Etymology of directions in Tamil and Sanskrit.

Metes and bounds is a system or method of describing land and it uses physical features of the local
geography, along with directions and distances, to define and describe the boundaries of a parcel of land.
The boundaries are described in a running prose style, working around the parcel in sequence, from a
point of beginning, returning back to the same point. It may include references to other adjoining parcels
(and their owners), and it, in turn, could also be referred to in later surveys. At the time the description is
compiled, it may have been marked on the ground with permanent monuments placed where there were
no suitable natural monuments.
The term "metes" refers to a boundary defined by the measurement of each straight run, specified by a
distance between the terminal points, and an orientation or direction. A direction may be a simple
compass bearing, or a precise orientation determined by accurate survey methods. The term "bounds"
refers to a more general boundary description, such as along a certain watercourse, a stone wall, an
adjoining public road way, or an existing building.

Boundary determines the directions. It includes the area and the people.

வடகி ஆதிர கிழகி கட, ேமகி ேசரல ெதகி கட வைரய தமிழக
ெகாளபவ ேபா, எைல, திைச வர எபனவைற அபைடயாக ெகா ேதச
வைரயகபட.

வடேவகட ெதமாி ஆயிைட தமி
நலக எ ெதாகாபிய

compare: எைல¹ ellai n. [T. M. ella, K. elle.] 1. Limit, border, boundary; வர . எைலக ணிறா
) ற , 806). 2. Measure, extent; அள ைவ ) . திவா (. 3. End, goal, extremity, death; ) . க . 129,
உைர (.4. Distance within reach of voice; பிர ) . திவா (. 5. Specified time, period; தவா . றிய
ெவைலயி ) க பரா . விட . 97). 6. Place, spot, locality; இட . அதகத ெவைலயா மீ .
) கத . ஏமட . 30). 7. (Gram.) The ablative case; ஐதா ேவ ைம . எைல யி ம
ெபயெகா ) ந . 319).

கைட¹ kaṭai n. 1. [T. M. kaḍa, K. Tu. kaḍe.] End, termination, conclusion; ) . பி (. 2. Place; இட .
) திவா (. 3. Limit, boundary; எைல . கைடயழிய நீடகற க ணாைள (பாிபா .11, 46). 4. Shop,
bazaar, market; அகா ) . பி (. 5. Inferiority, baseness, meanness, lowness, least, lowest, worst;
கீைம . நாயி கைடயா கிடத வேய ) திவாச . 1, 60). 6. Degraded person, man of low caste;
தாேதா . கலாத ெசா கைடெயலா ) நால , 255). 7. Entrance, gate, outer gate- way;
வாயி . கைடகழி ) அகநா . 66). 8. Clasp, fastening of a neck ornament; கைட ண ) . திவா (. 9.
Handle, hilt; கா . கைட ைட ெயஃ (மைலப .490).--adj. Succeeding, following; பி . கைடகா
) பழ . 239).--part. 1. (Gram.) Sign of the locative; ஏழ ) . ந . 302.) 2. Verbal prefix; ஓ உபசக .
கைடெகட ) தி . 831). 3. Termination of a verbal participle; ஒ விைனெயச விதி . ஈத ையயா
கைட ) ற , 230).

Accordingly,

தி -> தி³ tikku n. 1. Cardinal and intermediate points, eight quarters; வட, கிழ, ெத, ேம
எற நாறிைச அவறி ேகாணதிைசக ) . பி (. 2. Protection, shelter, aid, asylum, refuge;
கட . மெறா திகில ) உபேதசகா . சிவராம . 42). 3. Season, opportunity; சமய . திேநாகிய
தீவிைன பயெனன ) கபரா . நகநீ . 215).

திைகத = த , தீத . திைக = , எைல, திைச.

திைக²-த tigai- 4 v. 1. To complete; to come to an end; த . மாத திைகத . Tinn. 2. To be
settled; தீமானமாத . அத விைல இ திைகயவிைல.


திைக tigai-> திைக tigai n. திைச . திைக ெயலா ெதாழெசவா ) ேதவா . 308, 1).

"திைகெயலா ெதாழெசவா ) " ேதவா : 308: 1)
திைக - திைச = எைல , எைலேநாகிய வி )direction), எைலற, எைலற நா . ஒ . ேநா :
சீைம = எைல , நா.

திைக tigai -> திைச² tisai n. 1. Cardinal points, region, quarter, direction; தி . வளிதிாித திைச
(றநா .30). 2. Principality, jurisdiction, dominion; அதிகாரபட இட. (J.) 3. Word used as
inflexional suffix of the seventh case; ஏழாேவைம ெசா ) . ந . 301, மயிைல(.

திைச² tisai -> दशा diśā Direction, quarter of the compass, region, &c.

திைச² tisai -> திசி tisi n. Cardinal points, region, quarter, direction; தி ) . யா . அக (.

திசி tisi-> दश् diś f. 1 A direction, cardinal point, point of the compass, quarter of the sky; -2 (a) The mere
direc- tion of a thing, hint, indication (of the general lines); b) (Hence) Mode, man- ner, method; -3
Region, space, place in general. -4 A foreign or distant region. -5 A point of view, manner of considering a
subject. -6 A precept, order. -7 The number 'ten'. -8 A side or party. -9 The mark of a bite

திைச² tisai ->ேதச¹ tēsam n. 1. Province, territory, land, district; நா . ேதசெமலா கதா கசி
) திவாச . 9, 4). 2. Place; இட . காலேதசமறி நடதேவ .

ேதச¹ tēsam -> दे शः dēśaḥ 1 A place or spot in general; -2 A region, country, province, land, territory; -3
A department, part, side, portion (as of a whole); -4 An institute, an ordinance. -5 Range, compass;

ேதச¹ tēsam -> दे शना dēśanā Direction, instruction.

ேதச¹ tēsam -> ேதய³ tēyam n. (பி (.1. Country, land, district; நா . வர பிலா வதா
ெனேதயதா ) கபரா . மகரக . 28). 2. Place, location, room; இட.

ேதய³ tēyam-> ேத² tēm n. 1. Place; இட ) . திவா (. 2. Land, country; ேதச ) . டா (. ெத வ ேதஎ
) றநா . 6). 3. Direction, quarter; தி . அவமைற ேதஎ ேநாகி ) அகநா . 48). 4. A word used as locative
case-suffix; ஏழாேவ ைம ெசா ) . ந . 302.)

ேத² tēm -> ேதஎ tē’em

இத ஊ ேபாக, நீ இத வழியி ெச, இத எைலயி ெச, இத திைசயி எ வழி
காேவா.

திைச Tisai -> இைச² isai , n. Cardinal points, direction; திைச ) . அக . நி (.

ேத² tēm -> தி tim n. Direction; தி ) . யா . அக (.

Directions by directing:

கா¹-த kāṭṭu- 5 v. tr. Caus. of கா - ] . M. kāṭṭu.] 1. To show, exhibit, display; காபித .
எமில◌் ல கா ) நால , 293). 2. To reveal, disclose, set forth; அறிவித . காணா தா
காவா ) ற , 849). 3. To demonstrate, prove; நிபித . நிைறெமாழி மாத ெபைம நில,
மைறெமாழி காவி ) ற , 28). 4. To remind; நிைனத . வ றி கா ேத லைக
பாேயா ) கபரா . கடகா . 8). 5. To offer to a deity; நிேவதனெசத . ஆவா
காகிற திவ )S.I.I. iii, 102). 6. To reflect, as a mirror or water; பிரதிபகெசத .
அத கா பளி ேபா ) ற , 706). 7. To create, bring to pass; உடாத . கைளயாத
பமி காாி ைக கா ) சில . 19, 17). 8. To introduce; அறிகெசவித . ெசவழிள
ேதாைன கா தி ெதாியெவறா ) கபரா . அம . 23). 9. To apply, as incense or perfume to the
hair; ந மணதயன ஊத . ஆவி கா . . . ேசா ழ ) கபரா . நாடவி . 59). 10. To heat, as a
vessel of ghee; ெவப உைறகெசத . ெந பாதிரைத ெநபிகா உகினா .11. To
bring back; மீதத . ஆழிகா ெயனா யி கானா ) க பரா . பிணி . 34).
கா² kāṭṭu n. 1. Showing; exhibition, presentation; காபிைக .2. Example, instance, illustration;
உதாரண

கா² kāṭṭu ->காைட kāṭṭai n. 1. Direction, point of the compass; திைச ) . திவா (. 2. Limit, boundary;
எைல. (டா (.3. (Mus.) Minute portion of time = 64 kaṇam, 15 or 18 twinklings of the eye according to
some; 64 கண ெகாட காலப ) . பரத . தாள . 27.) 4. Point, extremity, top, tip, apex; னி) .W.)

காைட kāṭṭai -> काा kāṣṭhā 1 A quarter or region of the world, direction, region; -2 A limit, boundary; -3
The last limit, extremity, pitch, climax, excess; -4 Race ground, course. -5 A mark, goal. -6 The path of the
wind and clouds in the atmosphere. -7 A measure of time = A Kalā;. -8 Water. -9 The sun. -1 A fixed
place of a lunar mansion.

இதனாேலேய கா )to show) எற ெசா ) வழி காடப ( திைசைய றித . ஒபிக
ஆகிலதிdirect எற ெசா direction எ திைசைய றித . வடெமாழியி எதி மாறாக வழி
காடப திைச எற ெசா கா ) to show) எற ெசாைல றித . பி ெநறி ப
எபைத றித . For this reason of direction, the word derivation is derived from the word direct.

Directions means

1. the act or an instance of directing.
2. the line along which anything lies, faces, moves, etc., with reference to the point or region toward which
it is directed: The storm moved in a northerly direction.
3. the point or region itself: The direction is north.
4. a position on a line extending from a specific point toward a point of the compass or toward the nadir or
the zenith.
5. a line of thought or action or a tendency or inclination: the direction of contemporary thought.
திசி tisi-> दश् diś f. 1 A direction, cardinal point, point of the compass, quarter of the sky; -2 (a) The mere
direc- tion of a thing, hint, indication (of the general lines); b) (Hence) Mode, man- ner, method; -3
Region, space, place in general. -4 A foreign or distant region. -5 A point of view, manner of considering a
subject. -6 A precept, order. -7 The number 'ten'. -8 A side or party. -9 The mark of a bite

दश् diś -> दश् diś 6 U. 1 To point out, show, exhibit, produce (as a witness); -2 To assign, allot; -3 To
give, grant, bestow upon, deliver or make over to; -4 To pay (as tribute). -5 To consent to; -6 To direct,
order, command. -7 To allow, permit; -Caus. (दे शयित-ते) 1 To show, point out, allot, assign. -2 To teach,
communicate, tell, inform. -3 To direct, order. -4 To confer, bestow.

दशस् diśas f. 1 To point out, show, exhibit, produce (as a witness); -2 To assign, allot; -3 To give,
grant, bestow upon, deliver or make over to; -4 To pay (as tribute). -5 To consent to; -6 To direct,
order, command. -7 To allow, permit;

दय diśya a. 1 11 1 Belonging to or situated towards any quarter of the compass. - -- -2 22 2 Foreign,
outlandish; Śi.3.76.

द diṣṭa p. p. 1 11 1 Shown, indicated, assigned, pointed out. - -- -2 22 2 Described, referred to. - -- -3 33 3 Fixed,
settled. - -- -4 44 4 Directed, ordered &c. - -- -5 55 5 Destined

दः ः ः ः diṣṭa Time.

दम् म् म् म् diṣṭam 1 11 1 Assignment, allotment - -- -2 22 2 Fate, destiny, good or ill-luck; - -- -3 33 3 Order, direction,
command; 4 44 4 Aim, object. - -- -5 55 5 An appointed place;
दिः diṣṭiḥ f. 1 11 1 Assign- ment, allotment. - -- -2 22 2 Direction, command, instruction, rule, precept. - -- -3 33 3 Fate,
fortune, destiny. - -- -4 44 4 Good fortune, happiness, any auspicious event (such as the birth of a son); - -- -5 55 5
A sort of measure of length.
दा diṣṭyā दा ind. (Strictly the instr. sing. of दि) Fortunately, luckily, thank God, how glad I
am, how fortunate, bravo; (an exclamation of joy or gratulation)

दे शना dēśanā f. Direction, injunction, laying down;

L. dicere "speak, tell, say," related to dicare "proclaim, dedicate

Gk. deiktikos "able to show," from deiktos "shown

दे खना dekhnā: [Hindi] (v) to see, to look; look; look; look; to view; to perceive; to observe; to read; to correct; to consider;
to experience;

Compare this with

˜„¹ suḷ -> ¹-த suṭṭu- v. tr. 1. [K. suṭṭu, M. cuṭṭu.] To point out, show, designate, indicate;
றிபித. ந ட (பாிபா. 19, 54). 2. To have in view, aim at, desire; ேநாகமாக
ெகாத. 3. To think, consider; நிைனத. பனி (மைலப. 398). 4. To honour;
நமதித. இவ ய ப ேவ ெதா (தி. 178).

² suṭṭu n. [M. cuṭṭu.] 1. Indication, reference; றிபிைக. தைல ேபாகா ெதா (சில.
12, 21). 2. That which is intended, designated; கதப ெபா. உயதிைண ெயமனா மக
ேட (ெதா. ெசா. 1). 3. Honour; நமதி. பிற ரா ெப ேவவா (நீதிெநறி. 20). 4.
See ெட. அ இ உ அ (ெதா. எ. 31). 5. See டணி.
¹-த suṭṭu- > c¬ ṭsū. [Tel.] Interj. Look! behold!
¹-த suṭṭu- > ( succu)-> c¬c: ṭsūṭsu. [Tel.] v. a. To see, to look, view, observe, perceive. To
consider, meditate, think on. To visit. To wait. To take care, be on one's guard. To regard, care for. To try,
to attempt, to see to. To experience, try, prove by any sense. ±Oc` c¬- ° I felt it with my hand. cDc¬- °,
oaDc¬- ° I tasted it. To estimate, to judge.
c¬c:s`<: ṭsūṭsu-konu. v. a. To see or perceive. To look silently, look for ourself.
c¬c_ ṭsūḍki. [Tel.] n. A view, a sight, a glance. c¬.y.
c¬.e: ṭsū-paṭṭu. [Tel.] v. n. To appear, cn:.c:, s<.c:. To be fair, or beam with beauty.
c¬.y ṭsūpu. [Tel. from c¬c:.] n. Slight, a look, vision, glance. c;_ coc_ D<_ c¬.yc¬D<c
fortune frowned on him. D<_c¬.y humiliation, contempt. c Os c¬.y s°.occc: there was no
prospect of his living longer. c¬``.y (c¬.y+L.y) to endure the sight of. c¬c ^coc:. c¬``.s
unable to stand before his face. A. v. 78.
c¬.y or c¬. oc: v. a. To show, point out. coc:c¬. oc: to frighten. c<_c: c¬.oc: to
provide for, give bread to. c÷ c¬.oc: to hold out hopes or prospects. c¬.yc:s`s a
transparent petticoat. c¬.yn:oc: or c¬.yc:n:o c: tsūpu-gurramu. n. A block head, a
useless man. .°s e.onc: s·°c·c:. c¬.yc:c c: ṭsūpuḍu-vēlu. n. The forefinger.
æe: <cc:. c¬.oac: ṭsūp-arulu. n. Spectators, bystanders. c¬.o ṭsūpari. n. A handsome
woman, or man. cs_°c·c:, cs, cs_°c .
c¬. e: [ cūpeṭṭu ] tsū-peṭṭu. [Tel.] v. n. To await, wait for, attend on, watch, to expect. s<:. e: ,
. O;oc:.
suṭṭu- > cūṭṭu 1. To exhibit in the pre sence of a prince, &c., a poem made to his praise;
பாமாைலட. 2. [prov. in complaint.] To appoint, destine, நியமிக. 3. To attri bute or ascribe to, father
upon, மத. தாளிைணதைலேமட.
¹-த suṭṭu- > ( succu)-> ெவன sūccū-v-eṉal n. [K. cūcu.] Colloq. Onom. expr. of (a)
silencing; சதைத அடறி: (b) urging dog to attack; நாைய ஏதறி.

( succu)-> ( sūsu)-> சக sūsagam n. 1. Sign, indication, omen; அறிறி. (யா. அக.). 2.
Sacrificial grass; தைப. (மைல.)

சக sūsagam ->சக sūsagaṉ n. 1. Spy, informer; ஒற. (யா. அக.). 2. Teacher; உபாதியாய.
(யா. அக.). 3. Person of exemplary virtues; சம தம தய ணகளவ. சகனா
விேவகதா (ேவதா. . 17).

( sūsu)-> சன sūsaṉam n. (W.) 1. Intimation by sign, gesture, etc.; indication, suggestion;
றிபிைக. 2. Note, excursus; றி. ெபாியராண சன. 3. Accuracy, exactness; திட. 4.
Quickness of apprehension; ைம.

சன sūsaṉam-> சைன sūsaṉai n. (W.) 1. Intimation by sign, gesture, etc.; indication, suggestion;
றிபிைக. 2. Note, excursus; றி. ெபாியராண சன. 3. Accuracy, exactness; திட. 4.
Quickness of apprehension; ைம.

( sūsu)-> சி¹ sūsi n. 1. kind of gesticulation. சிைக. (சில. 3, 18, உைர.) 2. Index, catalogue;
அடவைண. (W.) 3. A needle, ஊசி.
சிைக sūsigai ] A needle, ஊசி. 2. An index, catalogue, றி. W. p. 939 3. 2. Elephant's trunk;
யாைனதிைக. (யா. அக.).
சிக, s. The mariner's needle, கா தசி.

சி¹ sūsi -> ^¬c sūdi n. A needle. n:c c:s:e: `·c<c:.

A compass needle is a magnet (a weak one), and it tends to line up in such a way as to point its "north
pole" towards the North Pole of the planet. This needle is not used for sewing but to pointing the direction
only. Later this word has derived the meanings of piercing and normal needle also.

சி¹ sūsi -> सूिचः sūciḥ सूची sūcicī f. 1 Piercing, perforating. -2 A needle; -3 Sharp point or pointed blade
(as of Kuśa grass); -4 The sharp point or tip of anything; -5 The point of a bud, -6 A kind of military array,
a sharp column or file;

सूिचकः sūcikaḥ A tailor.

सूिचका sūcikā 1 A needle. -2 An elephant's trunk.

सूिचत sūcita p. p. [सूच्-] Pierced, bored, perforated.

सूिचन् sūcin a. (सूिचनी f.) Piercing, perforating.

सूिचनी sūcinī A needle.

சி²-த sūsi 11 v. tr. 1. To summarise, state briefly; த. ேனா விாிவாகைரதைத நா
சி றிேன (சி. சி. 2, 61, சிவா.). 2. To indicate by signs or brief statements; றிபித. (ச.
அக.). சிபி.

சிபி-த sūsippi 11 v. tr. To indicate by signs or brief statements; றிபித. (ச. அக.).

சி²-த sūsi -> சிக sūsigam n. A proclamatory drum, tom-tom; ஒவைக பைற. Loc.

சி²-த sūsi ->सूच् sūc 1 U. (सूचयित-ते, सूिचत) 1 To point out, indicate, show, manifest, prove; 2 To hint,
intimate, suggest. -3 To gesticulate, act, indicate by gestures or signs; -4 To trace out, spy, ascertain. -
With अिभ to show, indicate;

சக sūsagam -> सूचक sūcaka a. (सूिचका f.) 1 Indicative, indicating, proving, showing. -2 Betraying,
informing; स िवनाशं जयाशु सूचको$शुिचरे व च Ms.4.71;11.5.

सूचकः sūcaka 1 An informer, a tale-bearer, traducer, spy; -2 narrator, teacher, an instructor. -5 The
manager or chief actor of a company. -6 A Buddha. -7 A Siddha. -8 A villain, scoundrel -9 A demon,
goblin. -1 A dog. -11 A crow. -12 A cat. -13 A kind of fine rice.
சன sūsaṉam सूचनम् sūcanam, सूचना sūcanā The act of piercing or perforating, boring, perforation. -2
Pointing out, in- dication, intimation. -3 Informing against, betraying, calumniating, traducing. -4
Gesticulation, indicating by proper signs or gestures. -5 Hinting, hint. -6 Information. -7 Teaching,
showing, describing -8 Spying out, spying, seeing, ascertaining. -9 Villainy, wickedness.
सूचनी sūcanī A short index or table of contents.

सूचा sūcā 1 Gesticulation. -2 Spying out, seeing, sight.

சி¹ sūsi -> सूिचः sūciḥ & सूची sūcī 1 A triangle formed by the sides of a trapezium produced till they meet.
-2 A cone, pyramid. -3 Indication by gesture, communicating by signs, gesticulation. -4 A particular mode
of dancing. -5 Dramatic action. -6 An index, a table of contents. -7 A list, catalogue. -8 The earth's disc in
computing eclipses (in astr.). -9 A rail or balustrade. -10 A small door-bolt. -11 A kind of coitus.

सूिचत sūcita p. p. 1 Pointed out, shown, intimated, indicated, hinted. -2 Made known or indicated
by signs or gestures. -3 Communicated, told, revealed. -4 Ascertained, known.

सूिचन् sūcin a. (सूिचनी f.) 1 Pointing out, intimating, indicating. -2 Informing against. -3 Spying out. -
m. 1 A spy, an informer; Mb.13.9. 9. -2 A kind of an arrow;

सूिचनी sūcinī A night.

सूय sūcya a. Communicable, fit to be made known.

சி¹ sūsi -> சி susi n. Breast; udder; ைல. (யா. அக.)

சி susi-> (சசி sasi)-> சாசி² sāsi n. [T. tcāci, K. cāci.] Mother's milk; ைலபா. Nurs.

சி susi -> (சிக susigam)-> க susugam n. Nipple of the breast; ைலக. (யா. அக.)

க susugam -> க³ sugam n. Nipple; ைல க. (அக. நி.)

க susugam -> க sūsugam n. Nipple, orifice of a teat; ைலக. (டா.)

க sūsugam ->தக³ sūdagam n. Nipple; ைலக. (பி.)

சி susi -> चुिचः cuciḥ &चुिचः The female breast; udder.

க susugam -> चुचु कः cucukaḥ, चुचुकम् cucukam & चुचूकम् cucūkam The nipple of the breast.

க sūsugam -> चूचुकम् cūcukam &चूचूकम् cūcūkam The nipple of a breast;

These words derived as nipple is the sharp point of the breast.

க³ sugam -> ச kūsam n. Breast; ைல. (யா. அக.)
ச kūsam -> ய³ kuyam n. 1. Woman's breast; ைல. சியமாத ய (தனிபா. ii, 75, 190).
2. Darbha grass. தைப
ய³ kuyam -> कु चः kucaḥ The female breast, a teat, nipple;

Similar to breast nipple, Darbha grass is also having sharp points to pierce.

ய³ kuyam -> ச² kusam n. 1. Darbha. தைப. ஈர சக கிழிெதாழி ேகறவா ேலா
(பாரத. சபவ. 55).

ச² kusam ->ைச¹ kusai n. Darbha. See த ைப. ைச மைறேயா (பிர. ேகாரக. 1).

ைச¹ kusai -> कु शः kuśaḥ 1 A kind of grass considered holy and forming an essential requisite of several
religious ceremonies; -2 A rope of Kuśa grass for connecting the yoke of a plough with the pole. -3 One of
the great Dvīpas; Bhāg.5.1.32.

Derivation of the words denoting directions in Tamil and Sanskrit. Derivation of the words denoting directions in Tamil and Sanskrit. Derivation of the words denoting directions in Tamil and Sanskrit. Derivation of the words denoting directions in Tamil and Sanskrit.

South: South: South: South:

அவா avā -> அவா avā + ku -> அவா avākku n. Person with his face looking down wards; கவித
கேதா.



அவா avākku -> अवाक् avāk ind. 1 Downwards; -2 Southern, southward. gone down. -3 Base, evil
(deed);

Four Directions are named based upon the front, behind or upper, downside of the land. In Tamil and
Sanskrit ku means earth/land.

ku n. Earth; மி. (திவா.)

கீ² kīḻ [K. M. kīḻ.] n. 1. Place or space below, underneath, bottom; கீழிட. ந கீ ேம
யா (திவாச. 5, 46). 2. East; கிழ. (டா.) 3. Pit; பள. (டா.) 4. Former time; கால.
கீெசதவதா கிழி ேநப (திவாச. 40, 9). 5. Fault, blemish,
கீ² kīḻ + ku -> கிழ kiḻakku n. [M. kiḻakku.] 1. East; கீதிைச. (திவா.) 2. Bottom, foot; low place;
கீழிட. கிைளஇய ரேல கிழ தனேவ (. 337). 3. Lowness, plainness, humbleness; இழி.
கிழகி
ேம mēl [T. K. mēlu, M. mēl.] n. 1. That which is above or over; upper side; surface; ேமட.

ேம mēl + ku -> ேம mēṟku n. [M. mērku.] West; ேமைலதிைச.
வட¹ vaṭam n. 1. Cable, large rope, as for drawing a temple-car; கனமான கயி. வடமற (ந. 219,
மயிைல.). 2. Cord; தா. (டா.) 3. A loop of coir rope, used for climbing palm-trees; மரேமறத
கயி. Loc. 4. Bowstring; வி நாணி. (பி.) 5. String of jewels; மணிவட. வடக அைசப
உ (தி. 204, உைர). (டா.) 6. Strands of a garland; chains of a necklace; சர. இைட மைக
ெகாைக வடமைலய (அட. திேவகட த. 39). 7. Arrangement; ஒ. ெதாடக காைல
வடபட விள (ஞானா. 14, 41). 8. Banyan; ஆலமர. (டா.) வடநிழகத ேவ (தா.
கணா. 41).
வட¹ vaṭam + ku -> வட vaṭakku n. [T. M. vaḍakku, K. baḍugu.] North, the north point of the
compass; நாறிைச ெளா.

Banyan trees grow more in North India. In Tamil and Sanskrit, வட means Banyan Tree. Therefore
Tamils have named வட , as the direction of the land of Northern. In South India, Coconut trees grow
more. In Tamil ெத means Coconut tree. Therefore they have named ெத as the direction of land of
coco nut tree.

ெத teṉ n. 1. [M. ten.] South, southern region; ெத. (பி.) 2. Beauty; அழ. (பி.) மதனற
ெதனீவமழிய (ேதவா. 1155, 4). 3. Chastity; க. (டா.) 4. Harmony music; இைச. (பி.) 5. Song;
இைசபா. (பி.) 6. Sweetness; இனிைம. ெதனிைசபா பாண (திவாலவா. 56, 7). 6.
Coconut tree. See ெதைன. (டா.) 7. Right side; வலபக. இடகா ெதெறாைடேம ெலாற
ெசறி (ைசவச. ெபா. 273).

ெத teṉ + ku -> ெத teṟku n. [K. teṅka.] South; ெத றிைச. (திவா.)
Earth in the eastern direction is lower than the Western direction. Similarly, Northern direction of India is
considered as highland and South India is considered as the downside part. Therefore Tamils have
named the directions accordingly. In view of the same, in downward land is identified as Southern
direction in Sanskrit also. However, the said meaning in Tamil is now obsolete.
அவா avā -> அவா avācu n. Destruction; ேக. (R.)

அவா avā -> அவாசி avāsi n. South, southern direction; ெததிைச . மாசிலா வவாசி நி ) ேசப .
ேவதாள . 41).
அவாசி avāsi -> அவாசீன avāsīṉam, s. South, southern direction, ெத; [அவ, down downwards, the
south being considered downwards.]
அவாசி avāsi -> அவாசிய, s. People of the south country, ெதனாடா. 2. The learned, wise men,
ஞானிக. (பராதிமபசிமகாட.)

அவாசி avāci -> अवाय avācya a. Southern, southernly. cf. Śiva. B.6.65.

அவாசி avāci -> अवाी 1 The south. -2 The lower region.

अवाी -> अवाच् avāñc a. 1 Turned down-wards, bent down, stooping; -2 Being or situated below, lower
than (with abl.) -3 Headlong, looking downwards. -4 South. m., n. Brahman.

அவாசி avāci -> अपाची apācī, अपाच् apāc f. 1 Going or situated backwards, behind. -2 Western. -3
Southern.

अवाच् avāñc -> अपाच् apāñc 1 backwards, behind. -2 Western. -3 Southern.

अवाक् avāk -> अपाक् apāk (m अपाङ् apāṅ, n अपाक् apāk) ind. 1 Behind, back- wards. -2 Westward or
southward.

அவாசீன-> அபாசீன abāsīṉam n. South; ெத. (சிதா. நி. 183.)

அபாசீன abāsīṉam-> अपाचीन apācīna अपाचीन a. 1 Situated backwards or behind, turned backwards. -2
Western. -3 Opposite.

अवाय avācya -> अपाय apācya a. Western or southern.

The word अपाय apācya denotes both Western and southern since both directions are in the downside of
the earth.

These words are not derived from अप apa with the combination of अच् añc, because अप apa is not
denoting downwards. With अप, the wrong citation of अच् añc will give the meaning of “to put away, drive
away; (intr.) to run away.

अच् añc 1 U. 1 To bend, incline, curl, curve; िशरो$िवा Bk.9.4. -2 To go, move, tend towards; वता
कथमिस Bk.4.22;

Citation of अच् añc is therefore totally a wrong one. Moreover Sanskrit pundit could not explain the
suffixes of ची and चीन.

With अप apa, अच् añc will give the following meaning only.

अयच् apyañc Gone into, reaching, hidden.

If it is so, it would have meant going away only but not going down. Or artificially it will give the meaning
of going southward or downwards but not the south direction itself. The word अयच् apyañc has not given
any such meaning.

Compare:

अधर adhara a. 1 Lower (opp. उर), (lit. not held up); tending downwards; under, nether, downwards
अधर adhara-> अधरा adharā The nadir; (अधोदश्) or the southern direction.
अधरा adharā-> (अधराची adharācī) -> अधराी adharāñcī the southern direction.
अधराच् adharāñc a. Southward; tending downwards, to the nadir or lower region; tending to the
south.
अधर adhara-> अधराक् ind. Beneath.
North: North: North: North:

உ u -> (உ uttu) -> उद् ud ind. A prefix to verbs and nouns. G. M. gives the following senses with
illustrations:- (1) Superiority in place, rank or power; up, upwards, upon, on, over, above (उल). (2)
Separation, disjunction उकचु कः; out, out off, from, apart &c.; उछित. (3) Motion upwards
உதர¹ uttaram n. 1. Answer, reply, rejoinder; மெமாழி. வதவ ெபமச தர நா (ெப. மகத.
10, 55). 2. Written statement filed by the defendant in a case; எதிவாத. 3. That which comes later; that
which follows; பிநிகவ. 4. That which is superior; ேமபட. அதரமி லைத (உதரரா.
திேவால. 4). 5. Beam, cross- beam in a building; விட. (ெநந. 82, உைர.) 6. Period of the sun's
progress towards the north; உதராயண. (விதான. ணா. 74.) 7. North; வட. (திவா.) 8. Submarine
fire; ஊழிதீ. (பி.)

(உ uttu) -> உதர¹ uttaram -> उर uttara a. 1 Being or produced in the north, northern (declined like
a pronoun). -2 Upper, higher P.I.1.34 (opp. अधर); -3 (a) Later-latter, following, subsequent (opp. पूव); (b)
Future; concluding; -4 Left (opp. दिण). -5 Superior, chief, excellent; dominant, powerful. -6 Exceeding,
transgressing, beyond; -7 More, more than (generally as the last member of a comp. with numerals); -8
Accompanied or attended with, full of, consisting chiefly of, followed by -9 To be crossed over.
उरः uttaraḥ 1 Future time, futurity. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 N. of Śiva. उरा uttarā 1 The north; -2 A
lunar mansion. -3 N. of the daughter of Virāṭa and wife of Abhimanyu. -4 N. of a plant (Mar.
पपरी).
उरम् uttaram 1 An answer, reply; -2 (In law) Defence, a rejoinder. -3 The last part or following
member of a compound. -4 (In Mīm.) The fourth member of an अिधकरण q. v. the answer. -5 The
upper surface or cover. -6 Conclusion. -7 Remainder, rest, what followed or took place next; -8
Superiority, excellence. -9 Result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic. -10 Excess, over
and above; see above (उर a. 8). -11 Remainder, difference (in arith.). -12 A rectangular
moulding (Mānasāra 13.67.) -13 The next step, further action-14 A cover
उरम् uttaram ind. 1 Above. -2 Afterwards, after;
(உ uttu) -> உத uda + ku -> உத udakku n. North; வட. (திவா.)
உத udakku -> उदक् (m. उदङ् udaṅ) ind. 1 Above. -2 Northward, to the north of (with abl.); आचयोदक्
परावृय Ms.3.217. -3 Subsequently.
उदात् udaktāt ind. Towards the north, northwards.

(உ uttu) -> (உத uttam) -> உச uccam n. 1. Height, elevation, altitude; உயர. (திவா.) 2.
Extreme top overhead; உசதைல. 3. Zenith, meridian, position overhead; தைலேநரான
ஆகாயக. ெவகதி சமா ெபா (காசி. பனி. 341). 4. Excellence, superiority; சிற.
உசமாணி கதாேல (இராமநா. பாலகா. 17). 5. (Mus.) Treble; வைச. (திவா.) 6. (Astrol.) Exalted
position of a planet: one of five kiraka-nilai, q.v.; கிரக நிைல ெளா. (விதான. நபா. 21.) 7. Extreme
limit; அதியள. ேதாணி உசேவா ஒ. (W.)

உச uccam -> उ ucca a. 1 High (in all senses); tall; िितधारणों Ku.7.63; elevated, superior, exalted
(family &c) -2 Loud, high-sounding; उाः पिगणाः Śi.4.18. -3 Intense, violent, strong. -4 (In astr.)
Ascendant; see उसंय below. उः ucca 1 The apex of the orbit of a planet. -2 Height, high place; वर
मरणं जतोा पतनं यथा Mb.12.28.25.

உச uccam -> உசி¹ ucci n. [K. M. ucci.] 1. Zenith, meridian; ஆகாயக. 2. Midday, high noon;
நபக. (பி.) 3. Crown of head; உசதைல. உசியி ெலெண (தி. ெபாியா. 4, 6, 3). 4.
Head; தைல. ஊராைர சி மிதி (க. 104). 5. Summit, top, apex; கட. மாடசிேம
(சீவக. 87). 6. Limit, end; எைல. நறவ சி ெகாடா (சீவக. 2888). 7. Indian mistletoe. See
வி. (L.)

உசி¹ ucci-> ஊசி² ūci n. The north;வட பாசி ெசலா சி னா (றநா. 229).
உத uda -> (உதசி udasi)-> உதீசி udīsi n. North; வட. உதீசி திதிய திைசயி (இர. . 34).
உதீசி udīsi -> उदीची udīcī The north; तेनोदीच दशमनुसरे ः Me.59.

உதீசி udīsi -> (உதீசீன udīsīṉam) -> उदीचीन udīcīna a. 1 Turned towards the north. -2 Northern.

उदीची udīcī -> उदीयः 1 The country to the north and west of the river Sarasvatī; northern country. -2 (pl.)
The inhabi- tants of the north; R.4.66.
उदीय udīcya a. Situated or living in the north.
உத uda -> (உதசி udasi)-> उदचु udañcu a. Turned or going upwards.
उदचु udañcu -> उदच् udac & उदच् udañc a. 1 Turned or going upwards. -2 Upper, higher; -3 Northern,
turned towards the north. -4 Subsequent.
उदच् udañc 1 U. 1 To raise, elevate, lift or throw up, draw up (as water); -2 (Intrans.) (a) to go up; (b) to
rise, rise forth; उदमासय G. L.6; Bv.2.76; K.221; welter up; मूधछे दादु दत् Mv.3.32.

West West West West

pul -> பி pil-> பிறி piṟṟi n. That which goes behind; பிதிேபான. (ச. அக.)

பிறி piṟṟi ->பிதி³ pitti n. Back, hind part; பிபக. (W.)

பி pil-> பி pir-> பிேரத pirēdam n. 1. South; ெத. (ச. அக.) 2. Back; பி. (ச. அக.)

பி pir-> பிரதி piradi. n. 1. Likeness; ஒத தைம. பிரதிபிப. 2. Substitute; பதி. வயிர பிரதி
பராக ைவகபட. 3. Answer, response; விைட. 4. Copy, transcript, duplicate; நக. இ
ைகெய பிரதியா ? 5. Manuscript; பிரதி. 6. Opposition; மா. நா ெசாவதெகலா
பிரதி ெசாகிறா. 7. Competition; ேபா. அவ கைட இ பிரதியாக ைவத. 8. Defendant;
பிரதிவாதி. அவ இத வழகிேல பிரதி. Loc.--adj. Each, every; ஒெவா. பிரதி தின வரேவ.

பிரதி piradi -> ित prati ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it means (a) towards, in the direction of; (b) back, in
return, again; (c) in opposition to, against, counter; (d) upon, down upon; (see the several roots with this
preposition). -2 As a prefix to nouns not directly derived from verbs it means (a) likeness, resemblance,
equality; (b) opposite, of the opposite side; (c) rivalry; -3 As a separable preposition (with acc.) it means
(a) towards, in the direction of, to; (b) against, counter, in opposition to, opposite; (c) in comparison with,
on a par with, in proportion to, a match for; (d) near, in the vicinity of, by, at, in, on; (e) at the time, about,
during; (f) on the side of, in favour of, to the lot of; (g) in each, in or at every, severally (used in a
distributive sense); (h) with regard or reference to, in relation to, regarding, concerning, about, as to; (i)
according to, in conformity with; मां ित in my opinion; (j) before, in the presence of; (k) for, on account of.
-4 As a separable preposi- tion (with abl.) it means either (a) a representative of, in place of, instead of;
(b) in exchange or return for; -5 As the first member of Avyayībhāva compound it usually means (a) in or
at every;.; (b) towards, in the direction of;

பிரதி piradi-> பிரதீசி piradīsi n. West; ேம. (யா. அக.)

பிரதி piradi ku -> (பிரதி piradikku)-> பிரதிய pirattiyakku n. West; ேம. (பி.)
பிரதிய pirattiyakku-> यक् pratyak ind. 1 In an opposite direction, backwards. -2 Against. -3
Westward, to the west of (with abl.). -4 In the interior, inwardly. -5 Formerly, in former times.
பிரதீசி piradīsi -> तीची pratīcī The west.

तीची pratīcī-> तीचीन pratīcīna a. 1 Western, westerly. -2 Future, sub- sequent, following. -3 Ved. Turned
or directed towards. -4 Turning back, turned away from. -5 Coming from behind. -6 Turned inwards

तीची pratīcī -> तीय pratīcya a. 1 Living in the west, western, westerly. -2 Ved. Disappeared.

तीची pratīcī -> यी pratyañcī, यच् pratyac & यच् pratyañc a. 1 Turned or directed towards; turned
inward; मनः यक् िचे सिवधमवधायामतः Śiva- mahimna 25. -2 Being behind. -3 Following, subse- quent;
-4 Averted, turned away, turning back; Pt.3.181. -5 Western, westerly. -6 Inner, interior. -7 Equal to, a
match for.
pul -> ( ற puṟṟam) ->ச puccam n. 1. Tail; வா. 2. Hinder part; பிட. 3. Comet;
வாநசதிர. (பி.) 4. Fold of a man's cloth, partly left hanging behind; பிற ெதா
ஆைடெகா. ச ேதாறாதப உயாக (ஈ, 5, 1, 6). 5. Remainder or unexpired
portion of a titi/nakṣatra; திதி, நசதிர தயவறி தநா ெசற ேபாக எசிய ைற. 6.
Peacock feather; மயி ேறாைக. (யா. அக.) 7. Scorpion's sting; ேத ெகா. சறித கேத
ேபால (பிரேபாத. 30, 26). 8. Scorpion; ேத. (யா. அக.)
ச puccam -> पुछः pucchaḥ & पुछम् puccham 1 A tail in general; -2 A hairy tail. -3 A peacock's tail. -4
The hinder part. -5 The end of anything

ச puccam -> (பச paccam) -> பசிம paccimam n.. West; ேம. மைறய பசிமேம
மா (ைசவச. ெபா. 270). 2. Back; பிற. பசி மதி கதி மகி பகழி . . . உமிழ
(கபரா. பிரமா. 71). 3. That which is late or after-time; பிபட. விபிர பசிமதிய. (W.)

(பச paccam) -> प paśca a. 1 Being behind. -2 Posterior, later. -3 Western.
पा ind. Ved. 1 Behind, after. -2 After- wards -3 Westward

प paśca -> पिमा paścimā The west.

पिमा paścimā -> पात् paścāt ind. (Used by itself or with gen. or abl.) 1 From behind; from the back; -2
Be- hind, backwards, towards the back (opp. पुरः); -3 After (in time or space), then, afterwards,
subsequently; -4 At last, lastly, finally. -5 From the west. -6 Towards the west, westward.

பசிம paccimam-> पिमः paścimaḥ a. 1 Being behind, hind- most; -2 Last (in time or space); -3 The
latter; -4 Western, westerly; (पिमेन is used adverbially in the sense of 'in the west') or 'after, behind';
with acc. or gen.; so पिमे 'in the west'. पिमतः from behind.
East: East: East: East:
Generating, appearing or entering for the first time is said as old, ancient or prior one. Compare:
थ् prath I. 1 Ā. (थते, िथत) To appear, arise, come to light;
थ् prath is cited as the etymology of थम prathama.



pul -> pur -> ர² puram adv. Before, in place or time; . (டா.)

pur -> ர² puram ->पुरस् puras ind. 1 11 1 Before (in time or space), in front, in the presence of, before the
eyes of (by itself or with gen.) - -- -2 22 2 In the east, from the east. - -- -3 33 3 Eastward

ர² puram -> ர pura ->पु रतस् puratas ind. 1 11 1 Before, in front (opp. पात्); - -- -2 22 2 Afterwards; - -- -3 33 3 Before (in
time).

ர pura ->ரா purā -> पुरा purā 1 An epithet of the Ganges. - -- -2 22 2 A kind of perfume. - -- -3 33 3 The east.
ரா purā -> पुरा purā ind. 1 11 1 In former times, formerly, of yore, in the olden time; - -- -2 22 2 Before, hitherto, upto
the present time - -- -3 33 3 At first, in the first place; - -- -4 44 4 In a short time, soon, ere-long, shortly (in this sense
usually with a present tense to which it gives a future sense); - -- -5 55 5 Ved. For the defence of. - -- -6 66 6 Securely
from. - -- -7 77 7 Except, besides
ரா purā -> ராண purāṇam n. 1. Antiquity; பழைம. ராணெபாழி (றா. தல. திமா. 51). 2.
Ancient tale or legend; old, traditional history; பழகைத. 3. Sacred books ascribed to Vyāsa, dealing with
primary creation, secondary creation, genealogy of Manus, kings, etc., one of aṟupattu-nālu-kalai, q.v.; 4.
Land granted for the exposition of the Purāṇas in temples; ேகாயி ராண வாசிபத விடபட
மானிய. (R. T.)
ராண purāṇam-> ராண purāṇaṉ n. God, as the Ancient; [பழைமயானவ] கட. ரபல
ெவாித ராண ேபாறி (திவாச. 4, 221).

ராண purāṇaṉ-> ராைண purāṇai n. Pārvatī, as the Ancient; [பழைமயானவ] பாவதி. ராைண
யாகி (ம. தி. 3).

ராண purāṇam-> पुराण purāṇa a. (पुराणा purāṇā, पुराणी purāṇī f.) 1 Old, ancient, belonging to olden
times; -2 Aged, primeval; -3 Decayed, worn out.

पुराणम् purāṇam 1 A past event or occur- rence. -2 tale of the past, legend, ancient or legendary history. -3
N. of certain well-known sacred works; these are 18; these are supposed to have been com- posed by
Vyāsa, and contain the whole body of Hindu mythology.

पुराणः purāṇaḥ A coin equal to 8 cowries;
पुराण purāṇa-> ण praṇa a. Old, ancient.
पुराण purāṇa-> ीण prīṇa a. 1. Old. ancient.-2 Previous.
ரா purā -> ராதன purādaṉam n. 1. That which is ancient; பழைமயான. ரா தன மைற
(அட. திவரக. 32). 2. Antiquity; பழைம. 3. Old age; கிழதன. ராதனதாலலாதித
திரேசாகதாேல ல (உதாரா. சவ. 22). 4. Boiled rice preserved in water; பைழய ேசா.
Colloq.
ராதன purādaṉam -> ராதன purādaṉar n. Ancients; ேனா. (ரேசா. அல. 4.)

ராதன purādaṉam-> ராதனி purādaṉi n. Pārvatī, ராைண. நீராதனி (திம. 1051).

ராதன purādaṉam -> पुरातन purātana a. (पुरातनी purātanī f.) 1 Old, ancient; -2 Aged, primeval; -3
Worn out, decayed.

पुरातनः purātanaḥ 1 An epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 (pl.) The ancients. (पुरातनम् purātanam) 1 An ancient story. -2 A
Purāṇa.
पुरातन purātana -> pratna a. 1 Old, ancient; आदय रे तसः Ch. Up.3. 17.7.-2 Former.-3
Traditional, customary.-म् A kind of metre.
pur -> pūr -> வ pūrvam n. 1. First, beginning; ஆதி. 2. Antiquity, oldness; பழைம. 3. Priority,
precedence; தைம. (W.) 4. Former time; கால. 5. East; கிழ. 6. See வாகம. (சீவக. 1246,
உைர.)

வ pūrvam ->வதா pūrvattār n. The ancients; காலதவ. Loc.
வ pūrvam -> விக pūrvigam n. Antiquity, old times, பைழைம. 2. Origin of a thing, ல. (c.)
க.
விக pūrvikaṉ n. Old man; வய திதவ ) . ேகாயிெலா . 29.)
விக pūrvigam-> க pūrvīgam & க pūruvīgam s. Antiquity, old times, பைழைம. 2. Origin
of a thing, ல. (c.)
விக pūrvigam-> க, pūrvigar. [pl.] Those of old time, ancients.

க pūrvīgam-> க, pūrvigaṉ. The founder of a thing, பைடேதா. (Old Dic.)
வ pūrvam-> வ pūruvam n. The first, the beginning, ஆதி. 2. Priority, precedence, தைம. 3.
Antiquity, oldness, பழைம. 4. Ancient history, tradition, &c., பழசாி திர. 5. (c.) pūrva paksa
வபச. 6. East, கிழ. 7. The front, பக. 8. Former parts of the day, பகபாதி. adv.
Former time; . சமமைலத வ (பிரேபாத. 30, 52).
pūr -> பிய pūrppiyam n. (யா. அக.) 1. Old story; பழகைத. 2. Newness; தன.
வ pūrvam -> पूव pūrva a. 1 Being in front of, first, foremost. -2 Eastern, easterly, to the east of; -3
Previous to, earlier than; -4 Old, ancient; -5 Former, previous, anterior, prior, antecedent (opp. उर); in
this sense often at the end of comp. and translated by 'formerly.' or 'before'; -6 Aforesaid, before-
mentioned. -7 Initial. -8 Established, customary, of long standing -9 Early, prime, -10 Elder (ये); -11 (At
the end of comp.) Preceded by, accompanied by, attended with;
पूवः pūrvaḥ An ancestor, a forefather;
पूवम् pūrvam The fore- part;
पूवा pūrvā 1 The east -2 N. of a country to the east of Madhya- deśa.
पूवम् pūrvam ind. 1 Before (with abl.); -2 Formerly, previously, at first, antecedently, before- hand;
-3 Immemorially.
வ pūrvam -> पूवक pūrvaka a. (At the end of comp.) 1 11 1 Preceded by, attended with; - -- -2 22 2 Preceding,
antecedent. - -- -3 33 3 Previous, former, prior. - -- -4 44 4 First. - -- -5 55 5 ever

पूवकः pūrvakaḥ An ancestor, a forefather;

पूवतन pūrvatana a. Former, old, ancient.

पूवतस् pūrvatas ind. 1 In the east, to the east; स पूवतः पवतपशातनं ददश दे वं नरदे वसं भवः R.3.42. -2
Before, in front of. -3 First, in the first place.

पूवन् pūrvin a. (पूवणी f.), पूवण a. 1 Ancient. -2 Ancestral.

पूवुस् pūrvēdyus ind. 1 On the former day. -2 On the day before, yesterday; -3 During the first
part of the day, in the morning, at dawn. -4 Early, betimes.

पू pūrvya a. Ved. 1 Former, previous. -2 Ancient, old, -3 Next, near. -4 Eastern. -5 Excellent.
ர pura ->दव् pradivदव् a. Ancient, old.
ர pura -> பிர pira -> (பிரத piradam) -> பிரதம piradamam n. (W.) 1. Priority; தைம. 2. Beginning,
commencement; ெதாடக.

பிரதம piradamam ->थम prathama (Nom. pl. m. थमे or थमाः) 1 First, foremost; -2 First, chief, principal,
most excellent or eminent, matchless, incomparable; -3 Earliest, most ancient, primary. -4 Prior, previous,
former, earlier; -5 (In gram.) The first person (= third person according to European phraseology).

थमः prathamaḥ 1 The first (third) person. -2 The first consonant of a class. -3 (In math.) The sum
of the products divided by the difference between the squares of the cosine of the azimuth and
the sine of the amplitude.

थमा prathamā The nom- inative case.

थमम् prathamam ind. 1 first, firstly, at first; -2 Already, previously, formerly; -3 At once,
immediately. -4 Before; -5 Newly, recently

थमात् prathamāt firstly, for the first time

थमतः prathamaḥ 1 At first, firstly. -2 previously. -3 im- mediately. -4 before, in preference to
(gen.)

பிர pira -> pra ind. As a prefix to verbs it means 'forward', 'forth', 'in front', 'onward', 'before', 'away', as in
गम्, था, चर्, या &c. -2 a) beginning, commencement; (याणम् , थानम्, ा); (b) source or origin (भव,
पौ);

பிர pira -> பிராசி pirāsi n. 1. East, eastern direction; கிழ. (திவா.) 2. That which is in front;
ள. (W.)

பிராசி pirāsi-> பாசி³ pāsi n. East; கிழ. பாசிெசலா (றநா. 229).
பிராசி pirāsi-> ाची prācī The east;
ाची prācī -> ाच् prāc & ाच् prāñc a. 1 Turned towards the front, in front, foremost. -3 Eastern, easterly.
-3 Prior, previous, former. -m. (pl.) The people of the east. -2 Eastern grammarians.

ाची prācī -> ायाः prācyaḥ (pl.) 1 'The eastern country', the country south or east of the river Sarasvatī. -
2 The people of this country.

ाय prācya a. 1 Being or situated in front. -2 Being or living in the east, eastern, easterly. -3
Prior, preceding, previous. -4 Ancient, old.

ायक prācyaka n. Eastern, easterly.

பிராசி pirāsi-> பிராசீன pirāsīṉam n. 1. Antiquity, what is ancient or antiquated; பழைம. 2. Worm-killer.
See ஆதினாபாைள. (மைல.)

பிராசீன pirāsīṉam-> பிராசீன pirāsīṉar n. Ancients; ேனா. (பி. வி. 2.)

பிராசீன pirāsīṉam-> ाचीन prācīna a. 1 Turned towards the front or east, eastern, easterly. -2 Previous,
former, pre- viously mentioned. -3 Old, ancient.

ाचीनः prācīnaḥ & ाचीनम् prācīnam 1 A fence, wall. -2 The eastern country;

ाचीनम् prācīnam ind. 1 In front. -2 East- ward (abl.) -3 Before.

பிர pira+ ku -> ( பிர pirakku)-> ाक् prāk ind. 1 11 1 Before (usually with abl.); - -- -2 22 2 At first, already; - -- -3 33 3
Before, previously, in a previous portion (as of a book); - -- -4 44 4 In the east, to the east of; - -- -5 55 5 In front. - -- -6 66 6 As far
as, up to; - -- -7 77 7 At dawn or daybreak.
பிர pirakku has obsolete now in Tamil but retained in Sanskrit as ाक् .

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