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THEORY AND USER'S MANUAL
DEA 67 PHASE II
MAURER ENGINEERING INC. 2916 West T.C. Jester Houston, Texas 77018
WELLBORE HYDRAULICS MODEL (HYDMOD3)
Theory and User's Manual
MAURER ENGINEERING INC. 2916 West T.C. Jester Boulevard Houston, TX 770187098
Telephone: 7131683-8227 Farsimile: 7131683-6418 Internet: http://www.maureng.com EMail: email@example.com
October 1996 TR96-39
Thif copyrighted 19%confidential report and the computer programs are for the sole use of Participants on the Drilling Engineering Association DEA-44 project to DEVELOP AND EVALUATE HORIWNTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY andlor DEA67 project to DEVELOP AND EVALUATE COILED-TUBING AND SLIMHOLE TECILNOLOGY and their aff-lliates, and are not to be disclosed to other parties. Data output from the programs can be discktsed to third p a r k . Participants and their affiliates are free to make copies of this report for their own use.
2-16 2. . . . .3. . . . 2-13 2. . 3-1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .2 INSTALLING HYDMOD3 . . . . . . . . . . . . THEORY . . . .2 Program Disks . . . . 1-2 1.Table of Contents Page 1. . . .5. . .1. . . . . . . . . . 2-9 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1. . . . . . . . .1 Maximum Jet Impact Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 iii . . . . 2-15 2. . . . . . . . .3. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16 2. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .2 Using Command-Lie Option from Windows . . . . . . . . . .3 Cuttings Transport Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1 HYDRAULICS ANALYSIS .1.2 Maximum Hydraulic Horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pump Selection . . . . . . . .4 VOLUMETRIC DISPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 3. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Starting HYDMOD3 from Group Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROGRAM INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . .1 Bingham Plastic Model . . . . . .2-1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 2 4 2. . . 3-3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .1 FEATURES OF HYDMOD3 . . . 3-3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Well Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 COPYRIGHT . . . . . . . .1-3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 2. . . . . . . .5 Equivalent Circulating Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bit Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2. . . . . . . . .1 Moore Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Surface Equipment Pressure Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Calculation of Volumes . .3 SLIP VELOCITY AND CUTTINGS TRANSPORT . . . .3 Flow Exponent Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15 2.1. . . . . .3 DISCLAIMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3. . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3. . . . . . .2 Power-Law Model . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 2.2-13 2. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 2. . . . . . . .1 BEFORE INSTALLING . 2-14 2. . 1-1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.4 Graphical Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 WELL PLANNING AND NOZZLE SELECTION . .3 STARTING HYDMOD3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 REQUIREDINPUTDATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3. . . . . . . . . . .2 SURGE AND SWAB PRESSURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 BackupDisks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hardware and System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 2. . . . 2-16 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Chien Correlation .
. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Toolbar in the Input Window . . . . . . 5-57 . . . . .1 Select Data Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .5 Tubular Data Input Widow (TDI) . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 HYDMOD3 DIALOG BOXES . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Input Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 WINDOW FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22 5. . . . . . 5-7 5. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-41 5. . . . 5-33 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ELEMENTS OF A WINDOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hydraulics Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25 5.4 Formation Data Input Window (FDI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 5. . 5-28 5. . . .2. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Manipulate Data Record .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 'Save File As" . . . .5-57 5.2. . .1 'Open Project" . . . BASIC OPERATION OF HYDMOD3 . . . . . .3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Toolbar in the Output Window . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18 5. 5-1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Individual Data Input Window Menus . . . . . 5-52 5. .4. . . . . . . . . WINDOWS ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . 5-5 5. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 5-55 5. . . . . . . . 5-2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Using Look Up Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .4. 5-3 5. . . . . . . . . . .5 Well Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Menus in the Output Window . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Output Window . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-51 5. . .1.1. . . . .1 WINDOWS IN HYDMOD3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 5.6 Parameter Data Input Window (PDI) . . 5-42 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 'Save Project Asn .1. . . . . . .1 Introductory Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Well Data Input Window (WDI) .7 "Aboutn . 5-12 5. . . . 5-1 5. . . .2 'Open Filew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 5-10 5. . .1 Main Window . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 4-1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 5-29 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 "Assistancew. . . . . . 4-2 5. . . . . . . 5-22 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cuttings Transport . .2. 5-54 5. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 HYDMOD3 ERROR HANDLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Volumetric Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .1. .1 Main Window Menus . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . 5-52 5. . . . . 5-4 5. 5-34 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Menus in the Input Windows . .3 SHARE DOS Command . . . . . . . .2 HYDMOD3 MENUS . . . . . . . . . . .3 Survey Data Input Window (SDI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 5-56 5. .5 'Save Graph to Filew . .3. . . . . . 5-3 5. . . . . . 5-34 5. . . . .1. . . . . . . . 5-31 5. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 5 4 5. . . . 5-34 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-56 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-54 5.1 4. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .4. . . . . . . .2 Surge and Swab (Closed Pipe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 6-6 6. .1 Hydraulics Analysis . .4. . . . .5 Well Planning/Nozzle Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Surge and Swab (Closed Pipe) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 BUG REPORT OR ENHANCEMENT SUGGESTION FORM APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . EXAMPLE RUN OF HYDMOD3 . . . . . . . . 6-12 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HYDMOD3 QUESTIONNAIRE APPENDIX C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Volumetric Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 HYDMOD3 QUICK START . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 INPUT WINDOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25 REFERENCES 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cuttings Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . .4. . . . .2 EXAMPLECASE . . . . . . . . . . .COMMON CONVERSION FACTORS IN HYDMOD3 APPENDIX B . 6-18 6. . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6. .INTERNATIONAL KEYBOARD . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .7-1 . . . . . . . 6-23 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6. . . . . . . . 6-1 6.4 OUTPUT WINDOW AND PRINTOUTS . .1 OVERVIEW . . . .4. . . .
C The HYDMOD3 W111dows application has been developed by Maurer Engineering Inc. Deal with deviated and horizontal wells. Allow input of pore pressures and fracture pressures for different well intervals. Automatically save the unit system information and recall them the next time HYDMOD3 is run. Suppoa English.0. Show the influence of parameters on hydraulics by sensitivity analysis.2 -HIDMOD3 QUICK START (Page 625) to run the example shown in Chapter 6. 3. Many potential problems and sources of confusion (whether the formation will break down or a kick will occur. The customized system of units allows the user to select a different unit for different variables ranging from US to SI (metric). 2. Graphically show flow pattern of turbulent or laminar flow in the wellbore. Allow correlation between predicted and actual pressure drop by an "effective viscosity. 6. written in Visual Basic 3." This program.1 FEATURES OF HYDMOD3 The new or expanded features of HYDMOD3 are its ability to: 1. Handle up to five BHA sections. . jointly for the D E A 4 project to "Develop and Evaluate Horizontal Well Technologynand the DEA-67 project to "Develop and Evaluate Coiled-Tubing and Slim-Hole Technology. 7. 5.0 or later versions. from surge and swab to nozzle selection . Offer five calculation options covering different aspects of hydraulics: hydraulics analysis. HYDMOD3 is an integrated computer model of comprehensive drilling hydraulics. Display ECDs and other hydraulics details at various locations in the well by clicking on the wellbore schematic. and well planning. metric and customized systems of units. 10. is written for use with IBM compatible computers with Microsoft Windows 3. ten drill strings and twenty well intervals. It covers detailed hydraulics.1 Introduction Users not wkhing to read the User's Manual can go direct& to Section 6. The window-style program graphically displays the data and allows the user to quickly optimize the hydraulics program. surgehwab. volumetric displacement. 9. what the optimized nozzle area should be) can be clarified. cuttings transport.almost every aspect of hydraulics. 4." 8. LI - 1.
WDI (Well Data File) : 1. Lengths. These are described in Section 5. etc. FDI (Formation Data File) 3. and zero inclination.WDI).1. Well data (company name.) SDI (Survey Data File): 2. Tool joint OD and length HP3 (Parameter Data File): 10. Each calculation option has one to six output child windows depending on the option." 1. Support color printers for graphics. HT3 (Tubular D t File): aa 4. mud weight 12. Pump stroke rate and stroke displacement 13.Directional survey data for the well.2 REQUIRED INPUT DATA There are six data files associated with HYDMOD3: the well data file (. well location.HT3). pressure drop of BHAs 8. ID. Pipe running speed (for surge and swab analysis) 14. zero azimuth. Casing shoe depth 5.HY3) containing the paths and filenames of the other five files. the formation data file (.3 "Output Window. The output window is a compilation of child windows of text reports and graphs. Plan wellbore hydraulics for specific mud programs. Animate the volumetric displacement of up to ten different fluids each pumped at up to ten different rates including shutdown periods. Vertical depth of the bottom of each formation layer with its pore and frac pressure gradients. Nozzle size or TFA 7. Surface combination type 6.HP3). the tubular data file (.SDI). and the project data file (.FDI). Survey must start with zero depth.11. Lengths. OD. the parameter data file (. Rheology model. Cuttings size and density (for cuttings transport) . ID. project name. Calculation options 11. OD of drill strings 9. the survey data file (. 12. SDI . 13.
All input data saved on the disk or in the memory are in the English system of units. rh . or fitness for a particular purpose. The data sharing information for each analysis option is listed below in Table 1-1. Analysis Options and Required Data 1.3 DISCLAIMER No warranty or representation is expressed or implied with respect to t e e programs or hs documentation. merchantabiity. but cannot give copies of the program or manual to third parties. 1. TABLE 1-1. including their quality. performance.4 COPYRIGHT Participants in DEA-44/67 can provide data output from this copyrighted program to third parties and can duplicate the program and manual for their in-house use.
HYDMOD3 is based on equations derived in Applied Drilling Engineering (Bourgoyne et al.. Theory I - 21 . but it will be considered for future versions.2. 1986) . 1986) and API SPEC 10. etc. HYDRAULICS ANALYSIS The models most commonly used in the drilling industry to describe fluid behavior are the Bingham plastic and power-law models. The more sophisticated Herschel-Buckley model has not been included in this program because of lack of experimental data. where: ry = pp = z = = Yield stress Fluid viscosity Shear stress Shear rate 2 SHEAR RATE. They can be used to calculate frictional pressure drop. The Bingham plastic model is defined by Eq.. 2-1 and is illustrated in Figure 2-1. 211 . Shear Rate for a Bingham Plastic Fluid (Bourgoyne et al. swab and surge pressures. y Figure 2-1. Shear Stress Vs..
a threshold shear stress known as the yield point (sy) must be exceeded before mud movement is initiated. 2. in. = Drill string OD. respectively. gaVmin d = Pipe diameter. For pipe flow: For annular flow: Where: v = Mean velocity. NHE. in. Wsec Q = Flow rate. Calculation of frictional pressure drop for a pipe or annulus requires knowledge of the mud flow regime (laminar or turbulent). Hedstrom Number The Hedstrom number. d2 = Casing or hole ID. 1. d. are calculated from 3 W and 600-rpm readings of the where: Om.As shown in Figure 2-1. 03* = shear readings at 600 and 300 rpm. For pipe flow: . is a dimensionless parameter used for fluid flow regime prediction. 2-3 and 2 4 . in. The mud properties pp and viscometer as follows: T . Mean Velocity The mean velocities of fluid are calculated by Eq.
dJ2 6 3. (4 . Critical Reynolds Number The critical Reynolds number marks the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow. 24. The data in Figure 2-2 have been digitized in the program for easy access.700 p T.For annular flow: NHE= Where: p = Mud weight. The correlation between Hedstrom number and critical Reynolds number is presented in Figure 2-2. lblgal . Figure 2-2. is another common dimensionless fluid flow parameter. For pipe flow: .. NRe. Reynolds Number Reynolds number. Critical Reynolds Numbers for Bingham Plastic Fluids (Bourgoyne et al. 1986) 4.
For annular flow: 5.J (2) Turbulent flow (NRe L Critical NR.J (2) Turbulent flow (NRe L Critical NRJ where f is determined using Eq. 2. the frictional pressure drop is given by: (1) Laminar flow (NRe < Critical NR. Frictional Pressure Drop Calculation For pipe flow. the frictional pressure drop is: (I) Laminar flow (NRe < Critical NR.J where f is the friction factor given by For annular flow. 2-1 1.1. . 2-14 and illustrated in Figure 2-3.2 Power-& Model The power-law model is defined by Eq.
1986) n = Flow behavior index. The two units of consistency index can be related (at sea level) by 1 lbf sn/sq ft = 47. Shear Rate for a Power-Law Fluid (Bourgoyne et al. - where: K = Consistency index. 1986) The fluid properties n and K are calculated as follows: n = 3. Mean Velocity For pipe flow: .. dimensionless Figure 2-3.. Shear Stress Vs. equivalent centipoise (see Bourgoyne et al.. The critical Reynolds number must be determined before the frictional pressure drop can be calculated.. the consistency index is expressed in units of lbf sn/sq ft. 1.900 eq cp.32 log-em0 e. Occasionally.
Reynolds Number For pipe flow: .45 for n > 0..d:) 2.2 I n s 0.8800 n Critical NRe = 2000 for n < 0. 1986) The data in Figure 2-4 can be approximated by the following (Leit2o et al. Friction Factors for Power-Law Fluid Model (Bourgoyne et al.2 for 0.45 3. 1990): Critical NR..For annular flow: - v = Q 2. Figure 2-4. Critical Reynolds Number The critical Reynolds number can be read from Figure 2-4 for a given flow behavior index n. = 4200 Critical NRe = 5960 .448(g .
Drw Three assumptions are made to calculate the bit pressure drop. The change in pressure due to change in elevation is negligible. Frictional Pressure Drop Calculation For pipe flow: (1) Laminar flow: (NRe < Critical NJ (2) Turbulent flow (NRe r Critical NRJ where the frictional factor f is given by: For annular flow: (1) Laminar flow: (NRe < Critical NRe) (2) Turbulent flow (NRe r Critical NRe) where f is calculated using Eq. 2 1 3 Bit Pr-e . Upstream velocity is negligible compared to nozzle velocity.For annular flow: NRe = 4. They are: 1. 2.. 2-23. .
gallmin AT = Total nozzle area. 2 and bit pressure drop equals AP.95) (Bourgoyne et al. = Nozzle velocity. 1986) The hydraulic horsepower (HHP) the impact force (3) the bit are and at The total pressure drop in the system equals: Pbd = EPp Where: + EPa + AP. c Pp c Pa = Summation of pressure losses inside the pipe Summation of pressure losses in the annulus = . Nozzle velocity equals where: V . Wsec . in.032 C : where: Cd = discharge coefficient factor (recommended value = 0. Frictional pressure drop across the nozzle is negligible. Q = Flow rate. = P Q~ 12..3.
55ftof3in. 2. Equations are generated to fit the curves.Therefore. 40 ft of 4 in. 45 ft of 2 in. 5 ft of 2%-in. 45 ft of 4 in. hose.1. 4ftof2in. 55 ft of 2%-in. 40 ft of 3%-in. CASE NO. To estimate the overall pressure drop more closely. and the kelly. 1 ID Standpipe ID Hose ID Swivel ID Kelly CASE NO. the pump horsepower (PHP) is PHP = P . 6 ft of 3 in. 45 ft of 4 in. 4 ID Standpipe ID Hose ID Swivel ID Kelly 40ftof3in. Four common combinations of surface equipment are listed below. swivel washpipe and gooseneck. 40 ft of 3%-in. 5 ft of 2%-in.4 Q 1714 1 Surface equipment consists of the standpipe. . 40 ft of 3%-in. 3 ID Standpipe ID Hose ID Swivel ID Kelly CASE NO. 40 ft of 2 %-in. 2 ID Standpipe ID Hose ID Swivel ID Kelly CASE NO. the curves of the surface equipment pressure losses versus flow rate for various combinations are generated based on a table in the Wydraulics Manual"by Security Drill String Systems. 55 ft of 3 in.
.e.000676~'. the frictional pressure drop in the surface equipment is calculated from the length of the remaining tubing on the reel. 5 Of particular importance is the equivalent circulating density (ECD) a given depth.=0.000473 Q1-8 Q = flow rate.. SURGE AND SWAB PRESSURES Equations 2-9 through 2-13 and 2-21 through 2-25 were presented for frictional pressure drop calculation. the first set for Bingham plastic fluid and the second for power law fluid. These models can also be applied to determine surge and swab pressure if running speed of the drill pipe is known. ft 22 . Calculation dimensions will be taken from those in the topmost section of the drill string (coiled tubing). psi AP.~ AP.002901 Q1-8 AP. Pressure decrease resulting from withdrawing pipe from the well is called swab pressure..001073Q1. Case 1: Case2: Case3: Case 4: where: A PSud = surface equipment pressure loss.. ECD where: Po = =0 0.. = 0. Surge pressure is the pressure increase caused by lowering pipe into the well. psi TVD = True vertical depth at the point. = 0.052 x TVD (lb/gd) = Pressure at the point. 215 ..8 bps&= 0. The at ECD is the density of fluid that will have the same hydrostatic pressure as the circulating pressure i.The following equations are employed in HYDMOD3 to calculate the surface equipment losses. gal/min For coiled-tubing operations.
1 Moore Correlation Moore proposed a procedure for determining the slip velocity through a mud system. 1974): where: vp v = Pipe running speed. cuttings transport efficiency begins to fall.3. K Moore suggested using maximum fluid velocity to take into account acceleration and deceleration of the pipe. The particle slip velocity. Two correlations will be used. the maximum fluid velocity equals: Surge and swab pressures are calculated by substituting mean velocity in the previously presented frictional pressure drop equations with maximum fluid velocity. Unfortunately. the estimated annular velocity is (Moore. although other models exist. 2-33. Wmin = Clinging constant (recommended value = 0. His method involves obtaining the apparent Newtonian viscosity as follows: . Of particular importance is the equivalent circulating density (ECD) due to surge and swab pressures. is often of concern to the drilling engineer. which defines the rate at which a cutting of a given diameter and specific gravity settles out of the well. As hole angles begin to increase from vertical.3 SLIP VELOCITY AND CUTTINGS TRANSPORT Removal of drilled rock fragments from the annulus is one of the primary functions of the drilling mud.45). The calculation of ECD can be performed using Eq. 2. ftimin = Average annular fluid velocity. 2. accurate prediction is difficult because of the complex geometry and boundary conditions.For closed pipe. In general. It must also be noted that the following analysis is valid only for vertical sections of a well.
the slip velocity is: where: p. VS1= Slip velocity. = Mean annular velocity The particle Reynolds number is computed as follows: where: p. = Particle diameter. = Solid density. lb/gal For Reynolds numbers of 3 or less. the slip velocity becomes: For Reynolds numbers between 3 and 300.where: V. in. the slip velocity approximation is given by: . the slip velocity VS1is undetermined and is obtained by the following iterations: For Reynolds numbers greater than 300. = Mud weight. lb/gal d. ft/min In the equation above.
For negative cuttings transport ratios.2 Chien Car- Chien's correlation uses a similar computation of an apparent Newtonian viscosity for use in the particle Reynolds number determination. the slip velocity is: For Reynolds numbers less than 100.4 VOLUMETRIC DISPLACEMENT HYDMOD3 calculates drill string and annular volume. The program also tracks the fluid interface through the tubing and annulus as one mud displaces another. the cuttings will be transported to the surface with more or less transport efficiency. the slip velocity is: As can be seen. 2.LI - 2. Therefore. this is an excellent measure of the carrying capacity of a particular drilling mud. 2. The time and strokes to pump mud from surface to bit.3 Cuttings transport ratio is defined by the following equation: For pasitive cutthgs transport ratios. The apparent viscosity is calculated using The particle Reynolds number is calculated using Eq 2-37.3. from bit to surface and one full circulation are computed. .3. cuttings will become concentrated in the annulus. For Reynolds numbers greater than 100. both correlations may require several iterations andlor trial and error.
. Schematic of Valve Operation . = 0. gallon& The majority of pumps in use are of duplex (two-cylinder) or triplex (three-cylinder single acting) design. Figure 2-5.. They are illustrated in Figure 2-5. dl = Liner diameter.Triplex and Duplex Pumps (Bourgoyne et al. in.1 of Volumes The equations used in volume calculations are: Pipe Volume: V . Discharge Discharge Discharge I T Qr Inlrl or Suction Suclion ( a ) Double-acting(duplex) design. = Stroke length. = 0.2. Suction (b) Single-acting (triplex)design. 1986) For a duplex pump.d:).4. in.0407967 (e . the total volume discharged per complete pump cycle is given by: where: L.0407967 dZ7 gallondfi Annular Volume: V.
aPd.5. and C is a constant representing mud properties and wellbore geometry. Then The parasitic pressure.75. lbf Cd = Discharge coefficient (0. in. For a triplex pump. and (2) the bit pressure loss. Fj = 0. If hydraulic horsepower is maximum. both theories provide almost the same results.1 - The pump pressure loss.5 WELL PLANNING AND NOZZLE SELECTION I The optimhtion of bit hydraulics increases the penetration rate and improves the cleaning action at the hole bottom. aPp. the jet impact force will be 90% of the maximum and vice versa. is expended by the (1) total frictional pressure loss. 2. can be represented by AP. There is controversy as to whether maximization of hydraulic horsepower or impact force produces the best results. The jet impact force is given by Eq. Actually. the total pump displacement per pump cycle is: 2. = CQm (247) I Where m is the flow exponent. ap. 2-29.01823 Cd Q d n where: = 0. the socalled parasitic pressure loss.01823 Cd Q d m .95) .4 = Rod diameter.. The program utilizes both optimization method. usually taken as 1. E = Volumetric efficiency .. aPd.
it is generally best to determine m from two sets of pump pressure data (field data) for two flow rates. is given by Eq.5.2) pump pressure drop I aPPi = aPbi = 2.Using calculus to determine the flow rate at which the bit impact force is a maximum gives AP.5.2) bit pressure drop The most convenient method for the selection of bit nozzle sizes is the graphical solution technique involving the use of log-log paper as shown in Figure 2-6.75. . = -APp m + 2 2.4 (I= 1.2 Bit hydraulic horsepower. 2-28. where: Qi = (I= 1.2) pump rates ( = 1. = - m + l APp Although the value of the flow exponent m is usually assumed as 1. the above equation can be maximized and resolved into AP. HHP = APbQ -1714 (App-CQm)Q 1714 Using calculus. HHP.
2. based on acceptable annular velocity for cuttings transport After the graph is constructed. The program calculates several potential combinations of nozzle diameters for two. the optimum may not be between the minimum and maximum flow rates. Since the jet bit may have two. and assumed flow rate. q = hbased on the pump specification . Because minimum and maximum flow rates exist. the program calculates the optimum hydraulics based on either the maximum jet impact force or maximum hydraulic horsepower criterion. based on the criterion used (bit power or impact force) 3. four. The equations in Section 2. 2. or more nozzles. The results of hydraulics optimization indicate only the optimized total nozzle area.aPd) with the slope m. fC . aPd = const. Based on frictional pressure drop. three. q = q -. hole geometry. The planned flow rate is therefore the closest flow rate to the optimum within the maximum and minimum limits. three. The intersection of the line with the path of optimum hydraulics determines the optimum flow rate. The data required for planning include mud program.5.5 Well Planning It is sometimes desired to estimate the proper pump operating conditions and nozzle sizes for hydraulics optimization during the planning phase of the well.. a large number of nozzle size combinations will result that will approximate the optimized total nozzle area closely.. Use of Log-Log Plot for Selection of Proper Pump Operation and Bit Nozzle Sizes (Bourgoyne et al. The area variance for each combination is also given.1 are employed to calculate the frictional pressure drop at various planning depths. 1986) The path of optimum hydraulics is constructed by three intervals: 1. and five nozzle designs. calculate the total frictional pressure loss aPd under a given flow rate and draw a line through the point (Q.Figure 2-6.
C. Telephone: (713) 683-8227 Fax: (713) 683-6418 Internet: http://ww. Hercules.0 or higher in standard or enhanced mode A 386 (or higher) IBM compatible PC and Widows 3. 1.1 Hardware HYDMOD3 is written in Visual Basicm. or compatible display (EGA or higher resolution is recommended) MS-DOS version 3.3.1 BEFOREINSTALLING 3.A. Program Installation 3.S. The basic requirements are: IBM-compatible machine built on the 80286 processor or higher Hard disk Mouse CGA.1 (or higher) are highly recommended for fast performance.com E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 8514. Texas 77018-7098 U. .maureng. VGA.2 The program disks you receive are two 3 '/z-inch. Jester Boulevard Houston. EGA.com 3. For assistance with the installation or use of HYDMOD3 contact: Gefei Liu or Lee Chu Maurer Engineering Inc.0 or higher. It runs in either standard or enhanced mode of Microsoft Windows 3. 2916 West T.44 MI3 disks.1 or higher Windows version 3.
2 to set up HYDMOD3.D& included here.EXE) file should be placed in its own dinxbry (default "C:\HYDMOD3") along with the example data fdes "HYDTEST.Disk 1 (set up) contains fourteen files. CMDIALOG COMMDLG GRAPH GRID GSW GSWDLL MDICHILD MSAESllO MSAJTl10 SPIN SPREAD20 THREED VBDB300 VB_ DL- % VB EXD: L VB_ DLDL- vBVB_ vBDL- We nxommend that all .VBXand .2. In order to run HYDMOD3. which are listed below. Please see Section 3. . the user must install all the files into the appropriate directory on the hard disk. The HYDMOD3 executable (HYDMOD3. Al l these procedures will be done by a simple set up command explained in Section 3.*".DLL files that have the potential to be used by other DEA44/67 Wdows applicationsbe installed in your Microsoft Windows\SYSTEM subdirectory. T i applies to hs all the . HYDMOD3 HYDTEST HYDTEST HYDTEST HYDTEST HYDTEST HYDTEST LOOKTBL SETUP SETUP s m 1 SETUPKIT VBRUN300 VER EXE FDI HP3 HT3 HY3 SDI WDl M R EXE LST EXE DLDLL DL- Disk 2 contains thirteen files.VBXs and .
the database look-up table will not function. 500 Please add <PATH > SHARE.BAT file. or the COPY DISKEITE on the disk menu in the File Manager in Windows. 3. In the File Manager of Wmdm. The user can use the COPY or DISKCOPY command in DOS. This will minimize the probability of all disks developing operational problems at the same time.BAT m Any text edit program can be used to add the SHARE command to the AUTOEXEC. copy from A: drive onto C: drive subdirectory HYDMOD3 and WINDOWS\SYSTEM). Follow the on-screen instructions.EXE/L: to your AUTOEXEC. choose Run from the File menu. If AUT0EXEC. . Without loading the SHARE program. Type =set up and press Enter. and that working diskettes be made from them. 2. Insert Disk 1.. If not. it will end the set up.e. Start Windows by typing "WIN" <ENTER> at the DOS prompt. 4. The following procedure will install HYDMOD3 f o the floppy drive onto working subdhctories of rm the hard disk (i. the set up program checks the AUTOEXECBAT file in the computer's root directory. - It is advisable to make several backup copies of the program disks and place them in different storage locations.I - It is recommended that the original diskettes be kept as a backup.BAT file contains the SHARE command. 5. 1. a message appears on the screen. Before completing the set up pmas.
1 1 To run HYDMOD3 f o Group Window.3 STARTING HYDMOD3 3. -"".-. the user simply doubklicks the "HYDMOD3" icon.. Figure 3-1.y Then type $ Run $ 5 Typelhenaneofapagam. DEA Application Group Created by Set Up 3.~doumntad W d w w l Dpen it for you no s - - Figure 3-2.1.EXE <ENTER> as shown in Figure 3-2. choose Run from the File menu. -. In the Program Manager. there will be a new Program Manager Group which contains the HYDMOD3 application. press CENTER > .--. After set up.. Using Command-Line to Start HYDMOD3 . as shown in Figure 3.3.fdda. rm or when the icon is focused.This is all the user needs to do to set up HYDMOD3. C:\HYDMOD3WDMOD30.
W&J - a 1 1 1 Bun l ~ f + & lrput Ucrtr rn H 4 m Wellbore Hydraulics Model (HYDMOD3. For comprehensive information about Windows. m ) m o b I 0 ~ 3 [wri. see W s e Guide t Micros@ Windows 3.SDI Suwey Data lnput Formation Data lnput mDTEST.1. the difference is shown by the intensity of the title bar). (On monochrome monitors.HY3 mDTEST.2 for details).1 ELEMENTS OF A WINDOW Let's consider the parts of a typical window.0) Path and file name MHMMOD3ViYDTEST. The active window is the one whose title bar is in color.FDI Tubular Data lnput HMTEST. T i section presents only a brief description of the Widows environment. I Figure 4-1. 1992).HT3 Parameter Data lnput HYDTEST. T e title bar serves two functions: one is to display the name of the current window and the h other is to indicate which window is active. Figure 4-1 shows the INPUT W i o w (see Section 5. Windows Environment HYDMOD3 runs in the Microsoft Windows environment.HP3 Unit System: English File I a d i h h s T M ' h a R U N r s n u a T l u ~ ' ~ l o M h' ''.1 by Kris o Jamsa (Microsoft Press. . Parts of a Window 1 The Title Bar .4.WD1 Well Data Input HYDTEST. The user can make a window active by clicking anywhere within its border. hs 4.
Clicking on the MNMIZE box will reduce the window to the size of an icon. Clicking on the RESTORE box will make the window take up a portion of the total working area. To restore a window from an icon.2. as shown in Figure 4.2 WINDOW F'UNCTIONS In a dialog box of a normal window. The Control Boxes At t e left side of the title bar is the control box. Minimize and M a x h h Boxes At the right side of the title bar are the MMIMIZe and MAXIMIZE boxes. 4. Sometimes there is t x already typed et in for the user. doubleclick on the icon.1. the control boxes are not needed. which enables the user to control the window size using the keyboard. If a window has already been maximized. Second. The user can utilize arrow keys to edit the existing text. The box with the up arrow is the MAXIMIZEbox The box with the down arrow is the MINIMIZE box. T x Box et . The program will run according to its own flow chart. The window's name in the title bar appears below the icon. it can display the h CONTROL menu. First. which is determined by how the user manually sizes the window. Figure 4-2 shows a typical text box. h During execution of HYDMOD3. The user should avoid clicking those boxes while running HYDMOD3 unless necessary. 1 Text Boxes . t e MAXIMIZE box changes to a RESTORE box with both up and h down arrows. TEXT boxes display the informatian that the user enters. doubleclicking the control box will end t e current program. Clicking on the MAXIMIZE box will make the window take up the total working area. the user will usually find one or more of t e following h sections. Figure 4-2. 3. It has two functions.
Command Buttons . F button: i 4-5 shows a typical command Figure 4-5. Option Buttons OPTION buttons are exclusive settings. In most cases. When it is off. Command Buttons A COMMAND button perform a task when t e user chooses it. Figure 4 4 is a typical option box. When it is on. Figure 4-4. the box is empty. Figure 4-3 shows a typical check box. Selecting an option immediately causes all other buttons in the group to be cleared. Figure 4-3.A CHECK box indicates whether a p&ular condition is on or off. The most common command buttons are t e OK and Caucel buttons found on almost every dialog box. Option Buttons 4. there is a button with a thick border+ default button which will be executed if you ~ R S S <ENTER>. Check Box 3. an X appears. either by clicking t e button or h h h pressing a key.
h highlightq the desired item with the arrow keys.A LL~T gives the user a list of options or items from which to choose. If the LIST box is box too small to show all possible selections. ~ead Cement spacer Chemical Wash Nativa Fluid Figure 4-7. There are two types of scroll bars: HORIZONTAL and VERnCAL SCROLL BARS. Scroll B r as SCROLL BARS are graphical tools for quickly navigating through a long line of items. When the user clicks on the small arrow. The user makes a selection from a LW box by clicking on it. A typical dropdown list box is shown in Figure 4-7. it drops to list all selections. The box m n t setting is shown to the left of the arrow. List Box A DROFDO~VNL ~ S T is indicated by a small anow in a box to the right of the option. . and then pressing <ENTER > . or from t e keyboard. Figure 4-6 is a typical list box. Drop-Down List Box 7. a SCROU box will appear on the right side of the box. 1 ~ i g hGreen t p>y Figure 4-6.
. Some columns of grids only allow numerical input. Even though the user can manually change the cell's column width or row height.The small box inside the bar is called the SCROLL BOX. Grid In the INPUT window. In case of a long list of items or a large amount of information. The grid supports word-wrapped text presentation. resizeable columns and rows. grids are used to let the user input data. Typing of an alphabetical character is prohibited by the program. Scroll Bar 8. we do not recommend this because all grids in HYDMOD3 are carefully designed to fit the length of the appropriate data string. the user can insert and delete a row. Figure 4-8. etc. In many grids. Clicking the scroll buttons or moving the SCROLL BOX will change the portion of the information you are viewing. The two arrows on the ends of the scroll bar are scroll buttons (Figure 4-8). The user can edit an entry by typing desired characters or pressing the <BACKSPACE > key to delete. On the other side. Figure 4-9. They do not allow editing. Grids GRIDdisplays a series of rows and columns (Figure 4-9). scroll bars will attach to the grid providing easy navigation. just like a spreadsheet. grids are for presentation only in the OUTPUT window.
- Formation Data Input 4 I I PvBnclcr~. In this chapter.C M i Window an File *Exit - Input I Run 1 Well Data.SYSTEM. Famlti0nI)lt.. .. RY INPUT. the basic operation and functions of HYDMOD3 are introduced.. Tubular Data Input 1 Output Window .. . & Introductory Window .. The HYDMOD3 Windows flow diagram is shown in Figure 5-1.- 1 Parameter Data Input .. Basic Operation of HYDMOD3 HYDMOD3 runs in the Windows environment. 5. Windows' graphical user interface (GUI) and point-andclick environment give the user the power and flexibility.. Swcy Data. Flow Diagram of HYDMOD3 .5. / 1' / Survey Data Input . and OUTPUT..- Figure 5-1.1 WINDOWS IN HYDMOD3 There are four principal types of windows in HYDMOD3: I N T R O D U ~UNIT...
D W 4 1 DEA-67 R o j e d t Develop and Evaluate Horizontal Drilling Technology o and Prejed ta Develop and Evaluate SlimHole and CoileckTubing Technology By Maurer Engineering I n c -- This copyrighted 1996 confidential reporl and computer program are for the sole use of Partidpants on the Drilling Engineering Association DEA-44 andlor DEA-67 projects and their affillatea.1.1. Introductory Window There are two command buttons. D a b output from o o the program can be disdosed t third parties." Clicking 'Egit" terminates the program. Well Data Input. Formation Data Input. The "OKw button is the default command that allows the user to advance to the Project Window by pressing <ENTER > or clicking on the button. Maurcr Engineering i n c makes no t w m n t y or representation either expressed or impiied with resped to the pmgram or doatmentation induding their quality. . "QK" and 'Egit.5.1 Introducbrv Windox Figure 5-2 shows the INTRODUCTORY Window containing information on the program and the disclaimer. Plrticipanto and their afiiliats arc free to makc mpies ol this reporl and pmgram for their In-house use only. They are: Project. 5. 1 Figure 5-2. performanec. Khiirlmtiartaa km4urrrJ users rhuuld read Ikrncrrdix & d U s u l c LAanud. and a n not t be dlsdosed to other parties. or h e s s for a parlicular purpose. merchanbbiiity. Tubular Data Input. and Parameter Data Input Windows. Survey Data Input.2 Input Window INPUTWindows consist of five windows for data input of different categories.
2. m m u o w . WDZ Window . Path and name of each input data file 2. R Y M W d Ikt.wU Figure 5-4 shows a typical WELL DATA INPUT window.1H D D J D W l a d [plmpFl [+lUl'11I+(TIPIq p q HYDTEST. System of units currently in use 3.2.WDI e Company Name: Projed Name: Well Name: Well #I Well Field: Austin Well Cily/!3tat~: Date: Commenls: Figure 5-4. rrndorl m 1 a l r l Wellbore Hydraulics Model (HYDMOD3.w.5. H n h-ml-EST.1.1 Main W i Figure 5-3 shows a typical Main Window. Main Window The Main Window consists of three segments: 1.i. Pa* ~d 610 name ~ M o o ~ l E s r .0) F I e Sustem. Calculation progress indicator t 5.1.2 l Y d Q & & p u WindP.WDI I Ml5m'SU'horRUNlarolnUl-Lvlonblrnsh~rrlrvWia 1 Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-5. When the focus is at the azimuth text box. String lengths must be less than 30 characters. which are independent of the application system of units (Metric or English) the user selects for the application." and for the azimuth is 'Angular. press within the box. The measured depth. If the focus is at the last row and last column of the table. . press <ENTER> or click the next text box. pressing <ENTER> will add a new row at the end of the table." Units can be changed any time while editing. and the cursor will go to the first text box of this new row. To edit a number in the text box. inclination angle. To move the cursor to the next box. and will not affect the system units selected in the Main Widow. The default unit for measured depth is 'feet." 5. project name.3 pt -u W D Figure 5-5 shows a typical SURVEY DATA INPUT window.1. well location.The user is asked to input text describing company name. hit <ENTER> to bring the focus to the measured depth text box in the next row. The focus will move to the desired box. and comments. SDI Window The user can input up to 400 survey data points.or ." The default format for inclination is 'Decimal. Well data files for HYDMOD3 have the extension "WDI.key to move the cursor left or right . They are optional and need not be completed. date.2. and azimuth angle each have two unit or format options. They are not used in the calculations or in the filename specifications.
I - To move the cursor to the upper or lower rows. There is a prompt before deleting to avoid any accidental action. Clicking the "Delete Line" button deletes the current row. Clicking the "Insert Linen button inserts a blank row before the current row. The SDI files used in HYDMOD3 are compatible with any SDI files in other DEA software applications developed by MEI. Figure 5-6 FDI Widow .or - To move the cursor to the left or right text box.1. press I . or press the "Page Upn or the "Page Downwkey.4 FormationII'lpIt W m Figure 5-6 shows a typical Formation Data Input Window. hold down the key. <Ctrl > key and To append a new survey point at the bottom of the table. move the cursor to the last row of the table and press 1 key to add a new row.2." 5. The SDI files have the extension "SDI. press the t or 1 key. The user can also use the tab key to position the cursor.
026 psilft). This is to prevent the flow of formation fluid into the well (i. the TVD or gradient within that zone After the pore and fracture data are input. The formation data input files for HYDMOD3 have the extension "FDI. when possible. Pore/Fracture Data: HYDMOD3 can handle up to 100 pore/fracture changes. 4.True vertical depth of the ending point of a particular formation zone Pore . 2.Fracture pressure data.Formation name TVD . pore and fracture data format. and pore/fracture data. the user can click the 'Draw" button to view the 'PoreIFrac Data versus VDn graph located at the right side of the window. Description . Commonly used trip and kill margins are 0. margin setting. The other one is pressure (psi) or &Pa). 3. Pore and Fracture Data Format: The pore and fracture data can be input in two formats. Similarily.The FDI Window has four entry fields: option to show pore and fracture pressure in the output graph. Frac . 1. to prevent a kick). The annular pressure is normally designed to provide at least an acceptable trip margin above the anticipated formation pore pressure. Margin Setting: Margin setting allows the user to specify the safety factors for hydraulics planning." . a kick margin is subtracted from the true fracturegradient lime to obtain a design fracture-gradient line. But the user must provide at least two data points: the information at surface and at any other place.Pore pressure at the TVD or gradient within that zone. Option to show the pore and fracture in the output graph: The user can choose to show or not show the pore and fracture pressures together with the annular pressure profile in the output graph..5 lbmlgal (=0. One is pressure gradient (psi/ft) or &Palm). e. usually vertical depth of bottom hole.
motor. Description .1. Drill StringsICollars.5.2. TDI Window The TDI Widow has six entry fields: BHA Components with Specified Pressure Drop. L. Casing Shoe Depth. Drill StringsICollars (from BHA): HYDMOD3 can handle up to 10 drill strings/collars. . such as MWD. etc.BHA component OD Press. 2. BHA Components with Specified Pressure Drop (from Bit): HYDMOD3 can handle up to 5 different BHA components with specified pressure drop.Specified pressure drop within the component Cum. The bit depth label shown in the upper center of the window reflects any change in the length. and Nozzles.Cumulative length of BHA components. Wellbore Intervals. the cumulative length will be updated. Rig Type.5 tu W - Figure 5-7 shows a typical Tubular Data Input Window. 1. Figure 5-7.Name of the BHA component Length .BHA component ID OD . It also lets the user consider the influence of tool joints on the hydraulics analysis.BHA component length ID . . . As the user types the length of the BHA component.
... .. .Drill string or drill collar outer diameter TJ OD .. .... and each following depth should be greater than the previous one... Wellbore Interval (from surface): HYDMOD3 can handle up to 20 wellbore intervals..... e are s h w n $below: : 1 $ 5 $ $ $ TwlJ d h p t h - LP + LB - TJLH.. The estimation of tool joint contact percentage can be found in the "Help" button window wbich is displayed below. ID ..... The first starting depth is always 0 (on surface).... .....Tool joint outer diameter (needed only if the user selects the influence of tool joints on hydraulics)...Casing inner diameter or open-hole diameter..Wellbore section starting depth...........Name of the drill string/collar Length .... .Tool joint contact percentage (needed only if the user selects the influence of tool joints on the hydraulics analysis)... 3. the cumulative length will be updated....... Description ........ ? ". The bit depth label shown in the upper center of the window reflects any length change.Drill string or drill collar inner diameter OD .... ] Tod Joint C o n k t Pacsntap ... ....Description . : - Figure 5-8 Tool Joint Contact Percentage Cum. ... h e j The dimasions a t f - .[ n I] D a Pipe Joinl La@h [DPJLH] dTod Joinl Len#h U U ] i T o o QD m d TJ eontad nr e - f T J a n ~ d s T J a 5 I m M TJLH a d DPJL t cderlate the m n a e o a t a. The user can click the "Helpw above the drill string table........ ... $ J .......Accumulative length of all BHA components and drill string /collar......Drill string or drill collar section length ID ..... '......Wellbore section name From ........... TJ Contact . L............. As the user types the length of drill string/collar.......
it can be used to monitor any zone of interest along the wellbore.3 CASE N0.4 Figure 5-9. Hose 55 fL d 2 i n I.D. and gooseneck. I-D. The user can open this window by clicking the "Help" button below the rig type dropdown list box. d 3 i n 5ftd2-112h 40 f t d 31/4 in 45 ft. d 3-1/4 in.D. Swivel I. Standpipe I.D.D. etc. Hose I. of 3 i n 45Rd2in 4ftd2in 40fLd2-1/4in. of 3 in I. Swivel 5 f t d 2-b. Hose I.D. 7 .4.KeUy CASE N0. this represents the measured depth of the casing shoe.D. of 4 m 55 fL d 3 in 6ftd3in 40 f t d 4 i n 1-D. For conventional rigs. I. hose. The other one is a coiled-tubing rig. Hose I. such as a weak zone. Four of them are conventional rigs.Swival I.. Standpipe I.D. the user needs to provide the total length of coiled tubing.D. The explanation of the calculation is displayed in a "Helpw window (Figure 5-10). 40 ft.D. This particular "Help" window only opens when the user selects the "Coiled-Tubing" for Rig Type. Surface Equipment Help Screen For coiled-tubing operations. 5. Kelly I.2 40 ft.D. . Kelly 45 ft.D. surface equipment consists of the standpipe.D. Swivel I. Kelly CASE N0. Combinations for four conventional cases are displayed (Figure 5-9) when the "help" button below the rig type drop-down list box is clicked.2 Rig Type 5 CASE YO1 40 ft.D. Standpipe I. of 4 in 55 ft. swivel.D. Rig Type: There are five choices for rig type. pay zone. Casing Shoe Depth: As the name implies. However. Standpipe I.
2. please input the total length of coiled tubing when out of hole. For the coiled-tubing case. Rig Type .Coiled Tubing 6. Parameter Data Input Window 5-10 . Calculation Options:- Figure 5-1 1.1.In order to obtain the length of the remaining tubing on the reel.6 P a r a m e t e r ~ uWi&w (PDQ t Figure 5-11 shows a typical PARAMETER DATAINPUT window.Calculation dimensions will be taken from the topmost section of drill string [coiled tubing) in the left 'Drill strings' grid [highest index number) Figure 5-10.Total flow area can be specified instead of nozzle sizes Tubular data input files for HYDMOD3 have the extension 'HT3. Nozzles: There are two options to choose from: Nozzle sizes ." 5.Up to ten nozzle sizes can be input TFA . the frictional pressure in the surface equipment is calculated from the remaining tubing on the reel.
the fluid information and pumping schedule must be supplied by the user in the frame called "Volumetric Displacement.e. the frame of the data group will be dimmed). as shown in Figure 5-13. Remember to press <ENTER> to leave the drop-down list box after the name of the fluid is entered. the user can select only part of the options. such as fluid color and pumping schedule.12.4. Figure 5-12. Clicking on this button will display a separate Help window as shown in Figure 5. If the option "Volumetric Displacement" is selected. The equations are discussed in Section 2. Then only data entry fields associated with the selected options will be enabled. Pump Information Help Screen It will calculate the pump volumetric discharge based on the liner size the user inputs. The program will only check the associated input for errors.HYDMOD3 offers five calculation options. . Pressing this button will display a Help window. and t e h user cannot access those entry fields. Each option requires some distinct input data while some common parameters are shared by two or more calculation options. The name of the fluid can be specified in the drop-down list box (20 characters). It is very important that the user arranges the fluids in the right order. pertain to that fluid. For special analyses or to save computer memory. the item at the end of the list is the native mud and the remaining fluids are arranged from bottom to top in the order they are pumped. all other entries in the frame. The other Help button is about the flow exponent (M) used in well planning and nozzle selection." The user may addlremove a fluid by clicking the "Add"/'Deleten button beside the Fluid Description drop-down list box.2. The fluid colors are for the use of fluid displacement animation. When selecting a fluid in the dropdown list box. It is located at the lower left comer.. Other non-related data entry fields will be disabled (i. One is for pump stroke displacement and is placed in the Flow Rate frame. There are two Help buttons on this page.
The arrangement commands in the Widow Menu (Cascade. click the Start command from the Bun menu in the Main Window l to begin the calculation. When the calculation is finished. . Pressure.2. open the 'window" menu and select the desired child window. The equation used is presented in Section 2. close. The user can manipulate them just as nonnal windows: move. Arrange Icons) have the same functions as those of the Program Manager of Windows itself. See Section 5.5. etc. the program will unload the INPUT Window and show the OUTPUT Window.Figure 5-13. Only the child windows belonging to one calculation option can be displayed simultaneously.2 for details. ECD.3.the OUTPUT window. Tile. Frictional Pressure. Velocity and Sensitivity. Child windows can be displayed independently. To view the output of a particular calculation option. Flow Exponent ( ) Help Screen M Two sets of pump pressure data and nozzle sizes are required to compute m. After a l data are input.1 There are six child windows under this category: Report. 5. Each calculation option except 'Cuttings Transport" has four or six child windows. graphs for various calculation options. resize. Child windows are employed to display text reports.3. Child windows in each calculation option are described in the following sections.1. A child window is a window confined to its parent window .
and green indicates a section with specified pressure drop. blue represents laminar flow. Figure 5-14. Report Window On the left portion of the window is a wellbore schematic with the curve of the inclination angle of the wellbore. Report Figure 5-14 shows a typical Report Window. such as BHAs.1. T i is because the screen resolution is not high enough to show the fine detail. The flow pattern (turbulent or laminar) in the wellbore can be shown optionally as in Figure 5-15 by checking the 'Draw Flow Pattern" check box. The user may find the wellbore geometry configuration hs not symmetric about its own center line. . Red represents turbulent flow.
What is unique about this grid is that it is interactively related to the wellbore schematic. ECD and fluid velocity at that location will be displayed in a row of the grid. The user can select desired points by clicking the mouse button while the mouse is within the flow area. and average fluid velocity in each drill string and annular section are displayed in the middle grid. etc. inside the drill string or the annulus. and a negative number means a location in the annulus. Then the true vertical depth. bit hydraulics horsepower. A positive number means a point inside the drill string. The user can also specify the depth of interest and put the exact MD in the text box above the third grid and click the 'Apply" button beside it. flow pattern. . pressure. While the user is moving the mouse over the wellbore schematic.Figure 5-15. Frictional pressure drop. there are three grids displaying different hydraulic details. Report Window To the right of the wellbore schematic. The top grid shows quantities like pump output hydraulic horsepower. wellhead pressure. Pressure and Equivalent Circulation Density (ECD) at particular locations in the wellbore can be illustrated with the bottom grid. the corresponding measured depth is shown in the box above the schematic.
2. Total Pressure vs Measured Depth H -10000J I I Pressure (psi) Figure 5-16. Frictional Pressure Drop 5-15 . Pressure Figure 5-16 is a typical Pressure Window. The x-axis is reserved for total pressure. If the user selects the 'Show porelfracbm pressure" check box on the PDI page of the INFWT Window. 3. Pressure Window The y-axis is measured depth. Frictional Pressure The frictional pressure drop along the wellbore is shown in Figure 5-17 Figure 5-17. the pore and fracture pressure curves will also be displayed.
ECD in the Annulus 5. Velocity Figure 5-19 shows the velocity profile inside the drill string and annulus. The discontinuity at the bottom of the curve is due to the pressure drop across the bit. Velocity vs Measured Depth Figure 5-19. Wellbore ECD vs Measured Depth Figure 5. 4.Figure 5-17 does not take the hydrostatic pressure into account. Velocity Profile Inside the Drill String and Annulus 5-16 . Annular frictional pressure drop is expressed in the right curve.18. Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) The ECD in the annulus is shown in Figure 5-18. The left curve is for frictional pressure drop inside the drill string.
Clicking the 'Recalculatewbutton will display the result in the grid to its right. ui MMQLII dfattirs dele Figure 5-20.6.=. . Valuewand 'Max. casing-shoe ECD and bottom-hole ECD. . casing-shoe pressure. For the sensitivity analysis. and YP (or K) . srr. bottom-hole pressure. but no user input (keyboard or mouse) can occur in any other window until this window is unloaded. not a child window.flow rate. PV (or n).can be varied to see how they affect the abovementioned parameters. The range of variables to be varied is specified in the 'Mi. Four variables . Sensitivity Figure 5-20 shows the hydraulics sensitivity analysis. H+auScr Fik S e n f i b Andy& X -E h t i v e Vircosityatc: Wellhead peuure reatkg [fald data Cunent Data Effective Vdua Cdculahdmlihcad Cdarbted wdhd us.. This is actually an independent window. Hydraulics Sensitivity Analysis This window allows correlation between predicted and actual pressure drops by 'effectivew plastic viscosity and yield point or n and k depending on the rheology model. The results can be presented graphically by pressing the 'Graph. five variables can be monitored." button (Figure 5-21). Valuew grid. mud weight. They are wellhead pressure.
3.2 S u r g e a n d ( C l w S 'child" windows are implemented under this category: Report. and Bottom-Hole EMW. Casing-Shoe Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW). Casing-Shoe Pressure. Bottom-Hole Pressure.Figure 5-21. Graph of Hydraulics Sensitivity Analysis Select "Quitw from the File menu to unload the sensitivity analysis window and return to the Output Window. Return Flow i x Rate. .1. 5.
Report Window for Surge and Swab - . 2. Return Flow Rate 5-19 . Report Figure 5-22 shows a typical Report Window for surge and swab.0 417. Out" in t e Swab Analysis is actually the annular fluid drop rate (at h Note: the the surface) during the swab operation. 27 8730.30 7. HYDMOD3 assumes that there is no air column in the annulus during the swab operation. Figure 5-23.5llW 1277 34165 12K Figure 5-22. Return Flow Rate The Return Flow Rate Window is shown in Figure 5-23.1. It predicts the return flow rate as the drill suing is lowered (surge).
Surge and Swab Effects on Shoe Pressure 4.3.(ft) 4000 /- -6000 -10000 -8 / r= Shoe Pressure While Tripping @si) / Pare Figure 5-24. Casing-Shoe Pressure Figure 5-24 shows a typical Casing-Shoe Pressure Window. Pressures at the casing shoe due to both surge and swab are presented. Figure 5-25. Casing-Shoe Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW) Casing-Shoe EMW Widow is displayed in Figure 5-25. Surge & Swab Effects on Shoe Pressure 0 0 500 IDDO 1500 1000 2500 3000 -1WO / surse Bit D. Surge and Swab Effects on Shoe EMW 5-20 .
5. Surge and Swab Effects on Bottom-Hole Pressure 6. Surge and Swab Effects on Bottom-Hole EMW 5-21 . Bottom-Hole Pressure Bottom-hole pressures due to surge and swab are shown in the window as follows: Figure 5-26. Figure 5-27. Bottom-Hole EMW Figure 5-27 shows the resultant bottom-hole EMW window.
4 . Volume In.1.3. The output window will display graphs and tables as follows: Figure 5-28. Any change of flow rate inside the screen will not affect other calculation options. Fluid Fronts.5.3. the user can either input the measured depth in the text box or click the mouse button when the mouse pointer is in the annulus of the wellbore schematic. .3 There is no child window associated with this calculation option.1. 5. and Wellbore Schematic. . Cuttings Transport The user can vary the flow rate locally to see how it influences the slip velocity and transport ratio. To see the slip velocity at various annular location. This category contains four child windows: Report.
Fluid Volume Pumped In vs Time 800 600 - / 100 0 50 0 1 JO 1 0 Elapsed Time Figure 5-30. Report Window 2. Volume In Figure 5-30 shows the fluid volume pumped in versus time. Time 5-23 . Fluid Volume Pumped in Vs.1. Report The Report Window is shown as follows: Figure 5-29.
.3. only the fronts of the second. third. Fluid Fronts Up to four fluid fronts can be shown simultaneously in this child window as follows: HYDYOD3 [ O W Wndorl I F M Fnnl vt T i r l - - Fluid Front vs Time Figure 5-3 1. fourth. Fluid Fronts Vs. and fifth fluid are shown. Time For this version.
Wellbore Schematic Figure 5-32 shows the Wellbore Schematic Window.5 Well Planning Four child windows belong to this category: Report. If the "Pause" is pressed. Optimum Flow Rate. Wellbore Schematic Window An animation of fluid displacement enables the user to visualize the displacement process on the screen.3. fluid volume in.4. the animation can be resumed by pressing 'OK. pump rate.1. The user can interrupt the animation by pressing the 'Pause" or 'Terminate" command buttons. Report Figure 5-33 is a report child window for nozzle selection as well as well planning. ." 5. The user can monitor up to ten types of data (including elapsed time. and Optimum Pressure. Figure 5-32. and fluid fronts) displayed simultaneously as the fluids flow through the wellbore on the screen. The animation speed can be set from real-time speed to 2 0 times faster. 1. fluid out. Optimum Nozzle Area. fluid in. strokes.
etc. Clicking any item in the list box will update the contents of the middle grid. and 5 nozzle designs. The area variance for each combination is also given.. Report Window There are three grids in this child window. Total nozzle area and area variance for the user-input combination will be displayed in the right two cells if the user presses <ENTER> after editing the nozzle diameters in any of the left five cells. The middle grid displays several potential combinations of nozzle diameters for 2. If the user does not have any of the combinations of nozzle sizes listed in the grid. . nozzle area. To the left of the text box is a dropdown list box containing the optimum nozzle areas from the top grid. for different measured depths of the mud program. The top grid shows the optimum and planned flow rates. 3. 4.Figure 5-33. Note that all of these combinations are for a particular nozzle area shown in the text input box just above the grid. the specially designed 'trial and errof grid (bottom of the screen) can be used to input additional combination of nozzle diameters for up to five nozzles.
Optimum Nozzle Area Window .2. Optimum Flow Rate Window The y-axis is the measured depth in the mud program. Optimum Nozzle Area Figure 5-35 shows a typical Optimum Nozzle Area Window. Optimum Flow Rate Figure 5-34 shows a typical Optimum Flow Rate Window. 3. Figure 5-35. Figure 5-34.
These tables may not be complete. casing. there is a database file named 'looktbl.4. If the user clicks the [Look Table] command buttons in HT3.mdb as shown in Figure 5-37. the program opens the disk database file with the extension '. the other is bit pressure drop.mdbw which contains nine tables. d d collar.4 m o k UD Table . the summation of two pressure losses at any depth should equal the maximum pump pressure. Optimum Pressure Figure 5-36 shows a typical Optimum Pressure Window. heavyweight. Jct Impact Forcc Figure 5-36. . 1. 5. 3 provides a function to communicate with database tables created by MS iul ACCESS V.1 and some other database software packages.mdbU.1 to access this database file to edit or add tables. The default file is 1ooktbl. and tubing. Class 3.1. Max.D - V s a Basic V. Since the pump pmsure is expended by the system pressure loss (to and from bit) and bit pressure I=. These nine tables are: aluminum pipe. premium pipe. Class 1. One is the system pressure drop. but HYDMOD3 lets the user modify each table. The user can use Microsoft Access V. Class 2. Optimum Pressure Window There are two lines in this child window. Inside the HYDMOD3 program disk. 1. HYDMOD3 does not allow the user to add a new table.
----* ]open MDB Fib 5 List filer of m: Figure 5-37. --.-. The user needs to select the 'classw (or name) of table by pulling the 'Drop-Down List Tablenon the top left comer..---**--.*-.. Open Look-Up Table Database File 5.--*-.1.4.-.*.-.--.-------". Listed Class Tables in Database file .---. which is shown in Figure 5-38. the look-up table screen is displayed on the screen.-.1 Select D d E U x d After retrieving the database file. Figure 5-38.
E. W P 0 . 40 irm 15s E-fi 6-105 E U. 2 4 . Figure 5-39. PO.C 6 z i m o PW N. z 4m .c 46 am N. TDI Look-Up Table with Pipe Size All the records with the same pipe OD in the table are then entered into the spreadsheet-like table. . a z Figure 5 4 0 . - I I 2 -1 (m PO. TDT Look-Up Table with Listed Records Command Panel Move the mouse and click on the desired record (click on the left-most column to highlight the desired record). u.After the table name is chosen.bl. U. E. DP I . 2 +a a 3 ico 1. a= ico 14.C 6 105MQQaW n. . i l u m o r s o a 3 . . the user can select the available pipe size. . The program then returns to the input subwindow and prompts with a confirmation box. and the command panel appears on the top right side of the window (Figure 540). 2 +a P O.0 in rz x-ss s-1s 1502 N. 8 1 1 I XI .C u. u. I. !jl~ubrlrcm*u~~. Click the [Select] command to choose the data record of the selected pipe.
[Cancel] command ." then the program assumes that row "n" is where the user wants the data placed. 5.1.selects the focused record from the grid. 3. [Print Curr. 4.4. 2.2 1.prints all the pipe records in the chosen table. if the user clicks grid row number "n. 5. Before entering the database window. Confirmation Box Clicking te [Yes] button will copy the related data field to the input grid.prints all the records in the grid table.Tubular Data Base Insert the data into the grid [Row = 2)? Figure 541. . which contain different size pipe. Size] command . Figure 5 4 2 shows the detail window.views one record from the grid table at a time. [Print Curr. Class] command . The program will activate the other window. [View Detail] command . The row h number of the grid where the data will be copied is determined by the user.leaves the look-up database table without selecting data record. and the user can click [arrow] command button to go through all the records shown in the grid table. [Select] command .
TDI Look-Up Table .Detail Window 6. but provides more edit database command buttons on the bottom of the window as shown in Figure 543. [Edit Database] command . TDI Look-Up Table .Edit Database Command Button . Figure 5 4 3 .edits database record. Clicking this button will activate the same window as the [View Detail] command does.Figure 542.
Add New Record: Click [Add] button . the following message box will appear on the screen and terminate the program back to the window system. the user must put the SHARE. click [Arrow] command to move to another record. Click Wpdate] command to update the database field. Delete Record: Use [Arrow] command to select the desired record . e.Click [Copy] command to copy the record to memory .3 SHARE DOS Command In order to access the database file through HYDMOD3. Edit Record: Use [Arrow] command to show the desired record .To edit the necessary data fields . the user haE to leave this editing window.4.2).Inputs all of the new data fields on text boxes.BAT .EXE DOS command into the PC's AUTOEXEC-BATfile (See Section 5. 5. Add New Record (which contains most of the same data as the existing record): Use [Arrow] button to highlight the desired existing record . d. then select the same class table again.Click paste] command to paste the data from memory to screen . Add New Size Pipe in the Same Table: Click [Add] command to add new record -Input the data fields for the new record (with the new pipe OD).1. . Please add <PATH >SHARE.Change the data inside the field text box.Click Wpdate] command to update database fde. and the new size will be shown in the list box.Click [Add] command to create new record . .Click [Update] command button to update database disk file.Click [Delete] command to confirm 'Yesw or 'Now buttons on the prompt window Before using the other command buttons.Click [Update] command button to update database disk file. pull down the pipe OD dropdown list box again. a. b.EXEL:SOO to your AUTOEXEC. NOTE: To see the new size record. c.The following are the operations to modify the database table. Otherwise.
5. Main Window Menus .HP3 Figure 5-44. the user can pull down a menu by clicking the menu name with the mouse. As in other Windows applications. The menus in these windows are described in this section. and 6) Help.1. 5.MOD3WvoTEsr.2 HYDMODS MENUS The HYDMOD3 menu system provides many tools that you will use while running the application. 2) Input.1 m u t FYiudws Input windows of HYDMOD3 include five individual windows: One Main Window and five data input windows. the user selects a command by clicking the command name with the mouse or by highlighting the command name and pressing <ENTER> .1 Main W i w Menus There are six menus in this window: 5) Utility. or by pressing the ALT Key on the keyboard and then striking the first letter or the underscored letter of the menu name. Once a menu is displayed. IPath and film name C:Vm. 3) Run.IiY3 Well Data Input HYDTEST. 5. 4) Qutput.SDI Forma!ion Data lnput HYDTEST.2.2. as shown in Figure 5-44.Hl3 Parameter Dala lnput HYDTEST.WI Survey Dala lnput: HYDTEST. 1) F i e .FD1 Tubular Data lnput HYDTEST.
as shown in Figure 5-45.. It is simply a list of all the input data file names in the project. The project file. T i e Menu in the Main Window The reason for using the project file is for quick future retrieval of a set of previously saved input data.WDI. The Eile menu contains commands for creating.SDI.3. . which is a collection of the paths and file names of all input data files. 3. saving. This list is updated every time the user saves the project." command opens a dialog box that enables the user to explore the file system for input files with the extension 'HY3. and printing project data. . Figure 5-45. The seven menu items under the Eile menu are explained below: 1. does the retrieving for the user. "Saye Project" command replaces the previous version of each of the input data files in the project with the one modified.FDI. 'men Project. 2.HY3) does not contain any input data.." See Section 5.1 for a complete discussion. Note that the project file (. HP3) file. retrieving. . 'New Project" command clears all input data and sets all file names to null string with corresponding extensions. HT3. The user can open an existing project file without opening each individual (..
'Print Project Informationw command allows the user to print out the information related to the current project.HW HYDfEST.FDI HYDTEST. The Input menu contains commands for opening and navigating through four individual data input windows as displayed in Figure 5 4 6 . HYDMOD3 displays an error message warning you that a file is missing.4.3 for details.. if you rename or delete a file outside the HYDMOD3 application.HF3 English I ~hhstdhmRUlllsnuaTm~hrtmbLrnchhhsbtion 1 Figure 5-46. See Section 5. can be part of more than one project. such as path and file name of each individual data file. and the name of the project file. 'Exitw command terminates the HYDMOD3 program. e u d r Ddr." command opens a dialog box. 6. The program prompts the user to save the input files. if they have not been saved. such as an SDI fie. since the project records the detailed path information on each input file.Hl3 HYDTEST. 'Save Project As. and then run HYDMOD3 and try to open the file. A single file. 'Print All Input Datawcommand allows the user to print all input data along with the project information. Fle S w i U m File Project Well Data Input Survey Data lnput Formation Data lnput Tubular Data lnput Parameter Data lnput Unit System: lPath and file name CVWDMOD3WfOTEST. The user specifies the drive. Input Menu in the Main Window .. Files which make up a project do not have to be in one directory on your hard drive.WDI HYDTESTSDI HYDTEST. . directory. 7.3. 5. However.
The program validates all data before calculating.HY3 HYDTEST."command opens the Tubular Data Input Window..." command opens the Parameter Data Input Window. The 'Startw command does just that. . utmr n* (UI ."command opens the Formation Data Input Window. . or if there are no input data. 4.O) File % = File Project Well Data Input Sunmy Data lnput Formation Data laput Tubular Data lnput Pamrneter Data Input Unit System: l~ath file name ond C~MOD3VlYDTEST. Run Menu in the Main Window The Qutput menu (Figure 5-48) contains a command that allows the user to go to the Output Window without calculating."command opens the Survey Data Input Window."command opens the Well Data Input Window. 3. This menu is &led (dimmed) if the input data are modified. 'Survey Data. 'Tubular Data. 5. if the calculation has been completed and the input data have not been changed.FDI HYDTEST.Hl3 MTEST..1. . .HP3 English I M U m ~ S W h m R U l l ~ .WDI HMTE!ST. 'Eel1 Data.. 2.. n u a ' R u l ~ b & o n b * u n h U m ~ Figure 547. . 'Parameter Data.!q Wellbore Hydraulics Model (HYDMOD3. m ) W D ~ 0 0 3 Wrin WndDl] - 2 l kd ~b I w = Q . The Run menu (Figure 547) contains a command the user selects when ready to start calculation. 'Formation Data. .SDI HYDTEST.
WDI HYDTEST-SDI MTEST.rn3 HYDTEST.WDI HYDTEST-SDI HMITEST.HI3 HYDTEST.I 1 Figure 5-48.I~W~ ~b IW a m a * ~1sb PIml] Wellbore Hydraulics Model (HYDMOD3.0) File RDjea Well Data Input Surwy Data lnput Formation Data lnput Tubular Data lnput Pnnmoter Data lnput Unit Syslem: lPath and file name ~ M O D ~ T E S T . ~ l r n j l ~ ~Il*& l SI ~ l ~ l ~ l rs-k-l \ J. Qutput Menu in the Main Widow The Utility menu contains commands that enable the user to select the system of units and monitor type.~ t f ' f D Y 0 ~ (3 m W i d o l l Y - zk!M BY.FDI MTEST.FDI MTEST. r n 3 MTEST. Utility Menu in the Main Window . ~HYDYODB .HP3 English I C&kth5~hmRUHanuo1llm'~IoLHchBNrJlryW.0) File Pmject Well Data Input Survey Data lnput Formation Data lnput Tubular Data hput Pcuamdr Data lnput Unit System: lPath and file name CjHYDMOD~ST.HT3 HYDTEST.~ym w lrput i l IIDIIBIIQII~I B Ba Q - )#llwlsl~1~lpl+] Wellbore Hydraulics Model (HYDMOD3. as shown in Figure 5-49.HP3 English 1~ C E t t h 5 1 d hmRUM l s n u ~ ' R a m ' ~ I o l v c k ~ u t u ~ I Figure 5-49.
... three keys at the top of the window can be used to change the units system back quickly............ . ...............I... Figure 5-50.. .. ....... . The left two columns are units group names............. ... .. a file save dialog box will appear to ask the file path and name..............] is selected....... ... . ..... ........ 'Monochromen command changes all screen colors to black and white.. The Units Window is shown in Figure 5-50. . ... . ....... ...1 . .... Button [Undo All] will abandon all current selections and revert to original units................. Hurit uldts -Saw S.. .. the button [English] or Metric] will set the units system back to default English or metric unit systems. ..... . Only the keys '#"... The combo box can be pulled down to select the unit desired.......... ..... .......... ....... .... Clicking [Save] will save the units system file without any options... ........................ ." command opens the Unit window where the user can select 'English" or 'metricn or any combination of units.... .. . .. . . If the units selection is not appropriate...... .......... . 'Units.. ....... .. Units Window The Units window includes a units table and several buttons............ If [Save As..... '... ...... ...&d 44x1 QjC We cl Undo All ..rr&.................... .............. ... The right column is the data format list... but also closes the Units window and returns to the Main Window. The units table has four columns....... ......." and '0" can be used to change the data format..... Once the screens have been set to monochrome....... Clicking the button [Cancel] not only invokes 'undo alln units section.. .... ................ 2..... the program cannot return to the color mode unless HYDMOD3 is restarted......... and the third column is a list of combo boxes.. .. .............. E~h r+ Hi aC Oh.. ..- A custom units system can be saved by clicking either [Save] or [Save As......
phone number. ..HY3 HYDl€ST. IPath and file name mMODrnTEST. 'Assistance.."command opens the 'About" dialog box that gives the user instant reference information about HYDMOD3 and the current computer system information. A File Open dialog box appears to complete the selection.The user can retrieve any custom units system previously saved by clicking the button [Other.FDI Tubulor Data lnput mDTEST. Help Menu in the Main Window 1.I.3.3. . Each time the user runs HYDMOD3.HT3 Parameter Data lnput mDTEST. 2.WDI Survey Data Input HMTESTSM Fannation D d a lnput mDTEST.7 for details. . The Help menu gives the user information on assistance and the computer system.HP3 Figure 5-51. the system of units set in the previous run is automatically loaded. 'About. See Section 5."command opens the 'Assistance" dialog box that displays MEI's address. See Section 5. ..6 for details. and other applicable information.
d allows the user to print the input data of the current input 6." or 'HP3" depending on the current data input window. 'Save File As. 4.2. if it has not been saved. 'HT3. Eile Menu in the Individual Data Input Window 1. specified while also retaining the original file (Section 5. . 'SDI.HP3) have only one menu me except in the TDI window. 'Nex Filen command clears every entry box in the current data input window." 'FDI. 2. 5. .4). 3.HT3. as shown in Figure 5-52. HYDMOD3 prompts the user to save the file. 'Print" c o window."command enables the user to save a file under a new name. Figure 5-52. 'WDI.SDI. "Return" command closes the current data input window and returns to the Project Window.- - 5. saving. The new file is associated with the project file when you SAVE the project. retrieving. and printing the corresponding data input file. . 'Open Filencommand opens the dialog box that enables the user to explore the file system for input files with the extension names.1.2 p u t W m All Data Input Windows (.3. It contains commands for creating.WDI.. . 'Save File" command replaces the previous version of the input data file.".FDI..
.. Figure 5-53. Clicking a button on the toolbar will cany out the action represented by the icon. Wellbore Schematic Window This window allows the user to check if the tubular and wellbore data input are correct. Click on 'Schematic. It has one command 'Schematic. beside the F i e menu.In the TDI window. . These commands are equivalent to the corresponding commands in the menu system. It contains buttons that are shortcuts to some commonly used menu items. Figure 5-54 shows the toolbar in the Project Window.2 u -t W u Below the menu bar is the Toolbar. ..2. there is a Eellbore menu. as shown in Figure 5-53." ." and a wellbore schematic window is displayed. 5.
.FDI HMTEST.Go to SDI Window Go to FDI Window . Toolbar in the Main Widow . .Same as [New Project] or [New] .Same as [Print Project.Go to PDI Window - GO to next Window .. . H W Well Dab Input Survey Data lnput Formation Data lnput Tubular Data lnput Pammeter Data lnput HMTEST.] or [Open File.]pathand file name ~ M O D ~ T E S r .. .SDI 'HYDTEST.Go to TDI Window .Hn tiYDTEST.HP3 Figure 5-54. .Go to Main Window .Same as [Save Project] or [Save] .Go to previous Widow .WDI HYDTEST.Go to WDI Window .I ..] or [Print.] .Same as [Open Project.
• Same as [Run] Same as [Output] Same as [Units.2. m..I The logical order to input data is from the Main Window to WDI Window. the corresponding button in the toolbar. and back to the Main Window. to FDI Window.3 Menus 01@1t WWmy The Output Window has four menus: me. to SDI Window. will be dimmed and disabled. 5.] H- Same as [About. Note that when an input window is displayed. Figure 5-55. such as WDI window. to PDI Window. to TDI Window. Menus in the Output Window The EiIe menu contains commands for printing and saving text reports and graphs and controlIing application flow (Figure 5-56). and Help (Figure 5-55). J%. The toolbars in the other data input windows are very similar to those in Figure 5-54.ndow. ... Graph Style. .
and tile h )4 the report and graph child windows. the printer uses a gray scale instead of color and may not produce the desired effect. I dialog box (Section 5. activate. stack. The text report prints in the text mode.. ." If printing in color on a monochrome printer. A high-quality image of the graph will be printed at the full resolution of the printer. "Copy Graph to Clipboard" command copies the graph in the active child window to the Widows Clipboard in either a bitmap or metafile format. and name of the image file. 2. File Menu in the Output Window 1." 4.3. directory. HYDMOD3 offers the user the option of printing in color." The graph image on clipboard can then be pasted to other Windows applications. The format is selected in the h "Image Format" of t e menu "Graph Style.WMF). . The image of the graph is written to disk as a bitmap (. The Kindow menu contains commands that allow t e user to select. "Return to Main Windown command closes the Output Window and displays the Main Window.BMP) or metafile (. the user may open the "Graph Stylen menu and select "color" from the "Print Style. as well as on a monochrome printer.Figure 5-56.5). With a color printer." command ~ Q ~ I a S the drive. The user specifies 3. such as Paintbrush. "Save Graph to File. "Print RepodGraph"command prints out the text report or graph in the currently active child window. The format is selected in the "Image Formatn of the menu "Graph Style.
Figure 5-58. Hindow Menu in the Output Window 1. Cascaded Windows 5-46 . The windows are then stacked working from upper-left comer of the Output Window. as shown in Figure 5-58.Figure 5-57 shows the pull-down Hindow menu. To place a window in the foreground. The program adjusts the size of each open window to occupy the same amount of display space. Only their title bars are visible. Figure 5-57. click on the window's title bar with the mouse. 'Cascade" command stacks the windows.
as shown in Figure 5-59. Tiled Windows 3. "ArrangeIcons"command restores the alignment of the report and graph window icons. Vehcbg ps Measured a UDP I I - - Figure 5-59.2. "Tile"command tiles all the opened child windows. as shown in Figure 5-60. Figure 5-60. Arranged Window Icons .
1." Figure 5-61. '1. Sub-Level Menus of 'Surge and Swab (Closed-Pipe)" 5-48 . '2.1. Figure 5-61 displays the indented sub-menu of 'Hydraulics Analysis.4. Surge and Swab (Closed Pipe)" command opens the sub-level menu used to view the six output child windows shown in Section 5.2.3. The indented submenu of 'Surge and Swab (Closed Pipe)" is shown as follows: Figure 5-62. Sub-Level Menus of 'Hydraulics Analysis" 5.1.3. Hydraulics Analysis* command opens the sublevel menu used to open or activate the six output child windows of Hydraulics Analysis shown in Section 5.
6. '4.1. Well Planningwopens the similar sub-level menu. 7. '3.3. Figure 5-64 displays the indented submenu.3 for details. See Section 5.4. The corresponding child windows are shown in Section 5. '5.1. Sub-Level Menus of Well Planningw 549 . Figure 5-64. Figure 5-63 displays the indented submenu of 'Volumetric Displacement. Sub-Level Menus of 'Volumetric Displacementw 8." Figure 5-63. It directly opens the screen showing the slip velocity and cuttings transport. Volumetric Displacementw command opens the sub-level menu which contains four items.3. Cuttings Transport"command does not have a sub-level menu.
8. 7. "Symbols" command enables the user to use default symbols for the graphs. 3. 4. This can only be seen in the printout of a graph. 5. The Graph Option menu contains commands that enable the user to design interactively using the following style options." "Monochrome" will set the background to white. Graph Option Menu 1. 6. "Line Style" command enables the user to set the width or patterns of the lines drawn. "Image Format" command enables the user to save the graphical image in either bitmap or metafile format. Figure 5-65. "Legend Style" command gives the user the option of using a legend (Color or B/W) for the graphs. 2. "Border Stylew gives the user the option of using borders. and all other colors to black.The user is advised to always minimize or close the child windows that are not presently needed. . "Grid Style" command enables the user to place grids on the graph axes as desired. "Draw Style" command enables the use to choose from "Monochrome" or "Color. This gets them out of the way temporarily and helps the user maintain an orderly display. "Print Style" command enables the user to print the graph in color if the computer is equipped with a color printer. Figure 5-65 shows the pull-down Graph Option menu. The styles selected in the Graph Option will affect all graphs in child windows.
] in File menu .print RepodGraph] in File menu . The relationships between the button and menu bar commands are: . "Default Stylencommand sets a l above styles to the default values.J or [Save Report As.[Return to Input] in File menu . Figure 5-66. .] in File menu . .[Save Graph to File.9. Menus in the Output Window The buttons on the toolbar give the user access to several commands in the menu quickly and easily..[About] in Help menu .. Figure 5-66 shows the toolbar in the Output Window.[Copy Graph to Clipboard. which are as follows: l Draw Style: Border Style: Grid Style: L i e Style: Symbols: Legend Style: Print Style: Image Format: Color Fixed Both Thicker Line 3 None Color Monochrome Bitmap The Help menu is exactly the same as the INPUT Window. ..
1 Pr- When the user selects the 'Open Project. the following dialog box will appear (Figure 5-67). There is one t x box and two command buttons: OK and CANCEL. the directory list box.. and type list box. Their functions are et described below. the file list box.3. ." Dialog Box Ti dialog box enables the user to search the file system for the desired files with extension hs name ". 5. . Alternatively. the user can press the <TAB> key from keyboard until the focus moves to the desired section. Assistance dialog box.5. File Save dialog box.3 HYDMOD3 DIALOG BOXES There are five types of dialog boxes associated with menus: File Open dialog box." command from the File Menu in the INPUT Window. Figure 5-67. Color Dialog box. 'Open Project." The user can move between sections of the dialog box by simply clicking on the desired section. .HY3. and About dialog box. There are four list boxes: the drive list box..
the dinxtory list box is updated. Double-clicking the selected file has the same effect as above. which then causes the file list box contents to be updated. 2. The file names shown are those specified by their extension name 'HY3." dialog box. The Type L Box i s t This list box is set by the program. '\HY DMOD3 ").HY3") is entered. the dialog will be completed and the files will be retrieved." 5. the file list box is updated. When a new directory is selected." A single mouse click on an item makes it appear in the 'File Namen text box. The path specification label always represents the current path information. the drive. the type of file is '*. 'File Name" Text Box The application should also do the following when the user enters text in the 'File Namewtext box and then presses < ENTER > . When t e user clicks the arrow at the right of the drive list box. The Drive List Box On the lower right comer is the dropdown drive list box. but the drive remains the same. it h displays the current drive. If the user chooses OK at this time. The File List Box The file list box displays the files in the current directory. the data file is retrieved and all data related to the current calculation mode are displayed in appropriate entries. The Directory List Box The directory list box displays the hierarchy of paths of the current drive. directory. In its normal state. 3. In this 'Open Project. ?he user can change the directory by doubleclicking the selected one. the directory list box and the file list box should be updated accordingly. and file list boxes should be updated. and those immediately beneath the cumnt directory are closed file folders. If the name of an existing file (with extension name '. dimlions above it in t e hierarchy appear h as a nonshaded open file folder. 4.1. . The user cannot change it. The user can activate a new drive by singleclicking the desired one. it drops to list all valid drives. It specifies the type of files that are to be duplayed in the file list box.. Note that in the dkctory list box. If a drive letter is entered. If a directory path is entered (for example. The current directory appears as a shaded open file folder. When the user selects a new drive. a double click is required for the command to be performed.HY3. a single click only selects (highlights) the item.
" '." command from the File Menu in the INPUT Window. WDI.... .HY3" in the file list box to complete the input data file selection.HT3" or " . In the directory list box. the filter in the type list box will be one of the '. r When the user selects the "Save Project As. the following dialog box will appear (Figure 5-68). 5 3 3 B v e P." "FDI. .. pressing OK will complete the dialog and the data file will be retrieved and displayed. however. . select 'C:" from drive list box. Figure 5-68. the filter in the type list box is different. When the user selects the 'Open File. . Command Buttons If the existing file name is shown in the text box." " . If the CANCEL button is pressed."command from the rile menu in the INPUT window. Then the file list box should be updated and the file name 'HYDTEST.HP3" extensions..6.HY3" will appear in the file list box providing the user set up "HYDMOD3" using the default subdirectory names. For our example. SDI." Dialog Box This dialog box is almost identical to the "Open Project. Double-click the "HYDTEST. frnd 'HYDMOD3" under "C:\" and double-click it. 'Open File. the following dialog box appears. . Depending on the page from which the search was launched. the dialog is canceled and no information is made available to the application."box in appearance.
-. the filter in the type list box will be one of the "..Figure 5-69. ..---.T. jiSavt9 WDI Fib "---.A-.-.----. however. 'Save Project As... . . it allows the user to specify a file to save rather than to open. .-.HY3. --. .. -. the filter in the type list box is different." "FDI. . ..-*w . 'Save File As." Dialog Box This dialog box is almost identical to the "Save Project As.HP3" extensions...SDI. Depending on the page currently being used." 5.-... however.."dialog. . ..HT3" or ".." Dialog Box It looks identical to the "Open Project...--. the following dialog box appears.-*- I i Fib -8: [ly&d. ." dialog box in appearance. ... .-.wdi I I Figure 5-70..-.." command from the Eile menu in the INPUT window.-." '. Ec * c -..3..4 P=- - When the user selects the 'Save File As." '. WDI. .. - Note that the filter in the type list box is '..
SA Phone: Fax: Telex mail: Internet 713-683-8227 713-683-6418 216556 mei@maureng.. fils a bps: 3- ~cmdas-6 I.... TX 77018 U.." The difference between bitrnaps and metafiles is that a metafile can be scaled proportionally while a bitmap cannot. .. 'Save Graph to File... ....."command from the Help menu in both INPUT and OUTPUT Windows...."Dialog Box ..... Jester Houston..5.. Savc Inape d the Graph A.com http#uww.....6 'Assistance.C... the following dialog box will appear (Figure 5-72)." When the user selects the 'Assistance. ..5 m 'Save Grapb to F* I L When the user selects the 'Save Graph to File.3.maureng......BMPW (default) or '*. i For assistance with this program contad: Gefei Uu I or Let Chu Maurer Englnterlng I n r 2916 West T." Dialog Box I Depending on how the image format is set. "Assistance.. ... a bitmap can be edited in Paintbrush on a pixel-by-pixel basis. A metafile is more suitable for copying via the Clipboard to a Word document." command from the File Menu in the Output Window. the following dialog box will appear (Figure 5-71)... the filter in the type list box is either '*. File ~ a r r Foldarr xall San...... However... Drix- Figure 5-71. 5...3...com Figure 5-72. WMF.
. The application will then display an error message explaining why the data are not acceptable...-v... .4 HYDMOD3 ERROR HANDLING When input data on a page are outside the appropriate range of values and the user tries to exit the page...+.. ...... 'About....... *....."Dialog Box LL - 5.. HYDMOD3 error checking routines will locate the error.." When the user selects the 'About.'...~...." Figure 5-74.-.. This ability enables the user to edit and view different input pages without having to complete one before going to another.7 'About..-.~.." command from the Help menu in both INPUT and OUTPUT Windows. ..... .. If any invalid data are found at this time.. the application will display an error message and force the user to go to the page with invalid data for editing. ..-..._ .. The user can start calculation from any page..__. I 5. the following dialog box will appear (Figure 5-73)... . R o j e d to Develop and Evaluate Horizontal Drilling Technology and R o j e d to Develop and Evaluate Slim-Hole and Coiled-Tubing Technology Maurer Engineering l n c CPU : Intel 80486 present Coprocessor : W~ndows Mode : Enhanced Mode Wlndous Verslon : 3.95 15812 K B Free Memory : m Figure 5-73.. click yes or press <ENTER> to return to the associated page in the INPUT window..... Error Messages When an error message appears... The user can ignore the error message and leave the page even though the data on the page are in error..... .. ... ......... Figure 5-74 shows some of the error messages...!TDI File - -v.--- V....3..... ..*.
.FD1......1 OVERVIEW This chapter presents a complete example run of HYDMOD3....HY3 will be run to familiarize the user with program operation.... The data shown are from the supplied data files 'HYDTEST..HY3.." 'HYDTEST. and 6-4) presents a printout of input data for the example case..6. The input project file HYDTEST." Rydraulics Hodel [ ~ rject Information ] o Project tile: Well Data Input file: Survev Data Innut file: Tubulk-~ata~xi~ut file: Parameter Data Input file: C \EYDHOD3\HYDTEST...WD1..6-3.." 'HYDTEST...WDI (+) : C \EYDMOD3\HYDTEST...m n f 2 '/t) Flow Rate: Nozzle Vel: Fluid Vel: Pressure: lrorce: Power: (gpm) (f..HT3 .... Displaying and printing input data.... S/) (it/min) (psi) (lbf) (HP) Note: (+) = Saved.2 EXAMPLE CASE Figure 6-1 (continued on pages 62..W3 (-) : C \HYDMOD3\?iYDTEST. The user will become familiar with: Menu operation... (-) = Not a v e d .KP3 (+) Unit System: English Depth : Hole Size: Nozzle Size: m d weight: viscosity: Yield Point: K: (ft) (in) (1/32in) (ppg) (-1 (lbf/100ft2) (Ibf.SD1. 6...." and 'HYDTEST...." 'HYDTEST..HP3....... Example Run of HYDMOD3 6....... End of HYD file ...HT~ : (+j C:\HYDWOD3\EYDTEST...SDI f +I : C ~EYDXOD~~HYDTEST. Displaying and printing output data..." 'HYDTEST.
....... ------ End of SDI P i l e ---- ............ ) ........ : DEA-44/67 : W e l l #l : Austin : Texas : 10/10/96 : Example End of WDI Pile..WDI -I Hydraulics nodel [ -~ ~- Survey Data Input ] Inclination (Dec...... Depth em ( ft) Azimuth (Dec.= HYDTEST......----- Hydraulics Model = = = = = v = s [ Well Data Input ] company ~ a m e P r o j e c t Name W e l l Name W e l l Field Well city / State Date Comments -- : Maurer Engineering Inc..................... ) Station W a ....
............1 Kill margin(psi/ft) = 0.. # 1 2 3 4 ............_ _ _ I _ _ _ _ Hydraulics Model [ Formation Data Input ] ==- Trip margin (psi/ft) = 0..............4 0....0 5206............0 1000........ Depth (f t) Pore Frac (psi/ft) 0.........8 0...3 0...7 0..0 2000...9 0...............0 4000.85 0...........8 0.. (psi/f t) 5 0.........4 0....4 6 . No.............................4 0...................0 3000....... - End of FDI Pile - ..4 0......4 V......9 0.1 .......
...Dril1 Strings 1 2 ( in) -----------------... 75 ..--Length ( t) f -- O. ..0 11..0 11. ( in) Casing Shale Depleted Int......D.0 8400... Bit depth (ft) : casing shoe depth(ft): Rig Type: 1 Tube Geometry (from bit) No.------------...0 12...0 11..0 4000.0 TFA (in2) ------------------- End of TDI File ...0 5000.[ Tubular Data Input J 9000. 5.0 6400....0 I.- ------------------------12.2 11..0 4-0 50.0 12. Nozzle Diameters (1/32in) 12..0 7150.3 11-3 11.-........0 5650... ( in) P Drop .. Components 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 --------------------------From (ft) I.....----------1 No.0 12..55 .0 6600.. (psi) BHA 100.5 11.0 11..e ...0 Drill Collar Drill String 2....0 Case No.0 7800...0 11. 11 12 ..0 5150.83 Well Geometry (from surface) No.3 13..0 4950.0 8500..2 12.--....D.0 --------------..D..D..----( t) f Length 500.BHA Sections -------------------------- ...0 7250.3 11....35 ------------------------- 9 Shale Cap 10 Major Pay Int.0 0. ( in) O.0 4000.--...... Water Zone 0.75 3.
Pump Rate Elapsed Time (-1 (dn) ....0 10.71 8......0 15...0 252 0 420.. Input Data of the Example Case ..0 5.....0 9..67 0.0 9000...0 100..........75 395................. 340. pump preeeure(psi): Maxi. 4........ 12.0 50...s'n/ft2) -----------------------------of PDI Film 5000..0 13.........0 30 .........0 30.0 6000..... I KI (@I Note: (#) = (lbf/lOOftZ) ----------------------------...0 15...0 16..- F II - Hydraulics Xodel [ Parameter Data Input ] Hydraulics Analysis Surge and Swab Cutting Transport Volumetric Dioplacement Well Planning and Nozzle Selection Mud Weight (ppg): Plastic Viscooity(cp): Yield Point(lbf/lOOft2): Stroke Rate (stk/min): Stroke Displacement(gal/stk): Pipa Running Speod(ft/min): Cutting Diameter (in): Cutting Density (ppg): 84 5.0 15...0 8000. ( @ ) = (lbf..... pump horeepover(HP): Pump efficiency: Flov rate index: Minimum flow rate (gpm): The flow rate (gpnt) : Mud Prograr .0 Selected Options: Mud Properties: Pump Properties: Surge/swab Condition: Cutting Properties: Volumetric Displacement Schedule: ...0 5..0 ...0 12.......................0 ... Bit Depth Mud WT PV YP N (ft) (PPQ) (CP) (#I (-1 ....0 00 ...0 170.0 150... Well Planning: Maxi.......0 15...........0 150...0 30.............0 84.....0 140.........0 5.0 500..0 3423...0 420..0 7000...... 9 1......0 0..5 95 ..........0 0...........................0 1600......0 5..........0 21............ 5....0 Figure 6-1...............................0 25... 95 ..0 116.........0 35.......0 50 ...0 10..0 9. Fluid Pumped spacer Lead Cement Tail Cement Polymer 210...............0 Volume (bbl) 80................
s-5."from the File menu (in the INPUT HYDTEST. After the user completes the dialog. Other data input windows are shown in Figures 5-4.4 OUTPUT WINDOW AND PRINTOUTS Window will start the calculation. only partial printouts h are shown in order to save space. the Main Window is displayed as shown in Figure 5-3. Please refer to them. Retrieve the project file Select "Open Project . 5-7 and 5-11. A message Selecting 'Start" from the Bun menu in the INPUT window will be displayed showing the progress of the calculation.HY3 in C:\HYDMOD3.. The OUTPUT window and its child windows are shown in Figures 5-14 through 5-36. The HYDTEST data s are for illustration only and should not be taken as preferred values. In the following sections. Start HYDMOD3 using the methods described in Section 3.) 6.s-6.U e of these data will generate the example results presented in this manual. (For some test reports. the procedure will be negotiated step by step. 126.96.36.199 INPUT WINDOW Window). 6. continued on the following page) .1 1.. "Report" (Figure 6-2. The figures displayed here are t e printouts of corresponding windows.
............. F'rictional Pressure Drop i the Annulus n ......- ...81 5.....44 10....................23 BHA Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Drill Coil Coll Stri Stri Stri Stri Stri Stri Stri Stri Stri Stri Stri Major Pay Shale Cap Water Zone Depleted I Shale Casing 0.. ....01 288...13 6.......... Plow (psi) Type ...23 102.... system pressure loss (w/o bit) (psi) Nozzle pressure loss (psi) Jet impact force (lbf) Impact force/hole area (psi) Nozzle area (in2) Nozzle velocity (ft/s) 420... 5Pe 152.......................24 71.....13 5...........0 Press..........49 78...........51 46..49 100.............77 1.................................31 8.................98 .0 562............03 392......82 0...-. Bit Pressure Drop - 14638.................................55 243...34 169...9 1004..................66 0............87 50...............16 2.....96 0......68 2293..5 5......9 8...........................Hydraulics Analysis Report .24 107...... Frictional Pressure Drop Inside the Drill Stringa............13 692....9 1601............24 100.. syetem HP loss(w/o bit) (HP) Bit hydraulic HP (HP) Wellhead pressure (psi) Surface equipment press.........09 100.49 107.................... M D ............... Hydraulics Details Press..........85 144.6 152...................... atc.. loss (psi) Circ........................... No........ 1nner Outer P Drop ....23 100. TVD ECD Velocity ........... .-........................--- Drill Strings .........47 690. Flow rate (gpm) Pump output hydraulic power (HP) Circ.............08 6.......85 Velocity ( ft/min) 91.. Drop (psi) Flow Velocity ( ft/min) Surface Drill Stri Drill Coll BHA --------------------------------.96 2.... Bit 692.24 107...17 L L L L L L L L L L L L L L ----------------------------------..........43 102..........24 141........47 T ..
Total Pressure Vs. Text Report of Hydraulics Analysis 2.=--A=-===I End of Hydraulics Report -= Figure 6-2. Measured Depth 6-8 . 'Pressurew(Figure 6-3) Total Pressure vs Measured Depth 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 /Ifgdro /MD. (R) I /-8000 - I1 I / pore -10000- I F~ Pressure (psi) Figure 6-3.
3. 'Frictional Pressure" Figure 6-4)
Frictional Pressure vs Measured Depth
0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Figure 6-4. Frictional Pressure Vs. Measured Depth
4. 'ECD" (Figure 6-5)
Wellbore ECD vs Measured Depth
Wellbore ECD @pg)
Figure 6-5. Wellbore ECD Vs. Measured Depth
5. 'Velocity" (Figure 6-6)
Velocity vs Measured Depth
Figure 6-6. Velocity Profiles 6. 'Sensitivity" (Figures 6-7 and 6-8) A text report and one graph from this window are presented in Figures 6-7 and 6-8.
End of S e n e i t i v i t y Analysis Report
Figure 6-7. Text Report of Sensitivity Analysis
Wellhead Press.@si) vs. Flow Rate
25000 20000 l5000 10000 5000 0
Flow R a t a m )
Figure 6-8. Graph Output of Sensitivity Analysis
9 37.1 13.6 40.23 (PHI -----13.39 Shoe P (psi) Shoe ECD BE ECD (PHI .09 13.25 13..02 13.47 2562.22 13.5 14.5 41.2 26.12 13.2 13.9 18 .1 13 11 13..13 13.09 13.17 13.13 13.24 13.22 .14 13.27 13.19 13.2 13.4 15.12 13...14 13 15 13 15 13 16 13.0 13.2 1.2 13.7 21.05 13..04 13.3 25.14 13.5 5.06 13 07 13. 2.09 13. which is a portion of the printout) Surge and Swab Report .19 13.11 13 12 13.04 13.8 38.9 28. 7-2 8.6 13.08 13.18 13.13 13.14 13..24 13.09 13.24 13..6 31.4 24..5 23.1 13.6..14 13.16 13.08 13.05 13.21 13.09 13.17 13..26 13.0 13.17 13.17 13.3 34..15 13 15 13 15 13.4.7 36 .2 44.18 13.08 13.21 13.4 42.0 18.06 13..3 16.--------13.2 13.12 13.06 13.8 29.1 18.19 13.21 13 21 13.18 13. 'Reportw(Figure 6-9.17 13..18 13.07 13 08 13.0 45..3 43.12 2569..1 36.0 36.22 13.11 13.07 13...07 13.2 13.2 17.16 13.0 0.1 9.01 13. Surge History Analysis --------0.1 13 1 13 11 13.13 13.25 13.61 2560.9 10.58 2564 85 2567.0 13 -02 13.0 13.6 22.25 13. 4.9 19.12 13.1 45.4 63 .03 13.06 13.2 35.21 13.7 12..4 33.7 39.23 13 23 13.27 13.26 13...18 13.0 9.19 13.03 13.7 30.1 27 0 27.8 11.9 Time (min) ------------2559.25 13.5 32..04 13.8 20.26 13.
... Qout (gPm) Shoe P (ft) (psi) Shoe ECD (PN) BE P (poi) BHECD (PB) ... --------------------------------------------------------------------# Time (min) M........--------------------Swab History Analysim ......D....
End of Surge/Svab Report - Figure 6-9. Text Report of Surge and Swab (Closed-Pipe) .
Surge Return Rate Vs. 'Casing Shoe Pressurew(Figure 6-1 1) Surge & Swab Effects on Shoe Pressure 0 0 -2000 / 4000 Bit D.2. Bit Depth 3. 'Return Flow Rate" (Figure 6-10) Surge Return Rate vs Bit Depth 0 0 -2000 Bit D.1 1.(fi) / Smb -6000 / pore -8000 -10000 Shoe Pressure While Tripping (psi) Figure 6. Surge and Swab Effects on Shoe Pressure .(fi) 4000 -6000 -8000 I -10000 Flow Rate (gpm) Figure 6-10.
Figure 6-13. 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 -1oDO / sl g lr e Bit 4000 / slpab -6000 / p'We -8000 I -10000 / FIZ Bottomhole P e s While Tripping @si) rs. Surge and Swab Effects on Bottom-Hole Pressure .4. Surge and Swab Effects on Shoe EMW 5. "Casing Shoe E M ' (Figure 6-12) Surge & Swab Effects on Shoe EMW 0 0 5 10 15 -2000 / swe Bit 4000 / SVA~ -6000 / -8000 P'W~ I -10000 I I I I Frat Shoe E M ' While Tripping @pg) Figure 6-12. "Bottom-holePressurew(Figure 6-13) Surge & Swab Effects on Bottomhole Press.
...(ft) /- -6000 # Pore -8000 I I ' I -10000 / F...... Plow Rate (gpm) : Weasured Depth (f : t) Tube Outer Diameter (in): Hole Diameter (in): Cutting Density (ppg): Cutting Chip size(in) : Annular ~ l u i d Velocity (ft/min): Slip Velocity (Moore Corralation) (It/-in) : Cutting Traneport Ratio(1-Vsl/Va) (Woore): 100..................6.2 Figure 6-15.24 18........ Boltomhole EMW While Tripping @pg) Figure 6-14.. Slip Velocity (Chien Corralation)(ft/min): Cutting Transport Ratio (1-Vel/Va) (Chien)t - End of Cutting Transport Report - 30... Cutting Waneport Report Valid For Vertical Section Only ..............06 82.. Surge and Swab Effects on Bottom-Hole EMW 6. 'Bottom-Hole EMW" (Figure 6.. .................12 70...... ......... Text Report of Cuttings Transport 6-18 ...14) Surge & Swab Effects on Bottomhole EMW 0 0 5 10 15 -2000 /Slngc -4000 Bit D..1............3 The only printout of this option is shown in Figure 6-15.......4.................
57 6637..42 74.0 210...81 23..0 80.....0 340..0 0..0 5614... 340.0 3479. ..06 0.0 340.83 20.77 27.44 142.67 44... .53 .0 2435.77 0.....0 5614..13 4947.0 0..75 2693.0 0..0 210.....0 0..0 # (min) (Qpm) --------------------------------------------------------------------------0..0 0.0 0.08- 1044 7195 8238 Pump Rate 210.64 0.0 0.0 210. P1..0 0.69 6073....... .0 00 ..0 0..85 18. F1.0 4871.46 00 .0 00 .41 134.0 86...0 340.0 2087.... 5614..0 0..68 38.0 00 .0 0..79 25..0 210.92 14.99 3820.0 210.......0 210...33 440.92 10.0 5614.82 -8357.0 340.82 22.0 0..0 00 . Pl.0 210.0 0.0 80.72 33.0 0.71 39...... Time Pump Stks Pump from surface to bit: 12..0 80. Required Pipes: 124 -25 Annulus: 856..0 210.0 210.82 00 .18 -8277...68 1003.32 5567.0 340.69 37.0 80...-----Volumetric Diaplacment P1..0 0.0 0.89 13.0 0....06 0.27 94..01 4383..0 3827.. 0.0 0....0 0.0 0.0 80...0 0.....67 42 83 125 167 208 250 292 333 375 417 458 500 541 583 625 666 672 672 672 672 672 672 672 672 672 672 725 792 860 927 994 1062 1129 1197 1264 1332 1399 1466 1534 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 P1..0 00 .....0 0....06 0...0 0..0 210...51 Total: 980.0 1043...0 80..96 9.97 3.0 210. 4523...11 -8569.63 49...0 0.37 0.0 210. In Out Vol....7 36.99 1.0 0.0 340..47 150.4 -8797.. 0.68 0. 0. 0.26 5510.0 00 ..0 80...65 Pump one full circulation: 98..33 8307.-5 Front (f t) 00 .0 340.83 24.91 0.....54 59. 0.0 00 ...0 210.06 00 .0 0..... 'Report" (Figure 6-16.55 174.0 00 .83 21.61 0.0 0..0 0.0 0.0 340.1 7200.74 3173 32...-3 Ront (it) F1...0 0.27 6617.4.4 .5 64.72 34..0 0.06 00 . 00 ..0 0. 0. 0.79 29.06 0...75 -8683.0 0. 5614..77 28...-4 Ront (ft) 00 .0 340.0 00 .0 0.91 11.-2 Ront (it) P1.... 00 .76 29.0 340....0 340.0 0... 00 ..0 340..06 00 .0 1391..36 118. 00 .96 5.0 00 .5 158... 5219.8 24...0 347.0 210...0 6054..42 Pump from bottom to surface: 85.87 16.88 19.47 -8454....0 5614. 0.....0 210....33 80.... 5614.0 5614.52 166.0 0....0 0..59 0..5 0.In (bbl) 1 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ..0 00 .6..0 0.58 182..06 0. ---------------------------..38 79.0 0.39 2130.9 12...75 30.0 695.0 0.0 0-0 00 .....04 -8906.0 0.06 00 ..41 0...55 0......... 0....33 110...0 2783.0 0. 00 .38 126.0 0.0 80.0 00 ..75 34.73 0..0 0. Volume (bbl) Time (min) Strokes ...97 4.0 0. 1.0 0......88 14.. 0. 5614. 0..95 0...86 0..0 0.76 .71 35...0 0.0 0..62 7181.....0 210.94 7.0 0. 0. which is a portion of the printout) Volumetric Displacemmt Report - ..46 69.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 00 ....06 0...0 3131....1739....95 6.....78 26..98 2..0 0.86 17.27 0..0 80.. 00 ..0 0.58 54..84 19....243257.0 0..0 0..0 5614. 00 ..0 4175.....04 1566.93 8.0 0.0 0...88 15.0 0..0 0...98 7744..69 -8980.3 102..93 9. .
- End of Volumetric Displacement Report - - Figure 6-16. 600 - / 200 - 0 0 50 1 0 130 Elapsed Time Figure 6-17. Fluid Volume Pumped in Vs. Text Report of Volumetric Displacement 2. 'Volume In" (Figure 6-17) Fluid Volume Pumped I vs Time n 800. Time .
Time 4. "Wellbore Schematic" The printout for this window is not available for this version. . "FluidFronts" (Figure 6-18) Fluid Front vs Time / n2 Front@) / n3 / n4 v v I -10000 / n5 Elapsed Time Figure 6-18.3. Fluid Fronts Vs.
... -2..0 1825.....49 433.51 5000.............. .48 433...459 0. "Report"(Figure 6..0 Area Vari (0) 1. 90 .....0+11..484 0....397 Opti.........0 10...0+11. Text Report of Well Planning ........87 577......= = ... Depth (ft) Opti...4 1597.0+18.....0 11. Three Noz (1132in) ..0+12.0 12..0 9000..0+12...4 647...0+12.0+12.0+12.0 7000.....67 1220. 11... Jet Impact For...69 Opti. Sys.. Noz...0+12.. (1132h) Area Vari (0) .0+11.-.......0+12....0 19.14 458...........56 7.0+19..11 (ftls) 1 2 3 4 5 ..0+12..0+11..81 654..0 11... P (psi) Opti........0+11.8 474.6 1597.54 609......5 427.6 1825.. Impact Force (lbf) PIHole S (poi) 37..... Bit P (psi) Bit Bit HP (HP) Vel ...87 13..7 370.6 1825......0+11.0+12.56 1482...0+12..0+11...48 385.. (Wm) (in21 Meas.........95 21. Area Vari....4 1597..6 1825.19) Well Planning and Nozzle Selection Report Max. TPA 0..0+12.4 1597....0 11.0+11.....0 6000..........81 9..48 433..- - -...0+12....0+11...0+12.. (0) Four Noz.6 1825. Rate 694...0 11.97 509....0+12...- ---........39 619..0+19..P'- End of Well Planning Report I Figure 6.0 10.514 0...0+11.7 -..5 Well 1..-...- ~ --- P .8 -5.- Two Noz (1132in) 17.8 1144........4 1597......4 -2.......0+11..... (0) (1132in) ...0+11.2 -2............ ..- -- - .0 8000.... Optimum Nozzle Selection Variance Analysis Assumed optimum Total Nozzle Area(in2) = 0. .0 18...4 -8......423 0..0 Five Area Vari...0+12....0+10........0+12....0+11.1 4..6.. -8......5 86 ......4......0+12..09 1322.75 .6 83 ...33 1396.0+11.19...
Jct Impact Force Figure 6-20. Optimum Flow Rate Vs. Optimum Nozzle Area Vs.2. 'Optimum Flow Ratew(Figure 6-20) Optimum Flow Rate (gpm) vs Bit Depth(&) 0 0 200 400 600 800 -2000 4000 Bit Dtpth(ft) -6000 -8000 -10000 Max. 'Optimum Nozzle Areaw(Figure 6-21) r Optimum Nozzle Area (i. Bit Depth 6-24 .2)vs Bit Depth(&) Bit Dcpth(ft) -10000 J I I I I I I Max. Bit Depth 3. Jet Impact Forcc Figure 4-21.
Start Windows (3. choose Run from the File menu. . 8. Run: 6. 4. Insert Disk 1 in drive A:. click 'OK" after it becomes responsive. ." from the File menu. 5. Double-click the HYDMOD3 icon. 7. In the first window (Introductory Window). 'Optimum Pressure" (Figure 6-22) Opthum Pressure Drop (psi) vs Bit Depth(ft) 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 -2000 4000 / S9srm Bit D=pth(ft) -6000 -8000 / Bii -10000 b Jet Impact Fmcc Figure 6-22.. Optimum Pressure Drop Vs. In the File Manager. Type A:setup and press Enter. choose "Open Project. Follow on-screen instructions. Install: 1. (Please use the default subdirectory). In the INPUT Window.0 or later version). 3. Bit Depth 6.5 HYDMOD3 QUICK START Use the following procedure to rapidly start the HY DMOD3 program.4. 2.
11. click the drive C: in the drive list box. 10. Click 'Nextw from the Page menu to view other pages of input data (WDI. 13. SDI. HP3). double-click the "HYDMOD3" subdirectory. select 'print report graphwfrom the File menu. click the 'HYDTEST. 14. make the corresponding child window active. To print the text report or graph. In the OUTPUT Window that follows. 12.9. FDI. Click the 'Startwfrom the Run menu. HT3. select the text report or graph windows of interest under the desired category to view the output. to . From the 'Open HY3 Filewdialog box.HY3" in the file list box. and then click OK. Choose 'Return to Main Windowwfrom File menu to return to the Main Window or choose "Exitw terminate the application.
Bourgoyne. 1986: Applied Drilling Engineering.. Jr. Preston. et al. References 1. Colorado.T." SPE 20327 presented at the Fifth SPE Petroleum Computer Conference held in Denver. The Petroleum Publishing Company.C. 1990. Security Drill String Systems: 1YydraulicsManual. . Moore. et al.. 1974: Drilling Practices Manual. A.F. June 25-28. July 1. Oklahoma. 3.. Leitio.7. Tulsa. Specification for Materials and Testing for Well Cements API SPECIFICATION 10 (SPEC 10) FIFTH EDITION. 1990: "General Computerized Well Control Kill Sheet for Drilling Operations with Graphical Display Capabiies. Texas.. H. 2. 5. 4. Richardson. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
8. Bug Report or Enhancement Suggestion Form
Name: Address: Phone No. : E-Mail: BugProblem Report
Company: City: State:
Date: Enhancement Suggestion
Program Name and Version Number:
BugProblem Description or Enhancement Suggestion:
Will be mailed on diskette
Will be faxed
MS-DOS Version No.: OS2 Other
MS-Windows Version No. : MS-Windows NT Version No. :
( i 3.1NVin 95) Wn
Please mail, fax, or e-mail to:
Lee Chu MAURER N G I I V ~INC.G E ~N 2916 Ws T.C. Jester et Houston, TX 770187098 Ph: 7131683-8227 Fax: 7131683-6418 &Mail: email@example.com
Appendix A .
FACTOR 0.81 lb/@ 30 cp = 6.895 0. 1/32 in.0958 Pa-s" 0.3048 0.197 7.06895 0.4 0.79 47.785 0.26 x 1@ lbf-s/f? 30 cp = 0.9 479 47900 6. = 311 ram 10132 in.9 dyne/cm2 0.958 dyne-s"/cm2 0.002 lbf-sn/ft? = 95. 10 ppg = 11.83 0.06804 0.7 ft?/min 357 gpm = 297 (Imp) gpm 100 Wmin = 30.2 kg/cm2 600 lbf = 2669 N 600 lbf = 266.9 mm 357 gpm = 1.756 kPdm 10 ppg = 51.8 Bars 4000 psi = 281.3 dyne-s/cm2 15 lbfI100 f? = 7.0238 0.5 bpm 357 gpm = 47.3048 25.479 4.3 HKW m mm in. = 7.000 ft = 3048 m 12-114 in. a m nun m3/min literlmin barrel/min elmin (Imp) gpm dmin dsec kg/m3 Spec gravity kPdm psi/100 ft lb/$ lbf-s/f? dyne-s/cm2 Pa dyne/cm2 Pa-sn dyne-sn/cm2 eq C P kPa atm Bars kg/cm2 N daN toMes kg HKW Fluid Velocity Nozzle Velocity Mud Weight Wmin Wsec PPg L Viscosity Yield Point Power Law Constant K C P lbfI100 ft2 lbf.11983 1.01 0.0703 4.4536 0.448 0.48 d m i n 300 Wsec 91.2 atm 4000 psi = 275.833 0.481 2.3048 119.088 x 0.1756 5.35 m3/min 357 gpm = 1351 lpm 357 gpm = 8.4448 0.002 lbf-sn/ft = 0.580 kPa 4000 psi = 272.003785 3.79 0.0004536 0.7457 EXAMPLE 10.3 kg/m3 10 ppg = 1.1337 0.44 mlsec 10 ppg = 1198.2 Pa t 15 lbUl00 ft? = 71.97 psi/lOOft 10 ppg = 74. kg 400 HHP = 298.sn/ft2 Pressure psi Force lbf ~wer HHP - .1983 S.272 tomes 600 lbf = 272.002 lbf-sn/ft? = 0.9 daN 600 lbf = 0.8 eq cp 4000 psi = 27.G.Appendix A Common Conversion Factors in HYDMOD3 PROPERTY Depth Hole Diameter Nozzle Size Flow Rate TRAD~ONAL OTHER UNITS UNIT(ENGLISH) ft Cow.
Appendix B .
Name: Address: Company:
T i is Version 3.0 of the HYDMOD program. We would appreciate your input and suggestions on this hs program.
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Send To: Lee Chu MAURER ENGINEERING INC. 29 16 West T.C. Jester Houston, Texas 77018-7098 PH: 7 13/683-8227 FAX: 713/683-6418
and the 'decimal separator" is a period. Problem have occurred for some of our Participants who use the "Intemational Keyboard. This problem can be read@ solved by changing the Wiuduws "numbers format" from the Intemational to the U. type WIN <ENTER> to open WINDOWS." as is common in Europe and South America. format.234. choose Wiowweitherby clicking on Window" or keying in <ALT> W Ti brings down the 'Select Window" menu screen. Windows Menu Bar . are written using the 'U.22 Here.22 Numbers input into the programs are filed in this fonnat. Here. the '1000 separatof is a comma. 2. the same number would be written 1. two hundred and thirty-four and twenty-twd100 is written 1. Thus.S. the number one thousand. From the Menu bar. and the decimal separator is a comma.1. Under this keyboard." Keyboard.S.Appendix C International Keyboard All DEA computer programs developed at Maurer Engineering Inc. the '1000 separatof is a period. as shown in Figure C-1. European and South A m e W users f n ta their computers garble input data being loaded into our DEA i d ht programs.234. hs Figure C. From the DOS prompt. This is accomplished as follows: 1.
This is done by pointing the m u e cn h os to this icon and double clicking. This brings up the 'Control Panelwmenu scxeen.do Md S M Figure C-2. - - - p - - - Figure C-3. Select "Main" by clicking on ' a n and then clicking on the 'OK" button. Select the "Contrd Panel"i o from t e 'Main" menu screen. This brings down the Mi" 'Main" menu screen as shown in Figure C-2.3. Main Menu Screen 4. Prmpt - FPROT Flchsmd Wr(sl D i i V. Control ~ a & Menu Screen l . as shown in Figure C-3.
22 it must be changed before a DEA program will run successllly. eu Figure C-4. Click on the 'Cancel" button in the upper right of this screen and back out to the 1Windows"menu screen to IUU your program. Select the "International" icon from this menu screen by pointing to it with the m u e and double os clicking. This brings up the 'International" M n screen.5. . International Menu Screen 6.234. If the number under the words 'Number Formatwis 1. as shown in Figure C-4. In the lawer right hand corner of the %temationaln menu screen is the 'Number Format." If the number under the words 'Number Format" is The DEA programs will run.
Key in il Ti will erase the period from the '1000 separatof box and replace it with a comma. il . International . Key in box. To change 'Number Format. or key in <TAB > This will highlight the 'Decimal !o %f ? p a r t 9. The '1000 Separatof box wl be highlighted.Number Formatn screen.7. This will bring up the "International ."click on the 'Changen button in the 'Number Format" box on the screen. hs Figure C-5. as shown in Figure C-5. This wl erase the comma from the box and replace it with a period. <DEL> .Number Format Screen 8. Either point the mouse to the box labeled uDecimalSeparator" and click.
with Correct Number Format . as shown in Figure Cd. il Figure C 4 . Either key in <ENTER > or point the mause to the "0K"button in the "International . This box wl return you to the 'International"menu screen. International Menu Screen.10.Number Formatw and click.
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