dislike each of the samples. Use the appropriate scale to show your attitude by giving points that best describes your feeling. An honest expression of our personal feeling will help me. Quality Parameters A Color Taste Flavor Consistency Overall acceptance B Samples C D E Description of Scale 9 = Like extremely 8 = Like very much 7 = Like moderately 6 = Like slightly 5 = Neither like nor dislike 4 = Dislike slightly 3 = Dislike moderately 2 = Dislike very much 1 = Dislike extremely Any comments……………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………

Signature

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Appendix B
Table B.1: The Average Chemical Composition of Flours Produced From Potatoes Grown In Various Areas of USA Fraction Proportions (%) dry weight Northeast Carbohydrate Protein Total ash Acid-insoluble ash Crude fiber Fat (Source: Treadway et al., 1950) 73-82 9.56-13.50 2.79-5.35 0.01-0.13 0.9-2.3 0.1-0.3 South 73-81 10.94-11.75 4.21-4.54 0.01-0.07 1.2-2.2 0.1-0.3

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Appendix C
Grading of Peeled Potatoes “A grading scale for peeled potatoes” has been developed by Willard (1971) and is shown in Fig F.1. This is extremely useful in judging peel quality. a) GRADE 1-A Perfect peeled potato: no skin remaining, all eyes peeled clean, no defects. The only exceptions are defects such as deep bruise, penetrating into the potato, judged to be unpeelable. Normally this condition would be considered “over peeled”. b) GRADE 2-A well peeled potato: one or two very small specks of skin left on the surface or in an eye cavity c) GRADE 3-A fairly well peeled potato: several very small spots of skin may be left or some of the cortical layer may remain in the deeper eyes. There may be one patch of skin or a defect which might be trimmed off for French fries.This grade is fully acceptable for French fry production, as the defects would be considered minor. d) GRADE 4-This grade does not appear well peeled, having either multiple peel fragments or defects. It may also have a thin layer of outer cortical cells remaining. These potatoes would not be acceptable for production of French fries without considerable trimming. They would be fully acceptable for dehydrated mashed potato manufacture. e) GRADE 5-these grade shows 5 to 50% of outer periderm or outer cortical cells remaining. These potatoes are generally unacceptable for use in dehydrated potato manufacture. f) GRADE 6-Some peel removed but anywhere from 50-90% of either the periderm or outer cortical layer remains. Completely unacceptable for processing. g) GRADE 7-A well scrubbed potato with less than 10% of outer peel removed, usually resulting from extreme test conditions.

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Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4

Grade 5

Grade 6

Grade 7

Fig C.1 A grading scale for peeled potatoes description of the quality grades for peeled potatoes

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Appendix D
Table D.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of water amount in potato soup. Source of variation Panelist Sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 0.000 0.800 3.2000 4.0000 m.s. 0.0000 0.2000 0.2000 v.r. 0.00 1.00 F pr. 1.000 0.436

Table D.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of water amount in potato soup. Source of variation Panelists Sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 0.2400 19.8400 4.5600 24.6400 m.s. 0.0600 4.9600 0.2850 v.r. 0.21 17.40 F pr 0.929 <.001

Table D.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of water amount in potato soup. Source of variation panelists sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 1.4400 18.6400 3.7600 23.8400 m.s. 0.3600 4.6600 0.2350 v.r. 1.53 19.83 F pr 0.240 <.001

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Table D.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall acceptance in the optimization of water amount in potato soup. Source of variation panelists sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 0.2400 19.8400 4.5600 24.6400 m.s. 0.0600 4.9600 0.2850 v.r. 0.21 17.40 F pr 0.929 <.001

Table D.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of water amount in potato soup. Source of variation panelists sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 2.0000 29.2000 2.8000 34.0000 m.s. 0.5000 7.3000 0.1750 v.r. 2.86 41.71 F pr 0.058 <.001

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Appendix E
Table E.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup. Source of variation panelists sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 0.0000 0.8000 3.2000 4.0000 m.s. 0.0000 0.2000 0.2000 v.r. 0.00 1.00 F pr 1.000 0.436

Table E.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup. Source of variation panelists sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 0.2400 1.4400 4.1600 5.8400 m.s. 0.0600 0.3600 0.2600 v.r. 0.23 1.38 F pr 0.917 0.284

Table E.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup. Source of variation panelists sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 3.2000 29.2000 5.6000 38.0000 m.s. 0.8000 7.3000 0.3500 v.r. 2.29 20.86 F pr 0.105 <.001

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Table E.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall acceptance in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr .

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

1.0400 27.4400 8.1600 36.6400

0.2600 6.8600 0.5100

0.51 13.45

0.729 <.001

Table E.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup. Source of variation panelists sample Residual Total d.f. 4 4 16 24 s.s. 0.8000 82.0000 5.2000 88.0000 m.s. 0.2000 20.5000 0.3250 v.r. 0.62 63.08 F pr 0.658 <.001

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Appendix F
Table F.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

0.9600 0.5600 3.4400 4.9600

0.2400 0.1400 0.2150

1.12 0.65

0.383 0.634

Table F.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup.

Source of variation

d.f.

s.s.

m.s.

v.r.

F pr.

Panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

0.2400 1.4400 4.1600 5.8400

0.0600 0.3600 0.2600

0.23 1.38

0.917 0.284

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Table F.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

0.1600 16.5600 3.8400 20.5600

0.0400 4.1400 0.2400

0.17 17.25

0.952 <.001

Table F.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall accepatance in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

0.9600 24.5600 4.6400 30.1600

0.2400 6.1400 0.2900

0.83 21.17

0.527 <.001

Table F.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

1.3600 18.5600 3.8400 23.7600

0.3400 4.6400 0.2400

1.42 19.33

0.273 <.001

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Appendix G
Table G.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

1.3600 0.8000 3.2000 4.0000

0.3400 0.2000 0.2000

1.42 1.00

0.273 0.436

Table G.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

0.2400 1.0400 5.3600 6.6400

0.0600 0.2600 0.3350

0.18 0.78

0.946 0.557

Table G.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

1.2000 74.8000 8.0000 84.0000

0.3000 18.7000 0.5000

0.60 37.40

0.668 <.001

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Table G.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall acceptance in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

2.1600 78.5600 4.6400 85.3600

0.5400 19.6400 0.2900

1.86 67.72

0.166 <.001

Table G.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup.

Source of variation

d.f.

s.s.

m.s.

v.r.

F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 4 16 24

3.0400 72.6400 4.1600 79.8400

0.7600 18.1600 0.2600

2.92 69.85

0.054 <.001

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Appendix H
Table H.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for color in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup. Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 2 8 14

1.3333 0.4000 2.2667 4.0000

0.3333 0.2000 0.2833

1.18 0.71

0.390 0.522

Table H.2 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for consistency in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup

Source of variation

d.f.

s.s.

m.s.

v.r.

F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 2 8 14

1.7333 6.9333 3.0667 11.7333

0.4333 3.4667 0.3833

1.13 9.04

0.407 0.009

Table H.3 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for flavor in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 2 8

2.9333 0.4000 4.2667

0.7333 0.2000 0.5333

1.37 0.38

0.324 0.699

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Table H.4 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for overall acceptance in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 2 8 14

1.7333 6.9333 3.0667 11.7333

0.4333 3.4667 0.3833

1.13 9.04

0.407 0.009

Table H.5 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for taste in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr.

panelists sample Residual Total

4 2 8 14

1.0667 0.1333 2.5333 3.7333

0.2667 0.0667 0.3167

0.84 0.21

0.536 0.815

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Appendix I
Table I.1 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of water amount in potato soup. Panelist 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Formulation 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Color 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 6 6 taste 6 8 6 6 5 6 8 6 6 4 6 8 5 5 4 6 7 6 6 4 5 7 5 6 4 Flavor 5 7 7 6 4 5 7 6 6 4 6 7 7 6 5 6 7 6 5 5 6 8 6 6 5 Consistency 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 7 6 6 8 7 7 6 5 9 7 7 7 Overall acceptance 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 7 6 6 8 7 7 6 5 9 7 7 7

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Table I.2 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of salt amount in potato soup. Panelist 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Formulation 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Color 4 5 4 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 taste 4 5 7 8 6 2 5 7 8 6 2 5 7 8 6 2 6 7 8 6 3 6 8 7 6 Flavor 5 5 8 7 8 5 5 8 8 8 5 5 6 7 6 5 6 7 8 7 4 6 7 7 7 Consistency 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 Overall acceptance 5 6 6 8 6 4 6 7 7 5 4 4 6 8 6 5 4 6 8 6 5 5 6 7 7

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Table I.3 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of citric acid amount in potato soup. Panelist 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Formulation 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Color 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 6 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 taste 6 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 6 6 6 7 8 7 5 6 7 8 7 5 5 7 7 7 Flavor 6 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 6 6 6 7 8 7 6 6 7 8 7 5 6 8 7 7 Consistency 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 Overall acceptance 6 6 8 8 6 6 6 8 8 6 6 5 7 8 6 5 5 7 8 7 5 5 8 7 7

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Table I.4 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of msg amount in potato soup. Panelist 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Formulation 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Color 4 5 4 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 taste 7 8 8 4 4 7 8 8 4 4 8 8 8 4 4 8 7 7 5 4 7 7 6 4 3 Flavor 6 8 8 4 4 7 8 8 4 3 8 8 8 4 4 8 7 7 4 3 7 7 6 5 4 Consistency 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 8 7 7 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 9 8 8 Overall acceptance 7 8 8 4 4 7 8 8 4 4 8 8 8 4 4 8 8 7 5 4 8 7 6 4 3

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Table I.5 Scores of sensory attributes in the optimization of potato flour particle size in potato soup. Panelist 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 Formulation 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Color 5 5 6 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 taste 8 7 7 8 8 7 8 8 8 7 7 8 7 7 8 Flavor 6 8 8 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 Consistency 9 7 6 8 7 6 8 8 7 7 8 6 7 7 6 Overall acceptance 9 7 6 8 7 6 8 8 7 7 8 6 7 7 6

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Table I.6 Scores of sensory attributes in the sensory evaluation of the peeled potatoes. Panelists 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 Sample 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Grade 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 4

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Appendix J
Table J.1 Two way ANOVA (no blocking) for of the grade points for the peeled potatoes appearance.

Source of variation Panelist Sample Residual Total

d.f. 9 1 9 19

s.s. 1.0000 0.8000 3.2000 5.0000

m.s. 0.1111 0.8000 0.3556

v.r. 0.31 2.25

F pr. 0.951 0.168

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Appendix K
Table K.1 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for the ash content of potato and potato flour.

Potato Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference Df t Stat P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail 2.47 0.0133 3 0.018316667 0 4 4.554892179 0.010378983 2.776445105

Potato flour 1.966666667 0.023333333 3

Table K.2 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for the crude fibre of potato and potato flour. Potato Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference Df t Stat P(T<=t) one-tail t Critical two-tail 4.893333333 0.007433333 3 0.003833333 0 4 63.1027113 1.88887E-07 2.776445105 Potato flour 1.703333333 0.000233333 3

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Table K.3 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances)for the starch content of potato and potato flour Potato Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference Df t Stat P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail 1.223333 0.013233 3 0.006667 0 4 11.6 0.000316 2.776445 Potato flour 0.45 0.0001 3

Table K.4 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for the reducing sugar content of potato and potato flour.

Potato Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference Df t Stat P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail 2.823333 0.007433 3 0.007767 0 4 23.81059 1.84E-05 2.776445

Potato flour 1.11 0.0081 3

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Table K.5 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances)for total sugar of potato and potato flour. Potato Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference Df t Stat P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail 140.9633 23.78903 3 11.98118 0 4 35.84189 3.62E-06 2.776445 Potato flour 39.66667 0.173333 3

Table K.6 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for vitamin C of potato and potato flour

Potato Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference Df t Stat P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail 84.44333 0.339733 3 0.171133 0 4 30.78027 6.64E-06 2.776445

Potato flour 74.04667 0.002533 3

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Table K.7 t-test (Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances) for protein content of potato and potato flour. Potato Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference Df t Stat P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail 10.92 0.7243 3 0.373817 0 4 4.780882 0.00877 2.776445 Potato flour 8.533333 0.023333 3

Table K.8 One way Anova (no blocking) for peeling losses between hand peeling, the abrasive peeling and mashing peeling. Source of variation Sample Residual Total d.f. 2 6 8 s.s. 42.675 1.793 44.468 m.s. 21.337 0.298 v.r. 71.39 F pr. <.001

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Appendix L Table L.1 Cost calculation of potato flour Materials Unmarketable potatoes Sodium Chloride (Salt) Ascorbic acid KMS (Potassium methabisulphite) Total Overhead cost (20%)* Total cost *this includes all the processing requirements such as manpower, electricity etc. We have the flour yield = 18.8% So 1Kg of potato produces 376g of potato flour. Thus the cost of the potato flour is Rs 0.2/gm. Table L.2 Cost calculation of instant potato soup powder (IPSP). Ingredients Potato flour Salt Monosodium glutamate (msg) Citric acid Total Overhead cost (20%) Total cost Quantity 5g 2g 0.2g 0.06g Rate (Rs) 0.2/g 0.012/g 1/g 0.656 Cost (Rs) 1.000 0.024 0.200 0.039 1.263 0.253 1.516 Quantity 2kg 300g 5g 20g Rate (Rs) 10/kg 0.012/g 5.2/g 0.59/g Cost (Rs) 20 3.6 26 11.8 Rs 61.4 12.28 73.68

Total cost of 5g of instant potato soup powder is Rs 1.516. Thus the cost of 100g of instant potato soup powder is Rs 30.3.

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Appendix M Table M.1 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of water. A B C D E

Flour water Salt Citric acid Msg

5g 125mL 2g 0.05g -

5g 150mL 2g 0.05g -

5g 175mL 2g 0.05g -

5g 200mL 2g 0.05g -

5g 225mL 2g 0.05g -

Table M.2 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of salt. A B C D E

Flour water Salt Citric acid Msg

5g 150mL 0.5g 0.05g -

5g 150mL 1g 0.05g -

5g 150mL 1.5g 0.05g -

5g 150mL 2g 0.05g -

5g 150mL 2.5g 0.05g -

Table M.3 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of citric acid. A B C D E

Flour water Salt Citric acid Msg

5g 150mL 2g 0g -

5g 150mL 2g 0.04g -

5g 150mL 2g 0.05g -

5g 150mL 2g 0.06g -

5g 150mL 2g 0.08g -

87

Table M.4 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of msg. A B C D E

Flour water Salt Citric acid Msg

5g 150mL 2g 0.06g 0.1

5g 150mL 2g 0.06g 0.2

5g 150mL 2g 0.06g 0.3

5g 150mL 2g 0.06g 0.4

5g 150mL 2g 0.06g 0.5

Table M.5 Recipe for the formulations for optimization of flour particle size. A B C

Flour Water Salt Citric acid Msg

5 g (150µm) 150mL 2g 0.06g 0.2 g

5 g (300 µm) 150mL 2g 0.06g 0.2 g

5 g (600 µm) 150mL 2g 0.06g 0.2 g

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Appendix N Table N.1 Functional properties of Potato flour S.N. Flour Particle size (µm) Bulk density (g/mL) Water absorption (g/100g) 1. 2. 3. 150 300 600 0.953 (0.0057) 0.89 (0.005) 0.648 (0.0076) 384.16 (1.040) 362 (0.5) 350.5 (0.503) 65-69 65-69 65-69 GTR (oC)*

*Gelatinization temperature range * Values are the means of three determinations. Figures in parentheses are the standard deviations.

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