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[Mukabi JN (Ph.

D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 1






Newly Developed Technologies for Roads and Bridges: An Example of Comprehensive
Design and Construction Approach Considering Tropical Geomaterial Characteristics

John MUKABI
1
, Kazuyuki GONO
2
, Stephen NGARE
3
, Francis NYANGAGA
4
, Bernard NJOROGE
5
,
Rikiya HATEKAYAMA
6
, Abiy TESFAYE
7
, Girma FELEKE
8
, Silvester KOTHEKI
9

1
Kenstesu Kaihatsu Consultants Ltd. dr.mukabi@kensetsu.co.ke/mukabinj@gmail.com,
2
Kajima
Corporation kgono@kajima.co.jp,
3
Ministry of Roads and Public Works. smngare@roadsnet.go.ke,
4
Kenya Roads Board fnnyangaga@kroadsboard.go.ke,
5
University of Nairobi bnjoroge@uon.ac.ke,
6
Kajima Corporation rhatekayama@kajima.co.jp,
7
European Union Abiy.TESFAYE@ec.europa.eu,
8
Gibb Africa gfeleke@gafrica.co.ke,
9
Kensetsu Kaihatsu Ltd. Silvester.kotheki@kensetsu.co.ke


Abstract: The use of geomaterials for road construction and geotechnical structures is a
definite prerequisite. However, in most cases, geomaterials are usually deficient or lacking in
several of the properties necessary for their use as engineering materials. Such cases are
aggravated when the engineer encounters problematic soils, which are normally susceptible
to even the slightest of changes in environmental factors such as moisture-suction variations.
Moreover, when such materials are adopted for engineering purposes, the roads and
geotechnical structures have a tendency of either deteriorating at an alarming rate and/or
failing altogether.
Furthermore, in developing countries, the Civil Engineer is almost constantly constrained
due to lack of sufficient or necessary financial resources and/or technical capability. Under
these circumstances therefore, it becomes almost imperative that innovative engineering
concepts and methods are applied to face and resolve such challenges effectively. The
methods must take into account factors such as appropriate technology, investment benefit,
cost reduction, maintenance requirements and most of all, reasonable sustainability.
In this study, innovative experimental methods and recently derived powerful analytical
tools have been employed to develop several unique methods of enhancing the engineering
properties of geomaterials, and adopted for design and construction.

1. INTRODUCTION
In order to minimize anomalies and achieve an appropriate design, it is essential that the
aspects and concepts mainly fostering a Value Engineering (VE) based cost-effective
approach that is based on research oriented methods are employed.
The proposed Comprehensive Method of Design (CMD) is introduced in this paper by
giving a practical example of a detailed design of a road in Juba, southern Sudan.
This paper further cites (refer to Mukabi, 2008KNL This Conference) a wide range of
some of the recently developed analytical tools that can be adopted in providing engineering
solutions to some of the challenges posed. For example, the existing (distressed) pavement
condition is evaluated by applying non-linear kinematic hardening and Consolidation and
Shear Stress Ratio (CSSR) concepts with loading conditions, environmental and seasonal
factors as main inputs. The structural soundness of both the composite pavement and
individual layers is then derived by applying the Intensity Factor concept to analyze the rate of
deterioration of the structural thickness. On the other hand, the qualitative assessment of the
deficiency in the physical properties of the pavement materials with time through the intrusion
of fines to the upper pavement layers is made by employing a set of recently proposed
empirical formulae. The modulus of deformation parameters, applied in characterizing the
mode of deformation of the composite pavement, is derived on the basis of linear elastic and
pre-failure theories and concepts.
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 2

2. THE COMPREHENSIVE METHOD OF DESIGN
The Comprehensive Method of Design (CMD) was first proposed at the XXIII (23
rd
) World
Road Congress held in Paris, France (Mukabi et al, 2007a) and further discussed at the 14
th

African Regional Conference held in Yaound, Cameroon (Mukabi et al, 2007c).
This method is depicted in Fig 2.1.


Fig. 2.1 Comprehensive Method of Design

3. SURVEY PROCEDURESS AND TESTING REGIME
The sampling and Survey procedures are presented in Chapter 2 of the Engineering Report
No. SST1 of May, 2007, while the conventional and innovative testing regimes are described
in Chapter 3 of the same Report.
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 3

Table 6.1 Comparison of Design Criteria for Physical, Strength and Bearing
Capacity of Stabilized Materials from Various Sources
Pavement Layer Source UCS
(kgf/cm
2
)
CBR
(%)
PI

Subbase
Materials
TRL 7.5~15 > 70 < 10
ASSHTO - - -
JRA 10 - < 10
KRDM - > 60 < 12
This Study
(OPMC)
11.3~16.4 209~283 6~12
Base Course
Material
TRL G: 15 ~ 30
H:30 ~ 60
> 100 < 6
ASSHTO 28~52.5 - -
JRA 25~30 - < 9
KRDM 18 > 160 < 10
This Study
(OPMC)
23.9~39.2 391~611 0~6
Notes:
a. PI : Plasticity Index, UCS : Unconfined Compression Strength, CBR : California Bearing Ratio
b. TRL : Transport Research Laboratory, ASHTO : American Association of State Highway
Officials, JRA : Japan Road Association, KRDM : Kenya Road Design Manual.
c. Results from This Study were determined from tests performed on various OPMC Stabilized
Materials under 7 days cure + 7 days Soak Conditions
d. Cement additive percentage Subbase : 4~6%, Base Course : 4~8%.
4. COMPREHENSIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION
Comprehensive data analysis and materials characterization was undertaken, of which the
results, observations and derivations are reported in Chapter 5 of the Engineering Report no.
SST1 of May 2007.
The innovative and high-tech analytical tools that were used are defined in Chapter 3 and
4 of the same Report.

5. APPLICATION OF TEST RESULTS
The modes describing how the test results and findings were applied are discussed under
Chapter 6 of the Engineering Report No. SST1 of May 2007.

6. COMPARISON OF STUDY DATA WITH VARIOUS DESIGN CRITERIA
(1) Comparison of design criteria from physical, strength and bearing capacity tests
In Chapter 5 comprehensive
and detailed materials
characterization and data
analysis was carried out. In
this section, the data that
was determined from the
various tests and analysis is
compared with the design
criteria specified by several
International Agencies.
Table 6.1 presents a
comparison of the results
determined from this study
and design criteria stipulated
by various Agencies for
critical design parameters
such as plasticity Index PI, Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) and California Bearing
Ratio (CBR).

In general, it can be appreciated that the material that was tested under OPMC stabilization
yields design parameters that are well above the criteria stipulated by virtuall y all the
Agencies.

(2) Comparison of applicable specification criteria for stabilized natural gravel and
design parameters from This Study
The
comparison of
applicable
specification
criteria for
stabilized
natural gravel
and design
parameters
determined
from this study
is tabulated in
Table 6.2.

Table 6.2 Comparisons of Specification Criteria for Stabilized Natural Gravel and
Design Parameters from This Study
Pavement
Layer

Reference

PI

PM

PP

CBR (%)
UCS
(kgf.cm
2
)
Mr
(kgf/cm
2
)
Subgrade
Material
Specification _ 1200 _ _ _ 150~2,500
This Study 11~25 306~468 - 81~110 11.3~16.4 174~483
Subbase
Materials
Specification <15 <240 _ > 30 _ > 3000
This Study 6~12 141~282 138~276 209~283 11.3~16.4 2380~6860
Base Course
Material
Specification < 6 _ < 45 > 160 _ > 10000
This Study 0~6 0~141 0~93 391~611 23.9~39.2 123983~454893

Notes:
a. PI : Plasticity Index, PM : Plasticity Modulus, PP : Plasticity Product, CBR : California Bearing
Ratio, UCS : Unconfined Compression Strength, Mr : Resilient Modulus UCS : Unconfined
Compression Strength, CBR : California Bearing Ratio
b. TRL: Transport Research Laboratory, ASHTO: American Association of State Highway Officials,
JRA : Japan Road Association, KRDM : Kenya Road Design Manual.
c. Results from This Study were determined from tests performed on Optimmully (Mechanically and
chemically) Stabilized Materials under 7 days cure + 7 days Soak Conditions
d. Cement additive percentage Subbase : 4~6%, Base Course4~8%.
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 4

It can be derived from Table 6.2 that the values determined from the research undertaken in
this study are superior in comparison to the Specification Criteria.

(3) Modulus of deformation parameters
One of the most important parameters for structural design of a pavement structure i s the
elastic modulus. Table 6.3 presents a comparison of ranges of elastic modulus referred from
various sources and
researchers as well as that
determined from this study.
As can be noted from Table
6.3 the comparison is made
of pavement materials
basically stabilized with
cement at percentage
ranges of 4~8%. However, it
is important to recall that the
base course material in this
study is natural
gravel(murram) that was
OPMC stabilized under
virtually optimum conditions
adopting the new concepts
and methods introduced in
recent years (ref. to Mukabi, 2001a, Mukabi and Shimizu, 2001b,Mukabi et al., 2003, Mukabi
et al; 2003b and Mukabi, 2004a, and Mukabi et al., 2007).
It can be distinctly derived that the elastic modulus results from this study exhibit higher
values than those reported by other Researchers or Agencies.

(4) Durability Test Results
The results presented in Table 6.4 indicate that, in comparison to the criteria stipulated by the
American Portland Cement Association, the losses determined from the wet-dry testing cycles
to simulate the durability of the improved geomaterials are well within the required
specifications.

This primarily
implies that
application of
the OPMC
stabilization
method for
pavement and
embankment design and construction will enhance not only the strength, bearing and
structural capacity but also the wearing resistance over a considerable period of time.

(5) Conclusion Regarding Study Data
From the comprehensive and detailed analysis undertaken in Chapter 5 followed by the
analysis done in the foregoing sections, it can be concluded that the geomaterials stabilized at
varying OPMC stabilization modes and degrees can be and is adopted for the design of
subbase and base course under the following conditions.
- Due to the high degree of invariability of the gravel or murram at source, material shall
be blended at the borrow pit prior to transporting it to site.
Table 6.3 Comparisons of Ranges of Elasticity Modulus for Structural Design
from Various Sources
Pavement
Layer Type
(Material)
Elastic Modulus Values, Emax (kgf/cm
2
)
This Study Kenya
Road
Design
Manual
Fossbereg Wang
/Mitchell
St : 3~6%
Helekelom
/Klomp
St : 3~8%
Mitchell/ Shen
St : 7%
Subgrade (St : 2~3%)
746 ~ 8,588
150~2,500 _ 1,400 ~
12,000
_ _
Subbase (St ; 4~6%)
36,717 ~
88,324
>3,000 _ _ 3,500~ 21,
000
14,000~ 63,000
Base Course (St :4~8%)
123,079~
237,536
>40,000 70,000 ~
150,000
_ 105,000~ 189,
000
Lean
Concrete
_ >150,000 _ _ 150,000~
300,000
_
PCC _ _ 210,000~
350,000
_ _
Notes:
1. St : Percentage of Cement Stabilization
2. PI : Plasticity Index, UCS : Unconfined Compression Strength, CBR : California Bearing Ratio
3. TRL : Transport Research Laboratory, ASHTO : American Association of State Highway Officials, JRA :
Japan Road Association, KRDM : Kenya Road Design Manual.
4. Results from This Study were determined from tests performed on OPMC Stabilized Materials under 7 days
cure + 7 days Soak Conditions
5. Cement additive percentage Subbase : 4~6%, Base Course : 4~8%.
Table 6.4 Comparison of design Criteria for Durability Tests Based on Data
from American Portland Cement Association (APCA) and This Study
Pavement Layer Losses from Wet-Dry Cycles (%)
This Study APCA
Subgrade 2.54 14
Subbase 1.04 10
Base Course 0.36 7

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 5

- In case it is circumstantially not possible to blend it at source then the material shall be
extruded from different location and/or depths within the same source or borrow pit.
- The engineering properties including mainly the physical, mechanical and strength
shall be tested and confirmed to be within the design and specified criteria prior to use
for construction works.
- Quality control tests of the materials shall be undertaken accordingly and the
requirements shall be adhered to strictly.
- Further testing and/or soil improvement shall be carried out for materials whose
properties are on the border line or within the mean value of the Lower and Upper
Boundary Limits of the Design Criteria and/or Specifications.

(6) Adopted Design Criteria
The following standards and/or design criteria are thence mainly adopted in appropriation to
the suitability, relevance and cost-effectiveness for the purposes of the design of the Juba
River Port Access Road.
1. TRL : Transport Research Laboratory Overseas Road Note 31
2. Japan Road Association Manual for Asphalt Pavement 1989
3. Kenya Road Design Manual Part III Materials And Pavement Design for New Roads
1987

7. EVALUATION OF TRAFFIC STRUCTURE AND GROWTH
7.1 Evaluation of Existing Traffic Volume
The traffic volume was analyzed by converting the mixed traffic to equivalent single axle
load based on a Traffic Volume Survey carried out for three days for twelve (12) hours
from 6.00am to 6.00 pm on weekdays on Thursday and Friday and one day of the
weekend Saturday. Considering that estimates of the amount of traffic and its
characteristics play a primary role in the pavement design and analysis process, effort
was made to obtain the latest traffic data count. A detailed review of the aggregated data
was undertaken.
Computation of traffic volume growth rates and cumulative ESAL based on year
2005/2006 Field Interview Survey and Traffic Count Data respectively, is presented in
Tables 7.1 to 7.4. On the other hand, Table 7.4 presents a comparison of growth in traffic
volume between Nov. 2005 and May 2006. These tables indicate that actual traffic
growth rate increased to drastically higher levels than the normal. It can be derived from
these tables that, the traffic volume growth is particularly high for both trucks and tractor
trailer trucks.
Table 7.1 Present Traffic Volumes, 2006

Figure 7.1 - Traffic Count Survey Sites


Location Pedestrian Bicycle Motocycle Passenger
Car
Mini Bus Bus Picup Light
Truck
Medium
Truck
Heavy
Truck/
Trailer
=<1.5t
1.5t<
=<10t 10t<
Three
Axles
More than
Three
Axles 1 Gudele Road 1254 631 265 1205 15 0 770 138 21 0
2 Torit Road 2106 863 250 384 581 0 282 573 217 76
3 Temporary Port Road 746 154 92 85 24 0 114 75 116 10
4 Munuki Road 1282 862 355 837 53 0 510 127 22 2
5 Lologo Road 904 737 340 460 27 0 146 135 39 13
6 Airport Road 2036 1604 918 1060 1457 0 1554 1375 222 743
7 Yei Road 1670 551 279 420 119 7 301 331 145 53
8 May St. to Juba Market 1179 656 595 2349 262 0 1400 133 256 130
9 May Street 4419 1446 1077 4483 162 14 2122 373 49 15
10 Unity Ave. near Custom Mkt. 3021 680 527 1878 1532 16 1976 1146 681 135
11 Unity Ave. opposite Hospital 3021 966 567 1415 2817 0 1348 425 305 160
Source: JICA Study Team
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 6


7.2 Traffic Forecasting
The annual growth rate factor (GRf) is
computed from the equation provided by
AASHTO (Guide for Design of Pavement
Structures)
( )
g
g
G
n
Rf
1 1 +
=

(7.2)
where,
n = Analysis period
g = Annual Growth Rate in
percentage

The computation results of the growth
rates and cumulative Equivalent Single
Axle Load based on the year 2005/2006 traffic count data are presented in Tables 7.1 to 7.2,
while the comparison of growth rates of traffic and cumulative ESAL as well as computation of
the Intensity of growth factor (

) is given in Table 7.5 Maximum analysis of the impact of


increased ESAL is carried out under a separate section. Nevertheless, the significant growth
in traffic volume and the corresponding growth rates can obviously be appreciated.

7.3 Traffic Volume Analysis and Determination of Cumulative ESAL
Table 7.3 Summary of Traffic Count Data For Juba Port Access Road

Source: JICA Study Team (Katahira & Engineers International)

Table 7.4 Computation of Projected Growth Rates and Cumulative ESAL by JICA Study
team (Katahira & Engineers International)

Notes :
- Computation is based on a 2-way flow
- Design Period = 20 Remaining Period = 20 years, Terminal Serviceability Index (Pt) = 2.0,
Pavement Structural Number (SN) = 5

Day Cargo
Trucks
Trailer
Trucks
Vans Mini-
Buses
Buses Sedans Cars Motor
Bikes
Total Traffic Volume
(Thu~Sat, 25~27 May 06)
342 130 336 267 101 312 278 624
Average Rate 114.00 43.33 112.00 89.00 33.67 104.00 92.67 208.00

Road
Section Vehicle Types AADT in 2006
Growth Rate
Factors Design Traffic ESAL Factor
Cumulative
Design ESAL
(x10
6
)
A
c
c
e
s
s


R
o
a
d

t
o

J
u
b
a

R
i
v
e
r

P
o
r
t

Sedan 93 45.76 1,553,323 0.0008 0.002374
Small Buses 101 29.78 1,097,840 0.0122 0.04314
Large Buses 34 41.00 508,810 1.0000 1.073465
Cargo Trucks 114 36.79 1,530,832 3.2000 11.517648
Trailer Trucks 44 41.00 658,460 5.7000 15.836766
Total 386 - 5,349,265 - 28.47339

Table 7.2 - Traffic Count Data For Juba Port
Access Road Day of Survey:Thur,25/05/06

Source: JICA Study Team (Katahira & Engineers International)
Time Trucks Trailer
Trucks
Vans Mini-
Buses
Buses Sedan Cars Motor
Bike
6:00-6:30 6 0 0 3 0 0 0 3
6:31-7:00 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
7:01-7:30 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
7:31-8:00 3 4 3 3 0 7 12 3
8:01-8:30 9 0 1 8 1 2 14 5
8:31-9:00 4 3 6 4 1 5 7 6
9:01-9:30 13 1 4 8 1 5 14 6
9:31-10:00 6 10 4 3 1 6 7 8
10:01-10:30 4 1 7 3 2 5 2 10
10:31-11:00 6 1 7 4 2 8 5 14
11:01-11:30 4 0 3 2 2 3 3 9
11:31-12:00 2 0 1 1 0 3 1 6
12:01-12:30 3 0 1 2 0 0 3 8
12:31-13:00 1 1 2 1 1 3 5 12
13:01-13:30 3 4 1 1 1 2 4 10
13:31-14:00 7 1 0 1 1 5 6 4
14:01-14:30 2 7 2 1 1 5 3 8
14:31-15:00 5 2 9 2 2 6 4 13
15:01-15:30 4 1 8 7 0 2 2 10
15:31-16:00 5 0 0 2 1 1 3 7
16:01-16:30 4 0 2 4 0 6 4 5
16:31-17:00 1 2 2 0 3 4
17:01-17:30 1 0 5 1 0 2 6 10
17:31-18:00 3 0 2 2 0 0 3 8
Total 91 39 71 64 17 78 112 171

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 7

Table 7.5 Comparison of Growth Rates of Traffic and Cumulative ESAL between 2006
and 2026

- I
Gf
: Intensity of Growth factor is defined as

=
= I
n
i
i Gf
x G
1
i
ESAL
100
1
(After Mukabi, 2002c)
7.4 Impact of Increased ESAL
The increase in traffic volume has contributed to higher values of cumulative ESAL as can be
derived from Tables 7.1 ~ 7.4. The cumulative ESAL was computed from Eq. 7.2, and an
example of the calculation for Trailer Trucks.

The cumulative number of standard axles was computed based on the principle of converting
a mixed traffic stream of different axle loads and axle configurations into a design traffic
number in the form of an equivalent number of 8.2 tonnes single axle loads summed over a
design period of 20 years
The equation adopted for this computation is :-
( )
( )
0
1 log
1 1
. . . . 365 =
(

+
+
=
r
r
P
r
v iv
G
G e
G
EF d C n N
DL
l
(7.3)
where,
N = number of equivalent standard axle repetitions
n
iv
= initial number of vehicles daily in one direction
C
v
= proportion of commercial vehicles expressed in decimal form
G
r
= annual growth rate expressed in decimal form
d
l
= proportion of vehicles using the design lane as a decimal (dl = 1)
P
DL
= design life for the pavement in years
EF = axle load equivalency factor expressed as:
EF = (Ls/80)
4.5


where Ls is the load in kN on the single axle considered taking a regional factor of 1.0
and Terminal Serviceability Index Pt = 2.0
As an example, for the computation of ESAL of trailer trucks, consider that: -
n
iv
= 22, C
v
= 1, G
r
= 0.2, d
l
= 1, P
DL
= 20 years and E
F
= 5.7 then applying Eq.
7.3 we obtain,
( )
( )
(

+
+
=
2 . 0 1
1 2 . 0 1
7 . 5 1 1 22 365
20
e
og
x x x x x N
l

= 365x22x5.7x173
= 7,918,383





Vehicle
Type
Value Adopted for the Basic Design Current Values Adopted in this Study
AADT
In
2006
Projected
Growth
Rate up to
2026%
Projected
AADT
in
2026
Estimated
8.2t
Equivalent


Revised
Cumulative
ESAL
ESALx10
6
(in 2006)
Computed
Cumulative
ESAL
ESALx10
6
in 2026

Percentage
Increase/
Decrease in
ESAL in relation
to BD Values
(G)
2026 2026
Sedan 93 20 145 Nil - - - -
Bus
(small)
101 20 158 Nil - - - -
Bus
(large)
34 20 53 1 0.00689 0.537 77.9 41.8
Cargo
Truck
114 20 178 3.2 0.0739 5.759 7.8 449.2
Trailer
Truck
44 20 69 5.7 0.0508 7.918 155.9 1,234.4
Total 386 - 603 - 0.13159 14.214 311.8 1,725.2
1Gf= 17..25

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 8

N = 7.918x10
6


Using the figures in Table 7.3.6, the Intensity Growth factor (I
Gf
) was computed from the
relation below proposed by Mukabi, 2002c:-

=
=
n
i
i i Gf
xESAL G I
1
100
1
(7.4)

The resulting Intensity Growth Factor was I
Gf
= 17.25

7.5 Analysis of Relative Damaging Effect
If the existing pavement has been subjected to repetitions of axle loads of various magnitudes
and as a consequence undergoes considerable amount of structural damage. The damaging
effect (RD
eff
.), the single passage of a load (Ls) or an axle group is computed from the
approximation equation introduced by Mukabi (2002c):-
GF
C
W
W
eff
I x
EL
L
RD ) 01 . 0 (
. (

= (7.5)
where,
RD
eff.
= Damaging effect
L
W
= Load on the axle group
EL
W
= 8.2 tonnes in the case of a single axle with dual tyres.
C = an exponent considered as C= 4 in this case
I
Gf
= Intensity of Growth factor related to increase in cumulative ESAL

Impact of Dynamic Loading on Structural Layer Thickness
Deterioration in pavement layer thickness usually results in the loss of structural capacity of
the road pavement. It is therefore imperative to investigate this component in order to
determine the appropriate engineering design and construction for proper maintenance. In
this section, the deterioration of layer thickness is treated as a structural component as the
actual deficiency in structural capacity in quantitative terms due to loss in pavement thickness
is also evaluated.
After computing the loss of pavement layer thickness by comparison of the pre-loading
and post-loading thicknesses for each layer and adopting the structural capacity depreciation
factor (f
sd
) and the corrected Resilient Modulus (M
r
cor.
), values determined from the equation
for the required thicknesses are computed.
The conversion factors (C
f
) of each existing pavement layer are computed as
depreciated values from the product of the proposed conversion factors C
f
P
and f
sd
(Mukabi,
2002c). Hence,
C
f
= C
f
P
x f
sd
(7.6)

The effective thickness is whence calculated as :-
T
e
= T
e
E

x C
f
P
x f
sd
(7.7)
where,
T
e
E
= Existing thickness.

The subgrade CBR
d
BD
determined during the Basic Design Study is also depreciated by the
same factor and the CBR
d
DD
adopted is therefore calculated as :-
CBR
d
DD
= CBR
d
BD
x f
sd
(7.8)

The overlay thickness (T
o
) required was then determined from :
T
o
= T
n
- T
e
(7.9)

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 9

7.6 Selection of Appropriate Traffic Class
This was based on the Traffic Classes specified by TRL Overseas Road Note 31 and
the traffic class was T7.

8. ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT, EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS
8.1 Intrinsic and OPMC Stabilized Material Properties
The intrinsic and OPMC stabilized material properties were presented, comprehensively
analyzed and discussed in Chapter 5 of Engineering Report no. SST1 of May 2007.
A summary of the main engineering parameters is presented in sub-section 7.2.2.

8.2 Analysis of The Impact of Environmental Factors
Under sub-section 4.1.9 of Engineering Report no. SST1 of May 2007, the concepts
applied for analyzing the impact of environmental factors were introduced.
Consequently, applying the data that was determined in this study, engineering analysis
of each environmental factor that is likely to affect the performance of the pavement
structure is made. The effect of OPMC stabilization components on some of the
environmentally related factors on the subgrade soils tested in this study is also
demonstrated in Figures 8.1 and 8.2, while some. In general terms, plasticity index is a
function of the amount of clay present in a soil, while the Liquid Limit and Plastic Limits
individually are functions of both the amount and type of clay. High plasticity indices are
analogous to high water contents whose lubricating effect of the water films between
adjacent soil particles tends to reduce the mechanical stability, strength and deformation
resistance. This phenomenon is quantitatively illustrated by the generalized empirical
equations proposed by Mukabi et al. (2001c) for tropical soils with a PI < 43.

On the other hand, Mukabi (2001e, 2003a) proposed an empirical formula relating the
bearing capacity based on CBR for materials where CBR 50, and Unconfined
Compression Strength (UCS) defined as:

where,

gl
= 14.4 and
gi
= 46.6
being the gradient linear and
gradient intercept of most
geomaterials tested in the
2001 Study and,



Figure 8.1 Effect of cement stabilization on the PI of sandy clay
and Figure 8.2 Effect of lime stabilization on the PI of sandy clay
OPMC gi u gl
f q CBR + = } { (%) (7.10)

Rewriting Equation 7.14 we obtain,

OPMC
gi
gl
u
f
CBR
q
1


(kgf/cm
2
) (7.11)

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 10



( )
opt
I I
c
r
s
opt OPMC
BR BR R f f - = is a strength and moduli ratio parameter derived from the
influence of OPMC Stabilization.

Substituting for
u
q in Equations proposed by Mukabi et al. (2001c) we obtain,

q q
OPMC
imc
gi
gl
OPMC
umc
gi
gl
mc
PI
f
CBR
f
CBR
| o


+ =
(
(
(
(
(

1
1

(%) (7.13)

Mukabi (2001e) also proposed the following empirical formula that correlates the bearing
capacity expressed in terms of CBR and the Plasticity Index, whi ch is expressed in
Equation 7.14.

{ }
35 >
A

m
BC
gl gi
CBR
PI
(%) (7.14)
Where,
gi

= 0.97,
gl

= 0.027 and
BC
A = 0.564 being the gradient linear, gradient intercept
and Bearing Capacity materials constant of most geomaterials tested and,
CBR
m
is the measured CBR value obtained at a density corresponding to 95% MDD in
accordance to AASHTO T-180 Method D for various soaking and curing periods.
A more universal empirical equation that considers all factors including the effects of
OPMC stabilization, variation in material properties, modes of mechanical and chemical
stabilization, the quantum of various etc. is presented in Equation 7.15 below.

gi gl u
CBR q q q = ln (kgf/cm
2
) (7.15)

Substituting for
u
q from Equation 7.15, we obtain Equation 7.16 as follows,
{ }
{ }
q q
imc
gi gl
umc
gi gl
mc
PI
CBR
CBR
| o
q q
q q
+ =
(
(

A
ln
ln
(%) (7.16)

Where,
gl
q = 12.9, and
gi
q = 36.5 being the gradient logarithmic, and gradient intercept materials
constants for most geomaterials tested.
Simulating Effect of Moisture~Suction Variation on The Unconfined Compression Strength
(UCS) for Natural Gravels (Without OPMC Stabilization)


[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 11

- Simulating the Effects of Moisture-Suction Variation for Natural/Gravel without
OPMC Stabilization

Table8.1 When PI=12, M
ci
=5.1% q
u
at Initial q
u
= 13.8kgf/cm
2
for Subbase Material

Fig. 8.3 Variation of moisture content vs. variation in UCS when PI=12

Table 8.2 When PI=6, M
ci
=5.1% at Initial q
u
= 39.2kgf/cm
2
for Base course material

Fig. 8.4 Variation of moisture content vs. variation in UCS when PI=6

From the foregoing data, the significant impact of moisture~suction variation and
plasticity on the vital engineering parameters of geomaterials can be appreciated.
It is therefore vital that the use of combined cement and lime treatment be applied for the
relatively sandy clays found in the project area as can be derived from the graphs
presented in Figures 8.1 and 8.2.
Simulating Effect of Moisture~Suction Variation on The Unconfined Compression Strength
(UCS) With OPMC Stabilization
In this case the quantitative effects of moisture~suction variation for materials subjected
to OPMC stabilization are presented based on the data that was determined in this
Study.
The results are tabulated in Tables 8.3 ~ 8.4 and Figs. 8.5 ~ 8.6

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 12

- Simulating The Effects of Moisture-Suction Variation for Natural Gravel with
OPMC Stabilization
Table 8.3 When PI=12, M
ci
=5.1% at Initial q
u
= 13.8kgf/cm
2
for Subbase Material

Fig. 8.5 Variation of moisture content vs. variation in UCS

Table 8.4 When PI=6, M
ci
=5.1% at Initial q
u
= 39.2kgf/cm
2
for Base course Material

Fig. 8.6 Variation of moisture content vs. variation in UCS

- Effect of Swelling
As can be noted from previous discussions on swell characteristics, for even the worst of
geomaterials, the maximum swell actually reaches a residual state after a maximum of
10hrs and not 96hrs as conventionally considered.
Mukabi et al (2001a). also showed that for most geomaterials, swell can be contained by
applying a surcharge pressure of approximately 24KPa as can be derived from Equation
17.20.
sc sc sc sc
B + = A 0 ln (%) (7.7)
Where,
= A
sc
Swell in relation to surcharge pressure
=
sc
0 12.9; logarithmic gradient constant for standard tropical geomaterials
=
sc
Surcharge Pressure in KPa
= B
sc
36.5; logarithmic intercept constant for standard tropical geomaterials
Table 8.5 is a summary of swell at varying surcharge pressures, while the characteristi c curve
is plotted in Fig. 8.7.
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 13

Effect of Variation In
Design Moisture
Content
The selection of an
appropriate design
moisture content and
density condition is
critical to the design
analysis and
subsequent
construction Quality
Control. The moisture
content at which
subgrade, subbase and
base course strength
should be assessed is
that which can be
expected to be
exceeded only
rarely.
Pronounced
exceedance of
this factor is
known to have
adverse effects
on the pavement
structure.
Equation 7.8,
which defines
the relationship
between the
ratio of Design
Moisture Content
of the dry and
wet seasons and
the Plasticity Index, is applied in formulating the data in Table 8.34 and the graphical
representation in Fig. 8.8.
gl gl DMC
PI v v + = ln (7.8)
Where,
=
DMC
Design Moisture Content Ratio
=
gl
v 0.12; logarithmic DMC gradient constant for tropical geomaterials
= PI Plasticity Index of the geomaterial to be utilized for construction
=
gi
v 0.7; logarithmic DMC intercept constant for tropical geomaterials

Correction factors for the Plasticity Indices and the Design Moisture Contents
respectively during the wet and dry seasons are defined in the following relations.
w
Bp
p d
PI e A PI = (7.9)
Where,

p
A = 12; linear gradient constant for PI for tropical geomaterials
Table 8.6 Plasticity and Seasonal Effects on the Design Moisture Content

Fig. 8.8 Plasticity and Seasonal Effects on the Design Moisture Content
Table 8.5 Effect of Surcharge Pressure on Swell Factors

Fig. 8.7 Effect of Surcharge Pressure on Swell Factors
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 14

=
d
PI Plasticity Index of the geomaterial during the dry season
=
Bp
e Annual Evapotranspiration Factor
BP = 0.02; Exponential constant for PI for tropical geomaterials
=
w
PI Plasticity Index of the geomaterial during the wet season
mc
d Bm
m
mc
w
D e A D = (7.10)
Where,

m
A = 0.97; linear gradient constant for DMC for tropical geomaterials
= mc
w
D Design Moisture Content of the geomaterial during the dry season
=
BM
e Annual Evapotranspiration Factor
B
m
= 0.03; Exponential constant for DMC tropical geomaterials
= mc
d
D Design Moisture Content of the geomaterial during the wet season

From the above equations, Mukabi et al. (2007f) developed the relations in Equations
7.11 ~ 7.13, which correlate the ratio of the seasonal bearing strength, CBR and the
resilient modulus, M
r
, presented in Table 8.35, the graphs of which are shown in Figs.
8.9 ~ 8.12.

- Seasonal Effects On Bearing Capacity and Resilient Modulus
The combined effects of seasonal changes and soaking conditions on the bearing capacity
and resilient modulus of some subgrade, subbase, and base course materials is presented in
Table 8.7 and depicted in Figs. 8.9 ~ 8.12, while the equations that can be applied to correct
for this effect are presented as follows.
The relation between the CBR wet and dry season ratio vs. the CBR determined during the
wet season is correlated as follows.
gi w gl wdr
CBR i i + = + ln (7.11)

Where,

wdr
+ = Wet
to Dry Season Bearing
Strength Ratio

gl
i =
0.0022; logarithmic CBR
gradient constant for
tropical geomaterials

gi
i =
0.54; logarithmic CBR
intercept constant for
tropical geomaterials
The relation between the
CBR wet and dry season
ratio vs. the CBR
determined during the dry
season is correlated as
follows.

gi d gl ddr
CBR i i + = + ln (7.12)
Where,

wdr
+ = Wet to Dry Season Bearing Strength Ratio
Table 8.7 Comparison of wet and dry seasons,
CBR's and Resilient Modulus


[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 15




gl
i = 0.0022; logarithmic CBR gradient constant for tropical geomaterials

gi
i = 0.54; logarithmic CBR intercept constant for tropical geomaterials

gi r gl wMr
M o o , + = ln (7.13)

Where,

wMr
, = Wet to Dry Season Resilient Modulus (M
r
) Ratio

gl
o = 0.0022; logarithmic M
r
gradient constant for tropical geomaterials

gi
o = 0.54; logarithmic M
r
intercept constant for tropical geomaterials


Fig. 8.9 Effect of CBr
w
/CBR
dr
on Wet CBR Fig. 8.10 Effect of CBr
w
/CBR
dr
on Dry CBR




Fig. 8.11 RM
wet
/RM
dry
vs. Wet RM Fig. 8.12 RM
wet
/RM
dry
vs. Dry RM

Intrusion Of Native Subgrade Material Into Upper Layers of Pavement Structure
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 16



Various research undertaken by Mukabi (2001) and Mukabi et al. (2003) indicate that
Intrusion of native subgrade material into the overlying layers of the pavement usually results
in the ultimate degradation of the layers whilst causing gross variability in the quality of
pavement layer materials and thickness.
Depending on the nature of the subgrade, topography of environment and seasonal
changes, intrusion of native subgrade material into overlying layers of the pavement structure,
as depicted in Figs. 8.14 of this paper, can be rampant and extremely detrimental.
The quantitative assessment of deficiency in the physical properties of pavement
materials with time due to the intrusion of fines into the upper pavement layers is undertaken
by employing Equation 7.14 proposed by Mukabi et al. (2003b) and Equation 7.15 proposed
by Mukabi et al. (2007f).

=
S
CBR | |
US m m
CBR PI B A (7.14)

Where,

S
CBR = Soaked CBR
m
A = 0.97; linear CBR
s
gradient constant for tropical geomaterials

m
B = 0.027; linear CBR
s
intercept constant for tropical geomaterials
US
CBR = Unsoaked CBR


D C B A
CBR
CBR
init
ult
+ I + I I
=
2 3
.
.
(7.15)

Where,

=
. ult
CBR Ultimate CBR
=
. init
CBR Initial CBR

A = 0.00057,

B = 0.028,

C = 0.15, and

D = 1.39 are material constants


I = Black Cotton Soil Intrusion Content.



Fig. 8.13 Effects of Inferior Material
Intrusion in upper layers

Fig. 8.14 Influence of Black cotton Soil
Intrusion on Bearing Strength
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 17


The results computed by adopting Equation 7.15 are summarized in Table 8.8 and the
characteristics are shown in Figs. 8.15 and 8.16 for the bearing capacity and resilient modulus
respectively.

Table 8.8 Effects of Inferior Material Intrusion in upper layers for CBR=245




Fig. 8.15 Effects of inferior material Intrusion in upper layers


- Evaluation of Variation in Quality of Pavement Layer Materials Based on
Statistical Concepts

Due to the effects of cyclic and dynamic loading as well as various environmental factors,
the quality of pavement layer materials tends to deteriorate with time.
To demonstrate this fact, deterioration in pavement layer thickness parameters related
to deviation and variance are tabulated in Table 8.9. In this table, the parameters
determined in various parts of the Eastern Africa Region are compared to values adopted
as standard in indicating pavement layer variability in America recommended by the
Bureau of Public Roads. In making this comparison, it is assumed that that the variance
in strength is directly proportional to the variance in layer thickness, based on the
analysis of strength and layer thickness parameters reported by Mukabi et al. (2003c).
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 18



Table 8.9 Pavement Layer Variability-Layer Strength
Layer Type of
Strength
Test
Variance S Percentage
Difference
(%)
Coefficient of
Variation (C.V)
Percentage
Difference
This
Study
BPR,
USA
This
Study
BPR,
USA
Surface CBR 5.18 - - 74 - -
Base Course CBR 12.85 35.5 <63.8 38.8 37.6 >3.2
Subbase CBR 23.8 7.6 >213 107.2 36.9 >191
Subgrade CBR - 0.9 - - 21.4 -
Notes : BPR, USA : Bureau of Public Roads of the United States of America, < : Indicates values of this Study as less
than those recommended by BRP, > : Indicates values of this Study as greater than those recommended by BRP.

The above comparison shows that, whereas the variability of the base course layer was
almost similar to that recommended by the Bureau of Public Roads of the USA, the
subbase variation values determined in this particular Study are extremely high. This
implies that the variation in thickness as a result of structural deterioration of the
pavement was in a critical state. It can also be derived from these results that due to the
various factors evaluated in the preceding sections, most of the subbase layers of the
existing pavement have been contaminated and subsequently structurally damaged.
It is therefore imperative that the pavement structure is designed taking this factor into
serious consideration.

- Deterioration of Pavement Structural Thickness

Deterioration in pavement layer thickness usually results in the loss of structural capacity
of the road pavement. It is therefore imperative to investigate this component. In this
section, the deterioration of layer thickness is treated as a structural component, whilst
the actual deficiency in structural capacity in quantitative terms due to loss in pavement
thickness, is evaluated in section 4.1.
Table 8.1.1 in Chapter 8 presents the postulated results of the evaluation of the
deterioration in pavement layer thickness of the composite pavement structure with time.
This is mostly attributed to the environmental influence on the structural resistance of the
pavement.

8.3 Recommended Specifications for Materials Strength and Deformation
Properties

8.3.1 Strength and Deformation Properties
As has been discussed in various sections of this Report, optimum mechanical stability
contributes immensely to the strength and deformation resistance of geomaterials.
It is therefore extremely important that this factor be taken into serious consideration
when carrying out Quality Control during construction.
The mechanical stability requirements for materials to be used for subbase and base
course are stipulated in the following Tables, which are excerpts from Transport and
Research Laboratory (TRL) Overseas Road Note 31-A guide to the structural
design of bitumen-surfaced roads in tropical and sub-tropical countries.


[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 19

8.3.2 Linear Elastic and Recoverable Range
The importance of
determining the range of
linear elasticity and
recoverability has been
extensively discussed in this
Report and cannot therefore
be overemphasized.
For the materials tested for
the purposes of Design and
Quality Control for this
Project, this range has been
quantitatively computed by
applying the equation first
proposed by Mukabi (1995b)
and later modified by Mukabi
et al. (1999c).
The data obtained from this Study for facilitate the design is summarized in Table 8.10(a)
and (b) and Fig. 8.17(a) and (b).

8.4 Analysis of Problematic and/or Expansive Soils
8.4.1 Preamble
Black cotton soils are
usually tropical clays
which are essentially
products of physical and
chemical in-situ
weathering of igneous,
sedimentary and
metamorphic rocks under
varying environmental
conditions. The formation
of these soils is highly
influenced by a complex
interaction of various
variables, such as
weathering, erosion and
climatic changes as well as type of original parent rock, local topography, drainage and
cycle factors which strongly influence their engineering behaviour. As a consequence,
their characterization for use as suitable engineering materials becomes extremely
complex since they are highly susceptible to various environmental changes.
These soils are also known to be highly susceptible to pore-grain moisture-suction
matrices characterized mainly by swelling due to wetting and shrinkage due to drying that
prompts accelerated reduction or gain in strength respectively. Changes in the plasticity
characteristics of these soils are known to be influenced by the wetting and drying
historical hysteresis (Ref. Pandean et al. 1993, Mukabi, 1998).


Table 8.10(a) Effects of Moisture-suction variation on the Elastic Limit Strain
(
a
)
ELS
for Natural Gravel with OPMC stabilization: When PI=6, Mci=5.1% at
Initial [(
a
)
ELS
]
imc
=0.574 x 10
-3


Fig. 8.17(a) Effects of Moisture-suction variation on the Elastic Limit Strain
(
a
)
ELS

Table 8.10(b) Effects of Moisture-suction variation on the Elastic Limit Strain
(
a
)
ELS
for Natural Gravel with OPMC stabilization: When PI=0, Mci=5.1% at
Initial [(
a
)
ELS
]
imc
=0.574 x 10
-3


Fig. 8.17(b) Effects of Moisture-suction variation on the Elastic Limit Strain
(
a
)
ELS

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 20

8.4.2 Some Recently Developed Applicable Pragmatic Engineering Solutions
1.Rerap Methods

Table 8.11 - Determining Required Capping Layer Thickness (cm) for RE 1 Type
Phase II


Tables 8.11and 8.12 as well as Figures 8.18 and 8.19 show the design and QC criteria
developed on the basis of research and adopted for the construction of the Addis Ababa
~ Goha Tsion Trunk Road Project. In determining the necessary thickness
CL
t to replace
the expansive soil, the following equations proposed in this study were adopted.

{ }
SP
b
p P CL
xS t T t =
(7.14)

The total pavement thickness T
P
is expressed as:
v f
b
P P
t xR t T + =
(7.15)
And the coefficient of subgrade structural performance S
SP
is computed from:
| |
5 . 0
/ / 1
e d
CBR
SP
e S
o
=
(7.16)
On the other hand, the basic pavement thickness t
P
b
from Eq. (7.16) is computed from
the following equation.

( ) ( ) | |
| |
P
d P d P P
b
P
D N
CBR C CBR B A t
/ log
log log
2
+ =
(7.17)
Where the roughness factor ( ) | |
25 . 0
2
i t i f
R R R R = : R
i
is the initial roughness factor and R
t
is
the terminal roughness factor, t
V
in Equation 7.29 is the positive value of the specified
tolerance for pavement thickness, A
P
=219, B
P
=211, C
P
=58 and D
P
=120. The parameter
o
e
in Equation 7.30 is defined as:
( )
cn
e e e
M LL
V C B
e e
e A

= o
(7.18)
where A
e
=0.23, B
e
=0.54, C
e
=0.08 are constants and V
e
=Annual Average
Evapotranspiration in m/year (ref. to Mukabi et al. (2003c), LL=liquid Limit in percentage
and M
cn
=Natural Moisture Content of the subgrade material expressed in percentage
form. All thickness are calculated in mm. Continuous assessment and evaluation of the
performance of the sections already constructed by adopting this criteria indicates that
the method has so far been quite successful.
C
o
d
i
n
g

O
p
t
i
o
n

Plasticity and
Swell Condition
Required Thickness for
Different Subgrade
Bearing Capacity
P
l
a
s
t
i
c
i
t
y

I
n
d
e
x

S
w
e
l
l

(
%
)

S
m

C
B
R

=

1

C
B
R

=

2

C
B
R

=

3

C
B
R

=

4

4
<
C
B
R
<
7

A PI>45 S
m
>10 140 90 70 60 30
B 35<PI<45 S
m
<10 110 75 60 50 20
C PI<35 S
m
<5 70 65 55 50 20


Notes
+ Where the results are on the Boundary Limit or within its
vicinity, the Criteria of Clay Activity (Ac) expressed as Ac =
3.6R
-2.35
(R=LL/PI) may be adopted or otherwise as directed by
the Consultant. For example, should the PI > 45 and Sm < 10, if
Ac <1.0 then option B may be adopted instead of Option A or
vice versa.
+ If Ac < 0.75 then maximum swell values of Sm = 15% can be
allowed for Options B and C.
+ Sm represents maximum swell measured uniaxially after 4 days
soak and under a standard surcharge pressure of 298kg/m
2
.
+ For materials that exhibit excessively high initial rates of swell,
the Consultant shall be consulted for further analysis prior to
characterizing the expansive subgrade material.

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 21




Figure 8.18 - Layer thickness (1<CBR
d
<4) Figure 8.19 - (4<CBR
d
<8)


9. EVALUATION OF SURFACE DRESSING MATERIALS
9.1 Evaluation of Laboratory Test Results
Various geotechnical and geological investigations have shown that Juba and Southern
Sudan in general has a gross lack of suitable natural materials for road construction.
Aggregates that conform to most of the International Specification and Standards are in
particularly lacking.
The data presented in Tables 9.1 and 9.2 confirm the authenticity of this fact.
Table 9.1 Aggregate test results summary Sheet (28
th
February 2007)


Table 8.12 Determining Required Capping Layer Thickness
CBR of
Importe
d
materia
l
Required Thickness for Different
Native Subgrade Bearing
Capacity (cm) for RE 1 Type
Required Thickness for
Different Native
Subgrade Bearing
Capacity (cm) RE2
Type
CB
R =
1
CB
R =
2
CB
R =
3
CB
R =
4
CB
R =
5
CB
R =
6
CB
R =
7
15 70 65 55 50 40 30 20
20 60 55 45 40 30 25 20
25 55 45 40 35 25 20 15
30 50 40 35 30 20 15 10
40 45 35 30 25 15 10 10
50 40 30 25 20 10 10 10
60 35 25 20 15 10 10 10

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 22


Table 9.2 Coarse aggregate for bituminous mixes


Notes. 1. British Standard 812, Part 103 (1985 5.ASTM C131 and C535
2. J C Bullas and G West (19910 6. British Standard 812, Part 121 (1989)
3. British Standard 812,Part 105 (1990) 7. British Standard 812, Part 2 (1975)
4. British Standard 812, Part 3 (1985) 8.Shell Bitumen Handbook, D Whiteoak (1990)

Comparing the test results obtained from this Study and the Design Criteria stipulated in
Table 9.2, the following facts can be derived.
1. The Flakiness Index (FI) is way below the maximum allowable (acceptable) value by
approximately 300%.
2. The Los Angeles Abrasion Value (LAA) is above the acceptable Criteria by
approximately 67%.
3. The Durability test results defining the Sodium Sulphate Soundness overshoots the
acceptable Design Criteria by approximately 105%.
4. The Water Absorption and Bitumen Affinity tests indicate that the both results are much
more superior in comparison to the Design Criteria with the Water Absorption less by
more than 6.67 times and the Bitumen Affinity greater than 95% without any
segregation upon soaking.

In conclusion, the lateritic quartzic materials can be used for surface dressing by employing a
special method of construction that will ensure the particles pack properly in order to achieve
an Optimum Mechanical Stabilization and a homogeneous slurry spray of the bitumen.
It is recommended that the OBRM (Optimum Batching Ratio Method) proposed by Mukabi
(2001a) and Mukabi and Shimizu (2001b) be employed in order to achieve this criteria.
Property Test Specification
Cleanliness Sedimentation of Decantation (
12
) < 5 per cent passing
0.075 mm sieve
Particle shape Flakiness Index (
3
) <45 per cent
Strength Aggregate Crushing
Value (ACV)(
4
)
<25. For weaker aggregates the
Ten per Cent Fines Value Test
(TFV) is used.
Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) (
4
) <25
Los Angeles Abrasion
Value (LAA) (
5
)
<30 (wearing course)
<35 (other)
Abrasion Aggregate Abrasion
Value (AAV) (
4
)
<15
<12 (very heavy traffic)
Polishing (wearing
course only)
Polished Stone
Value (
4
)
Not less than 50-75
Depending on location
Durability Soundness: (
6
)
Sodium Test
Magnesium Test
<12 per cent
18 per cent
Water Absorption Water Absorption (
7
) <2 per cent
Bitumen Affinity Immersion Tray Test (
8
)
Effect of water on Cohesion of
compacted Mixes
Index of retained Stability >75
per cent

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 23


10. STRENGTH OF
EXISTING
SUBGRADE
In most cases,
subgrade strength
and characteristics
determine the
performance of
flexible pavement
structures.
Due to the
complexity of
maintaining the existing moisture
regime of subgrade soils for
laboratory testing, it is usually
recommended that direct
measurements of CBR under
existing pavements, in-situ
measurements have been found to
produce fairly reliable results
provided that the appropriate
analytical tools are applied.
For design purposes it is important
that the strength of the subgrade is
not seriously underestimated for
large areas of pavement or
overestimated to such an extent that
there is a risk of local failures.
The behaviour of subgrade ground
under plate loading tests was
discussed under section 5.7 of
Chapter 5 of the Engineering Report
No. SST1, May 2007.
It can be noted that the recoverable
behaviour is more pronounced in the initial load-unload-reload cycle.
The results of the maximum settlement against the corresponding pressure from the
Plate Loading Tests are summarized in Table 10.1.
In-situ test results from Dynamic Cone Penetration Tests were also reported under
section 5.4 of Chapter 5 of the Engineering Report no. SST1 of May 2007.
The average (mean) CBR
m
values determined from these results over a depth of 1 metre,
are presented in Table 10.2.
The mean values were computed by applying Equation 10.1


3
3
1
3
1
2 2
3
1
1 1
100
... ..........

+ + +
=
n n
m
CBR h CBR h CBR h
CBR (10.1)
Table: 10.1 Existing Sub-grade Characteristics Based on Plate Loading Tests

Test
No.
Testing
Depth
(m)
Pressure
on Plate


Average
Maximum
Settlement
(mm)
Basic Testing Conditions
1. 0.25 2.72 3.37 Test Under Relatively Moist Conditions
2. 0.25 2.51 0.92 Tested Under Relatively Dry Conditions
3. 0.53 2.11 0.45 Tested Under Relatively Dry Conditions
4. 0.25 2.17 20.9 Soaked for 24 hrs and Tested under Soaked
Conditions
5. 0.25 2.91 3.48 Tested Under Relatively Moist Conditions
6. 0.58 3.36 2.38 Tested Under Relatively Moist Conditions
7. 0.25 2.26 4.43 Tested Under Relatively Moist Conditions
8. 0.25 3.25 1.93 Tested Under Mildly Moist Conditions
9. 0.25 1.63 1.41 Tested Under Monotonic Cyclic Loading Conditions
10. 0.25 0.82 26.0 Soaked by Rain for 16 hrs and Time Controlled
Loading

Table 10.2 Subgrade Strength CBR Design Values
Subgrade Strength-CBR Design Values
Test
No.
Test
Condition
Test
Location
CBR
Mean
1 Dry RHS 16 10.04
2 Dry RHS
35.2
6.93
3 Dry LHS 70.2 21.54
4 Dry RHS
70.2
7.96
5 Saturated
soil
Near
river
bank
3.31
6 Swampy
Area
Near
river
bank
1.62
7 Dry Area Near
river
bank
3.92
8 Soaked RHS 16 17.93
9 Soaked RHS
35.2
12.32
10 Soaked RHS
70.2
18.69

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 24

Table 10.3 Subgrade Strength CBR by Sub Section of Juba River Port access road

Fig. 10.1 Subgrade CBR Mean by Sub-section and Location
On the other hand, the Subgrade Strength Classes based on CBR values as specified by TRL
Overseas Road Note 31 are presented in Table 10.4.
Utilizing the values in this table and the material
properties of subbase and base course
determined in this Study, the pavement structure
is then designed as illustrated in section 11.
The section CBRs will be determined after
further detailed in-situ testing of the subgrade by
use of DCP.

11. PAVEMENT STRUCTURAL DESIGN
11.1 Basic Method Applied
Having determined the design CBR values for the subgrade as well as the subbase and base
course, the pavement thickness of each layer is designed so that the desirable T
A
value is
assured and the total thickness H of the surface course, base course and the subbase course
is designed to be greater than 80% of the target value.
In this case a pavement structure that considers a double seal surfacing course, an OPMC
L4

stabilized base course and OPMC
L6
stabilized subbase course and against the existing
subgrade strength and intrinsic characteristics, which were previously discussed and the
analysis done in Chapter 5 of the Engineering Report No. SST1 of May 2007.
The calculated T
A
values are then compared with the standard target values listed in Table
11.1 subsequent to which another calculation is conducted to obtain the final pavement
structure configuration if the value of T
A
falls below the target, or the total pavement thickness
H is found to fall below more than 20%. The T
A
value is calculated by the following equation:

n n A
T a T a T a T ..... .......... ..........
2 2 1 1
+ + = (11.1)
Where,

n
a a a ..., .......... ,
2 1
= Conversion coefficients shown in Table 11.2
=
n
T T T .., .......... ,
2 1
Thickness of each layer in cm.
Table 10.4 Subgrade strength classes (CBR%)
S1= 2
S2= 3,4
S3= 5 7
S4= 8 14
S5= 15 29
S6= 30+

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 25


Table 11.1 Target Value for T
A
and Total Thickness
(Source: Japan Road
Association 1989)
Note 1: TA represents the
pavement thickness
required if the entire
depth of the
pavement were to
be constructed of
hot asphalt
mixtures, used for
the binder and
surface course (see
sections 2-1-3-6 and 2-1-3-7 of the JRA).
Note 2: In the case of a road with various CBR values in the vertical direction, a filter course need not be constructed,
provided the CBR value of the uppermost layer is 3 or more, and its thickness is 30cm or more, even if the design
CBR value is 2.
Note 3: Traffic Class T7 of The TRL Overseas Road Note 31 is equivalent to C Traffic of The Japan Road Association, 1989
and Class T2 of the Kenya Road Design Manual.

Notes: Conversion
coefficients listed in Table
7.6.2 indicate the ratio of
the thickness of the
pavement by each method
and material of construction
to the thickness of hot
asphalt mix for the binder
and the surface courses
corresponding to the
thickness of each material.
Thus, the term
n n
T a of
Equation 7.37 indicates the
corresponding thickness of
the n-th layer converted
thickness of hot asphalt mix
for the binder and surface
courses. For example; 1 cm
of pavement adopting
mechanical stabilization
corresponds to 0.35 of
pavement adopting the hot
asphalt mix method , and
20cm of pavement using the
hot asphalt mix method
(0.3520=7)..
Also note the OPMC
conversion Values determined empirically for varying OPMC Stabilization levels.

Table 11.3 Standard Thickness of One Finished Layer After Compaction (cm)
Stabilization
Method
Classification of Pavement
General traffic Light traffic
Base Subbase Base Subbase
Cement
stabilization
10~20 15~30 12~20 12 or more
Lime stabilization 10~20 15~30 10~20 10 or more

Table 11.2 Conversion Co-efficient for the Calculation of T
A

Pavement
Course
Method and
Material of
Construction
Conditions Standard
Coefficient, a
n

OPMC
Coefficient,
a
n(OPMC)

Surface &
Binder
course
Hot asphalt mix for
surface and binder
course
1.00
Base Bituminous
Stabilization
Hot-mixed stability:
350kgf or more
Cold mixed stability
250 kgf or more
0.80

0.55

Cement
Stabilization
Unconfined compression
strength (7days):
30 kgf/cm
2

0.55 OPMC Level
4 = 0.65
Lime stabilization Unconfined compression
strength (10 days):
10kgf/cm
2

0.45 OPMC Level
6 = 0.78:
Cement/Lime
Combination
Crushed stone for
mechanical
stabilization
Modified CBR value: 80 or
more
0.35
Slag for mechanical
stabilization
Modified CBR value:
80 or more
0.55
Hydraulic slag Unconfined compression
strength (14 days) 12
kgf/cm
2
or more
0.55
Sub-base Crusher-Run, slag,
sand, etc
Modified CBR value:
30 or more
20 to 30
0.25
0.20

Cement stabilization Unconfined compression
strength
(7 days):
10kgf/cm
2

0.25
(Source: Japan Road Association 1989 and Mukabi, 2004a for the OPMC Stabilization Conversion Coefficients)


Design
CBR
Target Value (cm)
L Traffic A Traffic B Traffic C Traffic D Traffic
T
A
Total
Thickness H
T
A
Total
Thickness H
T
A
Total
Thickness H
T
A
Total
Thickness H
T
A
Total
Thickness H
2 17 52 21 61 29 74 39 90 51 105
3 15 41 19 48 26 58 35 70 45 90
4 14 35 18 41 24 49 32 59 41 70
6 12 27 16 32 21 38 28 47 37 55
8 11 23 14 27 19 32 26 39 34 46
12 - - 13 21 17 26 23 31 30 36
20 - - - - - - 20 23 26 27
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 26

Note: Although the gradings listed in
Table 4.4 are not absolute
requirements, it is desirable that
materials include some coarse particles
and maintain continuous grading for
ease of mixing and compaction. Very
poorly graded materials, or a cohesive
soil of high plasticity, tend to require a
large amount of additives to achieve the
desired effect of stabilization, and are,
consequently, economically
unfavourable.



Design Computation For Type I :
- Case I-1: Base Course Directly Placed on Existing Subgrade
From Table 7.6.1, based on the results from Table 7.5.3 when the mean Design CBR =
8, the required T
R
A
= 26cm and the Total Thickness H = 39cm.
Considering that a
SC
= 1.0, T
SC
= 10cm, a
BC
= 0.78 and T
BC
= 20cm then the Design
T
D
A
is computed as :

T
D
A
= 1.010+0.7820
= 25.6cm

From the above computation and design criteria,
25.6 cm < 26cm, Hence, DESIGN VALUE IS NOT ACCEPTABLE

- Case I- 2: Slightly Thicker Base Course Directly Placed on
Existing Subgrade
Considering that a
SC
= 1.0, T
SC
= 10cm, a
BC
= 0.78 and T
BC
= 25cm then the Design
T
D
A
is computed as :

T
D
A
= 1.010+0.7825
= 29.5 cm

From the above computation and design criteria,
29.5 cm > 26cm, Hence, DESIGN VALUE IS ACCEPTABLE

In this case, the typical cross-section of the pavement structure would be as depicted
below.
Carriageway Shoulder
Gravel Wearing Course
for Shoulders
Carriageway Shoulder
Existing Sub grade
1.8<CBR<20
t
A
=250mm
BC OPMC Level 5 Stabilized
Gravel Base Course
50:25:25:8:4 {Natural Gravel:
Aggregate:Sand}:Cement: Lime
Side
Ditch
Table 11.4 Desirable Range of Grading (weight % of the Fraction
passing the sieve) and PI of Materials Used for Stabilization

Sieve size
Construction Method
Bituminous
Stabilization
Cement
Stabilization
Lime
Stabilization
53mm 100
37.5mm 95~100
19mm 50~100
2.36mm 20~60
75mm 0~10 0~15 2~20
[PI] 9 or smaller 9 or smaller 6~18

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 27

Fig. 11.1 typical Cross section Type I-2 depicting pavement structure


Fig. 11.1 Typical Cross section Type I-3 depicting pavement structure


- Case I- 3: Base Course Directly Placed on Existing Subgrade with
CBR > 20
From Table 11.1, based on the Table 7.5.., when the mean Design CBR > 20, the
required T
R
A
= 20cm and the Total Thickness H = 23cm.

Considering that a
SC
= 1.0, T
SC
= 10cm, a
BC
= 0.78 and T
BC
= 20cm then the Design
T
D
A
is computed as :

T
D
A
= 1.010+0.7820
= 25.6 cm

From the above computation and design criteria,

25.6 cm > 23cm: Hence, DESIGN VALUE IS ACCEPTABLE

In this case, the typical cross-section of the pavement structure would be as depicted
below.
Carriageway Shoulder
Gravel Wearing Course
for Shoulders
Carriageway Shoulder
Existing Sub grade
CBR>20
t
A
=200mm
BC OPMC Level 5 Stabilized
Gravel Base Course
50:25:25:8:4 {Natural Gravel:
Aggregate:Sand}:Cement: Lime
Side
Ditch
Design Computation For Type II:
- Case II-1: Base Course Directly Placed on Existing Subgrade in Swampy
Areas
From Table 11.1, based on the results from Table 7.5.., when the mean Design CBR
= 2 in swampy areas, the required T
R
A
= 39cm and the Total Thickness H = 90cm.
Considering that a
SC
= 1.0, T
SC
= 10cm for Surface Course, a
BC
= 0.78, T
BC
= 25cm,
Base Course then the Design T
D
A
is computed as :

T
D
A
= 1.010+0.7825
= 29.5 cm

From the above computation and design criteria,
25.6 cm < 39cm, Hence, DESIGN VALUE IS NOT ACCEPTABLE

- Case II-2: Base Course Placed on Improved Subgrade in Swampy
Areas
Applying the ReRap Method introduced in Table From Table 11.1, based on the results
from Table 7.5.., when the mean Design CBR is improved from CBR = 2 to CBR = 30
with a Capping Layer thickness of 40 ~ 50cm in the swampy areas, then the required
T
R
A
= 20cm and the Total Thickness H = 23cm with a Capping Layer Thickness of C
p
=
50cm.
Considering that a
SC
= 1.0, T
SC
= 10cm for Surface Course, a
BC
= 0.78, T
BC
= 20cm,
Base Course then the Design T
D
A
is computed as :

T
D
A
= 1.010+0.7820
= 25.6cm

From the above computation and design criteria,

25.6 cm > 23cm: Hence, DESIGN VALUE IS ACCEPTABLE

In this case, the typical cross-section of the pavement structure would be as depicted
below.
Table 10.3
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 28


Fig. 11.2 Cross section Type II-2 -typical pavement structure for swampy areas or expansive soils
In case of extreme environmental and geological problems, Type II-3 shall be applied. Cross
section Type II-3 is illustrated in Fig. 1.3.

Fig. 11.3 Typical Cross section Type II-3 depicting typical pavement structure for swampy areas or
expansive soils in extreme conditions
Design Computation For Type II:
- Case II-1: Base Course Directly Placed on Existing Subgrade in Swampy
Areas
From Table 11.1, based on the results from Table 7.5.., when the mean Design CBR
= 2 in swampy areas, the required T
R
A
= 39cm and the Total Thickness H = 90cm.
Considering that a
SC
= 1.0, T
SC
= 10cm for Surface Course, a
BC
= 0.78, T
BC
= 25cm,
Base Course then the Design T
D
A
is computed as :

T
D
A
= 1.010+0.7825
= 29.5 cm

From the above computation and design criteria,
25.6 cm < 39cm, Hence, DESIGN VALUE IS NOT ACCEPTABLE

- Case II-2: Base Course Placed on Improved Subgrade in Swampy
Areas
Applying the ReRap Method introduced in Table From Table 11.1, based on the results
from Table 7.5.., when the mean Design CBR is improved from CBR = 2 to CBR = 30
with a Capping Layer thickness of 40 ~ 50cm in the swampy areas, then the required
T
R
A
= 20cm and the Total Thickness H = 23cm with a Capping Layer Thickness of C
p
=
50cm.
Considering that a
SC
= 1.0, T
SC
= 10cm for Surface Course, a
BC
= 0.78, T
BC
= 20cm,
Base Course then the Design T
D
A
is computed as :

T
D
A
= 1.010+0.7820
= 25.6cm

From the above computation and design criteria,

25.6 cm > 23cm: Hence, DESIGN VALUE IS ACCEPTABLE

In this case, the typical cross-section of the pavement structure would be as depicted
below.
Existing Sub grade
Carriageway
Shoulder
Carriageway
Shoulder
Side
Ditch
Gravel Wearing Course
for Shoulders
t
A
=50mm
AS
OPMC Level 5 Stabilized Gravel Base Course
Sand Filter
Natural Sand and/or Gravel Pebbles, Filter Layer
t
A
=200mm
BC
t
A
=200mm
Bf
Natural Gravel Capping Layer t
A
=500mm
Af
DBST Wearing Course
Existing Sub grade
Carriageway
Shoulder
Carriageway
Shoulder
Side
Ditch
Gravel Wearing Course
for Shoulders
t
A
=50mm
AS
OPMC Level 5 Stabilized Gravel Base Course
Sand Filter
Natural Sand and/or Gravel Pebbles, Filter Layer
t
A
=200mm
BC
t
A
=200mm
Bf
Natural Gravel Capping Layer t
A
=500mm
Af
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 29


The results of other design computations with varying conditions that were assessed and
evaluated on site are given in Table 11.5.
Table 11.5 T
R
A
and Total Thickness, H Design Parameters for Varying Conditions




12. ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL SOUNDNESS OF COMPOSITE PAVEMENT
STRUCTURE

12.1 Analysis of Deterioration of Structural Capacity and Serviceability Levels with
Progression of Time

12.1.1 Definition of Functional and Structural Failures
Distinctively, there are two different types of failure. The Structural Failure includes a collapse
of the pavement structure or a breakdown of one or more of the pavement components of
such magnitude to make the pavement incapable of sustaining the loads imposed upon its
surface. The second type is classified as functional failure and may or may not be
accompanied by structural failure but is such that the pavement will not carry out its intended
function without causing discomfort to passengers or without causing high stresses in the
vehicle that passes over it due to roughness. Obviously the degree of distress for both
categories is gradational, and the severity of distress of any pavement is largely a matter of
opinion of the person observing the distress. As an example, consider a rigid highway
Item
No.
Pavement
Type
Sub-section Conditions
Sub-
section
Length (m)
Pavement Structure Design Parameters
Combined Sub-
grade CBR %
T
R
A

(cm)
Total
Thickness H
(cm)
Structural Layer Configuration
1 I-2
Existing Sub-grade
composed of Natural
Gravel with appreciable
Structural Capacity of
Layer Thickness t
NG
>
20cm
CBR 20
26
(29.5)
39
(39.50

2. I-3
Existing Sub-grade
composed of Natural
Gravel with High
Structural Capacity of
Layer Thickness t
NG
>
20cm
20
20
(26.5)
23
(30)

3. II-2
Swampy Areas with weak
sub-grade computed of
Expansive Soil
2
39/23
*
(26.5)*
90/31*
(90/30)*

4. II-3
Swampy Areas with weak
sub-grade computed of
Expansive Soil
2
39/23
*
(26.5)*
90/31*
(90/30)*

5. III-2
Areas with Type I-2
Subgrade but poor
Drainage
8 CBR 20

[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 30

pavement that has been resurfaced with an asphaltic overlay. The surface may develop rough
spots as a result of breakup in the bituminous overlay (functional failure) without structural
breakdown of the overall structure. On the other hand, the same pavement may crack and
break up as a result of overload (structural failure). Maintenance measures for the first
situation may consist of resurfacing to restore smooth riding qualities to the pavement.
However, the structural type of failure may require complete rebuilding.

12.1.2 Analysis of Structural Capacity
Table 12.1.1 is a summary of design parameters determined at equilibrium moisture content.
On the other hand, a summary of the deterioration factors and depletion with the progression
of the pavement structure due to seasonal cycle and dynamic loading effects is given in Table
12.1.2 and 12.1.3, while the characteristic curves are presented in Figs. 12.1.1 ~ 12.1.3.

The data was
generated by
applying the
following empirical
equations
developed and
proposed by
Mukabi (2004) and
Mukabi et. al.
(2007f).

SC t SC t SC
SC
t
C N B N A f + = (12.1)
Where,
= SC
t
f Time dependent Structural Capacity Factor
=
SC
A 0.001, =
SC
B 0.0507 and =
SC
C 1.13 are Structural Capacity~Time related
constants
=
t
N Time Progression in Years
The Structural Capacity Deteriorating Factor, = SC
d
f is then computed as:
th ru msv
SC
t
SC
d
f f f f f =
. int
(12.2)
Where,
=
msv
f Moisture~Suction Depreciating Factor

. int ru
f = Inferior Material Intrusion Depreciating Factor
=
th
f Pavement Layer Thickness Depreciating Factor
Equations 7.24 ~ 7.28 are then applied.

a. Without Any Maintenance Scenario
The case whereby NO maintenance is undertaken is presented in Table 12.3.1 and Figs.
12.3.1 ~ 12.3.3.
It can be noted that in this case the pavement structure deteriorates to reach a critical state
that requires resurfacing after 8 years.

Table 12.1.1 Summary of design parameters at equilibrium moisture content
Mode of
stabilization
Layer
type
Design parameters
qu
(kgf/cm
2
)
Emax
(kgf/cm
2
)
(
a
)
ELS

x 10
-3

(%)
CBR
(%)


(kgf/cm
2
)


(cm
)
H
(cm)
OPMC
L6
Base
Course
39.2 237,53
6
0.578 611 454,663 29.5 35
OPMC
L4
Subbase
or
Shoulders
13.8 36,717 0.563 245 26,085 - -
(Nil) Natural
Gravel
Capping
Layer
7.4 1,437 0.015
1
30 1,362 39 90
NOTES: 1. OPMCL6: - 50:25:25:6:4% being Ratio of Natural Gravel:Aggregate:Cement:Lime
1. OPMCL4:- 100:4:2% being Ratio of Natural Gravel:Cement:Lime
2. The Ratio of Cement and Lime is aginst 100% of the geomaterial measured by volume.
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 31



b. With Maintenance Scenario
In this case it is considered that periodic maintenance and resurfacing will be implemented
accordingly. Also refer to Chapter 10.
The requirements are presented in Figs. 12.1.4 and 12.1.6.



From the above tables and figures, it can be clearly noted that, under normal circumstances
and provided that the traffic growth rate and loading do not exceed the parameters in section
7.3 of Chapter 7, the Juba River Port Access will require resurfacing after 8 years of post-
construction stage.

12.1.3 Analysis of Serviceability Level
The serviceability level can be monitored by applying the graphical representation proposed
by Mukabi (2004b), presented as Fig. 12.1.6.
Table 12.1.2 Summary of Deteroriation Factors and Depletion of
Structural Capacity Due to Seasonal Cycle and Dynamic Loading Effects
Design TAD=29.5,TAcr =23,H=35 tDBST=10cm,Nt>2.2 Years



Figure 12.1.3 Effect of Time progression on
the Resulting structural thickness


Fig. 12.1.4 Effect of Time progression on the
Resulting strusctural thickness

Fig. 12.1.5 Effect of Time progression on the Resulting



[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 32


Fig. 12.1.6 Graph Depicting Depreciation Curves of Serviceability Level vs. period
of Cumulative Loading.

12.2 Structural Soundness Under Normal Loading Conditions
12.2.1 Analysis of Direct Surcharge Only
The extent and effect of surcharge loading on the subgrade was evaluated by applying
Equation 7.20, where the surcharge pressure
sc
= 53.8kPa then:
7 . 15 8 . 53 ln 98 . 4 + = A
s
= % 15 . 4
This implies that the swell in the swampy areas will be contained effectively.

12.2.2 Analysis of Surcharge and Dynamic Loading
The surcharge and dynamic loading analysis was carried out in section 12.1.2.
12.3 Structural Soundness Under Critical State Conditions
The structural soundness of the pavement structure under Critical State Conditions, whereby
all factors contributing to the deterioration of the pavement are within extreme boundary limits,
was analyzed and the results are summarized in Tables, while the corresponding
characteristic curves are depicted in figures.

Without Any Maintenance Scenario
The case whereby NO maintenance is
undertaken is presented in Fig. 12.3.1.
It can be noted that in this case the pavement
structure deteriorates rapidly after the third
year attaining a critical state that requires
resurfacing after only 4 years.

With Maintenance Scenario
In this case it is considered that periodic
maintenance and resurfacing will be
implemented accordingly. Also refer to
Chapter 10.
The requirements are presented in Fig. 12.3.2.

Fig. 12.3.1 Effect of Time progression (Nt) on
Depreciated Structural Capacity factor

Without Any Maintenance Scenario
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 33



13. CONCLUSIONS

Comprehensive testing and analytical
methods were employed in this Study in
order to realize the most Value Engineering
based solution for the pavement structure of
the Juba River Port Access Road in Juba
Town, Central Equatoria State of Southern
Sudan.
From both the laboratory and field
tests results analyzed and discussed in
Chapter 5 and summarized in Chapter 7 of
the Engineering Report No. SST1 of May
2007, it can be concluded that the design
proposed in this Engineering Report is
adequate for the project pavement structure
provided that the construction is undertaken in accordance with the Standard, Technical, and
Particular Specifications as well as the stipulations in the Method of Construction.

Furthermore, in all the cases considered, and as can also be observed from the
concluding tables and figures presented in the various chapters, it was derived that the
Optimum Mechanical and Chemical (OPMC) stabilizing method was effective in enhancing
the vital engineering properties of the geomaterials adopted as well as the composite
pavement structure. Fundamentally, this method was quite effective in;

1. Retaining a substantial proportion of their strength even with increased
saturation levels.
2. Reducing tremendously the surface deflection of the layers under loading.
3. Increasing resistance to erosion due to the scouring effect of water flow.
4. Increasing resistance to contamination by materials in underlying or
supporting layers that are not stabilized.
5. Increasing the effective elastic moduli of the composite pavement structure.
6. Realizing an acceptable cost-effective design.

The OPMC stabilization technique, developed on the basis of a new approach, was
determined to be the most cost-effective and value engineering based method in respect to all
prevalent conditions considered. It is envisaged to be an interesting structure in terms of Case
Study Analysis and Research for further development as an effective countermeasure for
landslides, foundations, slope stability, embankment and pavement structure design and
construction.



Fig. 12.3.2 With Maintenance Scenario
[Mukabi JN (Ph.D) KEYNOTE LECTURE] Page 34


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author is highly indebted to the contributions of Professor Fumio Tatsuoka and the
University of Tokyo. Sincere appreciation is also expressed to the Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC), Construction
Project Consultants Inc., Kajima Corporation and Kajima Foundation for funding the
subsequent part of the study conducted in Africa. The authors wish to express their sincere
appreciation to the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan Bank of International
Cooperation (JBIC), Construction Project Consultants Inc., Kajima Corporation and Kajima Foundation
for funding most of the study. The paper would certainly not have been completed without the crucial
support of Ms. Piera Cesaroni, and the input of Kenneth Wambugu, Ms. Zekal Ketsella, Joram Okado,
Paul Kinyanjui, Bryan Otieno, Walter Okello, and Anthony Ngigi. It is also important to mention the
cooperation and assistance extended by the Ethiopian Roads Authority as well as the Ministry of
Roads, Public Works and Housing, Kenya.

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Edition. Arnold, A member of Hodder
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Proceeding of the Conference on Settlement of Structures, Pentech Press, Cambridge, 1974. pp.
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the 9
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International Conference on Soil Mechanics, Tokyo, 1977, Session 2
Burland, J.B (1990); On the compressibility and shear strength on clays and shades at constant water content,
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