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N ATIONAL H IGH S CHOOL MODEL UNITED NATIONS

35th Annual Conference • March 18-21, 2009

BACKGROUND GUIDE

World

Food

Programme

General Assembly Special Committees
 2008-2009 International Model United Nations Association, Inc. Used and distributed under license.

N ATIONAL H IGH S CHOOL M ODEL U NITED N ATIONS
The 35th Annual Conference • March 18-21, 2009

Nick Stefanizzi
Secretary-General
Boston University

September 2008 Dear Delegates, It is my pleasure to be the first to welcome you to NHSMUN 2009. My name is Deanna Maxfield, and I am the Under-Secretary-General (USG) of the United Nations General Assembly Special (UNGAS) Committees. I hope you’re excited to be at the NHSMUN conference in just a few short months. In my non-NHSMUN life, I’m a junior majoring in public relations and minoring in international relations and business law at the University of Southern California. I play clarinet in the USC Trojan Marching Band. I love going to football games, traveling, and attending parties with my friends. When I go home to Salt Lake City, I enjoy skiing and hanging out with my three younger sisters. As USG of UNGAS, I spent last summer helping Directors develop their topic selections and editing Background Guides, including the one you’re about to read. I’m also responsible for welcoming Assistant Directors to staff and preparing them for their first year as NHSMUN staffers. During the conference, I’ll be roaming around among all of the UNGAS committee rooms to assist the Directors and Assistant Directors with whatever they need. If you have any questions about what I do as a USG, the conference in general, or anything else, feel free to pull me aside for a chat. I’m open to any of your questions, concerns, or comments. Your Director has worked very hard to prepare this Background Guide for you, so please read it carefully. If you have any questions about the topics or the conference in general, feel free to contact your Director or me. Good luck with your position paper, and I’ll see you in March! Sincerely, Deanna Maxfield maxfield@usc.edu 801.557.6159 2826 Menlo Ave. Los Angeles, CA 90007

Rosa Akbari
Director-General
McGill University

Nancy Henry
Conference Director
Tufts University

Michelle Shevin
Chief of Staff
Barnard College

Cristina Rade
Chief of External Relations
Adelphi University

Ryan Burke
Director of Security
University of South Carolina

Matthew Low
Under-Secretary-General
University of California, Berkeley

Daniel Nowicki
Under-Secretary-General
Georgetown University

Deanna Maxfield
Under-Secretary-General
University of Southern California

Emily Robertson
Under-Secretary-General
Duke University

Lisa Cuesta Under-Secretary-General
University of Pennsylvania

Jerry Guo
Under-Secretary-General
Dartmouth College

NHSMUN is a project of the International Model United Nations Association, Incorporated (IMUNA). IMUNA, a not-forprofit, all volunteer organization, is dedicated to furthering global issues education at the secondary school level.

N ATIONAL H IGH S CHOOL M ODEL U NITED N ATIONS
The 35th Annual Conference • March 18-21, 2009

Nick Stefanizzi
Secretary-General
Boston University

September 2008

Rosa Akbari
Director-General
McGill University

Nancy Henry
Conference Director
Tufts University

Dear Delegates, Hello and welcome to NHSMUN 2009! My name is Andrea Temkin and I will be your director for World Food Programme. I am extremely excited about the opportunity to work on this committee, and hope you all share equal enthusiasm. The two topics I have chosen this year are both far-reaching and urgent issues in today’s world. We will be discussing High Food Prices and the Affect on World Hunger, and Natural Disaster Hunger Relief. While each poses numerous challenges, I am confident in your ability to understand the depth of the issues and produce comprehensive work. In an attempt to appear as more than just a name on a piece of paper, I will also take this opportunity to tell you a bit about myself. I am a sophomore at Washington University in St. Louis and am planning to double major in Psychology and English. In my spare time I can usually be found on a volleyball court, singing, watching movies, or cheering on the Green Bay Packers. I attended NHSMUN for three years in high school, and was an Assistant Director for the UNEP at last year’s Conference. I sincerely hope that you take the time to read through the following information carefully. I know that the background guides will be extremely beneficial in providing you with information and a focus on these topics. If I can do anything at all to help throughout your preparation, please feel free to call me. Do not hesitate; I would love to discuss any issues that may arise. My office hours will be on Monday from 4-6 p.m. central time, but you can always call or e-mail and leave a message if I am not available. I am so excited to meet you all in March and know that we’re going to have a great committee. Good luck, and I hope you enjoy the process! Sincerely, Andrea Temkin abtemkin@artsci.wustl.edu 732.698.2951

Michelle Shevin
Chief of Staff
Barnard College

Cristina Rade
Chief of External Relations
Adelphi University

Ryan Burke
Director of Security
University of South Carolina

Matthew Low
Under-Secretary-General
University of California, Berkeley

Daniel Nowicki
Under-Secretary-General
Georgetown University

Deanna Maxfield
Under-Secretary-General
University of Southern California

Emily Robertson
Under-Secretary-General
Duke University

Lisa Cuesta Under-Secretary-General
University of Pennsylvania

Jerry Guo
Under-Secretary-General
Dartmouth College

NHSMUN is a project of the International Model United Nations Association, Incorporated (IMUNA). IMUNA, a not-forprofit, all volunteer organization, is dedicated to furthering global issues education at the secondary school level.

The 2009 National High School Model United Nations

World Food Programme

A NOTE ON RESEARCH AND PREPARATION
Delegate preparation is paramount to a successful and exciting National High School Model United Nations 2009 Conference. We have provided this Background Guide to introduce the topics that will be discussed in your committee; these papers are designed to give you a description of the topics and the committee. They will not give you a complete description of the topic areas and they will not contain the most up-to-date information, particularly in regards to rapidly evolving issues. We encourage and expect each delegate to fully explore the topics and be able to identify and analyze the intricacies of the issues. Delegates must be prepared to intelligently utilize their newly acquired knowledge and apply it to their own countries’ policy. You will find that your nation has a unique position on the topics that cannot be substituted for or with the opinions of another nation. The task of preparing and researching for the conference is challenging, but it can be interesting and rewarding. We have provided each school with a copy of the Delegation Preparation Guide. The Guide contains detailed instructions on how to write a position paper and how to effectively participate in committee sessions. (Note: some position papers have unique guidelines that are detailed within respective committees’ Background Guides.) The Guide also gives a synopsis of the types of research materials and resources available to you and where they can be found. A brief history of the United Nations and the NHSMUN conference are also included. The annotated rules of procedure complete the Delegate Preparation Guide. An essential part of representing a nation in an international body is the ability to articulate that nation’s views in writing. Accordingly, it is the policy of NHSMUN to require each delegate (or double-delegation team) to write position papers. The position papers should clearly outline the country’s policies on the topic areas to be discussed and what factors contribute to these policies. In addition, each paper must address the Research and Preparation questions at the end of the committee Background Guide. Most importantly, the paper must be written from the point of view of the country you are representing at NHSMUN 2009 and should articulate the policies you will espouse at the conference. All papers should be typed and doublespaced. The papers will be read by the Director of each committee and returned at the start of the conference with brief comments and constructive advice. You are responsible for sending a copy of your paper to the Director of your committee. Additionally, your delegation is responsible for bringing a bound copy of all of the position papers—one for each committee to which your school has been assigned—to the conference (to be submitted during registration). Specific requirements of the bound copy have been sent to the faculty advisor/club president. In addition to position papers, each delegation must prepare one brief summary statement on the basic economic, political, and social structures of its country, as well as on its foreign policy. Please mail country summary statements to the Director-General of NHSMUN 2009 at the address below. All copies should be postmarked no later than February 16th and mailed to: Rosa Akbari, Director-General 3631 av. Henri-Julien Montréal, Québec H2X 3H4 Canada (Country Summaries) Andrea Temkin Campus Box 3065 6515 Wydown Blvd. St. Louis, MO 63105 (Individual Position Papers)

Delegations are required to mail hard copies of papers to the Director-General and Directors. NHSMUN Staff will not consider e-mail submissions as an adequate substitution. Delegations that do not submit position papers to Directors or Summary Statements to the DirectorGeneral will be ineligible for awards.
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COMMITTEE HISTORY
In April 1961, George McGovern, Director of the United States Food for Peace program, proposed the idea of a food aid program to the United Nations’ (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The following December, the FAO and the UN General Assembly passed resolutions that established the World Food Programme (WFP) for a three-year trial period. Within the next year, the WFP faced its first major challenge when an earthquake hit Iran and a hurricane bombarded Thailand. Fortunately, the WFP was able to provide these affected areas with the emergency food aid the people needed, and in 1965, the Programme was extended “for as long as multilateral food is found feasible and desirable” (“History” 1). In 1991, the General Regulations of the WFP’s governing body, named the Committee of Food Aid (CFA) Policies and Programmes, were revised, and membership was extended from 30 to 42. Further progress was made in 1994 when the CFA adopted a new Mission Statement, followed two years later by the creation of the 36-member Executive Board. One-half of the Executive Board delegates are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, while the other half is elected by the FAO. Each member serves three-year terms and is eligible for re-election when the term expires. One of the biggest changes came in 1999 when it was decided that the WFP should extend its programs to support development within countries rather than focusing solely on emergency aid (“Institutional” 1). Throughout the decades the WFP has provided aid to countries wrought with conflict, natural disaster, and poverty. For example, the WFP provided aid to 2.6 million refugees, displaced persons, and returnees per year in Sudan between 1989 and 1994. Between 1992 and 1997, the WFP was able to coordinate a US$4 billion program to provide 11 million tons of food aid to 20 million people affected by drought in Southern Africa. Furthermore, the World Food Programme headed a US$29 million operation to provide food to 530 thousand people in the West Bank and Gaza affected by conflict. Many more missions have been successfully implemented throughout the world, with operations currently being conducted in 78 states, impacting 87.8 million people on an annual basis (“Operational” 1). These programs have all fallen within the Programme’s main objectives, which include: • To meet emergency needs and support economic and social development; • To provide logistical support where necessary; • To aid victims of natural disaster, displaced persons, the world’s hungry, and women; • To fight hunger through rescue, rapid reaction, rehabilitation, and deterrence (“Mission” 1). The World Food Programme gains all of its funds through donations and partners with governments, Romebased agencies such as the FAO, NGOs, and large-scale corporations (“History” 1).

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SIMULATION
Our simulation of the World Food Programme will be comprised of delegations representing the members of the committee. Discussion among these parties will be facilitated by the Dais, made up of the Director and the Assistant Director, who will chair the committee. The Dais will moderate debate and provide substantive guidance. I, the Director, encourage you to ask any questions that you have about the topics, the flow of debate, procedure, or draft reports. While you should read this simulation thoroughly, I will also provide time in committee for you to ask questions on procedure or the policy report process. Unlike many other United Nations committees, the WFP declares its progress in the form of policy reports rather than resolutions. As a committee focused around action, either though aid provision, long-term projects, or policy reform, the WFP conferences work toward the development of reports on the present and future work of the organization. At the Conference, we will adhere to the following outline when writing the reports:

I.

Introduction 1. Provides the context for the issue(s) being addressed. 2. Discusses the WFP’s intentions in addressing the issue(s). 3. Establishes the committee’s aims for resolving the issue. II. Policy Analysis 4. Describes and analyzes the policies. 5. Discusses the impacts these policies will have on the issue(s). III. Policy Recommendations 7. Offers various members’ recommendations. IV. Technical Assistance 8. Reports on what practices and techniques can be implemented to resolve the issue(s). 9. Discusses the feasibility and success of such assistance. V. Additional Research 10. Provides important research that is pertinent to the issue(s). VI. Multilateral Discussion 11. Describes members’ policies with regard to offering aid. 12. Lists the ways in which various countries, organizations, and other agencies will provide aid and assistance. VII. Conclusion 13. Summarizes the committee’s efforts and offers further recommendations.

The introduction, which discusses the goal(s) of the WFP, is arranged into numbered paragraphs, as is the rest of the report. The introduction is then followed by paragraphs that will address particular dimensions of the issue using policy analysis, policy recommendations, technical assistance, further research, and additional multilateral discussion. To organize the report and ensure all aspects of the issue are addressed, each subsection can be further broken down into specific topic areas. When preparing for the Conference, it is imperative that you look at the sample report in the appendix because it demonstrates what format and type of content should be used when writing your policy reports in committee. The process of creating a report will be similar to that of a resolution in other committees in that delegates will write working papers, draft paragraphs, and finally a report upon which the committee will vote. Given the nature of policy reports, which provide official suggestions from the committee and lay out mission plans, the WFP is extremely focused on attaining a consensus among its members. As such, there will only be one
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policy report created per topic, as opposed to multiple resolutions. If necessary, delegations will be able to note their opposition to particular paragraphs at the end of the document. However, it is necessary for the committee to remember the importance of compromise and unanimity in addressing the issues that are to be discussed. The members of the committee may find it beneficial to split into groups while working on policy reports. While this is not an official procedure of the WFP and therefore not a necessary part of our simulation, allowing different groups to work on different sections of the policy report may aid in enhancing the depth and comprehensiveness of the document. Should the delegates of the committee choose to work in this manner, all sections will still be brought to the committee as a whole for discussion and revision. As a reminder, all working papers and draft paragraphs are expected to be a collaborative work by delegations of the committee. In order to achieve consensus within the committee, it will be important for delegates to work together through all phases of debate. The final product will represent an effort by all delegations in addressing the issues at hand, and not the work of a few individual representatives. As such, pre-written working papers are strictly prohibited at NHSMUN. To encourage participation, deeper understanding of national perspectives, and the development of consensus, our debate will take many forms. Formal debate will be facilitated by the Dais and will involve a set speaking time and speakers’ list to which any delegation may request to be added. To encourage more open debate, the Dais will allow the committee to move into moderated caucus for a specified duration. This will involve a speaking time, but no speakers’ list. Each delegate will be recognized at the discretion of the Dais and may speak for the duration of the speaking time assigned to the caucus. In order to focus debate, all moderated causes will require a set topic for the discussion to revolve around. Negotiation may also occur in unmoderated caucus. Unmoderated caucuses have a set time frame but limited involvement of the Dais. This type of caucus can be used for smaller group discussions and to develop working papers and draft reports. The most productive committees use their time not only to debate differences of opinion, but also to identify areas of agreement. Successful delegations will adhere to country policy while remaining flexible in order to reach agreement on how the WFP and individual countries can best address the issue(s) at hand. In debating these topics I also encourage you to recognize the role that blocs will play. Understanding which countries share similar goals can be important in making progress in the WFP, but it will also be important to understand how differences of opinion can be resolved to achieve consensus. All delegations hold an equal weight within the committee and are free to implement the suggestions of the committee within their own nations. As such, it is important that all delegations participate actively and work to elicit and consider the perspectives of all others.

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HIGH FOOD PRICES AND THE EFFECTS ON WORLD HUNGER
TOPIC A INTRODUCTION The issue of rising food costs first began with subtle warning signs in the early 21st century, but has since morphed into a growing international crisis. Despite the increasing availability of proper nutrition and food in developed countries, populations around the globe are unable to afford enough food to satisfy one of their most fundamental needs. Evidence of rising food prices can be found in almost any city in the world, but the truly devastating effects are most apparent in areas already burdened with poverty, political and economic strife, poor education, and malnutrition. For example, the World Food Programme has categorized most of central Africa and Afghanistan as hunger hotspots, areas in which more than one-third of the people do not receive the necessary amount of food, and has found that in much of West Africa, anywhere from one-fifth to one-third of the people go hungry (“Food” 1). The effects of high food prices do not impact access to food and nutrition exclusively, though. These high food prices reach into all aspects of life. In impoverished areas, the vast majority of a family’s income is used to purchase what food they can, leaving little, if any, money left to send children to school, procure adequate health care, or ensure proper nutrition (“Crisis” 1). This global crisis has developed out of numerous global issues, with no one factor or party to blame. Contributors include high fuel prices, the rising demand for biofuels, high demand for food, and climate change (Berger 1). Given the nature of the causes of high food prices, in addition to the widespread consequences, this matter must be dealt with on a global scale. The United Nations will serve an important role in relieving the symptoms of the problem and in the development of a long-term solution. Serving as a mediator between states as well as an institution for discussion and innovation, the Programme has and must continue to take a leading role in battling the rising cost of food. The World Food Programme, with its focus on providing immediate hunger relief while instituting long-term reform, continues in its mission to bring food and nutrition care to those most in need while building infrastructure and encouraging policy reform. HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE ISSUE Before understanding the depth of the problem at hand and developing a comprehensive solution, it is necessary to look at how rising food prices have come about. While no one factor alone has led to the current state of affairs, the combination of climate change, rising energy costs, a greater demand for commodity items, and pressure to use biofuels has formed the foundation of rising food prices. While some of these contributing problems focus on a smaller subsection of nations, others involve distress on a global level. Biofuels As the world has placed an increasing emphasis on becoming “green,” many states have turned to using biofuels as an alternative energy source to hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, this shift has had devastating effects on food supply. In the United States, for example, thousands of farmers are growing their crops for the express purpose of converting them into energy rather than using them for food (Walt 1). This is particularly true of corn, of which approximately 25% of harvests are being converted into ethanol (Kanellos 3). While the United States is a well-known example of this phenomenon, its reach extends much further. In order to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 20% by the year 2020, a commission of the European Union has proposed a plan that would pay EU€45 per hectare to farmers growing crops that will be used to make biofuels, cutting the supply of crops used to produce food. While most experts agree that the push for biofuels alone has not caused a rise in food prices, many concur that it has played an important role. According to the International Food Policy
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Research Institution, “Freezing biofuel production at 2007 levels would lower the price of corn by 6% in 2010 and 14% by 2015” (“EU Defends” 1). Climate Change In addition to the rising call for biofuels, climate change has diminished the global food supply. In recent years natural disasters have had devastating effects on already impoverished or unstable regions by causing massive casualties, destroying infrastructure and property, and ruining harvests. For example, the poor economic and social situations in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) have resulted in a continuously diminished food supply within the nation. Flooding in 2007 caused massive crop failure, resulting in an increased burden on the people. According to Jean-Pierrede Margeris, the WFP’s DPRK country director, families “eat fewer meals and have a poorer diet, increasing their vulnerability to diseases and illness” (“WFP Warns” 3). Climate change has resulted in similar situations around the globe, causing “droughts in Australia and southern Africa, floods in West Africa, …winter’s deep frost in China and recordbreaking warmth in northern Europe” (Walt 1). Crop diseases such as wheat rust have further exacerbated the issue, having combined with drought and flooding to severely deplete wheat production (Kanellos 1). High Demand Yet another contributing factor is the increasing demand for food, particularly in China and India. The middle class in both countries has been steadily growing over the past few years, a change that has taken its toll on the food industry. Meat, beef in particular, was until recently considered a luxury in such areas, but has now become affordable to a greater percent of the population. In order to meet the demand, mass quantities of grain are needed to feed the cattle. This takes away from the supply of grain used for direct human consumption. The reduced supply increases costs for long-term staple items such as wheat and rice. Another aspect of the problem arose in 2007, when farmers took to converting soybean crop into corn crop. While this lowered the price of corn, it had the adverse affect of sparking a rise in meat prices by decreasing the availability of soy, a product often used as feed (Kanellos 4). In terms of the food import, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that global expenditures in 2008 “could surpass US$1 trillion” (“Food Outlook: Global Market Analysis” 2008); the food import bill in 2007 was approximately US$820 billion (“Food Outlook: Global Market Analysis” 2008). Rising Fuel Costs Finally, high fuel costs have proven detrimental to the food industry. In addition to increasing costs of food production, the amount being spent on food transportation has created additional strain. First, the high cost of fertilizer, which has increased by 150% over the last five years, increases the price the customer pays for food. In the United States, fertilizer costs constitute 25-30% of overall grain production costs, making their rising costs an extremely relevant matter (“High Food Prices Drive” 2). On a daily basis, local market prices reflect the increased transportation costs, as these are transferred directly to the customer. Moreover, on a global level, high-energy prices have taken a toll on providing food aid. According to a study conducted by the World Bank in conjunction with the World Food Programme, freight costs to ship food to developing countries have doubled in the last year (Scott 2). Such developments have made it impossible for organizations such as the WFP to provide aid at the level necessary to sufficiently combat world hunger. Combined Effects of Contributing Factors The combination of aforementioned variables has led to food supplies hitting record lows and rising prices reaching record highs. Statistics show that the supply of vital food staples has plummeted. Rice supply is the lowest it has been in 20 years, while wheat supply, according to the US Department of Agriculture, is lower than it has been in 50 years. In nations such as Kenya, grain reserves will be completely depleted in August 2008 (Brasher 1). On a worldwide basis, the World Food Programme has estimated that overall food reserves are lower than they have been in 25 years (“Crisis” 2). The estimated US$2 billion increase in food import expentitures only
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Contrary to what such statistics seem to illustrate, these shortages do not indicate that there is too little food in the world. Rather, the real challenge is the problem of food being in the wrong place and at a price the poorest cannot afford (“Food” 2). The depleted stocks as a result of and in conjunction with the demand for biofuel and commodity foods, climate change, and high-energy prices force food prices to rise. For example, due to decreased supply in 2008, the WFP paid US$430 per metric ton of wheat, as opposed to the US$207 per metric ton it paid in 2007, totaling a 108% increase. In addition, the organization is currently paying 33% more for maize, 50% more for rice, and 73% more for vegetable oil (“Crisis” 1). In response to the growing crisis, governments have begun to look at various solutions to aid their people. One step taken by numerous governments is to impose export bans on staple foods, such as the export ban on non-fragrant rice in India (Kanellos 2). Other nations, such as Kazakhstan and Egypt, have followed suit (Walt 2). This strategy seems logical within individual countries as it ensures that food remains in the country for domestic consumption. It complicates matters on a global scale, however, by decreasing the available supply of food and thereby causing further price increases and making it impossible for countries dependant on importation to thrive. Nations including India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Russian Federation have frozen food prices at affordable levels in a variety of different approaches. For instance, the Russian government asked producers to voluntarily freeze prices, meaning that the consumers would benefit while suppliers suffer from lost profits. In other states, governments have provided subsidies to farmers so they do not bear the burden for cheaper consumer costs (“High Food Prices—A Harsh” 4). Meanwhile, for the first time in 20 years, Pakistan has implemented rationing (Berger 1). Regardless of differing opinions on which factor has been the most influential or what course of action is most advisable, it is clear to the international community that the high cost of food has had, and will continue to have, a devastating affect on the global population. Wealthy states have not had to face deadly consequences of the high cost of food, but changes are noticeable. For example, in the United States, the cost of providing school lunches increased by 7% from 2007 to 2008, and will likely increase by another 10% between 2008 and 2009. When taking into consideration school food laws and federal subsidies to various lunch programs, the country’s schools will be losing between US$5 million dollars and US$8 million dollars per day in order to provide food to 30 million children (Johnson 2). Unfortunately, these are among the least disruptive of the problems rising food prices have caused. In developed countries, the population spends a relatively low percent of their annual income on food costs, and therefore most people have room in their budgets to adjust to higher prices. Impoverished states, however, face an entirely different scenario. Already spending between 50% and 80% of their annual income on food, poor families are crippled by higher prices (Berger 2). Annually, malnutrition is a factor in the deaths of three to five million children younger than the age of five (“Malnutrition” 1). For those who survive, malnutrition can still spark a multitude of difficulties, many of which will affect victims for their entire lives. Symptoms may vary, but physical effects of malnutrition can include fatigue, dizziness, dry or scaly skin, bleeding gums, decaying teeth, muscle weakness, and bloated stomachs (Hirsch 4). More serious physical symptoms are stunted growth, osteoporosis, organ dysfunctions, and weakened immune systems. In fact, malnutrition is responsible for 11% of the global disease burden. Other problems caused by malnutrition include social and mental deficiencies. If undernourished during the early years of life, children can have learning difficulties, communication problems, issues with social adjustment, and decreased ability to reason and adapt to environments. These problems are manifested in lower IQ points, more severe behavioral problems, inability to concentrate, and overall deflated academic performance (“Malnutrition” 3). As prices rise, the amount being spent on food increases, leaving families with quickly depleting savings. In fact, the problem has become so severe that the WFP has estimated that as many as 130 million people will be pushed into poverty within the next year as a result of high food costs (“Crisis” 1). Families must cope by any means possible, including buying inadequate amounts of food or purchasing items that cost less but fail to provide proper nutrition. Both practices result in inadequate diets and severe malnutrition, conditions that
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have become all too common in the developing world. According to the World Health Organization, there are 178 million children facing malnutrition in the world, 20 million of which endure the most severe form (“Malnutrition” 1). Unfortunately, in developing nations the consequences of high food prices extend beyond malnutrition. Despite the concessions being made by families to increase the quality of food and restrict the quantity of food being purchased, incomes are too low to achieve or maintain a high quality of life in other areas. For example, it is impossible to pay money for children to attend school when there is not even enough to produce an adequate meal. Education is therefore put on hold, despite the future disadvantages this will cause. Healthcare is also pushed to the side, as families are unable to afford visits to clinics or the cost of medication when children are sick (“Crisis” 2). In addition to the immediate effects of these issues, long-term problems will arise. Children who are unable to attend school are deprived of the opportunity to better their future, and are left uneducated and unprepared to hold jobs that could have provided for a better life. Meanwhile, the consequences of poor healthcare are also devastating, leading to lifelong health complications, the inability to work and earn desperately needed income, and in many cases, death (“Crisis” 1). While the international community has recognized the horrible effects of rising food costs, it has been unable to stem the mounting crisis. Between 2007 and early 2008, agencies seeking to provide hunger relief faced massive setbacks due to increased food prices. The World Food Programme, for example, was providing food to 73 million people in 78 nations by 2007. At such a time, when more aid is needed, rising food prices leave the WFP’s US$2.9 billion budget for 2008 incapable of sustaining all of the aid programs already in progress. It also made it impossible for the UN body to meet the rising hunger needs as there was no room in the budget to increase aid in areas already on the WFP’s radar or to create programs in regions that have been recently impacted by the crisis (“Crisis” 1). CURRENT STATUS V iolence Unfortunately, the devastation caused by rising food prices has sparked new difficulties in the form of violence. Desperate for aid or lower food prices, people across the globe have turned to rioting in hopes of forcing change. Riots have occurred in Guinea, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Senegal, Uzbekistan, and Yemen (Berger 1). Africa, home to numerous hunger hotspots, has played host to this new wave of hostility in countries such as Burkina Faso, where rioters in three different cities set government buildings aflame and began looting stores. The situation has degraded so extensively that the president of the World Bank, Robert Zoellick, has stated that high food prices may cause social unrest within 33 countries (Walt 1). Thus far, the protests have had mixed results. In some countries, rioters have been met by police force and jail time. Such was the case in Morocco when 34 protesters were sent to jail in the month of February 2008 alone. In Yemen, consequences were more serious when riots during the first four months of 2008 resulted in the deaths of at least a dozen people. The Indonesian government has taken steps to quell the hostility, however, by increasing its food subsidies by over a third (Berger 3). Aid Provisions The severity of the situation caused by high food prices has led to a surge of interest in aid provision. Given the increased number of people in need of food and the decreased ability of agencies to provide the necessary help, an overhaul in planning and execution of hunger relief was called for in early 2008. The United Nations looks to act upon the issue in three stages: short to medium-term, medium to long-term, and long-term. In the short term it seeks to employ crisis response, which involves emergency protection to those most in need while employing programs to generate income. The United Nations will also use its ability to monitor and assess changing global trends to gain as much information as possible and act accordingly. Within individual states, the UN hopes to work closely with governments to develop the most realistic and effective plans, and urges all nations imposing export bans to reconsider doing so. From the middle to the long term, the UN seeks to ensure that states are remaining within budgets and are gaining enough income to follow through on
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established plans. The UN’s long-term goals include reviewing global policy on issues concerning the causes of high food prices, particularly the use of biofuels. In addition, countries must look to stabilize productivity and agricultural practices (“UN Press Statement” 2). The World Food Programme, one of the organizations leading the battle against rising food prices and hunger, has also taken steps to reform policies and provide more effective care. Having assessed the situation between 2007 and 2008, as well as the shift in global trends going into 2009, the World Food Programme called for an additional US$755 million for the 2008-2009 budget in order to provide adequate emergency relief (“UN Press Statement” 2). In May 2008, this goal was met, with 32 states contributing to the budget. Saudi Arabia is largely responsible for this funding, having contributed US$500 million to the organization. With these donations, the WFP will be able to continue vital school and therapeutic feeding programs within many global hunger hotspots, particularly in Africa. Executive Director of the WFP Josette Sheeran stated that, “The Saudi donation will keep many people from dying, others from slipping into malnutrition and disease, and will even help to stave off civil unrest” (“WFP Completes” 1). In addition to its global appeal for increased funding, WFP called an emergency meeting in June 2008 to discuss plans for dealing with the consequences of high food costs. One program in particular, the 80-80-80 solution, was approved by the Executive Board at the meeting in Rome. Essentially, “80% of our cash for food is spent in the developing world, 80% of our ground transport is procured in the developing world, and 80% of our staff is hired locally in the developing world,” explained Sheeran after the conference (“WFP Strategic Plan” 1). There are various aspects to the plan, including emergency aid directed to those most vulnerable. The plan also emphasizes preventing future problems and looks largely at investing in local economies. By purchasing food from markets in the developing world, WFP is helping to increase revenue in those regions, particularly for those who really need it (“Crisis” 3). WFP has begun to implement these policies, and in 2007 the Programme spent US$612 million to purchase food in developing countries (“WFP Strategic Plan” 1). School feeding programs will also be increased, battling both hunger and education deficiencies in the most impoverished regions. Finally, where possible, states are being given grants instead of strictly food aid. The hope is that local regions, with the help of WFP and other NGOs, will be able to establish self-sufficiency with better agricultural practices, and that local economies will benefit because farmers will be able to hire more workers (Scott 3). BLOC POSITIONS Africa and the M iddle East Containing some of the countries hardest hit by rising food costs, Africa and the Middle East are in desperate need of aid. However, rather than relying solely on aid, governments have begun to take action in order to relieve some of the burden. With many countries looking to cooperate with international guidelines, import tariffs have began to decrease throughout the region in order to allow cheaper consumer prices. For example, Turkey has cut wheat duties from 130% to 8%, maize duties from 130% to 35%, and eliminated the barley duty. Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco have followed suit, while Benin and Senegal are imposing price controls. However, some states, such as Pakistan and Zimbabwe, feel unable to comply with all of the United Nations’ requests and are still placing tariffs or bans on exports in order to ensure enough food remains within their countries to feed citizens (“Global” 3). The African Union (AU) has conducted meetings to discuss the problem. Commission Chairman Jean Ping stated, “There is a great need for both emergency and long term goals to be put in place with strong policy measures, while scaling up our resources in trying to meet this challenge.” In the meantime, South Africa has called for cooperation from all African governments, and is suggesting tips such as lift clubs, which provide group transportation in order to cut down on fuel consumption and cost (Makapela 1). Many Gulf Coast Arab nations have taken to purchasing open land in other nations in order to increase production (“International” 2). Despite policies that focus on benefiting their individual nations, most governments in these areas are willing to cooperate in addressing global food prices, demonstrated by their compliance to UN requests, as well as the donations made by nations able to contribute to relief efforts.
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China and India As two states with growing middle classes, many states blame China and India for growing food demand and rising food costs. India is quick to point out that while their nation may have some impact on the current crisis, their people do not consume as much food or fuel per capita as states such as the United States and Canada. Pradeep S. Mehta, Secretary General of Consumer Unity and Trust Society International, remarked that, “If the developing world is going to develop, demand is going to go up and there are going to be new political paradigms,” thus making it unfair to place blame a country for simply trying to improve its standard of living (Timmons 4). Recognizing that change must be made in some areas, China has begun using alternatives to food crops in order to create biofuels. China hopes to use non-food crops such as sweet potatoes and sweet sorghum in order to alleviate some of the food shortages caused by converting corn into biofuel (“China’s” 1). European Union Member States within the European Union are generally in agreement on how to proceed with the alleviation of international hunger. Measures include funneling more aid to countries most in need of help, with the particular goal to increase the agricultural output of impoverished countries (“Ministers” 1). In terms of biofuels, some members have proposed the use of agricultural waste as a means of energy, rather than relying solely on crops. Should this plan come to fruition, the EU would help to increase the supply of available crops for food. Within the EU, however, countries are split on whether to gear policy toward free trade or subsidies. Countries such as France believe that subsidies are essential to promoting agricultural productivity. The European Commission has also suggested abolishing policies that require land to be set aside for crops that will be converted into biofuels. Members such as Great Britain see a need for independent choice among farmers as to what crops they grow, a concept currently inhibited by the existence of funds that are apportioned to only those farmers who produce specified crops (Kanter 1). Latin America The Latin American and Caribbean Economic System (SELA) has conducted meetings since early 2008 in order to discuss possible solutions to the consequences of high food prices. The 26 countries involved have all agreed that a regional approach is the most efficient means of dealing with the area’s problems. Unlike some other regions, they are not plagued by a scarcity of water, nor do they lack sufficient areas of usable land. However, they do lack the technology and resources used to attain optimum productivity. As such, they hope to increase the amount of research done on the region’s agricultural practices, and use the findings to create more efficient techniques. Latin America has long had difficulties coping with the agricultural practices of the North, which include large support of domestic farmers, providing subsidies on exports, and limiting access to domestic markets. According to SELA President Jose Rivera, these tactics “prevent investment and expansion and trade in efficient producer states” because they are unable to compete with the markets of the North (Marquez 1). In the short term, SELA supports the use of emergency funding to states in need of immediate food aid. Southeast Asia In early 2008 the Association of Southeast Asian States (ASEAN) began talks on the best ways to address rising food costs. While they acknowledged the need for greater cooperation and a more stable supply of rice, they failed to create a comprehensive plan on how to do so. Many Southeast Asian states have chosen to deal with the problem on a national level, focusing on how best to procure food for their own people before looking at the international consequences. For example, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Cambodia have taken measures such as export tariffs and quotas to ensure that rice stays within domestic markets. There are various options open to the governments in Southeast Asia to procure more stable markets; however, all solutions seem to impose other complications. For example, talks of creating a cartel between Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Viet Nam, and Laos have fallen apart due to the unequal production success of
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World Food Programme

rice between the states, leading to an imbalance in power. ASEAN supports the notion of lowering consumer costs by eliminating middlemen between rice produces and consumers. Rather than going through traders or millers, Thailand has agreed to purchase some rice directly from farmers (“Southeast” 2). Other states have markets closely tied in with government and are therefore more easily controlled to suit consumer needs. United States The United States, similar to other highly developed countries, has felt the pressure of rising food prices but not the most devastating consequences. While the Bush administration has asserted its support to fighting rising global hunger, they have yet to adopt certain measures advocated by the United States. For example, in an attempt to decrease their dependency on oil for energy, the United States has heavily promoted the use of biofuels. As such, they do not intend to stop using biofuels altogether, but have stated that the long-term goal will be to use grass, instead of corn, to produce energy. The United States also favors a strategy in which free trade is promoted and encouraged between states (Brasher 1). COMMITTEE MISSION Members of the World Food Programme must cooperate to form a comprehensive and efficient plan to battle rising food prices. Strategies need to implement change on various levels, from regional areas to the global population, as well as from emergency aid provision to long-term policy reform. While the World Food Programme should look to its past successes in aid provision for guidance, the magnitude of this particular issue, as well as its unique causes, demand innovative ideas in order to develop a truly effective solution. Given the large number of problems contributing to rising food prices, creating a comprehensive and successful plan of action is a difficult task. This is particularly so given the controversial nature of many of these causes. Even without the subsequent problems of high food costs, the individual debates over high fuel prices, climate change, and the creation of biofuels are all vulnerable to clashes in regional and national policies when placed in an international arena. Even if a clear solution to these individual problems were in sight, the need to respect national sovereignty would make it impossible to ensure that all states would comply with guidelines. In addition, the multidimensional nature of the causes of high food costs further complicates the issue, as does solving one cause may make another worse. For example, governments, in an attempt to reduce global warming and climate change, have increased biofuel production, thus decreasing food supply. It is also necessary to remember that some issues, such as natural disasters caused by climate change, cannot be controlled. Thus, while the committee should look to solve the actual causes where possible, it will be necessary in some cases to focus on alleviating the consequences. Where possible, the WFP should focus on policy reform that tackles the root of rising food prices. However, WFP is largely an action committee, and thus a main goal of the body will be to create short-term, middleterm, and long-term programs that can be implemented throughout the world as needed. Members should keep in mind the differences between developing and developed states, as well as areas whose situations are exacerbated by other factors such as chronic poverty or conflict. While battling rising food prices is a seemingly daunting mission, progress can be made if members of the committee are able to use high levels of cooperation and focus on creating innovative ideas for each area of the problem.

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NATURAL DISASTER HUNGER RELIEF
TOPIC B INTRODUCTION Natural disasters have long plagued mankind, frequently reminding human beings that they are not allpowerful. Whether it is the swift force of a tornado or the extensive suffocation of drought, natural disasters pose an urgent threat to the Earth’s inhabitants. These crises are not restrained to one location or one type, but rather reach every part of the world through an array of devastating forms. The World Food Programme, one of the global leaders in the fight against hunger, has a particular interest in these deadly phenomena. The consequences of natural disasters can be widespread and brutal, and almost certainly affect the hunger situation in ravaged areas. This is particularly true in impoverished regions, where victims do not have the means to adequately protect their families or rebuild security after a disaster strikes. Unfortunately, when hunger and malnutrition are not addressed, victims face stunted growth, slowed thinking, lack of energy, hindered fetal development, mental retardation, organ failure, and starvation. The burden of these conditions encumbers the general mindset of those in need of aid, often leaving them desperate and without hope. With no country or person responsible for the creation of natural disasters, it is a global responsibility to adequately respond to a crisis situation, and there are many aspects involved in dealing with the hunger and devastation caused by natural disaster. The first is risk reduction and prevention, which focuses on minimizing the effects of a natural disaster before it occurs, as well as preparing states and individuals for the disaster and its aftermath. Another factor is acting during the disaster itself, a step largely dealt with by individual governments. Finally, the United Nations and World Food Programme play a large role in providing aid once a disaster has hit, with efforts ranging from immediate food aid to long-term redevelopment. HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE ISSUE There is a wide range of natural disasters that affect the global community today. Before attempting to find a comprehensive solution to providing relief, it is necessary to know the implications of each natural disaster. Floods Flooding, defined as a rise in water level in a particular region to more than is typically recorded, is the most wide-reaching natural disaster. The health effects of this natural disaster can be devastating, with direct effects including heart attack, injury, and drowning. Injury does not necessarily occur during the actual event, but can also take place if and when victims attempt to return to their homes or sort through debris (“WHO” 1). A severe psychological result is post-traumatic stress disorder, a disease whose symptoms can include depression, acute flashbacks, anxiety, and suicide. Problems tend to be more severe among the weaker or disadvantaged members of society, including children, the elderly, the disabled, ethnic or social minorities, and the poor. According to the EM-DAT Emergency Events Database, between 2000 and 2008, flooding killed 46,240 people, injured 224,892, left 9,780,845 homeless, and affected an additional 835,166,406 people worldwide (“EM-DAT” 1). Two of history’s more infamous floods occurred in China. The first took place in 1887 on the Huang He River. Floods consumed 130,000 square kilometers (km), killing between 900 thousand and two million people. While farmers had attempted to build dikes to contain rising waters, the efforts failed due to days of heavy rain as well as rising seabeds, in which settled debris, rocks, and sand create a rising ocean floor. The main cause of death was pandemic and lack of basic needs. Even more devastating was the 1931 Huang He River Flood, in which most of the North Plain of China was entirely underwater. Between 900 thousand and 3.7 million people were left dead, largely as a result of starvation and disease (“Top Ten: Worst” 1).

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World Food Programme

Earthquakes Earthquakes occur when tectonic plates, massive slabs of rock in the Earth’s crust, collide or slide against each other. As plates rub together, tension builds, eventually releasing itself in the form of massive vibrations through hundreds of miles of earth. Earthquakes are measured on the Richter scale between one and eight, with five to seven being moderate to strong, seven to eight being major, and eight and above being great. Approximately ten thousand people die every year from earthquakes. In some exceptional years, however, earthquakes claim the lives of many more people than expected (“Earthquakes” 1). For example, the total number of deaths caused by earthquakes over the last eight years reaches well over 136 thousand, far exceeding the predicted 80 thousand. Most deaths are caused by collapsing buildings. However, mud slides, fires, floods, and tsunamis sparked by earthquakes also take their toll. In addition to deaths, earthquakes have a devastating impact on vital structures within a region, and left close to one billion people homeless between 2000 and 2008 (“EM-DAT” 1). One of the most devastating earthquakes of all time took place in Shaanxi, China, in 1556. The death toll measured 830 thousand, leaving 60% of the population in a 837 kilometer-wide region destroyed by the earthquake. While there were no measurement devices at the time, current experts estimate a magnitude of eight. Ninety-seven countries felt the effects of the earthquake, and aftershocks continued for six months (“Top 10 Deadliest” 1). Droughts While droughts do not create the same immediate death toll as some of the more forceful forms of natural disasters, they are some of the most devastating in terms of their wide-reaching grasp. Second only to floods in number of people affected, droughts have affected the lives of more than 1.5 billion people since 1980 (“EM-DAT” 1). Drought can be caused by a decreased level of precipitation, an increased demand for useable water, or even contamination of the water supply. As water is the second most important substance necessary for human life, following closely behind oxygen, a drought can have numerous severe consequences. Hunger and famine can occur when there is not enough water to support crops or sustain grass fed to livestock. Thirst and disease are also problems, with the former resulting in the latter by leading to the consumption of unsanitary water. Wildfires are also a danger, as are social conflict and war caused by growing panic to secure adequate supplies of water (West 1). W ave/Surge Disasters Tsunamis and tidal waves, while not as common as earthquakes or droughts, can cause massive damage in a short amount of time. Underwater earthquakes, occurring when ocean floor plates rise, fall, or crash against each other, displace the surrounding water and create a series of waves. As the waves move toward the shore they can reach speeds of up to 805 km per hour, but they remain only around 3 km high above the water’s surface. When the waves get closer to land they begin to rise, and eventually the lower portions of the wave hit the shore. Once this occurs a vacuum effect is produced, and all of the surrounding coastal water is sucked inward toward the wave. The combined quantity of water is massive and will hit shores about five minutes after the vacuum occurs, often with waves reaching heights around 30.5 meters (“Tsunami: Killer” 1). Though statistics do not show tsunamis to be one of the overall leading killers among natural disasters, their death and injury rates are extremely high per event. With tsunamis, drowning causes most deaths, while injuries are related to debris powered by rushing water. Following a wave, people are often left without adequate water, food, shelter, or medical care (“Health Effects” 1). What began as an earthquake with a Richter-magnitude of 9.8 in Sumatra, Indonesia, on 26 December 2004 quickly turned into one of the most devastating natural disasters of all time. The Indian Ocean Tsunami killed between 250 and 310 thousand people. In addition, water and land ecosystems suffered severe damage, and total reconstruction costs were estimated at US$5 billion (“Top Ten Worst” 1).

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World Food Programme

W ind Storms Wind storms can take the form of tornadoes, hurricanes, or cyclones. A tornado is a column of air that rotates at speeds of up to 405 km per hour and descends from a thunderstorm to the ground (“Fast Facts” 1). While the United States is the most frequent victim of this type of disaster, it has been known to occur in the Argentina, India, and the United Kingdom. While generally short-lived and usually traveling about ten kilometers at speeds between ten and 32 km per hour, tornados can be devastating, with clouds towering up to 16 thousand meters in the air and rotating winds at speeds between 160 and 405 km per hour. While tornadoes are certainly powerful enough to lift and carry people, most deaths and injuries are caused by flying debris (Williams 1). Hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons exhibit identical physical properties but vary in their locations. When it develops over the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Ocean, the storm is called a hurricane; if over the Bay of Bengal or the Indian Ocean, it becomes a cyclone; and if over the western Pacific, it is a typhoon. Measured on a scale of one to five, five being the most severe, there are usually around 80 tropical cyclones a year, resulting in billions of dollars worth of damage and an annual death toll of approximately 10 thousand people (Burton 1). A tropical storm is any storm originating in the topics with wind speeds at or below 119 km per hour; it becomes a hurricane when wind speeds reach 120 km per hour. Results can include flooding, tornadoes, and landslides (“Fast Facts” 1). Another common problem is storm surges, or massive waves that are crashed onto land by the strong winds. These can result in beach erosion and destruction of any structure in their path. Ultimately, wind storms have left 3.8 million homeless and another 300 million affected since the start of the 21st century (“EM-DAT” 1). Pakistan has faced deadly hurricanes for hundreds of years, with one of the worst occurring on 13 November 1970. With winds racing at 222 km per hour, the hurricane killed between 500 thousand and one million people. Most of the deaths occurred as the result of storm surges that flooded islands, villages, and farmland. The estimated reconstruction costs totaled US$185 million (“Top Ten Worst” 1). In 1839, India endured a devastating cyclone that brought 12-meter waves crashing onto its coast. The city of Coringa was entirely wiped out, 20 thousand sea vessels were destroyed, and 300 thousand people lost their lives. Unfortunately, the region was familiar with this type of event, as three tidal waves had hit the same harbor in 1789. Twenty thousand people drowned during those disasters (“Top 10 deadliest” 1). Impact on Hunger There are various ways in which natural disasters affect hunger situations. Directly, droughts deprive crops of enough water to grow, while floods can drown out fields. The more violent storms, with strong winds and often accompanying floods, can also destroy land and harvests. This leaves regions with a drastically reduced food supply, and in serious cases can result in famine. Natural disasters also have a huge indirect impact on a region’s food security. For individuals who have just survived an earthquake or hurricane, it is likely that their homes and villages are destroyed. Victims are left without shelter and without means to procure food. Any food or water that could have been in a house is likely destroyed or contaminated, along with any money that might have otherwise been available to purchase food. In addition, even when a person could afford something to eat, it is unlikely that there is anywhere in the surrounding area of a disaster where food is available. Another problem arises when one examines how the death toll and injury rate affect food security. In many situations, family members who were once able to work are either dead or physically unable to hold jobs. This leaves survivors with little or no income to provide support in the months and sometimes years after a disaster. In the long term, hunger can only be eradicated once a region restores adequate health care, water systems, housing, and employment (“Heath Effects”). Relief W ork The World Food Programme stands among the global leaders in disaster relief. With years of experience and hard work, both in discussion rooms and in the field, the WFP has been able to develop a solid strategy to
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providing efficient aid. One of the key aspects to the WFP’s success is its ability to transport food no matter what the conditions. The Programme uses ships, dug-out canoes, trucks, trains, planes, helicopters, air drops, and even mules and elephants. When roads are destroyed, WFP creates pathways; if bridges are knocked out, the WPF builds new ones. Ultimately, their fast-pace work and well-equipped resources enable optimum preparedness. UN Emergency Assessment Teams ensure that the WFP is informed on exactly what aid is needed, how much, and where. Countries are then allowed to borrow up to US$500 thousand from the WFP’s Immediate Response Account in order to cover emergency costs for up to three months. Once the immediate hunger needs of victims are met, an area’s Country Director draws up an Emergency Operation, or EMOP, which is presented to the global community with specifics on the amount of funding and food aid that needs to be donated. The WFP has also developed systems that can be utilized if relief efforts will take longer than one year, in which case a Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation is prepared (“Emergency Operations” 1). Between 2007 and 2008, the WFP implemented all of these techniques to provide crucial hunger aid. Following the catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the global community put renewed effort into reducing the effects of natural disasters, and in January 2005 the United Nations held the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Japan. The countries that attended produced the Hyogo Declaration, in addition to the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of States and Communities to Disasters. The documents highlight key elements necessary to ensuring efficient and productive disaster relief in the coming generations. The documents also noted a relationship between disaster reduction, sustainable development, and poverty eradication, and they emphasized the importance of cooperation among governments, global and regional organizations, financial supporters, non-governmental organizations, volunteers, and communities (GE.05-61029). Given the inability to control natural disasters, the United Nations placed particular emphasis on early warning systems as one of the most important aspects of disaster relief. This includes education on disasters as well as preparedness, emergency response, and recovery plans. While governments should and must take responsibility during and after a disaster, individual communities also play a large role in securing their own safety and well-being. As such, any education and programming that deals with natural disasters must remain rooted in local levels to ensure that individuals are as well-prepared to cope with disaster as possible. In particular, policy makers should work carefully to incorporate a gender perspective into “policies, plans and decision-making processes, including those related to risk assessment, early warning, information management, and education and training” (GE.05-61029). Globally, relief efforts should take into consideration cultural diversity and age, while particular attention should be paid to developing states and disaster-prone regions. Another important factor noted in the Hyogo Framework is the increased sharing of information dealing with the best educational, risk reduction, and relief practices. This includes forging connections between research and science institutions, as well as enhancing dialogue within the international community. Ultimately the United Nations believed that these efforts would combine to enhance both safety and food security in regions affected by natural disaster, and the declaration was successfully adopted by 168 states (GE.05-61029). The World Food Programme has also taken massive steps in providing aid to those affected by natural disasters. After forty years of experience, the organization has been able to develop plans that can be set into action just hours after a disaster occurs. Assessment methods help workers determine who needs help and what kind of food will be the most beneficial. Then tracking and monitoring systems ensure the food arrives to the right people in the right amount of time. More than two thousand lower-level organizations work with the WFP to expedite the process and “to ensure a flexible workforce, local market knowledge, and lower cost.” Four hundred natural disasters struck worldwide in 2005 while only one hundred occurred in the year 1975, providing strong evidence that the number of natural disasters occurring every year is growing. With this in mind, the WFP has begun to extend its partnerships into the corporate arena. Corporate sponsors can provide invaluable financial and hands-on assistance, factors used by the WFP to ensure that the maximum aid potential of each corporate sponsor is reached. One of the most important developments in disaster relief has been the creation of the WFP Emergency Network, a system that pre-positions necessary supplies in
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areas that are about to be struck by disaster. In order to ensure its success, the WFP created a list of items essential to natural disaster relief. These items are donated, on a regular basis, by corporations or governments willing to lend their support. The supplies and equipment are then shipped to one of the WFP’s five worldwide depots, which are located in Ghana, Italy, Panama, Southeast Asia, and United Arab Emirates. Throughout an emergency, these goods are shipped from the nearest depot to ensure that they arrive quickly and efficiently. The World Food Programme also makes sure that pre-trained experts and emergency funds are on hand during a disaster in order to coordinate the process smoothly (“The UN World” 1). CURRENT STATUS Unfortunately, natural disasters are occurring more frequently and with more devastation. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Control (IPCC), more hurricanes, typhoons, droughts, and floods are to be expected in the coming years, adding to the problems of billions who already face hunger, water shortages, and displacement. In the face of such a negative forecast, the United Nations held the Joint Meeting of Executive Boards of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the WFP in January 2007 to discuss natural disaster preparedness and opportunities. The board recognized the toll natural disasters take on lives, livelihoods, homes, basic services, and infrastructure, as well as the disproportionate burden impoverished states face. The board highlighted two main areas, the first being preparedness for emergency response, which focuses on short-term relief. The board decided that ultimately aid agencies and governments need to focus on prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, rehabilitation, and responsibility. In addition, both external and internal efforts should focus on making individual states prepared and able to cope with natural disasters themselves. Tools and technologies should be shared globally and between national and local levels of government to ensure that all are as informed as necessary and possible. Applicable parties should make efforts to ensure that early warning systems are not only put in place but also can quickly and efficiently provide information to locals in a way they understand and heed (“Joint Meeting” 1). Risk reduction is the second key area to natural disaster relief the board of joint executive staffs highlighted. This aspect focuses on “the development of early warning systems, training personnel for response management, the development of evacuation plans, etc.,” with the latter of these measures aiming to mitigate the losses from accumulated and current risk. The board also expressed its continued support of the Hyogo Declaration and the Hyogo Framework for Action. In addition, the board emphasized that all organizations should continue to increase their work with partners in order to ensure optimum cooperation and donor participation (“Joint Meeting” 6). Hurricanes and Flooding in Latin America and the Caribbean Hurricane Dean hit the Caribbean as a Category 5 storm on 22 August 2007, affecting 170 thousand people. Fortunately, the WFP, national governments, and regional organizations had already established sub-regional emergency locations in Ecuador, El Salvador, and Barbados. This preparedness planning allowed the WFP to provide more than 22 thousand victims with almost nine tons of high energy biscuits (HEBs). In addition, the WFP transported rations of rice, pulses, vegetable oil, and HEBs to Belize in order to provide two months worth of food for five thousand people (1020-1753 P0806/E15,500/5 15). With winds of up to 270 km per hour, Hurricane Felix hit Nicaragua on 4 September 2007. The Category 5 storm destroyed ten thousand homes and affected 185 thousand people. Within six hours of the storm, the WFP began to respond to those in need. Nicaragua’s country office was able to airlift food to areas surrounded by flooding, and the WFP began a nine-month emergency operation to help 80 thousand people (1020-1753 P0806/E15,500/5 16). In late October 2007, the Dominican Republic faced massive flooding after Tropical Storm Noel. While the WFP was able to bring in food from a regional emergency hub, it quickly began a six-month emergency
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operation in the area. In accordance to the WFP policies, particular attention was given to nursing mothers and children under the age of five (1020-1753 P0806/E15,500/5 17). Earthquake in Peru On August 2007, after killing 500 people and injuring more than one thousand, the 7.9 Richter scale earthquake in Pisco, Peru, left 200 thousand homeless and 450 thousand affected. Working with a local counterpart, the WFP was able to reach hungry victims within 12 hours of the disaster. A nine-month program was also put in place to help 80 thousand of the neediest people. Working to establish sustainable local markets, the WFP was able to purchase 16,600 tons of food in local markets at a cost of US$16.5 million just 48 hours after the earthquake hit (1020-1753 P0806/E15,500/5 18). Bay of Bengal Cyclone On 15 November 2007, the Category 4 Cyclone Sidr hit the coast of Bangladesh with winds of up to 240 km per hour. The storm destroyed houses, businesses, bridges, roads, and crops. 3,800 people were killed, thousands of livestock were left dead, and 4.7 million victims were left homeless. Economically, the damage was estimated at more than US$2.2 billion. The WFP immediately began to send food from one of the close depots, and was able to provide 416 metric tons of HEBs and 750 metric tons of rice to 100 thousand people within six hours of the disaster. Working with other NGOs, the WFP helped an additional 554 thousand people within 48 hours (1020-1753 P0806/E15,500/5 11). Fortunately, the WFP, in conjunction with the Bengali government, had implemented disaster preparedness plans. This included a storm tracking unit set up a week before the cyclone hit, as well as the creation of a storm map of the cyclone’s path. This allowed authorities to evacuate 3.2 million people safely from danger zones prior to when the storm hit land. Less than two weeks after the disaster, an EMOP received US$51.8 million to provide food to 2.3 million victims over six months. In the two months following the cyclone, 12 thousand tons of food had been allocated to those in need. While providing immediate hunger relief, the WFP began another step in the recovery program by conducting an Emergency Food Security Assessment to determine what further action was necessary. This established that food aid programs should continue until May of the following year (1020-1753 P0806/E15,500/5 13). Cyclone Nargis in M yanmar In early May 2008, Cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar with winds reaching 200 km per hour, leaving 130 thousand people dead and 2.4 million severely affected. The Ayeyarwady Delta bore the brunt of the disaster, where the storm destroyed roads, buildings, homes, schools, valuable farm land, and crops. In the wake of the disaster, relief workers faced massive setbacks when the Myanmar government placed firm restrictions on the movement of both humanitarian supplies and staff members (“Cyclone Nargis” 1). In spite of the severe limitations, the WFP managed to put the beginning steps of emergency relief into action. In the two weeks following the disaster, dispatched food reached more than 250 thousand victims. In addition, sanitation equipment, medical supplies, temporary shelters, and various food supplies were flown in from various donors around the world. The WFP’s Emergency Operation for Myanmar set its budget at US$69.5 million in order to deliver adequate food to the 750 thousand people in immediate need (“Myanmar” 1). One development in disaster relief was the implementation of a new WFP program that provides cash instead of food items. This relief effort will benefit 200 thousand people severely affected by the cyclone (“WFP Executive Director” 1). Two months after Nargis hit, the WFP faced another setback as only 45% of the required budget was received. Still, the WFP helicopters, trucks, and barges had been able to deliver more than 18 thousand tons of food to 684 thousand people within the region. The WFP also slowly made progress in terms of procuring enough visas for aid workers, and in June, 43 WFP staff members were able to join the national staff of 111 in carrying out relief efforts (“Cyclone Nargis” 1).
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Earthquakes and Flooding in China On 12 May 2008, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit the Sichuan, Gansu, and Yunnan Provinces in western China. More than 67 thousand people were killed, and hundreds of thousands were left injured. Most shockingly, at least 900 victims were school children stuck in a school as it collapsed. Luckily, 150 thousand people were able to evacuate the area in anticipation of floods, and only 60 were killed when flooding occurred on June 17. Deemed the worst floods in 50 years, they destroyed 5.4 million acres of crops (“2008 Disasters” 1). BLOC POSITIONS Natural disasters affect states according to where they lie on two spectrums: disaster proneness and level of development. Disaster-prone states know the devastation that can be caused by natural disaster first-hand. They are hit frequently and often with great force. States that are disaster-prone often take great interest in natural disaster relief efforts and seek to implement many of the suggestions made by global organizations specializing in this field. On the contrary, states that are not disaster-prone may not place as much emphasis on increased and improved relief methods. Thus, it is the job of disaster-prone states to illustrate the necessity of global cooperation in dealing with natural disasters, as it is the job of those states not at risk to recognize their responsibility to the national community. Natural disaster can hit both developed and developing states alike; however their impact is often drastically different. While droughts may be an inconvenience to areas within a wealthy country, these central governments often have the funding to increase spending to import the necessary water, thus remedying the issue. However, in impoverished and developing states, a drought can mean death to hundreds of thousands of people. Not only are less developed states less likely to have the resources to implement sufficient early warning systems, but also their ability to cope once disaster has struck is severely disadvantaged. Countries are left without funds, properly trained workers, or resources to help relief efforts. On the other hand, developed states often already have means in place to reduce risk, implement early warning systems and education programs, and provide the necessary aid both during and after disasters occur. COMMITTEE MISSION Between 2007 and 2008, the global community has been overwhelmed with disasters. Fortunately, the WFP successfully implemented programs within its existing framework to accomplish vital relief work. Ultimately, the United Nations issued 15 appeals for sudden natural disaster relief in 2007, five more than in 2006. Flooding in South Asia affected more than 60 million people and will have a lasting impact on both the current and future generations. Two hundred million people now live in coastal areas at risk for extreme weather and storms. Within one generation, the number of disasters has increased threefold, while losses have increased by five times. For example, by the year 2020, between 75 and 250 million Africans will be exposed to increased water stress (“Ten Stories” 1). The World Food Programme has done an excellent job in increasing natural disaster awareness and preparation over the last four decades. However, there are still clearly problems in place. It is the job of the committee to determine what more can be done in the areas of education, preparation, partnerships, and relief. While it is important to look at how to strengthen existing frameworks, it is also necessary to think of innovative ways to increase cooperation and aid efforts. Given that natural disasters are a global problem, cooperation is essential in battling the consequences that arise. The committee should pay particular attention to the types of natural disasters that are occurring and how aid programs can be tailored accordingly. In addition, the WFP should continue on its path of forging partnerships and seeking new ways to procure funding and donations from the international community. From serving as a venue to discuss plans of action and technology, gather increased support and funding, and
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implement aid programs, the World Food Programme continues in its mission of bringing food and nutrition care to those most in need while building infrastructure and encouraging policy reform.

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RESEARCH AND PREPARATION QUESTIONS
As mentioned in the Note on Research and Preparation, it is imperative that delegates answer each of these questions in their position papers. TOPIC A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How has your country contributed to rising food costs and how have those costs affected your country? In what ways can the WFP provide aid to children and ensure that proper nutrition requirements are being met? Besides direct food aid, what other programs can be implemented in states to ensure long-term success? What are ways in which each of the causes of rising food costs can be addressed? How can the WFP work with its partners to ensure more effective aid delivery, and how can it increase aid donations?

TOPIC B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How has your country been affected by natural disasters and what types of relief has it experienced? In what ways can the WFP provide aid to children and ensure that proper nutrition requirements are being met? Besides direct food aid, what other programs can be implemented in states to ensure long-term success? What are ways in which relief efforts should be tailored to specific types of natural disasters? How can the WFP work with its partners to ensure more effective aid delivery, and how can it increase aid donations?

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APPENDIX
SAMPLE REPORT
Topic: World Food Programme and the Environment* INTRODUCTION (1) Environmental problems are causing indisputable and immediate harm to the health and livelihoods of the world’s poorest people, mostly in developing countries. The magnitude of environmental threats, and the recognition that it is far cheaper to avoid environmental damage today than to fix problems tomorrow (World Bank, 1998; UNHCR, 1997), have prompted bilateral and multilateral development agencies to develop Environmental Assessment (EA) procedures and to encourage the evolution of national environmental policies. However, many developing countries do not have capacity to apply adequately EA procedures or enforce environmental policies and standards. To respond to these realities, reversing destructive environmental practices has been highlighted as one of five donor development goals for the year 2015 (World Bank, 1998; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 1997). (2) This goal is as valid for recovery and relief interventions as it is for development activities, considering that natural and human-induced environmental degradation undermine the economic and productive bases of communities. Failure to achieve this goal will continue to result in a vicious cycle of poverty, loss of productive assets, food insecurity, malnutrition, displacement, and social instability. Women are particularly affected as they are the main providers of water, fuel, fodder and forest products. Environmental degradation from natural disasters, soil erosion, declining soil fertility, desertification and reduction of biological diversity has displaced over 25 million persons, mostly in the African Sahel, the Horn of Africa and the South-Asian sub-continent (International Organization for Migration, 1996). The prevention of unsustainable natural resource management practices—an important element in WFP’s development portfolio representing over 45 percent of development expenditures—is crucial for mitigating environmental impact and safeguarding food security. (3) Complex emergencies also exacerbate environmental degradation. Human conflict has displaced about 35 million people, both refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) is 30 low- and middle-income countries (UNHCR, 1997). Mass influxes of populations present a threat to the food security of host communities, as food supply is closely linked to available natural resources. Access to already strained resources—which are unable to withstand heavy, unexpected increases in demand—creates tension, instability, and competition between host and displaced populations. (4) During the last decade WFP has undertaken a number of initiatives to address environmental concerns in both its relief and development interventions. These include incorporating the consideration of environmental issues in its programme design manual, presenting a paper to the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes (CFA) on sustainable development (CFA: 27/P/INF/2, 1989), and an examination of issues through case studies—WFP Interventions in the Field of Natural Resources: Case Study Linking Relief and Development (with FAO participation) and participation in the UNHCR project—Towards Sustainable Environmental Management Practices in Refugee-Affected Areas (TSEMPRAA). (5) WFP supports inter-agency coordination of environmental responses by participating in the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development. WFP promotes the goals of Agenda 21, in particular Chapter 34, by helping poor communities adopt sustainable coping strategies and by addressing environmental concerns in relief and development. WFP supports the implementation of the World Food Summit Plan of Action, in particular Commitment Three, Objective 3.2, by promoting initiatives to combat environmental threats to food security in recovery and development. WFP is working closely with UNHCR and other partners to develop a better understanding of environmental threats and prevention measures, for example through the TSEMPRAA project which aims to produce environmental training materials based on the previously mentioned case studies. Support by donors and partners will allow WFP to more systematically avoid
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environmental damage, implement prevention and mitigation measures, and promote environmental benefits. (6) The purpose of this paper is to summarize policy and operational issues faced by WFP when integrating environmental concerns in its operations. It identifies key environmental issues relevant to WFP food-assisted operations and reviews pertinent donor/partner concerns and environmental assessment requirements. The paper identifies procedures that will allow WFP to strategically respond to identified environmental risks, for example, considering energy issues when determining the composition of the food basket, applying environmental review procedures, and promoting environmentally-friendly procurement and recycling. LESSONS LEARNED (7) Background work for this paper included a review of: the current literature on environment and food security; the legal and procedural requirements for environmental assessment currently applied by FAO, IFAD, UNHCR, the World Bank, and the development agencies of Australia, Canada, Denmark, the European Union, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, the OECD, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States; WFP evaluation documents; the above-mentioned case studies; and a WFP survey of environmental legislation and concerns pertinent to Official Development Assistance. It also reflects extensive meetings and contacts with environmental specialists in these agencies, and with WFP staff at headquarters and in country offices. (8) The review highlighted the links among food security, improving the livelihoods of the poorest and environmental protection. Many donors and multilateral agencies have responded by requiring some level of environmental assessment when considering support to infrastructure and natural resource management activities. Humanitarian assistance is increasingly required to consider environmental impact. The review also highlighted the importance of designing technically sound activities to ensure that the poorest are not further marginalized by proposed activities. The issues raised are not restricted to WFP interventions, but are common to most relief and development efforts. (9) The following lessons were identified as critical for formulating an environmentally-sound WFP programming response. Lesson 1. Displaced persons and influxes of populations pose food security threats (10) Mass influxes of populations present a threat to the food security of host communities, as food supply is closely linked to available natural resources. The cost to the host country to supply needed subsistence resources to those seeking refuge is largely underestimated and often ignored. There is a need for WFP to link up with government agencies directly charged with environmental policy issues in order to facilitate the implementation of prevention and mitigation programmes. Lesson 2. Environmental screening is required for development

The annual cost to the Government of Mali of local water and fuelwood supplied to Mauritanian refugees is about one million dollars (WFP Mali Case Study, 1996). In Kenya, the figure is estimated to be around 10.5 million dollars annually (WFP Kenya Case Study, 1996). These figures do not consider indirect environmental impact such as accelerated decrease in forest cover, degradation of rangelands from refugees’ livestock or the decrease in soil fertility as a result of more intensive agricultural practices.
(11) The WFP survey of donor requirements identified that a number of donor organizations require routine screening of proposed development projects to estimate the probable type and magnitude of potential adverse impacts and to ensure that people’s coping mechanisms are safeguarded. Projects are subsequently assigned to a category of desired environmental analysis (ranging from mandatory preparation of an EA, to limited or preliminary environmental review, to EA exemptions). Most WFP development projects fall into
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the category requiring preliminary or limited assessment, not a full-scale Environmental Assessment. Even limited assessment requires greater attention to incorporating systematic review procedures into activity identification and programme design.

Several aid agencies expect multilateral organizations to carry out effective assessment and mitigation of environmental risks. WFP Survey of Donor Requirements, 1998.

*NB: This sample is only an excerpt of the 1998 WFP Report. The full report can be accessed at: http://www.wfp.org/eb/docs/1998/wfp000272~1.pdf.

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IMPORTANT DOCUMENTS
The following documents have been hand-selected by Directors to further aid in delegate preparation. Please make a concerted effort to read and analyze these documents prior to the conference. TOPIC A “Crisis.” WFP- Crisis Page. 2008. World Food Programme. 10 June 2008. An overview of the key facts of growing food prices, including causes, consequences, and comparisons to the past. It also provides relevant statistics and information on how WFP is acting. “Food Outlook: Global Market Analysis.” Food and Agriculture Organization. June 2008. “World Food Crisis Summit: WFP scales up urgent food assistance in 62 countries worldwide.” WFP- Press Release. 4 Apr. 2008. World Food Programme. 11 June 2008 The press release talks about WFP’s history in food aid, as well as the current difficulties it is having in ensuring its programs are implemented. “WFP Strategic Plan Charts Revolution in Food Aid.” WFP- Press Release. 13 June 2008. World Food Programme. 15 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2871>. WFP gives an overview of plans made at the 2008 Rome convention on high food prices. It explains the 80-80-80 plan, resources to be used, and tools to be implemented in fighting the crisis. TOPIC B 1020-1753 P0806/E15,500/5. “Be Part of the Solution.” 2007. This was a very detailed review of the WFP’s relief efforts in 2007. The focus was on natural disasters, what has been done, and various statistics for each example. GE.05-61029. “World Conference on Disaster Reduction.” 25 Jan. 2005. This document explains the purpose of the conference, and writes out the Hyogo Declaration. The Declaration details the organization’s stance on natural disaster relief in relation to early warning and risk prevention. “The UN World Food Programme: Committed to Saving Lives in Emergencies and Eradicating Hunger.” Citigroup Global Markets. 2006. CitiGroup. 6 July 2008. This site gave very detailed information on the WFP’s role in hunger relief following natural disasters. It looked specifically at its relationships to corporate sponsors and the use of emergency hubs.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
COMMITTEE HISTORY “Executive Board.” World Food Programme. 2008. World Food Programme. 10 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/aboutwfp/how_run/executiveboard.asp?section=1&sub_section=3>. The site details what the Executive Board is and how its members are chosen. “History.” World Food Programme. 2008. World Food Programme. 19 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/aboutwfp/history/index.asp?section=1&sub_section=2>. This page provides a very brief, yet useful, summary of the creation of WFP and its first few years. “Institutional Timeline.” World Food Programme. 2008. World Food Programme. 19 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/aboutwfp/history/instit_timeline.asp?section=1&sub_section=1>. Describes all of the structural developments the WFP has undergone since its establishment. “Operational Timeline.” World Food Programme. 2008. World Food Programme. 19 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/aboutwfp/history/op_timeline.asp?section=1&sub_section=2>. Provides details for all of the WFP’s major missions since its creation. Includes facts, figures, and a brief description of the individual problems of each case. “The WFP Mission Statement.” World Food Programme. 2008. World Food Programme. 10 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/aboutwfp/mission/index.asp?section=1&sub_section=6>. This website provides the WFP’s complete mission statement. TOPIC A UN Sources “Crisis.” World Food Programme. 2008. World Food Programme. 10 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2853>. An overview of the key facts of growing food prices, including causes, consequences, and comparisons to the past. It also provides relevant statistics and information on how WFP is acting. “Global: Counties respond to food price crisis.” UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 5 July 2008. IRIN. 5 July 2008 <http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=76835>. IRIN provides information on what individual states in Africa and the Middle East are doing to battle high food costs. The general focus is on import tariff reductions and export bans. “High Food Prices—A Harsh New Reality.” WorldBank.org. 29 Feb. 2008. The World Bank. 15 June 2008 <http://go.worldbank.org/DKQVYDJ7H0>. This article has detailed information on the various causes of high food prices. In addition, it looks at how certain states are affected and what they are doing to stem the problems. “High Food Prices Drive Down Flow of Food Aid to the Hungry.” World Food Programme. 10 June 2008. World Food Programme. 15 June 2008 < http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2867>. This article looks at the problems WFP is having in ensuring that their aid programs are maintained. It also discusses various donations that have been made by states to help shoulder the burden. “UN Press Statement: a Unified United Nations Response to the Global Food Price Challenge.” WFPPress Release. 29 Apr. 2008. World Food Programme. 27 Sept. 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2824>.
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The piece discusses the general problems of high food prices, including causes and consequences. It also talks about the UN’s commitment to finding a solution, and its guidelines for what it plans to do about it. “WFP completes $755 million appeal with Saudi Pledge.” WFP- Press Release. 23 May 2008. World Food Programme. 16 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2854>. This article looks at the WFP’s budget and the donations made by Saudi Arabia. It then discusses the improvements that will be made on security. “WFP Food Distribution Begin for Afghans hit by High Food Prices.” WFP- Press Release. 6 Mar. 2008. World Food Programme. 15 June 2008 < http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2787>. This article reviews the intended plans of WFP in Afghanistan. It also addresses the issue of flooding in the country as a contributing factor to food shortages. “WFP Strategic Plan Charts Revolution in Food Aid.” WFP- Press Release. 13 June 2008. World Food Programme. 15 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2871>. WFP gives an overview of plans made at the 2008 Rome convention on high food prices. It explains the 80-80-80 plan, resources to be used, and tools to be implemented in fighting the crisis. “WFP Warns of Potential Humanitarian Food Crisis in DPRK Following Critically low Harvests.” WFPPress Release. 16 Apr. 2008. World Food Programme. 11 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2818>. The press release provides specific information on the DPRK and its food shortages. It also discusses the consequences of high cost of food in the area. “World Food Crisis Summit: WFP scales up urgent food assistance in 62 countries worldwide.” WFP- Press Release. 4 Apr. 2008. World Food Programme. 11 June 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2864>. The press release talks about WFP’s history in food aid, as well as the current difficulties it is having in ensuring their programs are implemented. Non-UN Sources Berger, Julian. “Feed the World? We are fighting a losing battle, UN admits.” Guardian. 26 Feb. 2008: 18. Berger writes about the growing difficulties for WFP in providing adequate aid. The article also reviews some of the causes of high food costs, as well as the solutions individual states are implementing. Brasher, Philip. “Rising food prices could put brakes on biofuel.” Tuscan Citizen. 6 June 2008: 1-4. Brasher looks at the idea of cutting down biofuel production in order to decrease food shortages. He also provides useful statistics on the impact that this might have in the future. “China’s new Ethanol Strategy to Boost potato Industry.” Checkbiotech.org. 1 June 2008. Mathaba Newss Network. 15 June 2008 <http://www.checkbiotech.org/green_News_Biofuels.aspx?infoId=15020>. The article reviews the history of China’s biofuel production. It discusses the new plans to use non-food materials as a source for ethanol. “EU Defends Biofuels Policy amid Rising Food Prices.” Checkbiotech.org. 1 June 2008. Mathaba Newss Network. 10 June 2008 <http://bioenergy.checkbiotech.org/news/2008-0521/EU_defends_biofuels_policy_amid_rising_food_prices/http://checkbiotech.org/>. The article explains the EU’s commitment to biofuels and their plans to continue producing them in order to reach emissions goals. “Food For Thought.” The Economist. Mar. 2008: 1-3.
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The Economist provides information on hunger hotspots around the globe. It also looks at why the crisis may lead to positive change in national and international policies. Hirsh, Larissa. “What Are Hunger and Malnutrition?” Kids Health For Parents. Jan. 2007. The Nemours Foundation. 16 June 2008 <http://www.resident.org/parent/nutrition_fit/nutrition/hunger.html>. Hirsh details the causes and consequences of malnutrition. This is particularly relevant to the issue of helping kids during the high food cost crisis. “High food prices make oil sheikhs turn to farming.” AusieInkdoLanka.com. 3 June 2008. Aussieindolanka.com. 16 June 2008 <http://www.aussieindolanka.com/news/Intercountryal/local/?newsid=55448&NewsDate=6>. In this article the solutions of gulf Arab states are looked at in more detail, specifically in relation to farming in other counties. Johnson, Alex. “High Costs Land on School Cafeteria Tray.” MSNBC. 9 June 2008. 2008 MSNBC Interactive. 11 June 2008 <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25011096/>. Johnson writes about the negative effects that high food costs are having on American school lunches. He also provides statistics on exactly how much prices have increased and the financial impact on the education system. Kanellos, Michael. “The Biofuel in Rising Food Prices.” CNET. 15 Apr. 2008. CNET Networks, Inc. 11 June 2008 <http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-9918741-54.html>. Different causes of high food prices are discussed, focusing on the shift of crop use from food to biofuel. Specific natural disasters and riots are also detailed for several states. Kanter, James. “Rising Food Prices Sharpen a European Debate.” The New York Times. 20 May 2008. The New York Times. 27 Sept. 2008 <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/20/business/worldbusiness/20subsidy.html>. Discusses the rift within the EU on what should be done to deal with high food prices. It specifically looks at subsidies versus more farmer control in what is grown. “Malnutrition: UN Food Crisis Summit Must Move Beyond Old Ineffective Recipes.” US section of Doctors Without Borders/Medecins Sans Frontieres. 2 June 2008. MSF 2008. 15 June 2008 <http://doctorswithoutborders.org/news/issue.cfm?id=2396>. The article provides facts and figures on malnutrition and its consequences. Makapela, Luvanda. “Africa: Summit to Debate Soaring Food, Oil Prices.” BuaNews. 27 June 2008. AllAfrica Global Media. 18 June 2008 <http://allafrica.com/stories/200806270710.html>. Makepela writes about the African Union summit on high food prices and the regional call for cooperation. There is also mention of South Africa’s plan to cut down fuel costs. Marquez, Humberto. “Latin America: Factors in Climbing Food Prices- A Baker’s Dozen.” IPS News. 4 June 2008. IPS NEWS. 18 June 2008 <http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=42656>. The article discussed the meeting between Latin American states to tackle the problems of high food costs. It has information directly from the head of the organization, including areas they intend to focus on in food security. “Ministers of Finance discuss high food and oil prices.” EU- Press Release. 6 June 2008. European Union. 18 June 2008 <http://www.eu2008.si/en/News_and_Documents/Press_Releases/June/0603ECOFIN.html>. Looks at ideas used by the European Union in determining what can be done about the high food prices. Scott, Mark. “Aids Groups Cope with High Food Prices.” Business Week. 4 June (2008): 2. This source provides relevant statistics on various food costs over the last few years. It also briefly reviews the different methods being looked at by the United Nations and individual states to deal with the consequences rising prices.

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“Southeast Asia: Food Prices.” International Herald Tribune: The Global Edition of the New York Times. 7 May 2008: 1-8. Provides a description of what many of the Southeast Asian states are doing in response to the high food prices. Timmons, Heather. “Indians Find U.S. at Fault in Food Cost.” New York Times. 14 May 2008: 1-5. This article looks at India’s response to the accusations that their growing consumer market has led to high food prices. Specifically, it compares India to Western states in terms of food and fuel consumption. Walt, Vivienne. “The Worlds’ Growing Food-Price Crisis.” Time: World. 27 Feb. 2008. Time. 10 June 2008 <http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1717572-2,00.html>. Walt writes about the food riots that have been taking place globally, as well as the causes of rising prices. She also provides various statistics on finances and those affected. TOPIC B UN Sources 1020-1753 P0806/E15,500/5. “Be Part of the Solution.” 2007. This was a very detailed review of the WFP’s relief efforts in 2007. The focus was on natural disasters, what has been done, and various statistics for each example. “Cyclone Nargis: Two Months Later.” WFP- Press Release. 3 July 2008. World Food Programme. 12 July 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2882>. This is a look at the progress that has been in the two months since Cyclone Nargis hit. “Cyclone Nargis Update.” WFP- News Release. 9 June 2008. World Food Programme. 12 July 2008 < http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2866>. Provides statistics on the relief efforts taking place in Myanmar after the May 2008 cyclone. “Emergency Operations.” World Food Programme. 2008. World Food Programme. 12 July 2008. <http://www.wfp.org/operations/introduction/relief_operations.asp?section=5&sub_section=1>. This looks at how the WFP responds to natural disasters around the globe. Specifically, it examines what factors go into rapid response efforts. GE.05-61029. “World Conference on Disaster Reduction.” 25 Jan. 2005. This document explains the purpose of the conference, and writes out the Hyogo Declaration. The Declaration details the organization’s stance on natural disaster relief in relation to early warning and risk prevention. “Joint Meeting of the Executive Boards of UNDEP/UNFPA, UNICEF and WFP.” United Nations. 23 Jan. 2007. United Nations. 10 July 2008 <http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/joint_board_paper_final-agenda_item1(2).pdf>. The document expressed the findings of the board at the 2007 meetings. It detailed its plans for the future, as well as the roles of the individual bodies in conjunction with the international community. “Myanmar: Food Distributions Continue.” WFP- News Release. 19 May 2008. World Food Programme. 12 July 2008 <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2846>. The article provides insight into the relief effort in Myanmar in the two weeks following the cyclone hit. “WFP Executive Director visits Cyclone Nargis Victims.” WFP- News Release. 1 June 2008. World Food Programme. 9 July 2008. <http://www.wfp.org/english/?ModuleID=137&Key=2863> Looks at the progress made and the steps still needing to be taken in providing aid to those hit by the cyclone in Myanmar. “WHO: Fact Sheet 05/02.” World Health Organization. 13 Sept. 2002. United Nations. 12 July 2008 <http://www.euro.who.int>.
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This provides detailed information on what can be done to protect the public from the affects of flooding. In addition, it provides a list of what the effects actually are. Non-UN Sources “2008 Disasters.” Infoplease. 15 July 2008. Pearson Education. 6 July 2008 <http://www.infoplease.com/world/disasters/2008.html>. This site provided an overview of the natural disasters that have already occurred in 2008. Information included the type of disaster, where it occurred, death rates, injury rates, and other relevant facts. Burton, Horace H.P. “Impact of Tropical Cyclones. Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project. Nov. 1999. Organization of American States. 6 July 2008 <http://www.oas.org/en/cdmp>. This site provided information as to what a cyclone is and what impact it leaves on areas it has hit. Specifically, it looks at economic and health effects. “Earthquakes.” National Geographic. 2008. National Geographic Society. 6 July 2008 <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/natural-disasters/earthquake-profile.html>. Here, National Geographic gave information specific to earthquakes. They discussed how it is measured, and basic statistics. “EM-DAT Database.” Emergence Events Database. 2008. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. 9 July 2008 <http://www.emdat.be/Database/AdvanceSearch/advsearch.php>. This site enables you to pinpoint which countries and natural disasters you want to research. It also enables you to find figures on the different aspects of disaster consequences and overall harm. “Fast Facts: Forces of Nature.” National Geographic. 2008. National Geographic Society. 6 July 2008 <http://www.nationalgeographic.com/forcesofnature/resources>. This page gave basic, yet detailed, information on different types of natural disasters. It discussed hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, tsunamis, and volcanoes. “Health Effects of Tsunamis.” CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response Site. 2008. Department of Health and Human Services. 14 July 2008 <http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/tsunamis/healtheff.asp>. This article examines the immediate as well as the long-term health effects caused by tsunamis. “Ten Stories We Should Hear More About.” Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2007. United Nations. 10 July 2008 <http://www.un.org/events/tenstories/07/extremeweather.shtml>. The site details why the world should pay more attention to natural disasters in the coming years and provides statistics of the growing number of disasters. “Top 10 Deadliest Natural Disasters.” The List Universe. 7 Sept 2007. The List Universe. 11 July 2008 <http://listverse.com/nature/top-10-deadliest-natural-disasters/#comments>. The article described ten of the deadliest natural disasters of all time. It provided dates, times, types, and statistics for each case. “Top Ten: Worst Natural Disasters.” Epicdisasters.com. 15 July 2007. Epic Disasters. 11 July 2008 <http://the-top-tens.blogspot.com/2007/07/top-ten-worst-natural-disasters.html>. The article described ten of the deadliest natural disasters of all time. It provided dates, times, types, and statistics for each case. “Tsunami: Killer Waves.” National Geographic. 2008. National Geographic Society. 6 July 2008 <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/natural-disasters/tsunami-profile.html>. Here, National Geographic gave information specific to tsunamis. They discussed how its measured, and basic statistics. “The UN World Food Programme: Committed to Saving Lives in Emergencies and Eradicating Hunger.” Citigroup Global Markets. 2006. CitiGroup. 6 July 2008 < https://wfpen.ernsystems.com/publicfiles/WFP_InfoPack.pdf>.
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This site gave very detailed information on the WFP’s role in hunger relief following natural disasters. It looked specifically at its relationships to corporate sponsors and the use of emergency hubs. West, Larry. “What is Drought?” About.com. 2008. The New York Times Company. 6 July 2008 <http://environment.about.com/od/environmentalevents/a/whatisdrought.htm>. The author gives basic information on the definition of a drought. He also explains various causes and effects of the natural disaster. Williams, Jack. “Basic Guide to What Causes Tornadoes.” USAToday.com. 17 May 2005. USA Today. 14 July 2008 <http://www.usatoday.com/weather/wtwist2.htm>. Williams talks about what causes a tornado and the effects it can have on an area.

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