You are on page 1of 17

Etymology of directions in Tamil and Sanskrit.

Metes and bounds is a system or method of describing land and it uses physical features of the local
geography, along with directions and distances, to define and describe the boundaries of a parcel of land.
The boundaries are described in a running prose style, working around the parcel in sequence, from a
point of beginning, returning back to the same point. It may include references to other adjoining parcels
(and their owners), and it, in turn, could also be referred to in later surveys. At the time the description is
compiled, it may have been marked on the ground with permanent monuments placed where there were
no suitable natural monuments.
The term "metes" refers to a boundary defined by the measurement of each straight run, specified by a
distance between the terminal points, and an orientation or direction. A direction may be a simple
compass bearing, or a precise orientation determined by accurate survey methods. The term "bounds"
refers to a more general boundary description, such as along a certain watercourse, a stone wall, an
adjoining public road way, or an existing building.

Boundary determines the directions. It includes the area and the people.

,
, ,
.




compare: ellai n. [T. M. ella, K. elle.] 1. Limit, border, boundary; .
) , 806). 2. Measure, extent; ) . (. 3. End, goal, extremity, death; ) . . 129,
(.4. Distance within reach of voice; ) . (. 5. Specified time, period; .
) . . 97). 6. Place, spot, locality; . .
) . . 30). 7. (Gram.) The ablative case; .
) . 319).

kaai n. 1. [T. M. kaa, K. Tu. kae.] End, termination, conclusion; ) . (. 2. Place; .
) (. 3. Limit, boundary; . ( .11, 46). 4. Shop,
bazaar, market; ) . (. 5. Inferiority, baseness, meanness, lowness, least, lowest, worst;
. ) . 1, 60). 6. Degraded person, man of low caste;
. ) , 255). 7. Entrance, gate, outer gate- way;
. ) . 66). 8. Clasp, fastening of a neck ornament; ) . (. 9.
Handle, hilt; . ( .490).--adj. Succeeding, following; .
) . 239).--part. 1. (Gram.) Sign of the locative; ) . . 302.) 2. Verbal prefix; .
) . 831). 3. Termination of a verbal participle; .
) , 230).

Accordingly,

-> tikku n. 1. Cardinal and intermediate points, eight quarters; , , ,
) . (. 2. Protection, shelter, aid, asylum, refuge;
. ) . . 42). 3. Season, opportunity; .
) . . 215).

= , . = , , .

- tigai- 4 v. 1. To complete; to come to an end; . . Tinn. 2. To be
settled; . .


tigai-> tigai n. . ) . 308, 1).

" ) " : 308: 1)
- = , )direction), , . . :
= , .

tigai -> tisai n. 1. Cardinal points, region, quarter, direction; .
( .30). 2. Principality, jurisdiction, dominion; . (J.) 3. Word used as
inflexional suffix of the seventh case; ) . . 301, (.

tisai -> di Direction, quarter of the compass, region, &c.

tisai -> tisi n. Cardinal points, region, quarter, direction; ) . . (.

tisi-> di f. 1 A direction, cardinal point, point of the compass, quarter of the sky; -2 (a) The mere
direc- tion of a thing, hint, indication (of the general lines); b) (Hence) Mode, man- ner, method; -3
Region, space, place in general. -4 A foreign or distant region. -5 A point of view, manner of considering a
subject. -6 A precept, order. -7 The number 'ten'. -8 A side or party. -9 The mark of a bite

tisai -> tsam n. 1. Province, territory, land, district; .
) . 9, 4). 2. Place; . .

tsam -> da 1 A place or spot in general; -2 A region, country, province, land, territory; -3
A department, part, side, portion (as of a whole); -4 An institute, an ordinance. -5 Range, compass;

tsam -> dan Direction, instruction.

tsam -> tyam n. ( (.1. Country, land, district; .
) . . 28). 2. Place, location, room; .

tyam-> tm n. 1. Place; ) . (. 2. Land, country; ) . (.
) . 6). 3. Direction, quarter; . ) . 48). 4. A word used as locative
case-suffix; ) . . 302.)

tm -> tem

, , ,
.

Tisai -> isai , n. Cardinal points, direction; ) . . (.

tm -> tim n. Direction; ) . . (.

Directions by directing:

- ku- 5 v. tr. Caus. of - ] . M. ku.] 1. To show, exhibit, display; .
) , 293). 2. To reveal, disclose, set forth; .
) , 849). 3. To demonstrate, prove; . ,
) , 28). 4. To remind; .
) . . 8). 5. To offer to a deity; .
)S.I.I. iii, 102). 6. To reflect, as a mirror or water; .
) , 706). 7. To create, bring to pass; .
) . 19, 17). 8. To introduce; .
) . . 23). 9. To apply, as incense or perfume to the
hair; . . . . ) . . 59). 10. To heat, as a
vessel of ghee; . .11. To
bring back; . ) . . 34).
ku n. 1. Showing; exhibition, presentation; .2. Example, instance, illustration;


ku -> kai n. 1. Direction, point of the compass; ) . (. 2. Limit, boundary;
. ( (.3. (Mus.) Minute portion of time = 64 kaam, 15 or 18 twinklings of the eye according to
some; 64 ) . . . 27.) 4. Point, extremity, top, tip, apex; ) .W.)

kai -> kh 1 A quarter or region of the world, direction, region; -2 A limit, boundary; -3
The last limit, extremity, pitch, climax, excess; -4 Race ground, course. -5 A mark, goal. -6 The path of the
wind and clouds in the atmosphere. -7 A measure of time = A Kal;. -8 Water. -9 The sun. -1 A fixed
place of a lunar mansion.

)to show) ) ( .
direct direction .
) to show) .
. For this reason of direction, the word derivation is derived from the word direct.

Directions means

1. the act or an instance of directing.
2. the line along which anything lies, faces, moves, etc., with reference to the point or region toward which
it is directed: The storm moved in a northerly direction.
3. the point or region itself: The direction is north.
4. a position on a line extending from a specific point toward a point of the compass or toward the nadir or
the zenith.
5. a line of thought or action or a tendency or inclination: the direction of contemporary thought.
tisi-> di f. 1 A direction, cardinal point, point of the compass, quarter of the sky; -2 (a) The mere
direc- tion of a thing, hint, indication (of the general lines); b) (Hence) Mode, man- ner, method; -3
Region, space, place in general. -4 A foreign or distant region. -5 A point of view, manner of considering a
subject. -6 A precept, order. -7 The number 'ten'. -8 A side or party. -9 The mark of a bite

di -> di 6 U. 1 To point out, show, exhibit, produce (as a witness); -2 To assign, allot; -3 To
give, grant, bestow upon, deliver or make over to; -4 To pay (as tribute). -5 To consent to; -6 To direct,
order, command. -7 To allow, permit; -Caus. ( -) 1 To show, point out, allot, assign. -2 To teach,
communicate, tell, inform. -3 To direct, order. -4 To confer, bestow.

dias f. 1 To point out, show, exhibit, produce (as a witness); -2 To assign, allot; -3 To give,
grant, bestow upon, deliver or make over to; -4 To pay (as tribute). -5 To consent to; -6 To direct,
order, command. -7 To allow, permit;

diya a. 1 11 1 Belonging to or situated towards any quarter of the compass. - -- -2 22 2 Foreign,
outlandish; i.3.76.

dia p. p. 1 11 1 Shown, indicated, assigned, pointed out. - -- -2 22 2 Described, referred to. - -- -3 33 3 Fixed,
settled. - -- -4 44 4 Directed, ordered &c. - -- -5 55 5 Destined

dia Time.

diam 1 11 1 Assignment, allotment - -- -2 22 2 Fate, destiny, good or ill-luck; - -- -3 33 3 Order, direction,
command; 4 44 4 Aim, object. - -- -5 55 5 An appointed place;
dii f. 1 11 1 Assign- ment, allotment. - -- -2 22 2 Direction, command, instruction, rule, precept. - -- -3 33 3 Fate,
fortune, destiny. - -- -4 44 4 Good fortune, happiness, any auspicious event (such as the birth of a son); - -- -5 55 5
A sort of measure of length.
diy ind. (Strictly the instr. sing. of ) Fortunately, luckily, thank God, how glad I
am, how fortunate, bravo; (an exclamation of joy or gratulation)

dan f. Direction, injunction, laying down;

L. dicere "speak, tell, say," related to dicare "proclaim, dedicate

Gk. deiktikos "able to show," from deiktos "shown

dekhn: [Hindi] (v) to see, to look; look; look; look; to view; to perceive; to observe; to read; to correct; to consider;
to experience;

Compare this with

su -> - suu- v. tr. 1. [K. suu, M. cuu.] To point out, show, designate, indicate;
. (. 19, 54). 2. To have in view, aim at, desire;
. 3. To think, consider; . (. 398). 4. To honour;
. (. 178).

suu n. [M. cuu.] 1. Indication, reference; . (.
12, 21). 2. That which is intended, designated; .
(. . 1). 3. Honour; . (. 20). 4.
See . (. . 31). 5. See .
- suu- > c s. [Tel.] Interj. Look! behold!
- suu- > ( succu)-> cc: ssu. [Tel.] v. a. To see, to look, view, observe, perceive. To
consider, meditate, think on. To visit. To wait. To take care, be on one's guard. To regard, care for. To try,
to attempt, to see to. To experience, try, prove by any sense. Oc` c- I felt it with my hand. cDc- ,
oaDc- I tasted it. To estimate, to judge.
cc:s`<: ssu-konu. v. a. To see or perceive. To look silently, look for ourself.
cc_ ski. [Tel.] n. A view, a sight, a glance. c.y.
c.e: s-pau. [Tel.] v. n. To appear, cn:.c:, s<.c:. To be fair, or beam with beauty.
c.y spu. [Tel. from cc:.] n. Slight, a look, vision, glance. c;_ coc_ D<_ c.ycD<c
fortune frowned on him. D<_c.y humiliation, contempt. c Os c.y s.occc: there was no
prospect of his living longer. c``.y (c.y+L.y) to endure the sight of. cc ^coc:. c``.s
unable to stand before his face. A. v. 78.
c.y or c. oc: v. a. To show, point out. coc:c. oc: to frighten. c<_c: c.oc: to
provide for, give bread to. c c.oc: to hold out hopes or prospects. c.yc:s`s a
transparent petticoat. c.yn:oc: or c.yc:n:o c: tspu-gurramu. n. A block head, a
useless man. .s e.onc: scc:. c.yc:c c: spuu-vlu. n. The forefinger.
e: <cc:. c.oac: sp-arulu. n. Spectators, bystanders. c.o spari. n. A handsome
woman, or man. cs_cc:, cs, cs_c .
c. e: [ cpeu ] ts-peu. [Tel.] v. n. To await, wait for, attend on, watch, to expect. s<:. e: ,
. O;oc:.
suu- > cu 1. To exhibit in the pre sence of a prince, &c., a poem made to his praise;
. 2. [prov. in complaint.] To appoint, destine, . 3. To attri bute or ascribe to, father
upon, . .
- suu- > ( succu)-> scc-v-eal n. [K. ccu.] Colloq. Onom. expr. of (a)
silencing; : (b) urging dog to attack; .

( succu)-> ( ssu)-> ssagam n. 1. Sign, indication, omen; . (. .). 2.
Sacrificial grass; . (.)

ssagam -> ssaga n. 1. Spy, informer; . (. .). 2. Teacher; .
(. .). 3. Person of exemplary virtues; .
(. . 17).

( ssu)-> ssaam n. (W.) 1. Intimation by sign, gesture, etc.; indication, suggestion;
. 2. Note, excursus; . . 3. Accuracy, exactness; . 4.
Quickness of apprehension; .

ssaam-> ssaai n. (W.) 1. Intimation by sign, gesture, etc.; indication, suggestion;
. 2. Note, excursus; . . 3. Accuracy, exactness; . 4.
Quickness of apprehension; .

( ssu)-> ssi n. 1. kind of gesticulation. . (. 3, 18, .) 2. Index, catalogue;
. (W.) 3. A needle, .
ssigai ] A needle, . 2. An index, catalogue, . W. p. 939 3. 2. Elephant's trunk;
. (. .).
, s. The mariner's needle, .

ssi -> ^c sdi n. A needle. n:c c:s:e: `c<c:.

A compass needle is a magnet (a weak one), and it tends to line up in such a way as to point its "north
pole" towards the North Pole of the planet. This needle is not used for sewing but to pointing the direction
only. Later this word has derived the meanings of piercing and normal needle also.

ssi -> sci scic f. 1 Piercing, perforating. -2 A needle; -3 Sharp point or pointed blade
(as of Kua grass); -4 The sharp point or tip of anything; -5 The point of a bud, -6 A kind of military array,
a sharp column or file;

scika A tailor.

scik 1 A needle. -2 An elephant's trunk.

scita p. p. [-] Pierced, bored, perforated.

scin a. ( f.) Piercing, perforating.

scin A needle.

- ssi 11 v. tr. 1. To summarise, state briefly; .
(. . 2, 61, .). 2. To indicate by signs or brief statements; . (.
.). .

- ssippi 11 v. tr. To indicate by signs or brief statements; . (. .).

- ssi -> ssigam n. A proclamatory drum, tom-tom; . Loc.

- ssi -> sc 1 U. (-, ) 1 To point out, indicate, show, manifest, prove; 2 To hint,
intimate, suggest. -3 To gesticulate, act, indicate by gestures or signs; -4 To trace out, spy, ascertain. -
With to show, indicate;

ssagam -> scaka a. ( f.) 1 Indicative, indicating, proving, showing. -2 Betraying,
informing; $ Ms.4.71;11.5.

scaka 1 An informer, a tale-bearer, traducer, spy; -2 narrator, teacher, an instructor. -5 The
manager or chief actor of a company. -6 A Buddha. -7 A Siddha. -8 A villain, scoundrel -9 A demon,
goblin. -1 A dog. -11 A crow. -12 A cat. -13 A kind of fine rice.
ssaam scanam, scan The act of piercing or perforating, boring, perforation. -2
Pointing out, in- dication, intimation. -3 Informing against, betraying, calumniating, traducing. -4
Gesticulation, indicating by proper signs or gestures. -5 Hinting, hint. -6 Information. -7 Teaching,
showing, describing -8 Spying out, spying, seeing, ascertaining. -9 Villainy, wickedness.
scan A short index or table of contents.

sc 1 Gesticulation. -2 Spying out, seeing, sight.

ssi -> sci & sc 1 A triangle formed by the sides of a trapezium produced till they meet.
-2 A cone, pyramid. -3 Indication by gesture, communicating by signs, gesticulation. -4 A particular mode
of dancing. -5 Dramatic action. -6 An index, a table of contents. -7 A list, catalogue. -8 The earth's disc in
computing eclipses (in astr.). -9 A rail or balustrade. -10 A small door-bolt. -11 A kind of coitus.

scita p. p. 1 Pointed out, shown, intimated, indicated, hinted. -2 Made known or indicated
by signs or gestures. -3 Communicated, told, revealed. -4 Ascertained, known.

scin a. ( f.) 1 Pointing out, intimating, indicating. -2 Informing against. -3 Spying out. -
m. 1 A spy, an informer; Mb.13.9. 9. -2 A kind of an arrow;

scin A night.

scya a. Communicable, fit to be made known.

ssi -> susi n. Breast; udder; . (. .)

susi-> ( sasi)-> ssi n. [T. tcci, K. cci.] Mother's milk; . Nurs.

susi -> ( susigam)-> susugam n. Nipple of the breast; . (. .)

susugam -> sugam n. Nipple; . (. .)

susugam -> ssugam n. Nipple, orifice of a teat; . (.)

ssugam -> sdagam n. Nipple; . (.)

susi -> cuci & The female breast; udder.

susugam -> cucuka, cucukam & cuckam The nipple of the breast.

ssugam -> ccukam & cckam The nipple of a breast;

These words derived as nipple is the sharp point of the breast.

sugam -> ksam n. Breast; . (. .)
ksam -> kuyam n. 1. Woman's breast; . (. ii, 75, 190).
2. Darbha grass.
kuyam -> kuca The female breast, a teat, nipple;

Similar to breast nipple, Darbha grass is also having sharp points to pierce.

kuyam -> kusam n. 1. Darbha. .
(. . 55).

kusam -> kusai n. Darbha. See . (. . 1).

kusai -> kua 1 A kind of grass considered holy and forming an essential requisite of several
religious ceremonies; -2 A rope of Kua grass for connecting the yoke of a plough with the pole. -3 One of
the great Dvpas; Bhg.5.1.32.

Derivation of the words denoting directions in Tamil and Sanskrit. Derivation of the words denoting directions in Tamil and Sanskrit. Derivation of the words denoting directions in Tamil and Sanskrit. Derivation of the words denoting directions in Tamil and Sanskrit.

South: South: South: South:

av -> av + ku -> avkku n. Person with his face looking down wards;
.



avkku -> avk ind. 1 Downwards; -2 Southern, southward. gone down. -3 Base, evil
(deed);

Four Directions are named based upon the front, behind or upper, downside of the land. In Tamil and
Sanskrit ku means earth/land.

ku n. Earth; . (.)

k [K. M. k.] n. 1. Place or space below, underneath, bottom; .
(. 5, 46). 2. East; . (.) 3. Pit; . (.) 4. Former time; .
(. 40, 9). 5. Fault, blemish,
k + ku -> kiakku n. [M. kiakku.] 1. East; . (.) 2. Bottom, foot; low place;
. (. 337). 3. Lowness, plainness, humbleness; .

ml [T. K. mlu, M. ml.] n. 1. That which is above or over; upper side; surface; .

ml + ku -> mku n. [M. mrku.] West; .
vaam n. 1. Cable, large rope, as for drawing a temple-car; . (. 219,
.). 2. Cord; . (.) 3. A loop of coir rope, used for climbing palm-trees;
. Loc. 4. Bowstring; . (.) 5. String of jewels; .
(. 204, ). (.) 6. Strands of a garland; chains of a necklace; .
(. . 39). 7. Arrangement; .
(. 14, 41). 8. Banyan; . (.) (.
. 41).
vaam + ku -> vaakku n. [T. M. vaakku, K. baugu.] North, the north point of the
compass; .

Banyan trees grow more in North India. In Tamil and Sanskrit, means Banyan Tree. Therefore
Tamils have named , as the direction of the land of Northern. In South India, Coconut trees grow
more. In Tamil means Coconut tree. Therefore they have named as the direction of land of
coco nut tree.

te n. 1. [M. ten.] South, southern region; . (.) 2. Beauty; . (.)
(. 1155, 4). 3. Chastity; . (.) 4. Harmony music; . (.) 5. Song;
. (.) 6. Sweetness; . (. 56, 7). 6.
Coconut tree. See . (.) 7. Right side; .
(. . 273).

te + ku -> teku n. [K. teka.] South; . (.)
Earth in the eastern direction is lower than the Western direction. Similarly, Northern direction of India is
considered as highland and South India is considered as the downside part. Therefore Tamils have
named the directions accordingly. In view of the same, in downward land is identified as Southern
direction in Sanskrit also. However, the said meaning in Tamil is now obsolete.
av -> avcu n. Destruction; . (R.)

av -> avsi n. South, southern direction; . ) .
. 41).
avsi -> avsam, s. South, southern direction, ; [, down downwards, the
south being considered downwards.]
avsi -> , s. People of the south country, . 2. The learned, wise men,
. (.)

avci -> avcya a. Southern, southernly. cf. iva. B.6.65.

avci -> 1 The south. -2 The lower region.

-> avc a. 1 Turned down-wards, bent down, stooping; -2 Being or situated below, lower
than (with abl.) -3 Headlong, looking downwards. -4 South. m., n. Brahman.

avci -> apc, apc f. 1 Going or situated backwards, behind. -2 Western. -3
Southern.

avc -> apc 1 backwards, behind. -2 Western. -3 Southern.

avk -> apk (m ap, n apk) ind. 1 Behind, back- wards. -2 Westward or
southward.

-> absam n. South; . (. . 183.)

absam-> apcna a. 1 Situated backwards or behind, turned backwards. -2
Western. -3 Opposite.

avcya -> apcya a. Western or southern.

The word apcya denotes both Western and southern since both directions are in the downside of
the earth.

These words are not derived from apa with the combination of ac, because apa is not
denoting downwards. With , the wrong citation of ac will give the meaning of to put away, drive
away; (intr.) to run away.

ac 1 U. 1 To bend, incline, curl, curve; $ Bk.9.4. -2 To go, move, tend towards;
Bk.4.22;

Citation of ac is therefore totally a wrong one. Moreover Sanskrit pundit could not explain the
suffixes of and .

With apa, ac will give the following meaning only.

apyac Gone into, reaching, hidden.

If it is so, it would have meant going away only but not going down. Or artificially it will give the meaning
of going southward or downwards but not the south direction itself. The word apyac has not given
any such meaning.

Compare:

adhara a. 1 Lower (opp. ), (lit. not held up); tending downwards; under, nether, downwards
adhara-> adhar The nadir; () or the southern direction.
adhar-> ( adharc) -> adharc the southern direction.
adharc a. Southward; tending downwards, to the nadir or lower region; tending to the
south.
adhara-> ind. Beneath.
North: North: North: North:

u -> ( uttu) -> ud ind. A prefix to verbs and nouns. G. M. gives the following senses with
illustrations:- (1) Superiority in place, rank or power; up, upwards, upon, on, over, above (). (2)
Separation, disjunction ; out, out off, from, apart &c.; . (3) Motion upwards
uttaram n. 1. Answer, reply, rejoinder; . (. .
10, 55). 2. Written statement filed by the defendant in a case; . 3. That which comes later; that
which follows; . 4. That which is superior; . (.
. 4). 5. Beam, cross- beam in a building; . (. 82, .) 6. Period of the sun's
progress towards the north; . (. . 74.) 7. North; . (.) 8. Submarine
fire; . (.)

( uttu) -> uttaram -> uttara a. 1 Being or produced in the north, northern (declined like
a pronoun). -2 Upper, higher P.I.1.34 (opp. ); -3 (a) Later-latter, following, subsequent (opp. ); (b)
Future; concluding; -4 Left (opp. ). -5 Superior, chief, excellent; dominant, powerful. -6 Exceeding,
transgressing, beyond; -7 More, more than (generally as the last member of a comp. with numerals); -8
Accompanied or attended with, full of, consisting chiefly of, followed by -9 To be crossed over.
uttara 1 Future time, futurity. -2 N. of Viu. -3 N. of iva. uttar 1 The north; -2 A
lunar mansion. -3 N. of the daughter of Vira and wife of Abhimanyu. -4 N. of a plant (Mar.
).
uttaram 1 An answer, reply; -2 (In law) Defence, a rejoinder. -3 The last part or following
member of a compound. -4 (In Mm.) The fourth member of an q. v. the answer. -5 The
upper surface or cover. -6 Conclusion. -7 Remainder, rest, what followed or took place next; -8
Superiority, excellence. -9 Result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic. -10 Excess, over
and above; see above ( a. 8). -11 Remainder, difference (in arith.). -12 A rectangular
moulding (Mnasra 13.67.) -13 The next step, further action-14 A cover
uttaram ind. 1 Above. -2 Afterwards, after;
( uttu) -> uda + ku -> udakku n. North; . (.)
udakku -> (m. uda) ind. 1 Above. -2 Northward, to the north of (with abl.);
Ms.3.217. -3 Subsequently.
udaktt ind. Towards the north, northwards.

( uttu) -> ( uttam) -> uccam n. 1. Height, elevation, altitude; . (.) 2.
Extreme top overhead; . 3. Zenith, meridian, position overhead;
. (. . 341). 4. Excellence, superiority; .
(. . 17). 5. (Mus.) Treble; . (.) 6. (Astrol.) Exalted
position of a planet: one of five kiraka-nilai, q.v.; . (. . 21.) 7. Extreme
limit; . . (W.)

uccam -> ucca a. 1 High (in all senses); tall; Ku.7.63; elevated, superior, exalted
(family &c) -2 Loud, high-sounding; i.4.18. -3 Intense, violent, strong. -4 (In astr.)
Ascendant; see below. ucca 1 The apex of the orbit of a planet. -2 Height, high place;
Mb.12.28.25.

uccam -> ucci n. [K. M. ucci.] 1. Zenith, meridian; . 2. Midday, high noon;
. (.) 3. Crown of head; . (. . 4, 6, 3). 4.
Head; . (. 104). 5. Summit, top, apex; .
(. 87). 6. Limit, end; . (. 2888). 7. Indian mistletoe. See
. (L.)

ucci-> ci n. The north; (. 229).
uda -> ( udasi)-> udsi n. North; . (. . 34).
udsi -> udc The north; Me.59.

udsi -> ( udsam) -> udcna a. 1 Turned towards the north. -2 Northern.

udc -> 1 The country to the north and west of the river Sarasvat; northern country. -2 (pl.)
The inhabi- tants of the north; R.4.66.
udcya a. Situated or living in the north.
uda -> ( udasi)-> udacu a. Turned or going upwards.
udacu -> udac & udac a. 1 Turned or going upwards. -2 Upper, higher; -3 Northern,
turned towards the north. -4 Subsequent.
udac 1 U. 1 To raise, elevate, lift or throw up, draw up (as water); -2 (Intrans.) (a) to go up; (b) to
rise, rise forth; G. L.6; Bv.2.76; K.221; welter up; Mv.3.32.

West West West West

pul -> pil-> pii n. That which goes behind; . (. .)

pii -> pitti n. Back, hind part; . (W.)

pil-> pir-> pirdam n. 1. South; . (. .) 2. Back; . (. .)

pir-> piradi. n. 1. Likeness; . . 2. Substitute; .
. 3. Answer, response; . 4. Copy, transcript, duplicate; .
? 5. Manuscript; . 6. Opposition; .
. 7. Competition; . . 8. Defendant;
. . Loc.--adj. Each, every; . .

piradi -> prati ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it means (a) towards, in the direction of; (b) back, in
return, again; (c) in opposition to, against, counter; (d) upon, down upon; (see the several roots with this
preposition). -2 As a prefix to nouns not directly derived from verbs it means (a) likeness, resemblance,
equality; (b) opposite, of the opposite side; (c) rivalry; -3 As a separable preposition (with acc.) it means
(a) towards, in the direction of, to; (b) against, counter, in opposition to, opposite; (c) in comparison with,
on a par with, in proportion to, a match for; (d) near, in the vicinity of, by, at, in, on; (e) at the time, about,
during; (f) on the side of, in favour of, to the lot of; (g) in each, in or at every, severally (used in a
distributive sense); (h) with regard or reference to, in relation to, regarding, concerning, about, as to; (i)
according to, in conformity with; in my opinion; (j) before, in the presence of; (k) for, on account of.
-4 As a separable preposi- tion (with abl.) it means either (a) a representative of, in place of, instead of;
(b) in exchange or return for; -5 As the first member of Avyaybhva compound it usually means (a) in or
at every;.; (b) towards, in the direction of;

piradi-> piradsi n. West; . (. .)

piradi ku -> ( piradikku)-> pirattiyakku n. West; . (.)
pirattiyakku-> pratyak ind. 1 In an opposite direction, backwards. -2 Against. -3
Westward, to the west of (with abl.). -4 In the interior, inwardly. -5 Formerly, in former times.
piradsi -> pratc The west.

pratc-> pratcna a. 1 Western, westerly. -2 Future, sub- sequent, following. -3 Ved. Turned
or directed towards. -4 Turning back, turned away from. -5 Coming from behind. -6 Turned inwards

pratc -> pratcya a. 1 Living in the west, western, westerly. -2 Ved. Disappeared.

pratc -> pratyac, pratyac & pratyac a. 1 Turned or directed towards; turned
inward; iva- mahimna 25. -2 Being behind. -3 Following, subse- quent;
-4 Averted, turned away, turning back; Pt.3.181. -5 Western, westerly. -6 Inner, interior. -7 Equal to, a
match for.
pul -> ( puam) -> puccam n. 1. Tail; . 2. Hinder part; . 3. Comet;
. (.) 4. Fold of a man's cloth, partly left hanging behind;
. (, 5, 1, 6). 5. Remainder or unexpired
portion of a titi/nakatra; , . 6.
Peacock feather; . (. .) 7. Scorpion's sting; .
(. 30, 26). 8. Scorpion; . (. .)
puccam -> puccha & puccham 1 A tail in general; -2 A hairy tail. -3 A peacock's tail. -4
The hinder part. -5 The end of anything

puccam -> ( paccam) -> paccimam n.. West; .
(. . 270). 2. Back; . . . .
(. . 71). 3. That which is late or after-time; . . (W.)

( paccam) -> paca a. 1 Being behind. -2 Posterior, later. -3 Western.
ind. Ved. 1 Behind, after. -2 After- wards -3 Westward

paca -> pacim The west.

pacim -> pact ind. (Used by itself or with gen. or abl.) 1 From behind; from the back; -2
Be- hind, backwards, towards the back (opp. ); -3 After (in time or space), then, afterwards,
subsequently; -4 At last, lastly, finally. -5 From the west. -6 Towards the west, westward.

paccimam-> pacima a. 1 Being behind, hind- most; -2 Last (in time or space); -3 The
latter; -4 Western, westerly; ( is used adverbially in the sense of 'in the west') or 'after, behind';
with acc. or gen.; so 'in the west'. from behind.
East: East: East: East:
Generating, appearing or entering for the first time is said as old, ancient or prior one. Compare:
prath I. 1 . (, ) To appear, arise, come to light;
prath is cited as the etymology of prathama.



pul -> pur -> puram adv. Before, in place or time; . (.)

pur -> puram -> puras ind. 1 11 1 Before (in time or space), in front, in the presence of, before the
eyes of (by itself or with gen.) - -- -2 22 2 In the east, from the east. - -- -3 33 3 Eastward

puram -> pura -> puratas ind. 1 11 1 Before, in front (opp. ); - -- -2 22 2 Afterwards; - -- -3 33 3 Before (in
time).

pura -> pur -> pur 1 An epithet of the Ganges. - -- -2 22 2 A kind of perfume. - -- -3 33 3 The east.
pur -> pur ind. 1 11 1 In former times, formerly, of yore, in the olden time; - -- -2 22 2 Before, hitherto, upto
the present time - -- -3 33 3 At first, in the first place; - -- -4 44 4 In a short time, soon, ere-long, shortly (in this sense
usually with a present tense to which it gives a future sense); - -- -5 55 5 Ved. For the defence of. - -- -6 66 6 Securely
from. - -- -7 77 7 Except, besides
pur -> puram n. 1. Antiquity; . (. . . 51). 2.
Ancient tale or legend; old, traditional history; . 3. Sacred books ascribed to Vysa, dealing with
primary creation, secondary creation, genealogy of Manus, kings, etc., one of aupattu-nlu-kalai, q.v.; 4.
Land granted for the exposition of the Puras in temples;
. (R. T.)
puram-> pura n. God, as the Ancient; [] .
(. 4, 221).

pura-> purai n. Prvat, as the Ancient; [] .
(. . 3).

puram-> pura a. ( pur, pur f.) 1 Old, ancient, belonging to olden
times; -2 Aged, primeval; -3 Decayed, worn out.

puram 1 A past event or occur- rence. -2 tale of the past, legend, ancient or legendary history. -3
N. of certain well-known sacred works; these are 18; these are supposed to have been com- posed by
Vysa, and contain the whole body of Hindu mythology.

pura A coin equal to 8 cowries;
pura-> praa a. Old, ancient.
pura-> pra a. 1. Old. ancient.-2 Previous.
pur -> purdaam n. 1. That which is ancient; .
(. . 32). 2. Antiquity; . 3. Old age; .
(. . 22). 4. Boiled rice preserved in water; .
Colloq.
purdaam -> purdaar n. Ancients; . (. . 4.)

purdaam-> purdai n. Prvat, . (. 1051).

purdaam -> purtana a. ( purtan f.) 1 Old, ancient; -2 Aged, primeval; -3
Worn out, decayed.

purtana 1 An epithet of Viu. -2 (pl.) The ancients. ( purtanam) 1 An ancient story. -2 A
Pura.
purtana -> pratna a. 1 Old, ancient; Ch. Up.3. 17.7.-2 Former.-3
Traditional, customary.- A kind of metre.
pur -> pr -> prvam n. 1. First, beginning; . 2. Antiquity, oldness; . 3. Priority,
precedence; . (W.) 4. Former time; . 5. East; . 6. See . (. 1246,
.)

prvam -> prvattr n. The ancients; . Loc.
prvam -> prvigam n. Antiquity, old times, . 2. Origin of a thing, . (c.)
.
prvika n. Old man; ) . . 29.)
prvigam-> prvgam & pruvgam s. Antiquity, old times, . 2. Origin
of a thing, . (c.)
prvigam-> , prvigar. [pl.] Those of old time, ancients.

prvgam-> , prviga. The founder of a thing, . (Old Dic.)
prvam-> pruvam n. The first, the beginning, . 2. Priority, precedence, . 3.
Antiquity, oldness, . 4. Ancient history, tradition, &c., . 5. (c.) prva paksa
. 6. East, . 7. The front, . 8. Former parts of the day, . adv.
Former time; . (. 30, 52).
pr -> prppiyam n. (. .) 1. Old story; . 2. Newness; .
prvam -> prva a. 1 Being in front of, first, foremost. -2 Eastern, easterly, to the east of; -3
Previous to, earlier than; -4 Old, ancient; -5 Former, previous, anterior, prior, antecedent (opp. ); in
this sense often at the end of comp. and translated by 'formerly.' or 'before'; -6 Aforesaid, before-
mentioned. -7 Initial. -8 Established, customary, of long standing -9 Early, prime, -10 Elder (); -11 (At
the end of comp.) Preceded by, accompanied by, attended with;
prva An ancestor, a forefather;
prvam The fore- part;
prv 1 The east -2 N. of a country to the east of Madhya- dea.
prvam ind. 1 Before (with abl.); -2 Formerly, previously, at first, antecedently, before- hand;
-3 Immemorially.
prvam -> prvaka a. (At the end of comp.) 1 11 1 Preceded by, attended with; - -- -2 22 2 Preceding,
antecedent. - -- -3 33 3 Previous, former, prior. - -- -4 44 4 First. - -- -5 55 5 ever

prvaka An ancestor, a forefather;

prvatana a. Former, old, ancient.

prvatas ind. 1 In the east, to the east; R.3.42. -2
Before, in front of. -3 First, in the first place.

prvin a. ( f.), a. 1 Ancient. -2 Ancestral.

prvdyus ind. 1 On the former day. -2 On the day before, yesterday; -3 During the first
part of the day, in the morning, at dawn. -4 Early, betimes.

prvya a. Ved. 1 Former, previous. -2 Ancient, old, -3 Next, near. -4 Eastern. -5 Excellent.
pura -> pradiv a. Ancient, old.
pura -> pira -> ( piradam) -> piradamam n. (W.) 1. Priority; . 2. Beginning,
commencement; .

piradamam -> prathama (Nom. pl. m. or ) 1 First, foremost; -2 First, chief, principal,
most excellent or eminent, matchless, incomparable; -3 Earliest, most ancient, primary. -4 Prior, previous,
former, earlier; -5 (In gram.) The first person (= third person according to European phraseology).

prathama 1 The first (third) person. -2 The first consonant of a class. -3 (In math.) The sum
of the products divided by the difference between the squares of the cosine of the azimuth and
the sine of the amplitude.

pratham The nom- inative case.

prathamam ind. 1 first, firstly, at first; -2 Already, previously, formerly; -3 At once,
immediately. -4 Before; -5 Newly, recently

prathamt firstly, for the first time

prathama 1 At first, firstly. -2 previously. -3 im- mediately. -4 before, in preference to
(gen.)

pira -> pra ind. As a prefix to verbs it means 'forward', 'forth', 'in front', 'onward', 'before', 'away', as in
, , , &c. -2 a) beginning, commencement; ( , , ); (b) source or origin (,
);

pira -> pirsi n. 1. East, eastern direction; . (.) 2. That which is in front;
. (W.)

pirsi-> psi n. East; . (. 229).
pirsi-> prc The east;
prc -> prc & prc a. 1 Turned towards the front, in front, foremost. -3 Eastern, easterly.
-3 Prior, previous, former. -m. (pl.) The people of the east. -2 Eastern grammarians.

prc -> prcya (pl.) 1 'The eastern country', the country south or east of the river Sarasvat. -
2 The people of this country.

prcya a. 1 Being or situated in front. -2 Being or living in the east, eastern, easterly. -3
Prior, preceding, previous. -4 Ancient, old.

prcyaka n. Eastern, easterly.

pirsi-> pirsam n. 1. Antiquity, what is ancient or antiquated; . 2. Worm-killer.
See . (.)

pirsam-> pirsar n. Ancients; . (. . 2.)

pirsam-> prcna a. 1 Turned towards the front or east, eastern, easterly. -2 Previous,
former, pre- viously mentioned. -3 Old, ancient.

prcna & prcnam 1 A fence, wall. -2 The eastern country;

prcnam ind. 1 In front. -2 East- ward (abl.) -3 Before.

pira+ ku -> ( pirakku)-> prk ind. 1 11 1 Before (usually with abl.); - -- -2 22 2 At first, already; - -- -3 33 3
Before, previously, in a previous portion (as of a book); - -- -4 44 4 In the east, to the east of; - -- -5 55 5 In front. - -- -6 66 6 As far
as, up to; - -- -7 77 7 At dawn or daybreak.
pirakku has obsolete now in Tamil but retained in Sanskrit as .

Related Interests