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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARD CHOOSING NEWSPAPER TO STUDY CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR REGARDING BUYING DECISION WITH RESPECT TO HT SALES AT MOHALI

INTRODUCTION This project report is all about the customers (advertiser) preferences towards choosing a newspaper as a medium of advertising. Our main focus on these factors which have given more preferences by customer while selecting a hyper-local newspaper as an advertising medium. Newspaper is the biggest and best medium to know whats happening around you. Every morning everyone wants to read a newspaper so that they can kick start their day. Being the biggest and popular medium, it is also the best source of advertising. Since post independence newspaper advertising in India has flourished. Nowadays there is a stiff competition in this field as there are various newspapers available in Indian market. Majority newspapers are of big brands and it means more newspaper advertising opportunities. Newspaper advertising in India is the best way to get maximum exposure. Herein by a simple advertisement you can capture maximum Indian market and reach large population. According to the recent survey every Indian loves to read a newspaper and seeing Indias population we can say that newspaper advertising in India is the most lucrative option. This means at one go you can easily showcase your company and products to the entire India. The biggest advantage of newspaper advertising in India is that there are various newspapers in various languages. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The objective of the present study can be accomplished by conducting a systematic market survey. Market Research is a systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data and finding that are relevant to different market situation facing by the company. The marketing research processes that will be adopted in the present study consist of the following stages: Defining the problem and research objective: The research objective state that what information is needed to solve the problem. Here the objective of the research is customer preference towards choosing a newspaper as a medium of advertising and scope of hyper-local newspaper in print media. Developing research plan: Once the problem is defined, the next step is to prepare a plan for getting the information needed for the research. The present study will adopt descriptive and casual approaches, where in there is a need to gather a large amount of information before making a conclusion if required. Universe:We are conducting a research entitled customer preferences towards choosing a newspaper as a medium of advertising and scope of hyper-local newspaper in print media. There are approximately 2000 clients in Mohali region for advertisement and it is too huge, so for research purpose the population will be all retailers, education institutes, service providers etc. Target population: - our target population is 100 customers, who like to advertise their business. Research Approaches:It is a kind of descriptive research because the data will be collected from different retailers and advertisers. Defining the results, it is necessary to know about customers opinion, beliefs, preferences and satisfaction. Primary data can be collected through observation, questionnaire but I approached survey research, which is, most conventional method for getting more reliable information. Sampling size:For this research study I have set 100 respondents from sector-70, 71 & Phase-3b2 of Mohali (Pb.), as sampling size because of time and cost constraint. Research Instruments:-

I framed a questionnaire in which having open end an close and both type questions. Preparing this questionnaire, I kept in my mind to objectives because object related questions are always most helpful to finding the research purpose. Hypothesis Formulation Null (H0) There is no effect on customer preference towards choosing a medium of advertising. Alternative (H1) There is a significant effect on customer preference towards choosing a medium of advertising. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of this project were mainly to study the market position and consumer (advertiser) preferences about HT Mohali Live Ltd., but there are some more and they are 1. To know the customer (advertiser) preference for choosing a medium of advertising in Mohali region in aspect of advertisement in HT Mohali live. 2. To know the consumer (advertiser) preference toward advertisement in Mohali live. 3. To know the factor which affect the advertiser during choosing advertising medium? 4. Find out the scope of HT Mohali live. 5. To know the brand image of Mohali live hyper local in mind of advertiser. 6. To know the brand Image of HT Mohali live. Questionnaire Dear Respondent I am conducting a research on customer (advertiser) preferences towards choosing a newspaper as a medium of advertising. So, Please spare some valuable time of yours to fill it correctly to make my study complete. Name: .. Age: Sex: 1. Out of which newspaper do you read daily? Hindustan Times Times of India Any other The Tribune The Hindu

2.

Out of the following categorize your business came into? Retail Education Eating outlets Fitness and beauty Services Real estate

Any other pls. specify

3.

Do you know about HT Mohali Live? Yes No

4.

Are you using advertisement for your business? Yes No

If yes than go to the next question and if no than go to the question no.

5.

Please indicate the best medium to advertise to a smaller region like Mohali.

Television: Newspaper: Billboards: Leaflets: Via telephone: Fliers

Radio

Word of mouth: Door to door:

6.

How often do you advertise?

Once Monthly Yearly

Weekly Quarter When needed

7.

Do you advertise your business ever before HT Mohali Live?

Yes

No

8.

Which thing affects people the most?

Price

Content

Quality

Gift

9.

Do you think advertising with HT Mohali Live is beneficial for your business?

Yes

No

10. Why you are not using advertisement for your business?

Lack of fund Un-useful for business

lack of awareness

11. About HT Mohali Live what do you like the most?

12. Any suggestion INTRODUCTION OF TOPIC BUYING BEHAVIOR Behavior is the interaction with the ambient surrounding environment, inherent in living creatures and mediated by their external and inner activeness. The fields of consumer behavior studies how individuals, groups and organizations select buy use and dispose of goods, services, ideas, experiences to satisfy their needs and desires. Studying customers provides clues for developing new products, product features, prices, channels, message and other marketing mix elements. Study of buyer behavior for any product is of vital importance to marketers in shaping the fortunes of their organizations. Thus knowledge of the buyer and his buying motives is a fundamental necessary for marketers. Consumers Behavior: Consumer behavior is actions of consumers in the market place and the underlying motives for those actions; the study of consumer behavior is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available recourses (time, money, effort) on consumption of related items. Consumer behavior is helpful in understanding the purchase behavior and preference of different consumers. Factors influencing consumer behavior: The behavior of buyers, both individual and organizational consumers, is influenced by the various uncontrollable factors. If management is to use the controllable (i.e. product, price, promotion and distribution) effectively, clear understanding of these uncontrollable factors is essential. The combination of various factors like personal, socioeconomical and cultural, social and psychological, produce a different impact on each one of us as manifested in our different behavior as consumers.

(A) Cultural Factors: Culture: Culture has a considerable bearing on the life style and consumption patterns of consumers. Culture affects motives, brand comprehension, attitude and intention to purchase. Much of our behavior is determined by culture, which represents an overall social heritage, a distinctive form of environmental adaptation by a whole society of people. It includes a set of learned belies viz. values; attitude, morals, customs, habit etc. and these beliefs are transmitted from one generation to another. Sub Culture: In Indian culture, we have some important basis of sub-culture such as nationality, religion, race, age, sex, occupation, social class and geographic location etc. which provides more specifics identification and socialization for its members. A sub-culture has its own beliefs, values and customs that set them apart form the other members of the same society. These sub-cultures are helpful for making market segmentation to influence customer behavior in more effective manner. Social Class: Social class is a relatively permanent band homogenous division in a society into which individuals or families sharing similar values, life styles, interest and behavior can be categorized. Consumer buying behavior is determined by the social class to which they belong or which they aspire. (B) Social Factors: Reference Group: the consumer behavior is not only influenced by the family members but also by the group outside the family, the people to whom they interact. Reference group that is with whom the customer can interact directly or indirectly to take their opinions and beliefs. While taking a purchase decision, a consumer prefer to take the advice of reference group and attempts to conform to it. Some are primary groups with which an individual interacts regularly such as families, neighbor, close friends, colleagues. Primary groups are of informal nature. A customer may also belong to a secondary group with which an individual interacts occasionally and does not consider their opinion as important as primary groups. The example of secondary groups is religious, professional and trade union groups, which are more formal and require less interaction. Thus marketers should try to identify the reference groups of their target customers. Family: The family as a unit, is an important consumer for many products as the tastes, likes, dislikes, and lifestyle of a person are rooted in the family itself. It helps in shaping the pattern of consumption and indicating the decisionmaking roles. The members are playing different roles such as the influence the person who influence the buying decision, initiator the person who senses the need for the purchase. Decide the person who takes the final buying decision and user the person who ultimately uses the product. Therefore for a marketer it is essential to identify these members and their respective buying roles. Roles & Status: A person participates in any groups family, clubs, and organizations. The persons position in each group can be defined in terms of role and status. A role consists of the activities a person is expected to perform. Each role carries a status. People choose products that communicate their role And status is society. Thus marketers must be aware of the status symbol potential of products and brands. (C) Personal Factors: Age and life Cycle Stages: Age is an important factor for segmenting the market as well as to influence buyers. The need for the products varies our lifetime. Consumption is also influenced by the specific stage of the family life cycle. Education & Occupation: Education widens a persons horizon. An educated person is more inclined towards advertisement than less educated one. The occupation shapes the consumption needs. Thus markets should try to design different products to design different products to cater the needs of different occupational groups. Income: Income is most important economical factor, which may influence the consumer demand. There are many products in the market, which the consumer wants to buy but his income may become a constraint. Here in this context income means the buying power in the hands of consumers of the net income available for spending. Life style: Every individual has its own living style. The life style of the consumer reflects from their own activities, thinking views etc. different roles played and status in the society reflects the life style. Thus the marketers should analyze activities, interests, opinions and demographic framework to look into the marketing opportunities emerging out of it to influence the buyer behavior.

Personality: The behavior of every individual differs from another. The personality develops with certain unique characteristics called traits. While Highlighting the personality in consumer behavior, psychologists interested in marketing have often referred to the contribution of personality traits. The personality traits differ in every individual. (D) Psychological Factors: Need & Motivation: Human motives are based on needs. All human beings have different needs or variety of needs at all the time whether or not they are conscious of it. Broadly human needs can be classified in two categories i.e. primary and secondary needs. Primary needs or motives are physiological in nature such as need for air, water, food, shelter etc. these needs are finite in nature in the sense that one can consume only a certain quantity of it. Whereas the latter type of needs is social and psychological in nature which includes need for power, prestige, recognition, achievement etc. these needs are infinite in nature i.e. there is no limit to which the person may seek gratification. Perception: Perception is a major psychological factor that influences consumer behavior. The various ways in which the consumer perceives products and services plays a large part in his behavior in the market place. Learning: Learning refers to change in behavior, immediate or in future as a result of pervious experience. Buying behavior is critically affected by the learning experience of buyers. Attitudes: Attitudes are persons feeling in regards to some object or idea which may influence his buying behavior. Attitudes may be described as a predisposition of a person to act or react in a certain manner towards the Stimulus. Marketers may change attitude by producing a direct change in behavior. Stages in the buyer decision process: In making a purchase decision the consumer goes through the six stages of Need Recognition Pre-Purchase Information Search Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase intention Purchase decision Post Purchase Behavior.

Need purchae Recognition

Search

Evaluation of alternative

Purchase Intention Feed back

Purchase decision

Post purchase behavior

Individual influences

Environmental Influences

BUYER DECISION PROCESS Need Recognition: The first stage of the buying process is the perceived want or a desire. A consumer gives preference to fulfill the most essential needs first and postpones the rest of needs due to limited purchasing power. Actually the buying process starts after recognition of a problem or need. The need can be arisen due to internal stimuli. The former one rises to a threshold level and becomes a drive, while the latter one can trigger a problem or a need. The marketer can, therefore develop marketing strategies that trigger consumer interest. Pre-Purchase Information Search: After the recognition of need, it can be satisfied promptly when the desired product is easily available. But the important thing is that what type of product can give the best satisfaction and from where and how it can be procured. Thus this is the stage for gathering information to the attainment of a desired state of affairs. Search may be of two types internal and external. Internal search is a recalling of relevant information from outside sources. This stored information is much useful in making a purchase decision.

Evaluation of Alternatives: Evaluation of alternatives identified during the search process is the critical stage in the buying process. During this stage, the consumer must develop a set of evaluative criterion for making the selection. This stage of buying process is helpful for the marketer to reposition his product. Purchase Intention: Once the question of consumer level of involvement and consumer perception of differences is sorted out, the marketer turns to study the stage of reaching at a purchase intention. A customer wish to buy a product to satisfy his needs but may not be aware of the total number of product varieties that are available at that moment or even out of the awareness the consumer Might not consider certain product varieties. However, out of the consideration set, a list of products is made out based on certain criterias which might lead to purchase intention to buy a product. Purchase Decision: The purchase decision is the end result of the search and alternatives evaluation of the decision process. The consumers have developed their likes and dislikes during the previous stage. Sometimes the customer does not purchase his most preferred brand due to the one or other reasons. Sometimes the customers purchase the new brand just for trial. It the experience is positive in terms of satisfaction derivation then repeat purchase may occur. But the trial purchase is not possible in the costly items. Post-Purchase Behavior: Post purchase behavior refers to the behavior of a consumer finds that its performance or utility matches up to his expectation, give him most satisfaction. This behavior is reflected by repeat purchases. But if the purchase brand does not yield desired satisfaction then negatives feelings will occur which create anxiety and doubts. Marketers should be aware of all the ways to handle consumer dissatisfaction. Companies must invite the consumer complaints as a way to continually improve their performance. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Marketing research is the function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information use to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems generate and refine and evaluate marketing actions, monitor marketing performance and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research attempts to provide accurate information that affects a true state of affairs. This project is based on the following two types of sources: Secondary Data: Information from websites, books and company sources was taken to assist primary data. In order to provide better product and services the managements of Hindustan Times was interested to know. The percentages coverage of their newspaper in the market. The type of news which can create interest among the readers. The criterions which an institutions looks for while subscribing to newspaper. The market offers which allures the customer. The main influence of buying decisions in a particular category of institution. The frequency with which an institution advertises itself or its product in a newspaper. Primary Data: Descriptive research was undertaken by using survey method. A structure questionnaire was designed with the help of ordinal scale (ranking scale) and its was pre-tested and finally given to respondents to elicit specific information. This was done with the help of personal interview. This method has several advantages. First the questionnaire is simple to administer. Second the data obtained are reliable because the responses are limited to the alternatives used. Finally coding, analysis and interpretation of data are relatively simple. But its major desired information. To find the solution and to arrive at conclusion for the above-mentioned management decision problems, a descriptive research was undertaken by using survey method. A structured questionnaire was given to respondents and designed to elicit specific information. This was done with the help of personal interview. This method has several advantages. First, the questionnaire is simple to administer. Second the data obtained are reliable because are responses are limited to the alternatives used. Finally coding, analysis and interpretation of data are relatively simple. But one of its major disadvantages is that respondents may be unable or unwilling to provide the desired

information. Secondary data such as information from websites, books and company sources was taken to assist primary data. Sample size: 100 consumers from universe. Sample Area: mohali. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A market is the set all actual and potential buyers of a market offer. The size of a market hinges on the number of buyers who might exist for a particular market offer. A company can go after the whole available market or concentrate on certain segments. Potential consumer must have interest, income access and qualifications for the particular market offer. Thus is become very important for any company to find out an appropriate market for its product and the factors that influence the consumers behavior. Newspapers are habit-forming products. People get used to the format / structure of their paper the location of editorials, T.V listings, the supplements etc. To convince the consumers to change his newspaper solely on the basis of promotional activities will not work. Thus it becomes important to understand the factors that can influence the buyers behavior. Buyer behavior is a central component of the environment context. In most marketing decisions, the problem can ultimately be traced to predicting the response of buyer behavior factors that should be considered are the number and geographical location of the buyer and non buyers, demographic and psychological characteristics, product consumption habits and consumption of related product categories, media consumption behavior and response to promotions, price sensitivity and buyer preferences. Potential market for a newspaper company could be an individual or institutions engaged n public dealings such as banks, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, colleges, schools, hostels, etc. For tapping a good market share it becomes necessary to locate these potential buyers. Thus a marketer should always keep in its mind, the various interests of potentials buyers. Print media such as newspapers has several merits over the kinds of media. Though the main demerit for a newspaper is that ultimate consumer must be literate, qualified whereas in media such as T.V, radio there is no such requirement. But as this project is in context in Chandigarh, it can be said that there is a good available market for newspaper companies as the population of Chandigarh is approx. 10,00,000 out of which literacy rate is approx 80%. Now it becomes important for a newspaper company to tap this potential market by providing a differentiated product. OBJECTIVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. To study the pattern of buying newspapers adopted by the customer. To study the buying behavior of the customer at Mohali. To know about the behavior of top management. To know about the thinking and pattern of customers. To know how consumer gets attracted. To know how much price matters for them. To know who takes decision at home. To know who are the actual reader. To decide what should be companys strategy. QUESTIONNAIRE

Name Age .... No of family members Address 1) Do you read newspaper?

( ) yes ( ) no 2) What type of newspaper you read? ( ) business 3) Which newspaper do you subscribe? ( ) HT ( ) Economic Times ( ) Tribune Any other, please specify 4) How do you subscribe for it? ( ) daily ( ) monthly 5) Do you want to shift it in near future? ( ) yes 6) What things affect you the most? ( ) Price discount ( ) quality ( ) contents ( ) Gifts on subscribing Any other, please specify .. 7) Who takes the decision in your home for buying newspaper? ( ) head of the family ( ) any other ( ) children ( ) no ( ) weekly ( ) TOI ( ) Indian Express ( ) the Hindu ( ) general

8) Are you satisfied with the services provided by the company? ( ) yes ( ) no

If no then specifies the reason........................................ . 9) Does the company provide you scheme? ( ) yes 10) Do you like to subscribe under scheme? ( ) yes 11) Do you recommend your newspaper to others? ( ) yes ( ) no ( ) no ( ) no

If no, please specify reasons..............................

Any suggestions: