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A Review of Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis for Diesel Engines
N.B. \ones and Yii-Hua Li Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK

Abstract
Technical advances and enaironmental legislation in recent years have stimulated the developinent of a number of teclzniqiies for condition monitoring and faiilt diagnosis (CMFD)in diesel engines. This paperfirstly siimrnarises common faults, faiilt meclianisms and their effect on diesel engine performance. Corresponding measiirands are presented. Standard CMFD metliods for parameters and CMFD systems for diesel engines are reviewed. Finally, some advanced CMFD techniques, including neural networks and fiizzy logic, wlziclz may be more powerful, are discussed.

Keywords
diesel engine, condition monitoring, fault diagnosis, review

INTRODUCTION
Although the history of the diesel engine extends back to the end o the ninef teenth century, when Dr. Rudolf Diesel began his pioneering work on air blast injected stationary engines, and, in spite of the dominant position it now holds in many applications, eg., marine propulsion and land transport, both road and rail, it is still the subject of intensive development and is still capable of improvement. The diesel engine will have an assured place as the most efficient liquid fuel burning prime mover yet devised. The engine is the heart of much equipment, such as vehicles, agricultural equipment, ships, and military equipment, so keeping it in good working condition is vital to maintaining overall efficiency. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD) is a valuable set of techniques designed to ensure that the engine stays in good condition. Many researchers and manufacturers have paid close attention to developing a variety of CMFD methods or systems for engines. To keep abreast of technical developments and meet stringent environmental legislation, it is necessary to develop more efficient, more reliable, more
Tvibotest joiiriinl6-3, Mnrcli 2000. ( 6 ) 267 ISSN 1354-4063 $8.00 + $8.00 (940/0300)

268

Jones nizd Li

robust, and more economical CMFD systems for diesel engines. Before developing any new system, however, we should review past achievements. There is extensive literature on CMFD techniques for diesel engines. It is not possible to review all the work that contributors to this field may feel should be reviewed and so, to all of those contributors who may feel offended by omission, the authors sincerely apologise.

COMMON FAULTS, FAULT MECHANISMS, AND THEIR EFFECT ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE
Diesel engines usually consist of the following sub-systems: a fuel injection system; pistons, rings, and liners; an inlet and exhaust system; heat exchangers; a lubrication system; and bearings; and for novel diesel engines an electronic control sub-system. In order to design an efficient condition monitoring and fault diagnosis system, it is essential that as much as possible is known about the processes and failure mechanisms of the engine. The following are some of the common faults which are diagnosed and which occur as a result of degradation or malfunction o one or more units of the diesel engine. f

Power loss Power is a practical engine performance parameter of interest. Severe power loss may cause the engine to be taken out of service. The causes of power loss are misfire, blow-by, and incorrect timing.

Emission changes Exhaust emissions have become a major focus of diesel engine development. Since emissions cause air pollution that is harmful to human health, progressively more stringent, technologically-demanding standards have been introduced. Emissions are the major limiting factor relating to diesel engine use on roads, thus monitoring emission changes has become an increasing concern for engineers. It has long been appreciated by engineers that the presence of smoke in diesel engine exhaust is an indication of poor combustion resulting from a malfunction or maladjustment. The causes of emission changes are:
injector hosing/ hole blockage incorrect injector timing air intake filter blocked loss of compression poor diesel fuel over-fuelling turbocharger malfunction fuel filter blocked glowplug malfunction
Tribotest joiiriznl6-3, March 2000. (6)268 l S S N 1354-4063 $8.00 + $8.00

3. Wear can occur in any of the surfaces in relative motion.'. Noise and vibration The factors which cause engine noise can be classified as follows: 1. Incorrect oil pressure can result in no oil film between two moving parts. pump malfunctioning electronic control unit (ECU) incorrect piston topping wastegate sticking valve sticking/burnt valve stem seal cracked. Their viscosity may increase owing to oil oxidation and will certainly increase as their content of suspended oil-insolubles increases.00 + $8. This will cause severe wear. torsional vibration. Noise due to vibrations resulting from combustion. can lead in severe cases to shaft failure as a result of torsional stress fatigue. the significant wear that controls how long the engine can run between overhauls is mainly wear of the bore at the upper limit of top ring travel. for example. or from foreign matter such as road dust. oxidation products from the lubricating oil. piston bearing surfaces. Diesel engine lubricants may deteriorate in a variety of ways. metal particles from wear of the metal parts. Mechanical noise caused by the impact of one engine part against another. In diesel engines. unburnt fuel. Intake and exhaust noise. radial Trihotest joirriinl6-3. acidic water from blow-by gases. rings. i. valve trains. Mnrch 2000.00 . Lubricating system fault The main faults of the lubrication system are incorrect oil pressure and oil deterioration. ash from the lubricating oil additives.' Wear' Wear can be caused by either corrosion or abrasion.e.. especially the seating of the injector needle and check valve. certain faults can be monitored and diagnosed by vibration signal analysis. ( 6 ) 269 ISSN 1354-4063$8. or main and big-end bearings. 2. They may become contaminated by carbonaceous particles from incomplete combustion of the fuel. bore. and the extent to which either factor is predominant depends on running conditions. However.' According to this model. In order to examine the basic terms the sources and paths of noise and vibration transmission in an engine it is convenient to consider a simple model of the type shown in Figure 1 (overleaf). Some sources of noise.A review of coriditioii monitoring niid fnrrlt diagnosis for diesel eiigiiies 269 incorrect boost fuel chop fuelling imbalance across cylinders injector protrusion wrong incorrect nozzle. grooves. sea water (marine diesels). or both. an important source of noise may be the injection system.

00 .a simple model wear of the top ring with the resultant increase in the ring gap and consequent blow-by. but abrasion due to foreign matter is usually independent of operating conditions.270 Jones nnd Li Figure 1 Engine noise generation . Such wear may be due to abrasion by engine deposits or by foreign matter that enters through the air intake or the crankcase breathers. Abrasion by engine deposits usually increases with an increase in the severity of the operating conditions. and the increase in the side clearance of the top ring due to ring and groove wear. (61 270 ISSN 73544063 $8. Such anomalies may develop as a result of one or more of the following conditions: unsuitable fuel quality leaking injection valves too low injection pressure eroded or clogged injector holes carbon formation on injector nozzle too high fuel/air ratio piston ring-cylinder wear or f'it air cleaner or exhaust silencer blockage blocked intercooler inadequate coolant flow high coolant or lubricant temperature high engine friction I Tribotest joirrrznl6-3.00 + $8. Mnrcli 2000. Tlzerrnal overload3 Engine anomalies will increase the thermal load and raise the wall temperatures of the cylinders.

oil pressure. and cracks may develop.00 + $8. but there are other methods of measuring temperature. Other faults These include knocking. fuel system pressure. Leaks4i5 Leakage is a major nuisance in diesel engines. fuel contamination. and reliable way to acquire these data. MEASURANDS FOR CMFD There are several kinds of signal to be measured. High temperatures in the upper part of the liner may destroy the oil film and increase the wear rate of the liner and ring. Temperatiire Engine monitoring involves the measurement of a number of temperatures. for example. infrared or optical fibre. lubrication system. ranging from the near ambient temperature of the induction air to 1000°C at the exhaust outlet. Excessive emissions.A review of condition monitoring nnd fnirlt diagnosis for diesel engines 271 incorrect timing misfire leaking intake or exhaust manifold leaking intake or exhaust valves The high temperatures caused by this type of overheating will have some detrimental effects: Higher temperatures on the combustion chamber surfaces will bring about an increased rate of high temperature corrosion. (6)271 I S S N 1354-4063 $8. Some monitoring methods based on measurement of engine crankshaft speed provide an accurate. It is convenient to use one type of thermocouple for all temperatures. and aeration. Presslire This includes cylinder pressure. intake and exhaust pressures.00 . low-cost. and liner will increase. There is now a satisfactory and almost universal solution for measuring rotational speed. Thermal stresses in the piston crown. filter faults. March 2000. Rotational anglelspeed This is an essential measurement in all engine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. Vibration6 Vibration monitoring is a major technique for mechanical fault Tribotest joirrnnl6-3. cover. Leaks may appear in the fuel injection system. or air valves.

The fuel condition is determined by contamination and aeration.00 . ring Lubrication system Inlet & exhaust system Heat exchanger Mechanical system high coolant temperature bearing wear Tribotest joiirud U--3. The vibration parameters to be measured include displacement. velocity. ( 6 ) 272 ISSN 1354-3063 $8.00 + $8. Particles This includes particles in the oil and particles in the exhaust. acceleration. However. cylinder. light weight. but viscosity and metal particles in the oil are major parameters to be monitored. fuel in oil. the main faults and their corresponding measurands are as follows: Coinpotleiits Fnults S ig rials r w a s M red Fuel injection equipment incorrect timing incorrect pressure leakage eroded or clogged injector holes misfire blow-by knocking scuffing defective ring power loss incorrect oil pressure high lubricant temperature oil contamination oil degradation air filter blockage leakage excessive emission rotation speed pressure cylinder oil fuel temperature piston set oil coolant timing particle viscosity acidity smoke vibration Piston. acid number and base number. water in oil. Mnrcli 2000. To summarise. Fitel and oil quality The fuel and oil condition directly affects the emission. and stress.272 Jones and Li diagnosis. good temperature resistance. and wide frequency response. and other performance parameters of a diesel engine. and particles. Particles in the oil are mainly caused by wear. The oil condition is determined by parameters such as viscosity. power. accelerometers are a popular transducer for vibration analysis because of their accuracy.

that this method tends to overestimate the torque and the power. This method is also ideally suited to testing an engine in its operating site.00 + $8. and. however. Torque: dyr?arnic measurement8 If the moment o inertia o the engine is known.A review of coriditioiz rrronitoriq ntid ffliilt dingriosis for diesel eqiizes 273 CONDITION MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS/METHODS: Methods for measuring parameters Power All test procedures require power measurement. where the engine’s moment of inertia is known. this method of measuring power is unavailable for condition monitoring in service and fault diagnosis because of its complicated operation and lack of flexibility. The flywheel speed is measured. the sum of the two torques is equal to the indicated torque which is due only to the phenomenon of combustion and is not influenced by other parameters such as oil and air temperature.A) where: T = torque I = moment of inertia of engine w = engine speed i Trihotest jourtzal6-3. the active (acceleration) and the f f frictional (deceleration) torque can be calculated.’ This involves measuring rotational speed and torque. this tendency can be overcome by establishing semiempirical correction factors. as is shown by the wide range of principles that have been incorporated in dynamometers for power measurement. To measure torque. requiring no dynamometer or associated facilities.00 .(W:-W:)/(~. further information on this is given below. using the engine’s own inertia as load. researchers have indicated.7 In practice. presents a much more difficult problem. the torque and power can easily be evaluated. for the naturally aspirated diesel engine in particular. The free acceleration method offers cost savings. (6) 273 lSSN 1354-4063 $8. The algorithm used to calculate the torque compares the work done during an angle A with the variation of the corresponding kinetic energy according to the following formula: T = Z. A more recent technique is the free acceleration test. Obviously. March 2000. However. Speed measurement has become simple and precise with the development of electronic pulse systems.7 This involves accelerating the engine by applying full throttle from idle speed. A novel but practical method is to measure only the flywheel speed. Most dynamometers are of the absorption type where engine power is converted into heat or electrical energy.

By this method.~cylinder pressure is one of the most imporSince ~ tant parameters of the engine.274 !ones ntid Li A = angle between two reference points on the flywheel. and signal processing is easy. Cylinder pressures can be obtained from structural signals by transfer function23or Wiener-Hilbert filter. x(t). is known. The cylinder pressure can be measured directly and indirectly by alternative sensors. ( 6 ) 274 lSSN 1354-4063 $8. and the vibration signals. Cylinder pressure By measuring and monitoring the cylinder pressure. and uneconomic in engineering practice. Mnrch 2000. ~ ~ . The waveform of the torque of the crankshaft via the crankshaft angle is quite a popular method of measurement in tests and diagnoses of engines. this is essential for good fuel economy and clean emissions.00 .00 + $8. Vibrdion Vibrations are easily measured in an industrial environment. Indirect r n e a ~ z i r e r n e n t ~ ~ . researchers have been seeking more efficient methods of measuring it. Torque can be measured by fitting a torque sensor to an Indramat drive as~embly. But it requires installing sensors intrusively on the engine. between the point that pressure acts on and the points where the vibration signals are measured. are measured in the process o f ~~~ ~~ Tribotest joiirrznl6-3. Direct measzarement11-16 The pressure transducers are mounted in the top of the cylinder.I8 If it is supposed that the transfer function of the engine. Direct measurement can usually give a reliable and accurate result.'~'~ Direct measurement of crankshaft torque in engine monitoring is avoided because of both cost and environmental factors. H(z). The two main factors influencing the accuracy of cylinder pressure measurement are the thermal shock effect and the indicator passage effect. it is possible to estimate not only the global torque of the engine but also the contribution of each cylinder. and this is usually inconvenient. it is possible to check whether combustion is taking place in an optimum manner. There are different types of pressure transducer and the most popular is the Kistler piezoelectric pressure transducer. time-consuming. Crankshaft torque can be deduced from the engine speed as mentioned above. Some recent methods involve the following techniques: 1. The thermal shock effect can be eliminated by employing a short indicator passage instead of locating the pressure transducer flush with the cylinder wall surface and the error due to the passage effect can be minimised by digital filtering. Cylinder pressure is also often selected to monitor the thermal process because the power contribution of the individual cylinders can be accurately assessed from the gas-pressure torques.

if it is used to identify cylinder pressure. In addition. Mnrcli 2000. where X ( z ) is the Fourier transformation of x ( t ) and H(z)' is the inverse matrix of H ( z ) .A veview of coiiditioii tnotiitoriiig n i i d fniilt dingiiosis for diesel engities 275 Figure 2 Flow diagram of signal processing technique I I Measurement of engine speed waveform Spectrum of speed fluctuations Spectrum of crankshaft torque Crankshaft-toraue waveform Subtract inertia torque 1 Estimated gas-pressure torque monitoring and diagnosis. ill-conditioning may occur in inverting the transformation of matrix H(z). called load identification in structural dynamics. can usually give a satisfactory result for discrete loads. A second problem is whether the transfer function of the engine is constant during its service life. Tvihotest joiiviinl6-3. it must be considered as several equivalent discrete loads. So there is still some work to do before this method can be applied to engine diagnosis. (6)275 I S S N 1354-4063 $8. problems arise. However.00 . so the cylinder pressure p ( t ) is induced from P(z) by inverse Fourier transforma tion: This technique. otherwise. then P ( z ) can be obtained from: P ( z ) = H(z)+X(z).00 + $8. the measuring points must be chosen carefully. the first being that since the cylinder pressure is a distributed load.

00 . One uses a pressure sensor to link serially to the injection line.29 Tribotest joiiriznl6-3. (6) 276 ISSN 1354-4063 $8. However. Fluctuations in the speed of an internal combustion engine are a direct consequence of the cyclic nature of the crankshaft-torque waveform. this method is limited to low-speed engines and high engine load operations. A typical clamp-on sensor uses piezoelectrics to sense pressure. The fuel injection pressure can be derived from picking u p this charge. and because of the ease of measurement and low hardware cost. and is employed in the estimation of cylinder pressures by many researchers. It may cause other faults. Some researchers have extended this work and obtained satisfactory results by monitoring cylinder pressures with non-linear sliding observers. resulting from the combustion process. but it is not suitable for condition monitoring. A flow diagram of the process is shown in Figure 2. monitoring the internal conditions of an engine.'8 Crankshaft speed20~21(24Information on the crankshaft speed is useful for 2.276 Iones nnd Li Another method of obtaining the pressure profile is to use a WienerHilbert filter to monitor the vibration signals. if carelessly operated. Piston set temperature28. it is one of the most frequently used system states for monitoring or diagnosing engines. Since highly accurate pressure sensors are easily obtainable. Its operation is based on the idea that the pipe expands when high-pressure fuel flows through it. and inertia forces. The fundamental component of the waveform is at the cylinder-firing frequency. This complex waveform is the result of the interaction of various forces produced within the running engine.21 Ol pressure i Oil pressure is commonly measured directly by a pressure sensor. Ol temperatiire i Oil temperature can be measured by a thermocouple placed in the dip stick tube. The method can be described as follows. such as leakage. Mnrch 2000. owing to the reciprocating masses associated with pistons and connecting rods. and a charge proportional to the pressure is produced. ~ i i e injection p r e s ~ u r e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l Two methods are usually used to monitor fuel injection line pressure. This method is convenient for condition monitoring. Another method is to use a clamp-on pressure sensor. this method can usually give accurate and reliable results.00 + $8. and this produces a force which transfers to the piezoelectrics via a force transformation block. and is attributed to the combination of the two principal forces: gas-pressure forces.

or filler port. Second. As the liner wears. through the air filter. The contaminant may either be ingressed. After signal processing. (6) 277 ISSN 1354-4063 $8. which makes it difficult to study transient temperature variations. and it has a poor response time. and lubricant oil analysis.A review of coriditiori rrroiiitoririg niid fnrrlt dingnosis for diesel erigiizrs 277 There are two main reasons why it is important to know the temperatures reached by the piston rings and land surfaces in crankcase engines during operation. Surface temperature A surface thermocouple mounted in the upper part of the cylinder is used to monitor scuffing in cylinder liners. First. The surface thermocouples must be perfectly flush with the liner surface and. enabling it to pick up the transient temperature caused by scuffing between rings and liner. The contaminant in oil can be detected in a variety of ways including: Tribotest joirriznl6-3. Lubricant contamination3""* Particles in the oil can damage the performance of an engine through silting deposits or by causing increased wear.00 + $8. or bearing is one of the main faults in engines. therefore. so the resistance changes in the thin-film resistor. or it may be generated internally through combustion products. Mnrclz 2000. seals. By continuously measuring the wear. wear. the ring and the opposing liner surface temperatures determine the magnitude of any lubricating film formed. lubricant oxidation and consequent deposit and sludge formation result. Ring and liner wear can also be measured by using a capacitive probe for oil film thickness and thin layer activation techniques. a mounting hole has to be drilled through. or fatigue. Wear sensor A wear sensor based on thin-film technology is used to monitor the wear of the liner. Reference 13 describes the use of infrared emission thermography through a sapphire window inserted in the cylinder wall to measuring piston ring and land surface temperatures in a firing engine directly. The infrared method overcomes the disadvantages of the thermocouple method. The principal means of measuring piston temperatures has been to embed thermocouples close to or at the surface of the piston or liner. crankshaft. it is possible to detect hazardous trends and take the necessary corrective measures in time.00 . Wear The wear of the piston ring. for example. The sensor is inserted through the cylinder liner and lies flush with the cylinder surface. Wear can be monitored by three means: surface temperature sensor. from the extreme surface temperatures that the lubricant encounters in the upper ring pack zone. A thermocouple usually measures the temperature of the bulk liner or piston rather than that of the piston ring. to a large extent. wear sensor. cylinder. The response of the sensor is extremely quick. the output signal is proportional to the wear at the point where the sensor is mounted. but all these methods are intrusive.

( 3 ) Blind to quantitative analysis. Particle Quantifier (PQ). (b) the selection and separation of significant particles. and their Table 1 The characteristics of various condition monitoring techniques RPD-PQ lrletllod Aforirir Forrrii~r nbsorptrorr ( A A ) trnrisforrri spc~troscopy irifrarcif (FTlR) spectroscopy RPD-irringc ntrdyser Cylinder-liner failure Crankshaft failure Particle size distribution Engine bearings failure Economics Remarks good very good good poor very good (1) very good good poor poor excellent (2) good good poor poor good poor excellent poor poor excellent poor poor (1) Requires database of engine wear. including severe wear particles greater than 15 pm in size and normal wear particles of less than 5 pm located in different areas of the substrate. The only stipulation is that it must be posTribotesf joitrirnl6-3. (2) Blind to size distribution and non-ferrous material. Spectrometric Oil Analysis. according to size.00 + $8. and Image Analyser Systems. The effectiveness of these methods in monitoring wear failure in an engine is indicated in Table l.32 3. However.278 jorirs nnd Li 1.00 . 1 'lrious condition monitoring teclzniqzies including Rotary Particle Depositor (KPD). (c) the inspection and evaluation of the particles and their morphology and nature. (4) Blind to large size wear debris. (5) Blind to quantitative analysis. ~ontarnimtionmeter~31 are convenient for assessing the contamination level of oils still in situ. Mnrdr 2000. on a transparent substrate for easy inspection. Ferrographic oil analysis which includes the following operations: (a>the collection of wear particles (magnetic) accumulated in the lubricants. ( 6 ) 278 lSSN 2354-4063 $8. Ferrography has gained wide recognition as a powerful condition monitoring technique and has been widely applied to many types of machine. 2. in the sump. it has some limitations where there are deposits of non-ferrous or non-metallic particles. and (d) the identification of particles (type of material). deposition.

27. timing control system. there can be wide differences between these schedules. Numerous devices. An oil is considered as no longer suitable for engine use when it has deteriorated in certain qualities or contains excessive or abrasive contaminants. for example. One of them is the MicroDilution Particulate Measurement System38 This system meets the following objectives: correlation with a full dilution system within IS0 8178 equivalency standards. and the timing of the injection valve. contaminants. fuel quality. a blockage or sticking of the injector. The engine vibration signal frequency spectrum. and excellent portability. are available. ~~~~l jnjection8. and they widen still further when vehicles are used. time domain average. it is necessary to know the oil condition.8 Tribotest joirriinl6-3. have also been tried. cylinder set. is one such device.00 + $8. but are usually the result of leakage in the delivery valve/nozzle valve. As a result.40-42 Faults in a fuel injection system may have causes such as incorrect timing. depending on driving conditions. Mnrch 2000. The operation is seen as a convenient 'while you wait' test on a station forecourt or as part of a normal service. Among the parameters that indicate oil condition are viscosity. as described above. in dry dusty atmospheres or only on short journeys. mounted on the high pressure pipeline with one of the electromagnetic pick-ups fitted on the engine to measure the value of the injection timing. EX~ZUUS~ e~ nission~~-~~ Measurement of the changes in composition of exhaust emissions can uncover various malfunctions of engine parts. numerous smoke meters and indicators have been devised over the years. it is difficult to determine which maintenance schedule to apply for a particular climate or driving cycle. The fuel system is monitored by measuring the dynamic pressure on the high pressure side of the fuel pump.A review of coriditiori rnoiiiforiiig niid fnirlt dingiiosis for diesel eiigities 279 sible to pass a thin tube into the oil through the oil filler or dip stick opening. acidity. or fuel injection equipment out of calibration.~ ~ The manufacturers of engines recommend engine oil changes by either mileage or duration. such as the fuel injection equipment. and water in oil. Moreover. of which viscosity is the most important property and one which it is not normally difficult to measure. The contamination meter. based either on the movement of the fluid in a confined space or on the movement of some clearly defined shape in the fluid. (6) 279 I S S N 1354-4063 $8. reduced set-up effort. However. To be more specific about when to change the oil. The system is not limited by engine or exhaust stack size and requires only compressed shop air and electrical power to operate.00 . and linear dynamic time-warping have been used to detect the position of a fuel injector needle!2 A clamp-on sensor.'3. Oil c o n d i t i o ~ z ~ * ~ ' ~ ~ ~ . fuel in oil. a short sampling time.

One approach to this is ultrasonic testing. or the pistol. though leaks are a major nuisance in diesel engines.00 + $8. The fuel rail is Tribototrsfjoiirnnl6-3. The presence and progression of leakage are highly detrimental. and tests were carried out for different states of deterioration corresponding to different values of leakage. (6) 280 ISSN 13544063 $8.Figure 3 Structure of engine/drivetrain dynamic model: (a) basic structure. and without fuel injection. it is possible to detect leakages in the inlet valves. b Engine and drivetrain dynamics + (1 (0) There is little available literature that describes the type of leak fault to be monitored or diagnosed. A method’ has also been introduced for monitoring fuel injection system leaks. the exhaust valves. An ultrasound wave receiver is located either in the inlet manifold or in the exhaust manifold or in the oil sump. since this type of fault may destroy the engine.00 . Mnrch 2000.! ings. i method using vibration analysis to detect leakage in the outlet valves of high-power diesel engines has been presented! An accelerometer was fixed to the cylinder head near an exhaust valve of a 750 kW diesel engine. pressure relief valve. (b) engine rotating dynamic model T. and pressure measuring sensor. This is achieved by plugging the fuel rail tank return and fixing an air pressure feed attachment to the fuel intake. A signal processing and pattern recognition technique was used to assess the leakage condition. This includes an air input control throttle. If it is used during the cranking phase of the engine.

Most engines run on moving vehicles and the form and roughness of roads (or waves) are irregular and this means that the signal-to-noise ratio of vibration signals is very low.. Generally speaking.. The second method has been demonstrated to be insufficient to satisfy the mandated requirements with existing production hardware (e. 3... Let T = [T'i rms T 2 . the exhaust gas oxygen sensor). of torque estimates for one engine cycle. these N torque values can be formed into an N-dimensional . A@).00 . Vibration analysis Monitoring the transverse vibration is of limited use in diagnosing engine condition because: 1. are compared to a threshf old to decide whether or not a misfire occurred during a particular engine cycle. this makes Tribotest joiiriinl 6-3. the torque deviation vector is computed: FT= T . M isfire1 l? Engine misfires can lead to excessive emissions. To calculate the metric. if it cannot maintain stability then there is a leak in the fuel rail system. 1 is the vector of all ones. (6) 281 ISSN 1354-4063 $8. 11 where T = -llTII. and [l 1 1 . TN. while the third method is impractical from a cost standpoint.T I l 11 .. The first method can give a satisfactory diagnosis. wherein a probability model of d is used to develop a decision test in which experimental values of d or a function o d.00 + $8. nearly all methods proposed for misfire detection have one of three conceptual bases: 1. The torque fluctuation indicated can be derived from this model by measuring angular velocity..J denote the vector vector for each engine cycle. 2. 2. If it is supposed that an estimate of the root mean square (rms) value of the fluctuating torque output indicated for an individual cylinder over the crankshaft angle interval of its respective combustion is Ti rmS.A rcview of coiiditioti irioiiitorirrg mid fniilt dingnosis for diesel rirgirrrs 281 pressurised to a fixed pressure and stabilised.. Mnrch 2000. chemical analysis of exhaust gases. This statistical measurement d is utilised in a framework of statistical decision theory called hypothesis testing. and measurement of in-cylinder combustion events. then for an N-cylinder engine. individual cylinder torque estimation.. The working conditions of engines are variable and unsteady.rms . This method is not suitable for monitoring and dia nosis. The dynamic model of an engine can be simplified as shown in Figure 3. 1 N 1 Then the torque non-uniformity metric is: d = l16TllI.g.

a method has been developed to detect engine faults by analysing noise measured by accelerometers on engines.24i43 Some other parameters. Early recognition of specific faults.00 . There is a lack of reliable sensors to monitor a vehicle throughout its life.I4However.44 CYLDET-CM systemI6 The CYLDET-CM system has been developed for the condition monitoring of marine diesel engines. Problems of this kind are particularly severe in the engine crankshaft.282 !ones and Li the vibration signals unsteady and the signal features difficult to extract. DEFD system of Lloyd‘s Register4y Diesel Engine Fault Diagnosis (DEFD) was produced by Lloyd’s Register. The measurement of torsional vibration. In fact.41. is possible with slip rings or slotted discs. ( 6 ) 282 l S S N 1354-4063 $8. and emission contamination. or excessive noise.. and easy to use. it seems that this system only monitors the piston assembly and cannot be called a condition monitoring system for engines. It is of modular design with respect to the number of transducers and degree of signal processing. rapid bearing wear. surface temperature of cylinder liners. The transverse vibration is generally measured by accelerometers on the surface of engine blocks and analysed by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). but a severe disadvantage of this device is the need for accurate positioning.g. The disadvantage of these methods is that they require contact with the rotating components and this necessitates engine ‘downtime’. engine speed sensor relationship to camshaft position sensor. The main functions of DEFD are as follows: 1. All methods are intrusive monitoring. e. Non-contact methods overcome these disadvantages and a standard ‘cross-beam’ velocimeter can be used to measure torsional vibration.9.00 + $8. safe. The benefits of this are early warnings of adverse trends in EP quality and the ability to relate electronic signals to mechanical functions.12. are also often monitored. Another possibility is a laser torsional vibrometer.” Torsional vibration may lead to fatigue failure. 3. Meanwhile. temperature of cylinder liner. Tribotest joitrnnl6-3. especially crankshaft torque. among other things. 2. March 2000. This system can monitor cylinder pressure. oil pressure and temperature. more attention is being paid to monitoring the engine’s electronic management and ignition system. Recognition of multiple faults. inexpensive. and cylinder liner wear. such as intake suction and exhaust back pressures. which is robust.

predictive maintenance. 3.00 + $8.. CPMPS consists of two main sub-systems: the Diesel Engine Expert Diagnostic System (DEEDS) and the Engine Maintenance Expert System (EMES). CPMPS provides two simulation modTrihotest joiirnnl6-3.A review of coiiditiorz moiiitoriiig niid fniilt dingnosis for diesel erigiries 283 Identification of sensor defects. and runs on IBM-PC/AT or compatible computers. 4. the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Performance monitoring. Provision for reporting unrecognised changes in engine operating parameters. and a knowledge base. DEFD is based on a rule-based expert system. 5. a signal intelligent analysing module. a diagnosis reasoning module. Blackboard Architecture. 4. to identify the state of the marine engine and to diagnose several common faults. Condition monitoring. Condition/performance monitoring is based on existing techniques. ( 6 ) 283 I S S N 1354-4063 $8. K B M E D56 The Knowledge-Based system for Marine Engine Diagnosis (KBMED) was developed by Huazhong University of Science and Technology.00 . but the development of CPMPS has concentrated on fault diagnostics. KBMED is compiled by using Microsoft C and Macro assembler. China. Performance optimisation. mixed mode reasoning. The overall architecture of CPMPS is founded on simulation and knowledge-based methods. Fault diagnosis. KBMED involves a task managing module. 5. Mnrch 2000. It uses a knowledge-based information processing technique. based on on-line measured signals and user input information. CPMPS57 The Condition/Performance Monitoring and Predictive System for Diesel Engines (the CPMPS project) has been in development by a consortium. 3. Marconi Command and Control System Ltd. 2. consisting of Lloyd's Register of Shipping. a knowledge developing and managing module. Interface with other modules for the evaluation of future effects from the identified faults. and rule induction techniques are used to assess condition and to diagnose faults. Humberside College of Higher Education. Predictive maintenance. and performance optimisation. integrating condition monitoring and faults diagnosis for marine engines (especially diesel engines). a signal testing and measuring system. an interpretation module of diagnosis process. and Shell. It is an intelligent system. Five main functions are incorporated: 1. since 1986.

engine simulation to provide interpolation between the fixed points of knowledge. and the healthy engine model for generating reference conditions. Fuzzy logic is a method of representing information in a way that resembles natural human communication. Since conventional models have certain bottlenecks. during recent years. and imprecise information.. The fuzzy conditional statements are of the form: IF Al. Since the 1980s. and the knowledge base required becomes too large. Its hardware structure apparently needs optimising. fuel analysis to assess engine conditions.2 . researchers have done valuable work on diagnostic approaches based on neural networks or fuzzy logic or the integration of both. ambiguous. It seems that ultimately CPMPS may be more suited to laboratory or academic use because of its complicated system structure. and A l . It is based on rules of the form 'if. e. rather than speed. and it does not use fuzzy logic or neural networks which might be more powerful.g. However.. THEN B1 or ~ Tribotest jonriinl6-3. which relies a great deal upon subjective judgements and may include incomplete. It is a large and successful project which has considered all aspects relating to the application practice of marine diesel engines.00 . it mainly uses thermocouples and pressure signals. For the complex system of a diesel engine. and a large number of experimental results under various induced conditions. such as knowledge acquisition. However. and of manipulating that information in a way that resembles human reasoning with such information.. ( 6 ) 284 l S S N 1354-4063 $8. but neural networks and fuzzy logic can handle these data while conventional approaches do so poorly. a number of scientists and researchers have produced a variety of models of knowledgebased diagnostic reasoning.l and A1. a large part of the expertise consists in heuristic knowledge.. Predictive maintenance plans maintenance and issues maintenance instructions. CPMPS uses pattern matching techniques and causal models in DEEDS. according to the references. PROSPECTS FOR CMFD TECHNIQUES FOR DIESEL ENGINES Most of the methods and systems reviewed above are based on off-board CMFD. Mnrch 2000.284 loties niid Li els: the faulty engine model for verification of a fault hypothesis. CPMPS has not employed some advanced and probably more useful techniques. . but increasingly manufacturers and users of diesel engines are interested in the development of on-board CMFD.00 + $8. Performance optimisation gives advice on the optimal engine settings according to the engine condition assessed and fuel quality. for example. then' that convert inputs to outputs -one fuzzy set into another. their efficiency at problem-solving decreases greatly when the problem becomes complex. solving various types of problem.

Intercooler water temp.2 .110 . Its value can be represented by membership function p. IF AM. ( 6 ) 285 ISSN 1354-4063 $8.. A much simplified system has been produced5d to demonstrate some aspects o engine diagnosis using fuzzy logic. neural networks are often capable of doing things that humans or Trihotest jorrriinl6-3. N THEN B2 or . Fuzzy logic offers a robust technique for accommodating measurement uncertainty and error contaminated signals. mediate neurons IF A2. and AM..A review of coridifioii moriiforitzg nrid f d t dingiiosis for diesel engiiies 285 Figure 4 Neural networks for a diagnostic model Intercooler fault Pressure across Compressor outlet Exhaust manifold Exhaust valve Exhaust manifold Pressure difference between exhaust manifolds Turbine outlet pressure Compressor outlet temp.00 + $8.^ and AM..N THEN BM where A.... Inlet manifold temp... As a result f of the topology of the system and the manner in which information is stored and manipulated.^ . Mnrcli 2000. is a linguistic variable.. highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired by the structure of the cerebral cortex portion o the brain. Front exhaust manifold Rear exhaust manifold Turbine outlet temp. and is a proven technology for the representation of heuristic knowledge and automation of sub'ective reasoning operations. Bi is a possible conclusion. and A2. and A ~ . f Neural networks are a data processing system consisting of a large number of simple.

Neural networks may be designed to classify input patterns in predefined classes or to create categories that group patterns according to their similarity. A neural networks model for diesel engine fault diagnosis is depicted in Figure 4. and its receptive field corresponds to the membership function. Distributed representation and learning capabilities are two major features of neural networks. a fuzzy logic integrated neural-network approach would seem to be ideal. Neural networks also have the ability to respond in real time to the changing system state descriptions provided by continuous sensor inputs. providing knowledge-based systems that can adapt or be optimised according to sampled data. each computing element corresponds to a fuzzy set. each computing element has a receptive field which is the set of all values which include all the patterns it represents.00 . A fuzzy logic integrated neural network for decision is a newly developed technique: it brings together the best features of fuzzy logic and neural networks. such as for the diesel engine. Thus. For complex systems diagnosis. Therefore. (61 286 l S S N 1354-4063 $8. and each computing element is involved in representing many different values. once it has been developed. In distributed representation. The neural network is supplied with data and then 'trained' to mimic the input-output relationship of the process or system. Mnrclr 2000.286 Jorres and Li Figure 5 A neural network-based fuzzy logic decision system Yl Layer 5 (output linguistic nodes) Layer 4 (output term nodes) Layer 3 (rule nodes) Layer 2 (input term nodes) Layer 1 (input linguistic nodes) Yi' Ym Ym' [ [ Xl animals do well but that conventional diagnostic technologies do poorly.00 + $8. a value is represented by a pattern of activity distributed over many computing elements. Perhaps the most important characteristic of neural networks is their ability to model processes and systems from actual data. Tsibotest joirntnl6-3.

e. Nodes at layers 2 and 4 are term nodes which act as membership functions to represent the terms of respective linguistic variables. However.A reviezu of corrditim mo~riforirig f a d t diagnosis for diesel rr7ginc. oil viscosity is normal. including all symptoms. Links at layers 3 and 4 function as a connectionist inference engine.00 + $8. then cooling system function is poor. The system has a total of five layers.. can be detected from either a vibration signal or a rotational signal. diesel engines work under different ambient conditions and load. Many researchers and manufacturers have paid close attention to developing a variety of fault diagnosis methods or systems. if oil temperature is high. because of the limitation in terms of the system’s cost and the processor’s ability. e.. built-in sensors. research effort is placed on robust and economic CMFD methods for specific parameters or faults and intelligent CMFD systems for a whole diesel engine. and the dynamic features vary from engine to engine. For instance. misfire. including all engine conditions and faults. excessive emission.00 . Among these. for example. All the layer 3 nodes form a fuzzy rule base: e. Misfire. On-board CMFD systems monitor the running condition and give the operator instant information on the engine performance.g. Diagnostic techniques are usually developed at specific engine working conditions and on an individual engine. e. Layer 3 links define the preconditions o the rule nodes. The links at layers 2 and 5 are fully connected between linguistic nodes and their corresponding term nodes. which avoids the f rule-matching process. New techniques of CMFD are still emerging. SUMMARY Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis is a valuable technique to ensure that the diesel engine stays in good order.g. Meeting these on-board requirements is a challenge for CMFD researchers. if oil temperature is high.g. contamination in oil is high.. Nodes at layer 1 are input nodes (linguistic modes) which represent input linguistic variables. Each node at layer 3 is a rule node which represents one fuzzy rule.g.g. then blow-by is serious. New designs of engine provide an interface between the engine and the CMFD. and layer 4 links define the consequences of the rule nodes. ( 6 ) 287 iSSN 1354-4063 $8. Some legislation has been introduced to require vehicles to have on-board facilities to detect faults in emission related components. Layer 5 is the output layer. Techniques for meeting the requirements of on-board Tribotrstjorrt-rmf6-3. but in the case of on-board systems it is preferable to measured rotational speed.. leakage. It is desirable that a diagnostic technique can provide acceptable accuracy of diagnostic results while being insensitive to the variation of engine working conditions and engine-to-engine differences.. e. March 2000.s nrrd 287 A fundamental framework for an adaptive fuzzy inference system for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis is shown in Figure 5. a piecewise linear function. on-board CMFD cannot employ complex diagnostic algorithms or expensive delicate components.

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