This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Astrology consists of a number of belief systems which hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world. In the West, astrology most often consists of a system of horoscopes that claim to predict aspects of an individual's personality or life history based on the positions of the sun, moon, and other planetary objects at the time of their birth. Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the Indians, Chinese, and Mayans developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. Among Indo-European peoples, astrology has been dated to the third millennium BCE, with roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. Through most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition. It was accepted in political and academic contexts, and its concepts were built into other studies, such as astronomy,alchemy, meteorology, and medicine. At the end of the 17th century, new scientific concepts in astronomy (such as heliocentrism) began to damage the credibility of astrology, which subsequently lost its academic and theoretical standing. Astrology saw a popular revival in the 19th and 20th centuries as part of a general revival ofspiritualism and later New Age philosophy, and through the influence of mass media such as newspaper horoscopes. While astrology may bear a superficial resemblance to science, it is a pseudosciencebecause it makes little attempt to develop solutions to its problems, shows no concern for the evaluation of competing theories, and is selective in considering confirmationsand dis-confirmations.
2 United Kingdom o 8.1 Ancient world o 4.3 Chinese and East-Asian astrology o 4.2 Gauquelin's research o 8.2 Indian and South/West Asian astrology o 3.TABLE OF CONTENT o 3.2 Medieval Islamic world o 4.3 20th and 21st century o 6.1 Western astrology o 3.1 Carlson's experiment o 6.1 United States o 8.3 India 1 Etymology 2 Core principles 3 World traditions 4 History 5 Effect on European culture 6 Modern scientific appraisal 7 Theological criticism 8 Education 9 Notes .
Although the modern IAU definition of planetdoes not include the Sun and the Moon. rather than simply 'Saturn' or 'Jupiter' but the names became simplified as the word planet assumed astronomical formality over time. as below. Venus. Astrologia later passed into meaning 'star-divination' with astronomiaused for the scientific term. and also generally maintains reference to Pluto as being an astrological planet. with the distinction noted by the terms ἀζηέρες ἀπλανεῖς asteres aplaneis ‘fixed stars’. The seven Classical planets therefore comprise the Sun and Moon along with the solar-system planets that are visible to the naked eye: Mercury. This relationship is expressed in the Hermetic maxim "as above. Earth. so below. astrology retains historical convention in its description of those astronomical bodies. Accordingly. the natal horoscope depicts a stylized map of the universe at the time of birth. Cycles of change that are observed in the heavens are therefore said to be reflective (not causative) of similar cycles of change observed on earth and within the individual. Historically. The word planet(based on the Greek verb πλανάω planaō 'to wander/stray'). and its environment are viewed as a single organism. texts such as Ptolemy's Tetrabiblosreferred to the planets as 'the star of Saturn'. and . deriving from the Greek nounἀζηρολογία. which postulates symmetry between the individual as a microcosm and the celestial environment as a macrocosm. with the Sun. The individual.Etymology Marcantonio Raimondi engraving: 15th cent. 'the star of Jupiter'. was introduced by the Greeks as a reference to how seven notable 'stars' were seen to 'wander' through others which remained static in their relationship to each other. Mars. by which it can refer to planets or any luminous celestial object. Initially. Core principles Robert Fludd's 16th century illustration of man the microcosm within the universal macrocosm A central principle of astrology is integration within the cosmos.. This remained the standard definition of the word 'planet' until the discovery of Uranus in 1781 created a need for revision. specifically focussed on the individual at its centre. Jupiter. etc. so above". the word star has had a loose definition. ‘wandering stars’. The word astrology comes from the early Latin word astrologia. Moon. 'account of the stars'. and Saturn. andἀζηέρες πλανῆηαι asteres planetai. all parts of which are correlated with each other. The notion of it signifying all heavenly bodies is evident in early Babylonian astrologywhere cuneiform depictions for the determinative MUL (star) present a symbol of stars alongside planetary and other stellar references to indicate deified objects which reside in the heavens.
His arguments reflect how astrology has always involved consideration of the psyche. who wrote influential texts on all these topics. Subsequently. the crown of it. Alkindi. In the 17th century. Later philosophers retained the close association between astronomy. Kepler. also influenced by arguments in Ptolemy’s Optics andHarmonica. and the fifth part. but that they rather incline than compel". musical consonances and planetary harmonies. including Ptolemy. and that intervals between harmonious sound frequencies form simple numerical ratios. Plato described astronomy and music as "twinned" studies of sensual recognition: astronomy for the eyes. Pythagoras proposed that the Sun. geometrical shapes. a more recent expression of which can be found in the writings of Carl Jung and the development of modern psychological astrology. which presented his own analysis of optical perceptions. Both have yielded great influence upon the world's cultural history. music for the ears. In a theory known as the Harmony of the Spheres.Bacon advocated an emphasis on what he called "sane astrology" based on the study of subtle influences that "lie concealed in the depths of Physic". another introduced Kepler’s third law of planetary motion into astronomy. World traditions Although most cultural systems of astrology share common roots in ancient philosophies that influenced each other. in the 9th century. and both requiring knowledge of numerical proportions. Kepler regarded this text as the most important work of his career. developed Ptolemy's ideas in De Aspectibus which explores many points of relevance to astrology and the use of planetary aspects. compiled his Harmonices Mundi ('Harmony of the World'). Moon and planets all emit their own unique hum based on their orbital revolution. and that the quality of life on Earth reflects the tenor of celestial sounds which are physically imperceptible to the human ear. concerning the role of planetary harmony in Creation. optics. visual angles. shapes and sounds – all connected within a pattern of proportion. Pythagoras first identified that the pitch of a musical note is in proportion to the length of the string that produces it.[ His premise was that. The most significant are Hindu astrology (also known as "Indian astrology" and in modern times referred to as "Vedic astrology") and Chinese astrology. Another core principle is exemplified in an astrological maxim used by Francis Bacon in the 17th century: "The last rule (which has always been held by the wiser astrologers) is that there is no fatal necessity in the stars. mathematical harmony is the key that binds all parts together: one theoretical proposition from his work introduced the minor planetary aspects into astrology. At the heart of astrology is the metaphysical principle that mathematical relationships express qualities or ‘tones' of energy which manifest in numbers. which are uniquely relevant to that individual alone.celestial bodies considered to be that individual’s personal planets or stars. music and astrology. many have unique methodologies which differ from those developed in the west. as an integral part of Universal Law. .
These are usually considered by their placement in houses (spatial divisions of the sky).  In February . Hindu astrology also includes several sub-systems of zodiac division. Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac. The full analysis of the birth chart. the astrological year starts with the spring or vernal equinox. In order to maintain this alignment. Western astrology does not make this adjustment. Indian scientists and politicians debated and critiqued a proposal to use state money to fund research into astrologyresulting in vedic astrology being introduced into the curriculum of Indian universities. Moon. see Hindu astrology. in considering the connection between the macrocosm and microcosm. Indian and South/West Asian astrology For more details on this topic. It remains considered a branch of Vedic science. Indian astrology uses a different commencement point to its 12-fold division of the zodiac than Western astrology but retains the same names and meanings for the signs and shares many of the same traditional principles. The two methods differ mainly in their focus on sidereal and tropical astrology. Western astrology places the equinox at the beginning of Aries. as performed by an astrological practitioner. to take into account the gradual precession of the vernal equinox (the gradual shift in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation). Astrology's modern representation in western popular media is often reduced to sun sign astrology. such as a person's birth. in Hindu astrology the equinox occurs when the Sun is 6 degrees in Pisces. according to the Vedas link the outer and the inner worlds. called ayanamsa. which is aligned to the points where the Sun's position on the ecliptic creates the change of seasons. there is a long-established and widespread belief in astrology. involves much more detailed consideration than this. particularly in matters concerning marriage and career. This principle is similar to that found in Western and Chinese astrology. about 23 degrees after the equinox in the Hindu system. Western astrology is largely horoscopic. see Western astrology. which considers only basic relationships of planets to the zodiac sign of the Sun at an individual's date of birth. In India. In both systems. It is commonly used for daily life. and makes extensive use of electional. Hindu astrology uses an adjustment. It is founded on the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies such as the Sun. and employs the notion of bandhu: connections that. that is. In 2001. and their movement through signs of the zodiac (spatial divisions of the ecliptic). horary and karmic astrology. it is a form of divination based on the construction of a horoscope for an exact moment. However. planets.Western astrology For more details on this topic. The two systems differ on the point where they start the astrological year by about 23 degrees. Hindu astrology relies on the sidereal zodiac in which the signs of the zodiac are aligned to the position of the corresponding constellations in the sky. which are analyzed by their aspects (angles) relative to one another.
Chinese astrology has a close relation with Chinese philosophy (theory of the three harmony. the 10 Celestial stems. Snake. Heaven and Earth.2011. dating from the Zhou dynasty but completed in the Han dynasty. being based on cycles of years. Chinese and East-Asian astrology For more details on this topic. but represents annual rather than monthly themes. Confucian morality . Dog and Pig. Rooster. The constellations of the Zodiac of western Asia and Europe were not used. theory of the 5 elements. and two-hour periods of the day (the shichen). Goat. heaven. and the cycle proceeds through 11 other animals signs: the Ox. and shichen (時辰 a form of timekeeping used for religious purposes). see Chinese astrology and Chinese zodiac. instead the sky is divided into Three Enclosures (三垣 sān yuán). The astrology commonly used in Sri Lanka is largely based on Hindu astrology with some modifications to bring it in line with Buddhistteachings. such as the wu xing teachings. identification ofportents and the selection of auspicious days for events and decisions. A complex system of . where the stars are visible to northern hemisphere observers all year around. earth and water) and uses the principles of yin and yang and concepts that are not found in Western astrology. Tibetan astrology also shares many of these components but has also been strongly influenced by Chinese culture and acknowledges a circle of animal signs similar to that of the Chinese zodiac (see below). the Bombay High Court reaffirmed astrology's standing in India when it dismissed a case which had challenged it status as a science. Tiger. The Twenty-eight Mansions occupy the zodiacal band and find their equivalent in the 28 Lunar mansions of western astrology and the Nakshatra of Indian astrology. Though marked along the zodiac they are defined by the movement of the Moon in alunar month rather than the Sun in a solar year. during which all the familiar elements of traditional Chinese culture . It presents a complex lunisolar calendar whose focus reflects a long-standing division between mathematical astronomy "li fa" and portent astrology "tian wen". The system of Chinese astrology was elaborated during the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) and flourished during the Han Dynasty (2nd century BC to 2nd century AD). and Twenty-eight Mansions (二十八宿 èrshíbā xiù) in twelve Ci (十二次).were brought together to formalise the philosophical principles of Chinese medicine and divination. The Three Enclosures occupy the area close to the North Celestial Pole. the observation of unusual phenomena. lunar months. The early use of Chinese astrology was mainly confined to political astrology. The zodiac of twelve animal signs is said to represent twelve different types of personality. The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of the Rat. Rabbit. the 12 Earthly Branches. The Zhou Bi Suan Jing is an important astronomical text. This is not derived from divisions of the ecliptic as in Western astrology. Horse. Monkey.the Yin-Yang philosophy. Dragon. astrology and alchemy.
The oldest undisputed evidence of the use of astrology as an integrated system of knowledge is therefore attributed to the records of the first dynasty of Mesopotamia (1950-1651 BCE). Early evidence of this appears as markings on bones and cave walls. By the third millennium BCE. There is scattered evidence to suggest that the oldest known astrological references are copies of texts made during this period. History Main article: History of astrology Ancient world For more details on ancient astrology. traditional Chinese:紫微斗數.000 years ago. However. These were the first steps towards recording the Moon’s influence upon tides and rivers. and the fourth animal is the Cat instead of the Rabbit. but at either on the first day of fifth month in Thai lunar calendar. pinyin: zǐwēidǒushù) is also still used regularly in modern day Chinese astrology. and birth hours. . widespread civilizations had developed sophisticated awareness of celestial cycles. which show lunar cycles were being noted as early as 25. Two. The Korean zodiac is identical to the Chinese one. 2144-2124 BCE). Agricultural needs were also met by increasing knowledge of constellations. there is controversy about whether they were genuinely recorded at the time or merely ascribed to ancient rulers by posterity. see Babylonian astrology and Hellenistic astrology. Another. is ascribed to the reign of the Sumerian ruler Gudea of Lagash (ca. and predict seasonal changes by reference to astronomical cycles. from the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa (compiled in Babylon round 1700 BCE) are reported to have been made during the reign of king Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE). whose appearances change with the seasons. or during the Songkran festival (now celebrated every 13–15 April).predicting fate and destiny based on one's birthday. and towards organizing a communal calendar. and are believed to have consciously oriented their temples to create alignment with the heliacal risings of the stars. birth season. The Japanese zodiac includes the Wild Boar instead of the Pig. record. showing an early use of electional astrology. allowing the rising of particular star-groups to herald annual floods or seasonal activities. This describes how the gods revealed to him in a dream the constellations that would be most favorable for the planned construction of a temple. The Vietnamese zodiac is almost identical to Chinese zodiac except that the second animal is the Water Buffalo instead of the Ox. The Thai zodiac includes a Naga in place of the Dragon and begins. began when humans started to measure. not at Chinese New Year. known as Zi Wei Dou Shu (simplified Chinese: 紫微斗数. Astrology. depending on the purpose of the use. before its differentiation from astronomy.
planets and other celestial points appear to be on any of the Four Angles (Rising. the effect of which was to help initiate the European Renaissance. The Arabs greatly increased the knowledge of astronomical cycles.a Zael). the Persian mathematician. and the founding of the Abbasid empire in the 8th. MC andIC) at a given moment in time. Setting. In the middle of the 20th century. the collective unconscious and with the collaboration of pioneer theoretical physicist (and Nobel laureate). an astrologer attempts to identify the potential in any location. Betelgeuse. ]Knowledge of Arabic texts started to become imported into Europe during the Latin translations of the 12th century. and many of the star names that remain in common use today. following him. Moon.Rigel and Vega retain the legacy of their language. A new kind of locational astrology began in 1957–58. Carl Jung. Alfred Witte and. which continued to receive development from his heirs and was to provide a major impetus for Arabic-Persian translations of Hellenistic astrological texts. By comparing these lines with the horoscope. synchronicity. Reinhold Ebertin pioneered the use of midpoints. Effect on European culture . Wolfgang Pauli.Medieval Islamic world For more details on this topic. American astrologer Jim Lewis developed this technique under the name of Astro*Carto*Graphy. Other important Arabic astrologers include Albumasur and Al Khwarizmi. the founder of analytical psychology. Altair. see Astrology in medieval Islam. Al Mansur (754-775) founded the city of Baghdad to act as a centre of learning.k. Astrology was taken up enthusiastically by Islamic scholars following the collapse of Alexandriato the Arabs in the 7th century. and included in its design a library-translation centre known as Bayt al-Hikma ‘Storehouse of Wisdom’. astronomer and astrologer. whose texts were directly influential upon later European astrologers such asGuido Bonatti in the 13th century. called midpoint astrologyin horoscopic analysis. The second Abbasid caliph. The early translators included Mashallah. developed sophisticated theories concerning astrology. who is considered the father of algebra and the algorithm. These included concepts such as archetypes. The world map displays lines where the Sun. Astrologers like Dane Rudhyar pursued a similar path to Jung and others such as Liz Greene and Stephen Arroyo were influenced by the Jungian model leading to the development of psychological astrology. and William Lilly in the 17th century. such as Aldebaran. who helped to elect the time for the foundation of Baghdad. (a. and Sahl ibn Bishr. 20th and 21st century Early in the 20th century. In the 1970s. when Donald Bradley published a hand-plotted geographic astrology map.
" and refers to a table of correspondences in Starhawk's The Spiral Dance. venereal (Venus). dis. was so named because doctors once believed epidemics to be caused by unfavourable celestial influences.and αζηήρ. Gone with the Wind (1936). around an archetype of the zodiac. influenza. after John Hinckley's attempted assassination of U. According to Gallup opinion polls. More recently. such as Chaucer and Shakespeare. In 1978. President Ronald Reagan.S. 31% of Americans expressed belief in astrology and according to another study 39% considered it scientific. meaning not-starred or badly-starred. as an example of the astrological lore studied by magicians. derived from the negative prefix δσζ-. Tanya Luhrmann has observed that "all magicians know something about astrology. notes from Margaret Mitchell’s library revealed that she had based each character from her classic prize-winning novel. However.For more details on this topic. Along with tarot divination. came up for sale. Quigley's role ended in 1988 when it became public through the memoirs of former chief of . For example. Lewis imbued his Chronicles of Narnia with the characteristics and symbols of the seven planets that govern the heavens in medieval astrology. from medieval Latin influentia 'influence'. and as such has influenced systems of magical belief not only among Western esotericists andHermeticists. whilst other sources report the figure to be much higher. first lady Nancy Reagan commissioned astrologer Joan Quigley to act as the secret White House astrologer. a detailed personal horoscope analyzed and illustrated by J. In literature many writers. In politics. around 25% of adults in the UK and US accept that astrology or the position of the stars and planets affect people’s lives. the framework of which is based on the astrological tones and signatures of the planets. In music the best known example of astrology's influence is in the orchestral suite The Planets by British composer Gustav Holst. organized by planet. mercurial (Mercury). The word disaster comes from the Greek δσζαζηρία. but also belief systems such as Wicca that have borrowed from or been influenced by the Western esoteric tradition. including the centralstar-crossed lovers. used astrological symbolism to add subtlety and nuance to the description of their characters' motivations. see Cultural influence of astrology. The adjectives lunatic (Luna/Moon). in 1981. martial (Mars). jovial (Jupiter/Jove). and saturnine (Saturn) are all used to describe personal qualities thought to be influenced by the astrological characteristics of predominating personal planets. Belief in astrology holds firm today in many parts of the world: in one poll. Rowling at the time she was writing her first Harry Potter novel. Scarlett (Aries) and Rhett (Leo). The auctioneer commented that Rowling “displays a detailed knowledge of Western astrology which was later to play an important part in her books".S. astrology is one of the core studies of Western esotericism. Michael Ward has proposed that C. In 2010. Astrology has had an influence on both language and literature.K. aster 'star'. disastria.
Astronomer Carl Sagan declined to sign the statement. and describes natural events in terms of scientifically untestable supernatural causes. although science also provides methodologies to separate verifiable significance from arbitrary predictions in research experiments. but because he thought that the tone of the statement was authoritarian. It is simply a mistake to imagine that the forces exerted by stars and planets at the moment of birth can in any way shape our futures. The statement. entitled ‘Objections to Astrology’. proves difficult to falsify. physicists and leading scientists of the day. Sagan confirmed that he would have been willing to sign such a statement had it described and refuted the principal tenets of astrological belief. involving more than one hundred cognitive. Jerome. Astrology has repeatedly failed to demonstrate its effectiveness in controlled studies. . according to the American Humanist Society. This. and Paul Kurtz." One well-documented and referenced paper. amid increasing popular interest in astrology. found no support for astrological accuracy. and gives them the ability to attach significance to arbitrary and unrelated events. physical and other variables. Bok. They said that there is no scientific foundation for the tenets of astrology and warned the public against accepting astrological advice without question. Lawrence E. and indeed that there is strong evidence to the contrary. For this reason. The Humanist magazine presented a rebuttal of astrology in a statement put together by Bart J. his words have been quoted by those who argue that astrology retains some scientific validity. behavioral. was signed by 186 astronomers. which conducted a large scale scientific test. Criticisms include that astrology is conjectural and supplies no hypotheses. Sagan said he took this stance not because he thought astrology had any validity. for instance. Astrology has been criticized for failing to provide a physical mechanism that links the movements of celestial bodies to their purported effects on human behavior. he argued. In 1975. In a letter published in a follow-up edition of The Humanist. would have been more persuasive and would have produced less controversy.staff. Modern scientific appraisal Contemporary science considers astrology a pseudoscience. Donald Regan. as demonstrated by Gauquelin's research and Carlson's experiment. The group characterised those who continue to have faith in astrology as doing so "in spite of the fact that there is no verified scientific basis for their beliefs. It has also been suggested that much of the continued faith in astrology could be psychologically explained as a matter of cognitive bias. in a way that suits their purpose. and that dismissing astrology because there was no mechanism (while "certainly a relevant point") was not in itself convincing. Skeptics say that the practice of western astrologers allows them to avoid making verifiable predictions. Their criticism focused on the fact that there was no mechanism whereby astrological effects might occur: We can see how infinitesimally small are the gravitational and other effects produced by the distant planets and the far more distant stars.
Gauquelin's research Main article: Mars effect In 1955. 'To teach it as though you are contributing to the fundamental knowledge of an informed electorate is astonishing in this. Scientists dismiss magnetism as an implausible explanation. In a lecture in 2001. 'And part of knowing how to think is knowing how the laws of nature shape the world around us. Carlson's experiment A different approach to testing astrology quantitatively uses blind experiment." Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson asserted that "astrology was discredited 600 years ago with the birth of modern science. his conclusion was that predictions based on natal astrology were no better than chance. Education should be about knowing how to think. Michel Gauquelin stated that although he had failed to find evidence to support such indicators as the zodiacal signs and planetary aspects in astrology. etc. but . and that the testing "clearly refutes the astrological hypothesis". The best-known of Gauquelin's findings is based on the positions of Mars in the natal charts of successful athletes and became known as the "Mars effect".) which astrology traditionally associates with those planets.In 1953. athletes. since the magnetic field of a large but distant planet such as Jupiter is far smaller than that produced by ordinary household appliances. where individuals were subtly being led to believe that the author of the column was addressing them directly through the use of flattery and vague generalizations. The most renowned of these is Shawn Carlson's double-blind chart matching tests in which he challenged 28 astrologers to match over 100 natal charts to psychological profiles generated by theCalifornia Psychological Inventory (CPI) test." Astrologers for their part prefer not to attempt to explain astrology. The founder of the Astrological Institute to which Tyson's criticism was directed responded "It's quite obvious that he hasn't studied the subject. writers. without that capacity to think. the 21st century'. Stephen Hawking stated "The reason most scientists don't believe in astrology is because it is not consistent with our theories that have been tested by experiment. actors. philosopher Theodor W. Adorno concluded that astrology was a large-scale manifestation of systematic irrationalism. painters. Adorno conducted a study of the astrology column of a Los Angeles newspaper as part of a project examining mass culture in capitalist society. scientists. When Carlson's study was published in Nature in 1985. you can easily become a victim of people who seek to take advantage of you'".[ and instead give it supernatural explanations such as divination or synchronicity. he had found positive correlations between the diurnal positions of some of the planets and success in professions (such as doctors. Without that knowledge.A study conducted by seven French scientists attempted to replicate the claim. Others have proposed conventional causal agents such as electro-magnetism within an intricate web of planetary fields and resonances in the solar system.
`For example. rather than the more "natural branches" such as Medical and Meteorological astrology. 2010. In essence. and argued: And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible. However. but denied our ability to understand it to the extent that precise and fatalistic predictions could be made from it. and attributed the effect to selective bias on Gauquelin's part. Washington. a liberal arts college with an emphasis on astrology in Lynnwood. Avicenna’s 'Refutation against astrology' Risāla fī ibṭāl aḥkām al-nojūm. which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]? Education Education in astrology is offered in a number of countries of the world: United States In the United States. astrological education is offered at institutions such as Kepler College. argues against the practice of astrology while supporting the principle of planets acting as the agents of divine causation which express God's absolute power over creation. unless they are completing a course of study. He recognized that the stars are much larger than the planets. then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body. in his Miftah Dar al-SaCadah. Avicenna considered that the movement of the planets influenced life on earth in a deterministic way. these being seen as part of the natural sciences of the time.found no statistical evidence. Theological criticism Some of the practices of astrology were contested on theological grounds by medieval Muslim astronomers such as Al-Farabi (Alpharabius). Such arguments mainly concerned "judicial branches" (such as Horary astrology). which opened in 2001 and awarded its first 8 Bachelor of Arts degrees in Astrological Studies in 2004. accusing him of attempting to persuade them to add or delete names from their study. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350). students attending Kepler College after March 9. Avicenna did not refute the essential dogma of astrology. Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and al-Dhanab. also used physical arguments in astronomy to question the practice of judicial astrology. Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) and Avicenna. but argued against the capability of determining the exact influence of the stars. near Seattle. They said that the methods of astrologers conflicted with orthodox religious views of Islamic scholars through the suggestion that the Will of God can be known and predicted in advance. are not awarded degrees .
These. the University of Wales Trinity Saint David at Lampeter offers an MA in Cultural Astronomy and Astrology. marketing. "Beneficiaries of these courses would be students. with their astrological symbols." In April 2001 the Andhra Pradesh High Court declined to consider a petition to overturn the curriculum guideline on the ground that astrology was a pseudoscience. are as follows: . architects. The degrees granted by Kepler are not recognized by national or regional accrediting agencies. for example. Neptune (1846) and Pluto (1930). but most modern astrologers include reference to Uranus (discovered in 1781).but certificates of completion of a course of study. etc. United Kingdom In the United Kingdom. The court noted that astrology studies were optional and that courses in astrology were offered by institutions of higher education in other countries. astrological education is offered at a number of institutions. In addition. some offering a diploma upon completion of the course and an examination. India In February. teachers. financial. vedic astrology. ^ Some 'traditional astrologers' prefer to work only with the seven Classical planets. Notes 1. which does not include the Earth. professionals from modern streams like doctors. the basic association of Mars was with the war-god Nergal. It is therefore conventional for astrology texts to refer to ten planets. 2. for whom it expressed representation as the ‘the star of Nergal’. 2001. ^ Babylonian planet names took a multitude of deity forms. Undergraduate (called "graduate" in India) post-graduate and research courses of study were established. Jyotish Vigyan. a decision affirmed by the Supreme Court in 2004 which declined as a matter of law to interfere with educational policy. economic and political analysts. most drawn from one basic deity association. Other astrological organizations offer study programs and correspondence courses to certify astrologers. was introduced into the curriculum of Indian universities.
Jhaebie Obliada Subject Teacher SUBMITTED BY : Richard John Capayas Student of III-ESJ3 .LIGAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL LIGAO CITY PROJECT IN ENGLISH III SUBMITTED TO : Mrs.