You are on page 1of 3

COMPARISON TABLE BETWEEN ALKANE AND ALKENE ALKANE ALKANE

Known as SATURATED HYDROCARBON because all carbon are bonded by single covalent bond

PROPERTIES OF HYDROCARBON
HOMOLOGOUS NAME GENERAL FORMULA PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

ALKENE ALKENE
Known as UNSATURATED HYDROCARBON because contains at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms.

CnH2n + 2 , n =1, 2, 3 .

CnH2n , n = 2, 3, 4 .

Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent

Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent

Cannot conduct electricity in all state (solid or molten) Alkane cannot conduct electricity in solid or molten state because its in neutral molecule form Low melting and boiling point Alkane has a low melting and boiling point because molecules of alkane are bonded together with weak intermolecular forces (Van de Waals), so less energy is needed to overcome that forces. Less dense than water Alkane float on the water when mix with water **Physical properties of hydrocarbon is similar to physical properties of covalent compound.

Cannot conduct electricity in all state (solid or molten) Alkene cannot conduct electricity in solid or molten state because its in neutral molecule form Low melting and boiling point Alkene has a low melting and boiling point because molecules of alkene are bonded together with weak intermolecular forces (Van de Waals), so less energy is needed to overcome that forces. Less dense than water Alkene float on the water when mix with water

::MNZ http://chemclass4spm.blogspot.com::

COMPARISON TABLE BETWEEN ALKANE AND ALKENE ALKANE


Combustion process Alkane undergo complete combustion to produce CO2 and H2O CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

PROPERTIES OF HYDROCARBON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES


COMBUSTION
**All hydrocarbon when burnt in excess of oxygen will produce Carbon dioxide(CO2) and Water(H2O). If incomplete combustion occurs (not enough oxygen) Carbon monoxide(CO) will produce.

ALKENE
Combustion process Alkene undergo complete combustion to produce CO2 and H2O C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 + 2H2O Addition of HYDROGEN (HYDROGENATION) Alkene react with HYDROGEN (at 180 oC and presence a Nickel / Platinum as catalyst) C2H4 + H2 C2H6 (Temp 180 oC and Ni/Pt as catalyst) Addition of HALOGEN (HALOGENATION) Alkene react with HALOGEN (Cl2, Br2 or I2) C2H4 + Br2 C2H4Br2 Addition of HYDROGEN HALIDE (HCl or HBr) Alkene react with HYDROGEN HALIDE (HCl or HBr) C2H4 + HBr C2H5Br Addition of ACIDIFIED POTASSIUM MANGANATE (VII) (KMnO4) Alkene react with KMnO4 acidified C2H4 + H2O + [O] C2H4(OH)2 Addition of WATER (Hydration Reaction) Alkene react with WATER(gas) (300oC, 1atm and H3PO4 as a catalyst) C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH

Substitution process Occurs when alkane mix with halogen with presence of UV (sunlight) Each Hydrogen atom is substituted one by one by halogen atom. CH4 + Br2 CH3Br + HBr

::MNZ http://chemclass4spm.blogspot.com::

HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN ALKANE AND ALKENE


REACTION ALKANE
Burnt in excess of oxygen to produce LESS SOOTY YELLOW FLAME Explanation C6H14 (Hexane) contains low percentage of carbon % of carbon = 83.7% ALKANE produce less sooty flame than ALKENE because percentage of carbon is higher in ALKENE than ALKANE

ALKENE
Burnt in excess of oxygen to produce MORE SOOTY YELLOW FLAME Explanation C6H12 (Hexene) contains low percentage of carbon % of carbon = 85.7% ALKENE produce more sooty flame than ALKANE because percentage of carbon is higher in ALKENE than ALKANE Observation: Brown colour of Bromine decolourised (change to colourless). Explanation: Alkene react with Bromine to produce bromoalkane

COMBUSTION
** Combustion of Hydrocarbon produced yellow with sooty flame.

ADDITION REACTION WITH BROMINE WATER


i. ii. iii. iv. 1 cm of Bromine is added into test tube 2 cm3 of alkane/alkene into the same test tube Shaken mixture gently Observe the changes
3

Observation: Brown colour of Bromine remains unchanged. Explanation: Alkane does not react with halogen. The reaction can be occurs with presence of UV

ADDITION REACTION WITH KMNO4 acidified


i. ii. iii. iv. 1 cm of KMNO4 acidified (using H2SO4) is added Observation: Purple colour of KMNO4 acidified remains unchanged. into test tube 2 cm3 of alkane/alkene into the same test tube Explanation: Alkane does not react with KMNO4 acidified. Shaken mixture gently Observe the changes
3

Observation: Brown colour of KMNO4 acidified decolourised (change to colourless). Explanation: Alkene react with KMNO4 acidified to produce diol compound

**ALKANES are chemically UNREACTIVE compound because ALKANES are SATURATED compound, but ALKENES are REACTIVE compound because they are UNSATURATED compound.
::MNZ http://chemclass4spm.blogspot.com::