Guide

PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE:
The Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission is developing resource materials to help employers and workers to carry out their responsibilities for health and safety in the workplace. This specific booklet, Fishing Vessel Fire Safety, is designed to provide an understanding of effective fire safety initiatives and emergency response planning.

OH&S PREVENTION

Fishing Vessel Fire Safety

For more information on the development and implementation of this and other programs, contact Prevention Services at: (709) 778-1552 or toll free 1-800-563-9000

It is intended to provide examples of general use and may not apply to every circumstance. www.ca © September 2011 . Department of Government Services Occupational Health and Safety Branch Phone: (709) 729-2706 Or toll free 1-800-563-5471 Professional Fish Harvesters Certification Board Telephone: (709) 722-8170 Fax: (709) 722-8201 Email: pfh@pfhcb. nor for any actions taken in reliance thereon. The information presented cannot and should not be considered a definitive guide to government regulations nor does it relieve individuals or organizations using the information from their responsibilities under any or all applicable legislation. Food and Allied Workers Union.whscc. Individuals or organizations responsible for working with the information presented are responsible for ensuring that all applicable standards and regulations are fulfilled. INFORMATION SOURCES Workplace Health.com DISCLAIMER The Workplace Health. Safety and Compensation Commission Prevention Services Phone: (709) 778-1552 Toll free 1 800 563-9000. All those using the information do so at their own risk and shall be deemed to indemnify the Commission from any loss or damage arising from the use of the information. Safety and Compensation Commission provides information and health and safety advisory services for most aspects of occupational health and safety programming. completeness. While all reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information presented. the Commission does not and cannot guarantee the accuracy thereof. The information presented is subject to jurisdictional variation and is always subject to change. the Fish. The information presented is subject to a disclaimer.Fishing Vessel Fire Safety ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Workplace Health. The Commission does not warrant or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy. and the Marine Institute for their assistance with development and distribution of this booklet. The Commission shall not be liable for any damage or loss arising out of the use of the information or the application of the concepts contained therein.nl. Safety and Compensation Commission (the Commission) would like to acknowledge the Professional Fish Harvesters Certification Board. or usefulness of the information presented.

....................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Introduction ..........7 Fire Extinguisher Chart ...........................5 Fire Detection ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Emergency Response Planning ..4 Fire Prevention ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Firefighting ...................13 Fire Inspection Checklist .................................................................14-16 ..................................................................................................................................12 References ....................3 Fire Protection: The importance of vessel design ..........................................................................................................2 Nature of Fire ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11 F-I-R-E ...........................................................................4 Fire Classification Chart ...

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heat and chemical reactions. oxygen. Therefore. once started. Fuel: When a fuel. heat. Once ignited. fire continues to grow through a process of chemical chain reactions. cloth. there are four variables that sustain fire: fuel. PAGE 3 . and oxygen. Fire Triangle: Oxygen: Fire only requires 16% oxygen to support combustion. convection. Heat: A heat source can ignite a fire in two ways. providing a direct flame. such as wood. or radiation.Nature of fire Fire is a relationship between three components: Fuel. each one of these components must be present. Once ignited. fire can be extinguished by controlling the four variables of the fire tetrahedron. For fire to start in any combustible substance. The air we breath contains 21%. or by heating a fuel to its ignition temperature via conduction. or flammable gas becomes heated to its ignition point the material undergoes combustion. Fire Tetrahedron: Fire can be prevented by controlling the three variables in the fire triangle. This is referred to as the Fire Tetrahedron.

PAGE 4 . but there are no guarantees. using fire resistant material. guarding or isolating fuel from heat sources. and in the design of electrical systems. monthly or annual maintenance. vessel maintenance. along with other proactive M fire prevention strategies are also required.Fire protection: The importance of vessel design Fire protection is an important aspect of vessel design. By being proactive. Vessel Maintenance. An important part of fire prevention is conducting regular safety inspections. fire fighting. electrical systems. hot work (welding or burning). This process will allow you to identify and control fire hazards. fuel systems. Safety Inspections. It is visible in construction practices like the use of bulkheads. A maintenance program involves good planning and the identification of “critical parts” that are essential to vessel safety. Fire prevention Most fires are caused by human action or lack of action. such as refueling. gear boxes. items requiring regular lubrication. fuel lines. ventilation and cooling systems. and emergency procedures. and other life saving equipment. Good engineering will help protect against fire hazards. onboard fires can be prevented! Consider the following items: Training. and the storage of flammable material. These could include items such as bearings. Good maintenance and inspection programs. Once you have established a list of the various parts that require ongoing maintenance or repair you should develop a maintenance schedule that identifies which parts require weekly. By documenting your work in a maintenance log book you will easily keep track of what has been accomplished and be better prepared for the next round of scheduled maintenance. The best practice is to conduct a formal inspection. etc. fire prevention. using fire doors or hatches. using a checklist to ensure that no area is overlooked. batteries. fire hazard identification. All crew members should receive training regarding the nature of fire. Carefully inspect fire detection systems. fittings. Structural fire protection refers to elements in vessel design that are intended to prevent and protect against the spread of T fire. These engineering principles are incorporated during the construction and retrofitting of a vessel. fire extinguishers. Crew members should also receive training on safe work practices and procedures that will provide them with the knowledge to perform job tasks safely.

All galley stoves must be secured to prevent movement. Smoking. fans. Properly trained personnel Class A Wood. and other flammable materials are properly stored away from heat sources. Fire is classified into five general classes based on the type of fuel involved: Type of fire Symbol Fuel Prevention Good housekeeping Regular rounds of working premises Use of fire retardant/fire resistant materials Properly trained personnel Proper storage of oil and flammable products Properly maintained fuel handling systems No smoking Properly trained personnel Properly maintained electrical equipment Ensuring proper electrical insulation – no naked wires Using weather proof fittings where necessary Switching off electrical equipment when not in use (lights.A sample fire inspection checklist has been provided at the back of this guide. Class B Flammable liquids and gases Class C Electrical cables and electrical motors. Therefore. Crew members must ensure that all trash is picked up. All fuel supply lines to a stove must also be equipped with shutoff values. Also ensure that all flammable materials are properly shored to prevent shifting while at sea. Housekeeping. all trash and waste must be properly disposed of and you should monitor grease accumulation and ensure cleanliness. or during refueling operations. Care must be taken when discarding cigarettes and matches. Galley. cloths etc. Class D Combustible metals PAGE 5 . sleeping quarters.. painting material. Fire prevention by fire class. and that all oily rags. It is a good practice to soak smoking materials with water before discarding them and ensure that there is no smoking in the engine room. galley. that all spills are contained and cleaned up.) Properly trained personnel Understanding the characteristics of onboard chemicals and combustible metals and the operating procedures that must be implemented for handling these materials. A vessel’s galley has great potential for fire and should never be left unattended when in use. Most galley fires are due to poor housekeeping. switchboards etc. and must be fitted with rails to restrain movement of cooking utensils.. air conditioners etc. paper.

There are two basic types of smoke detectors. 2. None of the extinguishing agents mentioned in this booklet will effectively deal with Class D Fires. Ionization detectors detect combustion products like carbon particles. careful consideration must be given to the selection and placement of fire detection systems. Refers to the various types of alarm systems. they are sensitive to smoldering fires but react slowly to flaming fires. vessel owners could install closed circuit televisions in areas such as the engine room or galley so that these areas can be monitored from the bridge.e. Fire detection The purpose of fire detection is to quickly detect the presence of fire and provide a warning to occupants. PAGE 6 . the individual should shout: “FIRE! FIRE! FIRE” or activate an alarm system before trying to extinguish a fire. To assist. If a fire is discovered. ii.Class K Grease. 3. This type of detector cannot be powered by batteries. These are sensitive detectors that can be set off by welding or even direct sunlight. Is dependent upon a person to detect the presence of fire. i. each with advantages and disadvantages. activated when temperature increases above a programmed temperature) or rate of rise (i. can detect a fast developing fire). Therefore. Photoelectric sensors detect the presence of smoke particles. Automatic detection. Heat detectors sense thermal output from fire and can be based on fixed temperature (i. They respond well to flaming fire but insensitive to smoldering fires. Manual detection. There are two basic methods of fire detection: 1.e. Unlike photoelectric detectors. The three main types of automatic fire detection are flame. ionization detectors can be powered by batteries. heat and smoke detectors. Smoke detectors sense the presence of particles in the air. There are many different types of fire detection systems. cooking oils Good housekeeping Empty grease traps regularly Inspect and clean dirty ducts Ensure proper storage of flammable items Inspect for faulty or frayed electrical cords Properly trained personnel Class D Fires require special extinguishing agents produced for specific combustible metals. 1. Flame detectors detect the presence of radiant energy generated by flame by using an ultraviolet (UV) or infrared (IR) sensor. 2. As such.

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Please consider the following chart regarding fire extinguishing agents: PAGE 8 .Use correct procedures for the type of extinguisher you are using Never turn your back on a fire Never allow the fire to get between you and safety Always report usage of an extinguisher to the Master Once used. do not place the extinguisher back in its normal station – replace with new extinguisher as soon as possible Another important factor is to ensure that the type of extinguisher provided is suitable for the type of hazard likely to be encountered.

etc) WATER ax x x x Excellent cooling properties Do not use on electrical fires YES NO NO NO NO Minimal chance of re ignition Conducts electricity Damages/dest roys equipment Apply to a vertical surface & allow foam to run down and spread over a fire FOAM aa x x a YES YES NO NO YES Works well on flammable liquids Foam may deteriorate during storage PAGE 9 . paper.Extinguisher Flammable Liquid Pros Cons Conducts electricity Can spread class B fires Flammable Gases Electrical Equipment Cooking Oils and Fat Considerations Recommendations Colour Type Type of Fire Solids (wood. cloth.

PAGE 10 Fast and effective Fire must also be cooled to prevent re ignition Highly corrosive to electronic equipment DRY POWDER aaaa x YES YES YES YES NO Various types of chemical for different classes of fire General purpose ABC available Does not conduct electricity Does not deteriorate during storage If used in enclosed areas get fresh air as soon as possible. If used in enclosed areas get fresh air as soon as possible. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) x NO YES a NO x aa YES YES Non corrosive. Agent can cake and solidify in container Oxygen displacement is temporary Fire must also be cooled to prevent re ignition Keep fingers & hands away from discharge nozzle. non damaging to equipment CO2 usually in limited supply Displaces oxygen could cause asphyxiation .

crew members may have to abandon ship if a fire cannot be contained. PAGE 11 . Please consult the regulations for specific requirements for your vessel. crew members must act quickly to contain and extinguish the fire. inspection. Conclusion The first goal of fire safety is to prevent fires from occurring. Regular maintenance. and use of fire prevention strategies will aid in the prevention of fire. Although. Masters must ensure that their vessel has an emergency response plan and that all crew members are fully informed. the Master has specific responsibilities to ensure compliance with Transport Canada regulations and to ensure that all crew members are informed and trained in their respective emergency roles and responsibilities. Inspection and maintenance of these items is vital to ensure that they are in good working order. Fire drills should also be conducted on a regular basis to ensure that crew members are fully aware of their roles and responsibilities in the event of a fire or an abandon ship scenario. everyone onboard plays a role. In the worst case scenario. If a fire does occur. The importance of preparedness and training cannot be overstated. It is also extremely important that crew members are trained in the use of emergency equipment. Transport Canada regulations specify the requirements for life rafts and survival suits.Emergency Response Planning It is the responsibility of the Master to ensure that crew members are aware of what they must do in an emergency situation.

extinguishing agent and method of attack Extinguish and them watch or re ignition Muster crew to account for all personnel If unable to control fire. the location. etc. prepare to abandon the vessel PAGE 12 . appropriate equipment. and its size INFORM Sound alarm or shout “FIRE! FIRE! FIRE” to notify all hands Make a distress call to Coast Guard and nearby vessels Activate emergency firefighting procedures RESTRICT the fire If possible: o Shut off air supply to the fire close hatches.Remember “F I R E” FIND the fire. o De energize electrical systems in affected space o Shut off fuel supply and ventilation o Set fire boundaries to confine the fire Maneuver vessel to minimize the effect of wind on the fire EXTINGUISH the fire Determine class of fire. ports.

org Canada Shipping Act. B. Basic Safety for Fish Harvesters. http://www. Marine Engineering Practice Series.htm PAGE 13 . (2002). www. Marine Fire Fighting.tc. International Fire Service Training Association PFHCB (2002). Professional Fish Harvesters Certification Board of Newfoundland and Labrador Transport Canada (2003).References and Supplemental Reading Cowley.ca/eng/acts regulations/acts 2001c26. Volume 1. Adam. (2000). 2001. Small Fishing Vessel Safety Manual.nfpa. Part 5.gc. J. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Fire Safety at Sea.

Exit Routes Exit signs illuminated Corridor free of hazards Stairs/stairwells clear Lighting adequate Unacceptable Assigned To Date Corrected PAGE 14 Checklist 1 of 3 . Electrical Electrical panels clear of obstruction Proper use of extension cords or power bars Free of improper fusing or bridging Free of makeshift wiring D. or corrosion Discharge outlets in good condition Operating instructions posted C. Fire Detection Are fire/smoke detectors provided Have smoke detectors been tested Are alarm pull stations unobstructed B. free of visible leaks.Fire Safety Inspection Checklist Vessel __________________________________ Date _________________________ Completed by _________________________________________ Acceptable A. rust. Fire Suppression Fire Station Fire station properly marked Hose accessible Hoses in place and free of cuts and abrasions Nozzles in place and applicator provided (if required) Valves unobstructed and easily operated Hose spanner in place Fire axe present Pumps tested for flow and pressure and ready for service Fixed Fire Suppression Systems Operating instructions posted System equipment or storage spaces free of debris or improper stowage Clearance maintained around sprinkler heads Operating control valves unobstructed and in good operating condition Alarms and indicators in good order Operating controls set for proper operation Piping intact.

Crew Quarters Direct. at least two routes available General alarm system in good order Area free of combustibles Area free of combustibles close to sources of heat Area free of overloaded electric circuits Area free of makeshift electrical wiring or repairs Electrical equipment properly grounded Fire extinguishers: a. Safety Equipment Life Saving Equipment Life rafts Emergency packs Life jackets quality and quantity Flares Life raft securing and launching arrangement Means of re-boarding First Aid Kit Navigation Equipment Navigation Lights Anchor Light Sound signaling Miscellaneous Equipment Compass Radar reflector Anchoring and mooring equipment Charts and publications Communication Equipment VHF radio if necessary Other Necessary Equipment F. Properly charged d. Date of last examination noted on inspection tag Unacceptable Assigned To Date Corrected Checklist 2 of 3 PAGE 15 . In place and unobstructed b.Acceptable E. Proper type and size c. uncluttered means of escape.

Date of last examination noted on inspection tag Unacceptable Assigned To Date Corrected PAGE 16 Checklist 3 of 3 . acetylene. Free of combustible material b. dampers and screens operational Free of leaking pipes and fittings No combustible liquids in open containers Free of improper fusing or bridging Free of makeshift wiring Warning signs posted: a. Engine Room Free of combustibles. Proper type and size c. In place and unobstructed b. Free of damaged or leaking containers Cargo stowed properly Fuel for lifeboats properly stored No-smoking signs posted Paints and flammables properly stowed Oxygen. No Smoking Motors free of lint and dust Motors clear of combustible material Ladders unobstructed Fire extinguishers: a. In place and unobstructed b. Cleaning date recorded Fixed extinguishing system properly marked Fire extinguishers: a. and other gas cylinders stored upright and secured Fire extinguishers: a. Proper type and size c. and oily rags Noncombustible receptacles with covers provided Ventilation ducts. waste.Keep Clear b. Free of oil and grease c. Free of leaking pipes and fittings d. In place and unobstructed b. Properly charged d. High Voltage . Galley Area free of combustibles Noncombustible receptacles with covers provided Galley hood and ducts a. Deck Decks a. Properly charged d. Date of last examination noted on inspection tag I. Proper type and size c. dampers and screens operational H. Free of grease accumulations b. Date of last examination noted on inspection tag Area free of leaking pipes and fittings Area free of overloaded electric circuits Electrical appliances in good repair Oven free of cracks or crevices Oven burners secured Deep fryer secured and covered Ventilation ducts.Acceptable G. Properly charged d.

Safety and Compensation Commission St.nl. NL A2H 6E6 Telephone: (709) 637-2700 Fax (709) 639-1018 Toll Free 1 800 563-2772 whscc.ca Professional Fish Harvesters Certification Board Telephone: (709) 722-8170 Fax: (709) 722-8201 Email: pfh@pfhcb.Contact information Workplace Health. Millbrook Mall 2 Herald Avenue P. Box 474 Corner Brook.O. John’s 146-148 Forest Road P.O. NL A2A 2P7 Telephone: (709) 489-1600 Fax (709) 489-1616 Toll Free 1 800 563-3448 Corner Brook Suite 201B. John’s. Box 9000 St. Box 850 Grand Falls-Windsor. NL A1A 3B8 Prevention Services Inquiries (709) 778-1552 Prevention Services Fax (709) 778-1564 Toll Free 1 800 563-9000 Grand Falls-Windsor 26 High Street P.O.com .

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