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Impacts of Gold Mill Tailings Dumps on Agriculture Lands and its Ecological Restoration at Kolar Gold Fields, India
Surendra Roy*, Piyush Gupta, T. A Renaldy
National Institute of Rock Mechanics, Kolar Gold Fields, 563117, Karnataka, India
Abstract Huge amount of mill tailings at Kolar Gold Fields are creating environmental problems. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the impacts of mill tailings on agriculture lands and to identify suitable species for its reclamation. For this, soils collected from different agriculture lands were mixed with tailings in different proportions and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was planted in soils and mixtures. For selection of suitable species, native species were planted only in tailings. Physico-chemical properties varied in soils, tailings and mixtures. pH and electrical conductivity of soils increased with an increase of tailings content. Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium in soil-tailings showed symptoms of deficiency in tomato plants except calcium and sulphur. Correlation among iron, manganese, zinc and copper indicated common source of their occurrence. These elements decreased with increase of pH and sand percentage, and increased with the increase of clay content. Iron, manganese, copper in tomato fruits were within the limit whereas zinc was observed toxic beyond 30% of mill tailings. Soil/tomato plant transfer coefficients distinguished the concentrations of micronutrients in tomato fruits and soil-tailings mixture. Growth status of native species revealed that Babool, Gulmohar, Neem and Eucalyptus are suitable for dump reclamation. Keywords Soils; Mill Tailings; Tomato; Native Species; Micronutrients; Nutrient Deficiency, Kolar Gold Fields (KGF)
ent. Moreover it is compatible with reprocessing of the waste if it proves to be economically viable. Usually agriculture lands have potential for the crop yield. To know the influence of mill tailings on agriculture lands, soils and tailings can be mixed together and their properties can be studied. Because physico-chemical properties of dump may react with soils nutrients and influence its concentration. Considering these, gold mill tailings dump of KGF and agriculture lands existing surrounding the dump was selected to examine the effects of mill tailings on agriculture lands and to study about native plant species suitable for the reclamation of dumps.
At Kolar Gold Fields (KGF), Karnataka, about 40 million tonnes of mill tailings were generated during beneficiation of gold ore, which have covered about 2-sq. km. of the area. Though plantations on the dumps are almost nil but some grasses have come on the dump surface. Particulate matter concentration beyond the permissible limit at KGF has indicated influence of tailings on air environment. Formation of gullies on the dumps due to rain may also affect the surrounding. As agriculture lands are available at some distances around the dumps, therefore, it can influence the crop yields. Mill tailings contain minerals like amphiboles, chlorite, calcite, feldspar, mica, pyrite, quartz, etc. and have micronutrients. The nutrients present in mill tailings can be used for the ecological restoration of dumps. According to Williamson and Johnson, the favored stabilization method for metallic mine wastes is by the use of vegetation. Native species provide an aesthetically attractive vegetation cover, long-term surface stability and a low maintenance commitm* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Surendra Roy) Published online at http://journal.sapub.org/re Copyright © 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved
2.1. Collection of Samples At first, a detailed survey of the mill tailings dumps and agriculture lands available surrounding the dumps were carried out at KGF. Considering that the dumps can influence the agriculture lands existing in all the four directions, therefore, soils from the agriculture lands of different villages namely Krishnavaram (north), Chinakkan nagar (south), Parandapalli (east) and Volgamadi (west) were collected (0-15 cm). Figure 1 shows the locations of mill tailings dumps and surrounding agriculture lands at KGF.
Micronutrients were also analyzed in tomato fruits. which can grow in elevated metal content. sealed and brought to the laboratory. soils and soil-tailings mixture. India Before collection of samples. thirteen different native species were selected (Table 1) and planted into dumps filled in different cement pots. To assess the impacts of mill tailings on soils. Considering that tree species to be planted for dump reclamation will have deep roots. tomato produced from each pot was tested for the micronutrients. At the end of the harvesting period. infiltration rate. the growth rate (height and perimeter) of each species was assessed at the end of every month that continued up to three months. each sampling area was treated as a single unit. cation exchange capacity. The samples were dried at room temperature and ground using mortar and pestle and sieved through a 2 mm sieve. water holding capacity and texture for mill tailings and soils were determined. Details of Native Species Planted in Mill Tailings Pots Sl. 30% and 40% and filled in the cement pots. No manures were used during crop period. phosphorus. nitrogen by alkaline potassium permanganate method and phosphorus by Olsen’s method. but also in preserving water consumption and minimizing leaching of nutrients and pesticides into groundwater.68 Surendra Roy et al. These were called as soil-tailings mixture.: Impacts of Gold Mill Tailings Dumps on Agriculture Lands and its Ecological Restoration at Kolar Gold Fields. Mill Tailings. 20%. Deficit irrigation is useful not only in reducing production costs for tomato. Texture and water holding capacity were also determined for the soil-tailings mixture. There was no considerable difference in the areas to be sampled. calcium. alternate day for the period of three months (July-September). Plants were irrigated on alternate day. spade and auger was used for samples collection.. The chemical parameters like pH. soil samples collected from the different agriculture fields were mixed with the mill tailings in proportion of 0% (only soil) 10%.3. and requires deficit irrigation. and available nutrients like nitrogen. therefore. which can save water during production period. Organic carbon was estimated using rapid dichromate oxidation technique. The collected samples kept into thick quality polythene bags were labeled. dump samples were collected up to a depth of 50 cm. the normal practice is to choose drought-resistant. Dump was filled in such a way that it could show in-situ condition. Tomato seedlings were planted in different mixture pots. therefore. Considering these. sodium. magnesium. Sampling tubes made up of steel were used for the collection of bulk density samples. No. Moisture content and bulk density was determined by gravimetric and weight-volume method respectively. zinc and copper) were analyzed for mill tailings. Since plants may need different nutrients in different quantities. manganese. Water holding capacity was assessed using perforated circular soil boxes and infiltration rate by double ring infiltrometer. native species are more suitable for metallic mine wastes reclamation. It was also planted in a pot containing only mill tailings. Bangalore and Kolar districts of Karnataka state itself produce tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) about 35% of total tomato production and it is grown at most of the time in a year. According to Williamson and Johnson.2.5 and 1:2 respectively. Table 1. organic carbon. Selection of Vegetable Species to Assess the Impacts of Mill Tailings on Soils Water supply is limited worldwide and there is an increasing necessity to reduce the quantity of water used during the irrigation practices. fast growing trees. The tools like trowel. According to Reddy et al. bulk density. Mill tailings and soil sampling locations at KGF 2. Therefore. 2. Potas- . potassium. Samples were collected in zigzag way and composite was prepared by mixing five different samples. Seedlings were irrigated on 2. pH was analyzed by pH meter and electrical conductivity by conductivity meter in a soil to water ratio of 1:2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Common name Eucalyptus Blue jacaranda Ashoka Silver fern Gasgasa (Poppy seeds) Bald Cypress Christmas tree Neem Tamarind Bamboo Pipal Babool Gulmohar Scientific name and family Eucalyptus marginata (Myrtaceae) Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae) Saraca asoca (Fabaceae) Cyathea dealbata (Cyatheaceae) Papaver somniferum (Papaveraceae) Taxodium distichum (Cupressaceae) Araucaria (Araucariaceae) Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) Tamarindus indica (Fabaceae) Dendrocalamus strictus (Poaceae) Ficus religiosa (Moraceae) Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae) Delonix regia (Cesalpiniaceae) Figure 1. electrical conductivity. Tomato has the highest acreage of any vegetable crop in the world.4. surface litter was scrapped and vegetation cover was removed. Selection of Plant Species for Dump Reclamation For the selection of plant species for mine waste reclamation. sulphur and micronutrients (iron. Texture was determined by pipette method and textural class by Textural Triangular Diagram. tomato vegetable was selected for the study. Soils and Tomato Parameters Tested The physical parameters like moisture content.
The texture class of mill tailings was sandy loam (SL). Since compaction influences the infiltration rate. The infiltration rate was the highest at the location east and the lowest on the mill tailings dumps. it is high but decreases with time. Relative proportion of soil particles of various sizes is called texture of soil.8 g/cm3 are considered unsuitable for plant growth. 2(1): 67-79 69 sium was extracted by neutral 1(N) ammonium acetate solution (soil-to-extractant ratio of 1:10) and determined by flame photometer. It was the highest for mill tailings and the lowest for east.7 g/cm3 as bulk density greater than 1. Bulk density varied from location to location (Figure 3a). All the values were greater than 2. zinc and copper were extracted using diethylene-triamine-pentacetic acid (DTPA) buffered at pH 7. Texture class for the different percentage of clay. therefore. 3. Soils with high clay content (above 40%) hold less plant available water than loamy soils. Moisture content The water in soil is not only important as a solvent and transporting agent but it maintains texture and compactness of soil. Initially. It is clear that the highest value is less than 1. Micronutrients in tomato fruits were also analysed using AAS after digestion.50 cm/h (Figure 3b) indicates high rate of infiltration. and (c) correlation Figure 2. The lowest value in mill tailings indicates that drought resistance/ native plants. 2012. correlation between bulk density and infiltration was derived (Figure 3c). Larger particles help in providing the physical support to the plants. Water Holding Capacity and Texture Water holding capacity of soil refers to maximum amount of water held in the saturated soils and determined largely by the interaction of soil texture. Infiltration rate is the distance travelled by water through a soil column. Fine-textured soils work satisfactorily than sandy soils and hold more water and plant nutrients. which might be due to change in texture. would be suitable for dump reclamation.3. which do not need water for irrigation. Sodium and cation exchange capacity was also analyzed by flame photometer. east and west in place of their villages.Resources and Environment. tically significant at 1% of level of significance indicating decrease in infiltration rate with the increase of bulk density. Variation in moisture content at different locations 3. the results of soils and soil-tailings mixture has been indicated only by direction like north. Variation in (a) bulk density and (b) infiltration rate at different locations. Iron. and tends to approach a steady infiltration rate. south. Bulk density and infiltration rate Bulk density is the mass (weight) of a unit volume of dry soil in its natural structure. Calcium and magnesium were determined by EDTA titration and sulphur by turbidimetric method. The negative correlation coefficient was statis- 3.2. silt and sand was determined using textural triangular diagram (Table 2).1. Figure 3. Moisture content varied from one location to other (Figure 2). Results and Discussion In discussion. 3. while smaller size determines the capacity of soil to hold water and availability of nutrients.3 and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Water holding capacity increased with the increase of mill tailings percentage (Figure 4). manganese. The texture of north soil was sandy clay loam (SCL) but its class .
the pH increases due to dissolution of carbonate. its concentration increased (Figure 6). According to Molley. It refers ability of soil to maintain positively charged nutrients and hence a good indicator of soil fertility and nutrient retention capacity.21 mS/cm and 1. Moderately fine textured of south soil-tailings mixture might be the reasons for higher fluctuations in water holding capacity whereas insignificant increase in others were due to coarse textured groups. Variation in (a) pH and (b) CEC in soil-mill tailings mixture. Electrical Conductivity Electrical conductivity (EC) gives an idea of the soluble salts present in the soil. pH between 7 and 8.70 Surendra Roy et al. An increase in percentage of mill tailings showed an increase in CEC (Figure 5b). The texture of east changed from SCL to SL at 30% and 40%. creases (Figure 5c). pH and Cation Exchange Capacity Soil reaction is usually expressed as a pH value and it is a function of soil composition. the number of negative charges on the colloids increases hence CEC in- Figure 5. pH less than 6. Cuartero and Muñoz  stated that decline in number of fruits explains the yield reduction at high ECs. Higher soil’s CEC can retain more cations  but insignificant increment reveals poor addition of cations.5 indicates the solubility of calcium carbonate. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) is the total number of milli-equivalents of the exchangeable cations which 100 grams of soil contain. For good growth of tomato.4. Texture Class of Soil-Tailings Mixture and Mill Tailings Mill tailings content (%) 0 10 20 30 40 North SCL SCL SCL SL SL Locations South East SCL SCL SCL SCL SCL SL SCL SL SCL SL West SL SL SL SL SL Mill tailings SL 3. India became SL at 30% and 40%.97 mS/cm (Figure 6). The texture remained SCL up to 40% in south soil-tailing mixture due to high clay and low sand content compared to others. The number of tomato decreased with the increase of salinity (Table 3). In soils. containing soluble carbonate minerals. Variation in water holding capacity in soil-tailings mixture Table 2.4. Tomato is tolerant to salinity up to 2 mS/cm  indicating unsuitability for further mixing of mill tailings. and (c) correlation 3. Figure 4. Conductivity or soil salinity for all the mixture lied between 0.5. Increase in water holding capacity can save water for irrigation. Though pH of agriculture lands in each direction was acidic in nature but it increased as the mill tailings percentage increased (Figure 5a) indicating presence of calcite in tailings.5 to 7. . which did not change at any percentage of soil-tailings mixture. The pH of mill tailings was 7. soil pH must be 6. Though there is no significant variation among soils and mill tailings but as the percentage of mill tailings increased. The texture of west was SL. SCL comes under moderately fine textured and SL under coarse textured group. as pH increases.: Impacts of Gold Mill Tailings Dumps on Agriculture Lands and its Ecological Restoration at Kolar Gold Fields.5 or from 6.5. Dissolution of calcite of mill tailings might be the reasons for increasing the concentration.5 in south soil-tailings showed poor growth in tomato plants.
7 70. Nitrogen Nitrogen (N) is required in large amount for optimum production of tomato as it removes large quantity of nitrogen from the soil.5-4.0 West Number 4 3 3 3 2 Weight (g) 86. organic carbon decreased indicating variation in humification after mixing.9 38. Some grasses on mill tailings dumps results presence of organic carbon. Organic carbon multiplied by a factor of 1. The lower concentration in south showed low production compared to others.6 142. soil organic carbon. Different amounts of crop residues can show Figure 7. Deficient.5 >1. visual nutrient deficiency symptoms are considered as a very powerful diagnostic tool for evaluating the nutrient status of plants. 3.2 <2. At the end of harvesting period. Figure 6. As the percentage of mill tailings increased. Though there were decrease in nitrogen with the increase of mill tailings in soils but considerable vegetative growth in tomato plants occurred during crop period (Figure 8a). It is the major source of nutrients like nitrogen.1 44.3 48. trees.5 0. numbers of tomato per plant were counted and their weights were taken (Table 3).6 <0. therefore. Number and Weight of Tomatoes per Plant in Different Soil-Tailings Mixture Mill tailings content (%) 0 10 20 30 40 Number 5 5 3 3 2 North Weight (g) 160. phosphorus and potassium.0 Marginal 0. the dominant elemental constituent of soil organic matter is more commonly measured and reported in scientific literature. litter and leaf drop.75 >25 >180 >4.7.1 50. etc. Marginal and Sufficient Values of Different Available Nutrients in Soil [34.0 Sufficient >0.Resources and Environment. grasses and other native plants supply large quantities of organic residues annually by way of their roots and tops. shrubs.5 <0. when decomposed by many types of organisms. also play an important role in the translocation of plant residue. 30] Nutrients Organic carbon (%) Phosphorus (kg/ha) Potassium (kg/ha) Iron (mg/kg) Zinc (mg/kg) Copper (mg/kg) Manganese (mg/kg) Deficient <0. Earthworms.7 151. Variation in electrical conductivity in soil-mill tailings mixture Tomato yield is determined by fruit weight and fruit number . Variation in organic carbon in soil-tailings mixture Table 4. It can decrease the production by decrease in number of fruits and its size. It was observed that there was overall decrease in yields with the increase of mill tailings indicating the influence of mixture properties on the yields. 2(1): 67-79 71 Table 3. As deficiency increases older leaves become yellow and die prematurely.2 >2.5 43.7 40. Organic carbon was found deficient in soils and soil-tailings mixture except in north soil (Table 4).5 39. Daniels and Haering stated that dead root.0 3.75 10-25 110-180 2. ants. younger leaves remain small and pale green.2 38.0 57.4 70. and the bodies of soil animals such as insects and worms are the primary sources of organic matter in soil. centipedes.5 South Number 4 4 2 1 1 Weight (g) 62. For the assessment of nutrient deficiency. It has no definite chemical composition. In nitrogen deficiency.0 >0. Organic carbon Soil organic matter and related soil properties are the important indicators of soil quality. 2012. Organic carbon decreases probably due to low humification by the lack of microflora . Organic carbon was the lowest in mill tailings compared to soils (Figure 7).8 different value of organic carbon in soils . The numbers and size of the fruits decreased as the proportion of mill tailings increased (Table 3).5 <10 <110 <2.4 East Number 5 4 3 3 1 Weight (g) 153.9 49. The lowest yield at 40% revealed further mixing is unsuitable. Deficiency (Figure 8b) influenced the production in plants indicating addition of manure can enhance the yields.75 gives the organic matter values.6-1. As organic matter is the major source of nitrogen supply. correlation was derived between organic carbon .6 63.6. Under natural condition.2 41.5-0.
Hence addition of organic manure will be beneficial as it can release the nutrients gradually throughout the season and maintain a good physical condition of the soil. The correlation coefficient was statistically significant at 1% level of significance (Figure 9c) indicating decrease in phosphorus due to decrease in organic carbon. Figure 8. India and nitrogen (Figure 8c). (a) Variation in nitrogen in soil-tailing mixture (b) nitrogen deficiency and (c) correlation between organic carbon and nitrogen 3..9. revealed organic carbon is the major source of nitrogen. It improves the rigidity of . (a) Variation in phosphorus in soil-tailing mixture (b) phosphorus deficiency and (c) correlation between organic carbon and phosphorus 3. Purple color observed in the leaves of all the tomatoes plants (Figure 9b) indicated phosphorus deficiency. The lower concentrations in south could be one of the reasons for the lowest yield (Table 3). the correlation was derived between organic carbon and phosphorus.72 Surendra Roy et al. The production of tomatoes can be increased using the rate of nitrogen 180 kg/ha as recommended by the University of Agricultural Sciences. The available phosphorus is much lower than the available nitrogen and potassium because most of the phosphorus present in soil is not readily available to plants. the recommended rate of phosphorus for tomato is 66 kg/ha. Correlation coefficient. Phosphorus Phosphorus (P) helps in root growth and production of large number of blossoms. According to Donahue et al. Therefore. It decreased with the increase of mill tailings (Figure 9a). results increase in tomato production. Similar results were also obtained by Ghose and Maiti and Ghose. statistically significant at 1% level of significance. organic matter is a good source of phosphorus and as phosphorus is mineralized from organic matter it becomes available for plant growth. The result agrees with Ghose. According to University of Agricultural Sciences. Bangalore. which can control the deficiency and increase the yield. Phosphorus was deficient in soils and soil-tailing mixture (Table 4) showing yield Figure 9. Potassium and sodium Potassium (K) is absorbed in larger amounts than any other nutrient except nitrogen.8. Bangalore.: Impacts of Gold Mill Tailings Dumps on Agriculture Lands and its Ecological Restoration at Kolar Gold Fields. reductions.
No significant changes occurred in sodium with the increase of mill tailings. the presence of Na ions can compensate the absence of K ions. hence soils usually contain less Mg. 2012.6 g/L in the foliage several times during tomato growth. which might be due to decrease in organic carbon.Resources and Environment. Though potassium in south soil-tailings is higher than east and west. Increase in pH and chlorite in tailings increased the magnesium concentration in mixture (Figure 11b).10. the chlorotic. Even after substitution of sodium.5 whereas in case of magnesium deficiency. Calcium deficiency causes a well known disorder called “blossom-end rot” appears in tomato fruit. As organic carbon influences the potassium. Figure 10. and (d) correlation between organic carbon and potassium 3. flavor. Calcium increased as the mill tailings percentage increased (Figure 11a) indicating increase in pH. Though magnesium concentration increased in soil-tailings but upward curling in leaves of tomato plants indicated magnesium deficiency (Figure 11c). Magnesium is the primary component of chlorophyll and actively involved in photosynthesis whereas calcium is essential for root and leaf development. but tomatoes yields is lower in south (Table 3). Calcium deficiency was not observed in tomato. formation of cell wall compounds. Correlation coefficient was statistically significant at 1% level of significance indicating that organic carbon is a major source of potassium. function of cell membranes. In case of K deficiency. The presence of higher sodium (Na) in east and west soil-tailings might have compensated the K (Figure 10b). As magnesium is held less tightly than calcium by cation exchange sites. K deficiencies (leaf margin scorching) were observed in all the plants (Figure 10c) of tomatoes. mottled leaves become brittle and tend to curl upward. (c) potassium deficiency. The recommended rate of potassium for tomato is 99. which occurs when soil pH is <4. Maiti and Ghose  also found similar results for potassium. 2(1): 67-79 73 straw and stalks. plant growth becomes weaker and leaf symptoms appear in the form of chlorosis along the edges of leaves (leaf margin scorching). presence of calcite and Ca-feldspar in tailings enhanced the concentrations. and colour. Potassium decreased with the increase of mill tailings (Figure 10a). Calcium and magnesium Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are required in large amounts for good crop growth and have similar chemical properties. In case of deficiency. Magnesium deficiency can be reduced by spraying MgSo4 (Epsom salt) at the rate of 2. The concentration indicated deficiency in all the plants (Table 4). potassium was plotted with organic carbon and correlation was derived (Figure 10d). increases resistance to plant disease and enhances fruit size. etc. Bangalore which can control the deficiency and enhance the production. . Raising the soil pH enhances the magnesium concentration.6 kg/ha as per the University of Agricultural Sciences. Variation in (a) potassium and (b) sodium in soil-tailing mixture. therefore.
clay. Mn. Sulphur Most crop need less sulphur relative to the other macronutrients because it is usually applied in combination with other macronutrients. Cu content in Figure 11. According to Nayek et al . dump and soil-tailings mixture were used. Four micronutrients like iron (Fe). Clay content predominantly controls the micronutrient retention and availability .12.40. pH is known to affect the solubility and plant availability of metals. and (c) magnesium deficiency 3. Slight increase in sulphur concentration was found in soil-tailings mixture (Figure 12) indicating that mill tailings influences soils. zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are essential for plant growth and yield . an increase in pH might be the reasons for increase in sulphur. Variation in sulphur in soil-tailings mixture 3. Zn. clay and sand strongly influence the micronutrients (Fe. Zn and Cu indicating that as the pH increases available micronutrients decreases. Micronutrients Weathering of rocks is the principal resource from which soils derive their micronutrients. Similar observations with pH were found by Katyal and Sharma for Fe.0 for windows (Table 5).e. and Cu and by Wu et al. which is added into soils through rainfall. pH varied from 6. Variation in (a) calcium and (b) magnesium in soil-tailings mixture. Cu and Zn whereas Chen et al. Correlation between variables was derived using SPSS software version 13. by Nayek et al. According to Katyal and Sharma. Different soil properties like pH. Industrial development and automobiles also contribute sulphur into the atmosphere.. Therefore. For this. All the micronutrients were positively correlated to each other indicating their interdependence and availability from common soil factors. for Fe. Positive correlation of clay with the micronutrients revealed higher availability of nutrients with the increase of clay. pH might be lower than 6. high correlation among trace elements suggests similar process control element associations in parent materials. An absence of uniform yellowing over the entire plant including younger leaves indicated non deficiency in tomato. Cu. Mn.11. This might be the reasons for non-deficiencies in tomato plants. The sulphur was the highest in mill tailings compared to soils showing presence of sulphur bearing minerals in tailings. Mn.: Impacts of Gold Mill Tailings Dumps on Agriculture Lands and its Ecological Restoration at Kolar Gold Fields. Iron content in mill tailings was the highest compared to soils (Figure 13a) indicating contribution of pyrite in mill tailings. Zn and Cu). Mn.0. the influence of these properties on micronutrients was assessed. a 21 set of data of Fe. Analytical results indicated that as the percentage of mill tailings increased concentration of micronutrients decreased (Figure 13).  found among Mn. In soil-tailings mixture. According to Chen et al. Mn.18 to 7. tested for soils.74 Surendra Roy et al. the concentrations of micronutrients were many times higher than the values given in Table 4. India Figure 12. manganese (Mn). Ma et al. . reported significant positive correlation among Fe. Cu and Zn. It was negatively correlated with Fe. Sulphur deficiency is more likely on acid soils i. and sand. pH. Mn and Zn. Even at 40%. for Cu.
leaves and fruits of the vegetables are consumed depending on their types. (2-tailed) Pearson correlation Sig. south.608** 0. Mn.2 mg/kg (Figure 14b).801** 0.01 level respectively. which are within the limit of 450 mg/kg. with Fe. Concentrations of micronutrients in these parts do not remain same.710** 0.898** 0.836** 0.045 -0.05 and 0.393 0. According to Nayek et al.001 -0. ripe tomato harvested after three months was tested.010 0. Zn and Cu accomplish decisive functions to maintain human health. Cu varied from 8.Resources and Environment.549* 0. Zn was within the limit of 60 mg/kg in north. Deficiency leads to undesirable pathological conditions whereas excess quantity becomes toxic. Concentrations of micronutrients in tomato fruits increased as the percentage of mill tailings increased (Figure 14).000 0.1 mg/kg.740** 0.2 to 17.785 ** Mn Zn Cu 0. Mn toxicity in plants occurs when the concentrations range from 400 to700 mg/kg. 2(1): 67-79 75 soils increases with the increase in fineness of soil texture and vice versa. From the Figure 14a. stems. 3.518* 0. it was found that Fe ranged from 72. .443* 0. Correlations and Significance Levels between the Variables Variables Mn Zn Cu pH Clay Sand Statistics Pearson correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson correlation Sig.710** 0. The edible parts like roots. Significant correlation observed by Chen et al. Zn and Cu state that clay content is important in controlling the level and distribution of trace metal concentrations in soils. 2012. Mn. therefore.5 mg/kg. east and west up to 30% indicating further is unsuitable (Figure 14c). (2-tailed) Fe 0. (2-tailed) Pearson correlation Sig.004 -0.000 0.692** 0. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.000 -0. The negative correlation of sand with micronutrients revealed that decrease in available nutrients with increase of particle size. (2-tailed) Pearson correlation Sig. Figure 13..000 0.026 *.13.003 -0.016 0.485* 0.000 -0.000 -0. The concentrations of these micronutrients were compared with FAO/WHO Standards given for metal concentrations in consumable vegetables.000 0.000 0.000 0.1 mg/kg to 199.599** 0.742** 0. which were within the limit of 40 mg/kg (Figure 14d). Status of Micronutrients in Tomato Fruits Fe.733** 0. Variation in (a) Fe (b) Mn (c) Zn and (d) Cu in soil-tailings mixture Table 5.679** 0. (2-tailed0 Pearson correlation Sig. Since in tomato only fruits are edible. Katyal and Sharma also found similar correlation of Cu with sand.6 mg/kg to 21.078 0.001 -0. Mn varied from 9.
 found transfer coefficient of 0. The coefficients were also less than 1 for zinc in north. Variation in (a) Fe (b) Mn (c) Zn and (d) Cu in tomatoes 3. phosphorous and potassium are usually found deficient in mining wastes due to unavailability of organic matter. Reclamation by these plants will not only control air and water pollution but will also enhance the aesthetic view of this area as well as input of organic matter in tailings. According to Williamson and Johnson. Organic matter levels increase with time and thus nutrient retention capacity also increase. Nayek et al. stated that the high metal translocation (>1) from soil to plant indicates higher metal uptake . the Babool was the highest in height (220. Then with respect to this measurement.1. When the highest percentage growth in height and perimeter was compared at the end of third month with respect to time of planting. Soil/plant transfer coefficients for the micronutrients are shown in Table 6. Gulmohar. second and third month respectively whereas the perimeter was higher for Tamarind. percentage increase in growth rate was determined at the end of every month. observed 0. Even at the end of second month. Babool.76 Surendra Roy et al. Metals are natural components of soil.13. Soil/tomato plant transfer coefficient A quantitative evaluation of the relationship of element uptake by the vegetables from soil solution was made by calculating appropriate plant/soil concentration factor.5%) and Gulmohar in perimeter (200%). no plant growth will occur .63. Without these nutrients. zinc and copper respectively in tomato fruit. there was nil growth in height. thus many plants in the natural environment have great variation in transfer factor of these metals. Higher percentage increase in height was observed in Gulmohar. At the end of first month. Hence presence of these nutrients would help in the growth of native plant species. 2. Eucalyptus and Babool at the end of first.43. The height and perimeter of each native plant species were measured after planting in the pots. Finally. manganese. Gulmohar and Neem in corresponding month.53 for iron. The coefficient greater than 1 from 20% onwards in east soil-tailings and in all the mixture of west-soil tailings indicated higher values of zinc in tomato fruit. Eucalyptus has shown successful growth on nutrient-poor subsoil and meeting local requirements of timber but continuous grazing by livestock is inadvisable on reclaimed lands due to the toxicity hazards of heavy metals in the herbage.21. India by the species. Percentage increase in the last month with respect to time of planting was also assessed (Table 7). 3. Bald Cypress showed zero percent increase in height and perimeter among thirteen plants. 0. south and up to 10% of mill tailings in east.14. manganese and copper indicates its lower concentrations in tomato fruit. Neem and Eucalyptus are recommended for the reclamation of dump as these can grow in better way with the available nutrients of mill tailings. Figure 14. Increase in perimeter was nil at the end of third month. These lapses indicated that available nutrients are inadequate for this plant. manganese. Growth of plant species on mill tailings Nitrogen.23 for iron. Nayek et al.50 and 0. 0. The tomato species planted in mill tailings grew adequately with some blossoms indicated availability of NPK.: Impacts of Gold Mill Tailings Dumps on Agriculture Lands and its Ecological Restoration at Kolar Gold Fields.04. zinc and copper respectively whereas Mohamed et al. 0. The coefficient less than 1 for iron.48 and 0. which indicates uptake of elements by the plant from the soil solution.
0 17.0 % increase with respect to time of planting Height 91.0 4.0 99.3 20.42 E 0.02 N 0.3 50. 2. The highest electrical conductivity of 1. and timber but will also be adequate for the control of wind and water erosion. Shettigher.32 0. REFERENCES  P.5) in south showed poor growth in tomato plants. Iron.1 4.7 6. Native plant species like Babool.0 2.67 0.82 0.52 N 0.0 3. Lower pH (< 6.0 Perimeter 33.0 3.1 3.10 0.0 23.49 0.9 13.02 0.05 E 0.0 1.02 0.07 0.98 1.8 76.0 0. E. pp.0 94.3 100.3 40.01 0.2 0. 127-140.03 0.02 0.6 0.04 0. Soil-plant transfer coefficient showed that zinc at 20% onwards in east and in all proportion of west is higher in tomato fruits than soil-tailings mixture.08 Manganese S 0. Kolar Gold Mine’s Centenary Celebrations.0 Perimeter 11.7 68.0 22.0 2. E-East.41 0.81 2.4 4. S.5 60. 2012.3 21. Roy.0 7.5 9.0 100.06 0. Karnataka State..14 0. manganese. east and up to 30% of mill tailings in west indicating further mixing will cause zinc toxicity.20 W 0.0 8.09 0.1 0. pp.8 73.9 0. organic matter input to dumps.02 S 0.4 10.01 E 0.37 0.92 Zinc S 0.K.0 33.69 W 0.0 11. Neem and Eucalyptus were found to be suitable for the reclamation of mill tailings dumps.9 1. Gulmohar. Sufficient growth of tomato plant with some blossoms indicated presence of NPK in mill tailings. Positive correlation among them showed common source of their occurrence.0 10.6 19.I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are thankful to the Director.9 0.1 5.04 0. Metals in India’s Development – The Vision of Jawaharlal Nehru.7 0.0 3. These plants will not only provide ecological benefit in terms of fuel..0 5. Iron. Yellow leaves.2 3. 423-435.01 0.66 0.3 50.7 3. Reddy.01 0.A.3 48.18 N 0.0 20.37 0.0 18. 2(1): 67-79 77 Table 6. south.33 1.01 0.3 87.0 130.18 1. and copper in tomato fruits did not exceed the limit prescribed for consumable vegetables whereas zinc was within the norm in north. P. Gold Production in India – Problems and Perspectives. 2009.0 25.53 0.0 Perimeter 20. zinc and copper decreased with the increase of mill tailings in soil however the values were many times higher than the limit prescribed indicating non deficiency in tomato. Increase in cation exchange capacity revealed addition of cations from mill tailings. manganese.6 % increase after one month Height 25.0 2.9 53.5 0.12 0. Ministry of Steel and Mines.0 26.46 Copper S 0. National Institute of Rock Mechanics for in-house funding of this project. Growth of Plants in Mill Tailings for Different Months Dimension at the time of planting Height Perimeter (cm) (cm) 31.7 20.10 0.3 55.02 W 0.0 48.47 0.3 21.5 3.0 0.0 1.7 0.01 0.56 0.01 0. India.0 2. of India.5 % increase after third month Height 11.61 Note: N-North.05 0. S-South.70 1.0 5. Press.36 0.0 Perimeter 0.4 0.7 1. W-West Table 7.51 0. New Delhi.3 17.6 27.9 24.3 % increase after second month Height 35.94 E 0.97 mS/cm among soil-tailings mixture revealed that further mixing will be unsuitable.5 46.8 1.8 38. phosphorus and potassium respectively.19 0.0 2.5 120.0 5.02 0.R. Delhi.0 23.2 10.01 0.5 0.8 1.9 0.1 27.24 0.2 24.0 0. 1980. enhancing aesthetic views and for preserving valuable metal if available in dumps.01 0.0 9.0 1.19 1.38 0. leaves of purple colour and chlorosis with leaf margin scorching revealed deficiency for nitrogen.0 33.1 60.5 0.42 0.0 200.4 45.02 0.4 0.0 4. Seasonal variation in suspended particulate matter vis-a-vis meteorological para-   .0 1.0 91.0 Plant’s name Eucalyptus Blue jacaranda Ashoka Silver fern Gasgasa (Poppy seeds) Bald Cypress Christmas tree Neem Tamarind Bamboo Pipal Babool Gulmohar 4. Calcium and sulphur deficiency did not occur whereas curling of leaves upward showed magnesium deficiency. Increase of mill tailings in soil-tailings mixture enhanced water holding capacity.0 23.0 0.0 5.3 19.5 107. Conclusions The lowest moisture content in mill tailings indicated that drought resistance /native species should be grown on dumps. which can save water for irrigation.28 0.R.06 0. 1989.0 1.0 180.07 0.5 3.82 0.2 25. and Adhikari.63 0.5 200.9 3.1 13.74 0. The micronutrients increased with the increase of clay and decreased with increase of sand percentage indicating coarser size particles reduce the nutrients. G.47 W 1.2 220.01 0.6 20. Govt.H. Soil/Plant Transfer Coefficients for Micronutrients Mill tailings content (%) 0 10 20 30 40 Iron N 0.9 10.42 1.01 0.2 2.0 8.14 0.01 0.0 12.Resources and Environment.01 0.5 35.2 15.01 0.0 2. Vol.33 0.27 0.90 0.8 4.0 10.84 0. Environmental Geological Studies in the Kolar Gold Fields Area.
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