1. Overview of Casting Technology 2. Heating and Pouring 3. Solidification and Cooling

Solidification Processes
Starting work material is either a liquid or is in a highly plastic condition, and a part is created through solidification of the material  Solidification processes can be classified according to engineering material processed:  Metals  Ceramics, specifically glasses  Polymers and polymer matrix composites (PMCs)



Classification of solidification processes.

Casting Process
Process in which molten metal flows by gravity or other force into a mold where it solidifies in the shape of the mold cavity. Once the mold and cavity inside the mold is prepared, the metal is melted, poured into the mold and let solified (freezed) inside the mold.

The term casting also applies to the part made in the process.


2012 Basic Requirements of Casting Processes Six basic steps of casting 1. How? Mold should be opened during the removal of the casting and closed during the filling of the cavity with the molten metal.20. Pouring the molten metal  Six Basic Steps of Casting 4.02. and inspection operations  Excess material along parting lines may have to be machined 3 . finishing. Melting process  3. Casting removal  The casting is removed from the mold   Single-use molds are broken away from the casting Permanent molds must be designed so that removal of the casting does not damage the mold and itself. Mold cavity is produced having the desired shape and size of the part   Takes shrinkage into account Single-use or permanent mold Provides molten material at the proper temperature Molten metal is poured into the mold at a proper rate to ensure that erosion and or defects are minimized 2. 6. Cleaning. Solidification process  Controlled solidification allows the product to have desired properties  Mold should be designed so that shrinkage is controlled 5.

2012 Capabilities and Advantages of Casting  Can create complex part geometries  Can create both external and internal shapes  Some casting processes are net shape. others are near net shape  Can produce very large parts  Some casting methods are suited to mass production Disadvantages of Casting Different disadvantages for different casting processes:  Limitations on mechanical properties  Poor dimensional accuracy and surface finish for some processes..02. e. sand casting  Safety hazards to workers due to hot molten metals  Environmental problems 4 .g.20.

02. railway wheels. and cleaning the finished casting  Workers who perform casting are called foundrymen 5 . small statues. ferrous and nonferrous Overview of Casting Technology  Casting is usually performed in a foundry Foundry = factory equipped for making molds. machine frames. pump housings  Small parts  Dental crowns. big statues. frying pans  All varieties of metals can be cast. melting and handling molten metal. jewelry. church bells.20. performing the casting process.2012 Parts Made by Casting  Big parts  Engine blocks and heads for automotive vehicles. wood burning stoves. pipes.

plaster. and metal Casting Terminology  Pattern.rigid frame that holds the molding aggregate  Cope.top half of the mold  Drag.bottom half of the mold  Core.02.20.material that is packed around the pattern to provide the mold cavity  Flask. including sand. ceramic.2012 The Mold in Casting  Contains cavity whose geometry determines part shape  Actual size and shape of cavity must be slightly oversized to allow for shrinkage of metal during solidification and cooling  Molds are made of a variety of materials.sand or metal shape that is inserted into the mold to create internal features 6 .approximate duplicate of the part to be cast  Molding material.

2012 Casting Terminology  Mold cavity.network of channels that delivers the molten metal to the mold  Pouring cup.horizontal channels  Gates.portion of the gating system that controls the delivery of the metal  Sprue.02.20.combination of the mold material and cores  Riser-additional void in the mold that provides additional metal to compensate for shrinkage  Gating system. showing key components involved in controlling the flow of metal into the mold cavity. 7 .controlled entrances Gating System Typical gating system for a horizontal parting plane mold.vertical portion of the gating system  Runners.

separates the cope and drag  Draft. Cross Section of a Mold 8 .02.20.angle or taper on a pattern that allows for easy removal of the pattern from the mold  Casting.2012 Casting Terminology  Parting line.describes both the process and the product when molten metal is poured and solidified Cross section of a typical two-part sand mold. indicating various mold components and terminology.

and similar materials. a ceramic refractory material  Part shapes in permanent mold processes are limited by the need to open the mold  Permanent mold processes are more economic in high production operations 9 . Expendable mold processes – uses an expendable mold which must be destroyed to remove casting  Mold materials: sand. Permanent mold processes – uses a permanent mold which can be used over and over to produce many castings  Made of metal (or. less commonly. plaster. Two Categories of Casting Processes 1.  More intricate geometries are possible with expendable mold processes 2.02.20. plus binders.2012 Two forms of mold: Open Molds and Closed Molds (a) open mold. in which the mold geometry is more complex and requires a gating system (passageway) leading into the cavity. (b) closed mold. simply a container in the shape of the desired part.

Sand Casting Mold Pictures Mold consists of two halves: Cope = upper half of mold Drag = bottom half Mold halves are contained in a box. Sprue--dikey yolluk Gate/runner­--yatay yolluk (“runner” is the name of the gate used in large castings to distribute the metal to several gate passageways). (2) Disposable (expandable) pattern (kalıcı olmayan model): Disposable patterns are made from polystyrene.20. Molten metal is poured rather rapidly into the sprue. the polystyrene vaporizes. The polystyrene pattern. Classified according to the type of pattern used: (1) Removable pattern (kalıcı model): In the method employing a removable pattern. The cavity produced is filled with molten metal to create the casting. Also.02. Pouring cup (basin)--dökme ağzı Sprue pin--yolluk pimi Parting plane--ayırma düzlemi Molding board--döküm tablası Core--maça 10 . including the gating and pouring system are left in the mold. wax type pattern is melted out before casting. and the metal fills the remaining cavity.2012 THERE ARE ALSO TWO DIFFERENT TYPES IN SAND CASTING There are two different methods by which sand castings can be produced. called a flask The two halves separate at the parting line Riser--taşmalık (to compensate shrinkage). sand is packed around the pattern which is later withdrawn from the sand.

20. which has the shape of the part  When the pattern is removed. It is also known as the gating system (yolluk sistemi). determined by a core. placed inside the mold cavity to define the interior geometry of part. The passageway is usually made up of a pouring cup (basin) (dökme ağzı) which is used to minimize splash and turbulence as the metal flows into a vertical passage known as a downsprue (dikey yolluk) through which metal enters a runner leading to the main cavity. cores are generally made of sand WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE MOLTEN METAL IS POURED INTO THE MOLD? The molten metal goes through the passageway into the mold cavit. and a gate (yatay yolluk) through which the metal flows from the sprue base to the mold cavity. the remaining cavity of the packed sand has desired shape of cast part. In sand casting.2012 Forming the Mold Cavity In Sand Casting  Mold cavity is formed by packing sand around a pattern. 11 . a casting may have internal surfaces.02. In large castings a runner may be used which takes the metal from the sprue base and distributes it to several gate passageways around the cavity. The mold cavity provides the external surfaces of the cast part  The pattern is usually oversized to allow for shrinkage of metal during solidification and cooling  Sand for the mold is moist and contains a binder to maintain its shape  In addition.

Risers and Solidification Characteristics The design of the gating system is important and involves a number of factors: DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION: Volumetric shrinkage usually occurs when metal solidifies. molten metal is continually available from risers to prevent shrinkage voids  The term directional solidification describes this aspect of freezing and methods by which it is controlled 12 . The shrinkage cavities (voids) should take place in the gate. risers. Cavity should solidify first so that no defects occur in the casting. and a shrinkage cavity (void-çekme boşluğu) in the casting results if the solidification is not directed. The shrinkage. feed head or sprue where metal solidifies later. and so does the shrinkage cavity. The solidification should progress from the mold cavity to outside of the cavity to compensate for shrinkage. it is desirable for regions of the casting most distant from the liquid metal supply to freeze first and for solidification to progress from these remote regions toward the riser(s)  Thus. Directional Solidification To minimize damaging effects of shrinkage.02. occurs in the area where the metal stays molten the longest.20.2012 Gates.

internal or external heat sinks that cause rapid freezing in certain regions of the casting RISERS AND FEEDER HEADS TO PREVENT SHRINKAGE CAVITIES IN THE CASTINGS Risers (taşmalık) and feeder heads (ilave kafa) are often provided in molds to feed molten metal into the main casting cavity to compensate for the shrinkage. and the liquid metal supply for the rest of the casting remains open  Chills .02. and should be located near heavy sections that will be subject to large shrinkage.2012 Achieving Directional Solidification  Desired directional solidification is achieved using Chvorinov's Rule to design the casting itself. They should be large in section. so freezing occurs first in these regions.20. 13 . so as to remain molten as long as possible. its orientation in the mold. and the riser system that feeds it  Locate sections of the casting with lower V/A ratios away from riser.

2012 Risers and Riser Design Schematic of a sand casting mold. Riser is a reservoir in the mold which is a source of liquid metal to compensate for shrinkage of the part during solidification  The riser must be designed to freeze after the main casting in order to satisfy its function. The top riser is a dead riser.20. receiving the last hot metal to enter the mold. receiving metal that has flowed through the mold cavity. it is desirable for the volume of metal in the riser to be a minimum  Since the geometry of the riser is normally selected to maximize the V/A ratio. this allows riser volume to be reduced to the minimum possible value 14 . showing a) an open-type top riser and b) a blind-type side riser. Riser must be separated from the casting upon completion so the connection area must be as small as possible. Riser Design  Riser is waste metal that is separated from the casting after solidifacation and remelted to make more castings  To minimize waste in the unit operation.02. The side riser is a live riser.

and (b) the likely result if the external chill were not used.  External chills  Masses of high-heat capacity material placed in the mold  Absorb heat and accelerate cooling in specific regions  Internal chills  Pieces of metal that are placed in the mold cavity and promote rapid solidification  Ultimately become part of the cast part Oppositely. External Chills (a) External chill to encourage rapid freezing of the molten metal in a thin section of the casting. exothermic chemical compounds may be packed next to a part of the casting so that heat is retained in that area slowing down the solidification .02. 15 .2012 TO HELP DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION IN CASTINGS Metal inserts called chills (soğutucu) are sometimes used to control solidification by carrying heat away from the solidifying metal at a more rapid rate speeding the solidification.20.

Heat to raise temperature to melting point 2.20. Heat to raise molten metal to desired temperature for pouring LET US LOOK AT SOLIDIFICATION IN MORE DETAIL Pouring the Molten Metal  For this step to be successful.02. before solidifying  Factors that determine success  Pouring temperature  Pouring rate  Turbulence 16 . most importantly the main cavity.2012 LET US LOOK AT SOLIDIFICATION IN MORE DETAIL Heating the Metal   Heating furnaces are used to heat the metal to molten temperature sufficient for casting The heat required is the sum of: 1. metal must flow into all regions of the mold. Heat of fusion to convert from solid to liquid 3.

2012 LET US LOOK AT SOLIDIFICATION IN MORE DETAIL Solidification of Metals Transformation of molten metal back into solid state  Solidification differs depending on whether the metal is  A pure element or  An alloy Cooling Curve for a Pure Metal  A pure metal solidifies at a constant temperature equal to its freezing point (same as melting point) Cooling curve for a pure metal during casting.02.20. 17 .

and large columnar grains oriented toward the center of the casting.02. a thin skin of solid metal is formed at the interface immediately after pouring. showing randomly oriented grains of small size near the mold wall. Skin thickness increases to form a shell around the molten metal as solidification progresses.2012 Solidification of Pure Metals Due to chilling action of mold wall. as well as thermal properties of the metal Characteristic grain structure in a casting of a pure metal. 18 . Solidification of Alloys Most alloys freeze over a temperature range rather than at a single temperature (a) Phase diagram for a copper-nickel alloy system and (b) associated cooling curve for a 50%Ni-50%Cu composition during casting.20. Rate of freezing depends on heat transfer into mold.

A = surface area of casting. TST Cm n 19 .2012 Solidification of Alloys Characteristic grain structure in an alloy casting. V = volume of the casting.20. showing segregation of alloying components in center of casting.02. n = exponent with typical value = 2. and Cm is mold constant. Solidification Time  Solidification takes time  Total solidification time TTS = time required for casting to solidify after pouring  TTS depends on size and shape of casting by relationship known as Chvorinov's Rule V A where TST = total solidification time.

even though the shape of the part may be quite different What Chvorinov's Rule Tells Us  A casting with a higher volume-to-surface area ratio cools and solidifies more slowly than one with a lower ratio  To feed molten metal to main cavity.02.2012 Mold Constant in Chvorinov's Rule  Mold constant Cm depends on:  Mold material  Thermal properties of casting metal  Pouring temperature relative to melting point  Value of Cm for a given casting operation can be based on experimental data from previous operations carried out using same mold material.20. TST for riser must greater than TST for main casting  Since mold constants of riser and casting will be equal. design the riser to have a larger volume-to-area ratio so that the main casting solidifies first. 20 . and pouring temperature.  This minimizes the effects of shrinkage and prevents formation of shrinkage cavities in the castings. metal.

(3) further reduction in height and diameter due to thermal contraction during cooling of solid metal (dimensional reductions are exaggerated for clarity). (1) reduction in level caused by liquid contraction during cooling (dimensional reductions are exaggerated for clarity). DO NOT FORGET THAT SHRINKAGE CAVITIES IN CASTINGS (SHOWN IN (3)) SHOULD BE PREVENTED BY USING DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION. 21 .2012 Shrinkage in Solidification and Cooling Shrinkage of a cylindrical casting during solidification and cooling: (0) starting level of molten metal immediately after pouring.02. Shrinkage in Solidification and Cooling (2) reduction in height and formation of shrinkage cavity caused by solidification shrinkage.20.

solidification causes a reduction in volume per unit weight of metal  Exception: cast iron with high C content  Graphitization during final stages of freezing causes expansion that counteracts volumetric decrease associated with phase change Shrinkage Allowance  Patternmakers account for solidification shrinkage and thermal contraction by making mold cavity oversized  Amount by which mold is made larger relative to final casting size is called pattern shrinkage allowance  Casting dimensions are expressed linearly. so allowances are applied accordingly 22 .20.02.2012 Solidification Shrinkage  Occurs in nearly all metals because the solid phase has a higher density than the liquid phase  Thus.