Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

The line following robot is programmed to follow a white line on a black background and detect turns or deviations and modify the motors appropriately. The optical sensor is an array of commercially available IR reflective type sensors.

The core of the robot is the AT89C2051 microcontroller. The speed control of the motors is achieved by the two PWM modules in the microcontrollers. The direction control is provided by 2 I/O pins. The H-Bridge motor driving/control chip takes these signals and translates it into current direction entering the motor armature. The motors require separate supply for operation.

The differential steering system is used to turn the robot. In this system, each back wheel has a dedicated motor while the front wheels are free to rotate. To move in a straight line, both the motors are given the same voltage (same polarity). To manage a turn of different sharpness, the motor on the side of the turn required is given lesser voltage. To take a sharp turn, its polarity is reversed.

The sensor is an array IR LED-Phototransistor pairs arranged in the form of an inverted V. The output of each sensor is fed into an analog comparator with the threshold voltage (used to calibrate the intensity level difference of the line with respect to the surface). These 7 signals (from each photo-reflective sensor) is given to a priority encoder, the output of which to the microcontroller.

The control has 6 modes of operation, turn left/right, move left/right, and drift left/right. The actual action is caused by controlling the direction/speed of the two motors (the two back wheels), thus causing a turn. The actual implementation is a behavior based (neural) control with the sensors providing the inputs. The robot can also be programmed to find the line by pseudorandom movement in case no line is detected by the optical sensor.

What is a line follower? Line follower is a machine that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a black line on a white surface (or vice-versa) or it can be invisible like a magnetic field.

Why build a line follower? Sensing a line and maneuvering the robot to stay on course, while constantly correction wrong moves using feedback mechanism forms a simple yet effective closed loop system. We have seen how ants always travel in a line, following an invisible route in search of food, or back home. How on roads we follow lanes to avoid accidents and traffic jams. Programming intelligence into a robot (or computer) is a difficult task and one that has not been very successful to date even when supercomputers are used. This is not to say that robots cannot be programmed to perform very useful, detailed, and difficult tasks; t h e y a r e . Some t a s k s a r e impossible for h u m a n s t o p e r f o r m q u i c k l y a n d productively. For instance, imagine trying to solder 28 filament wires to a 1/4in square sliver of silicon in 2 s to make an integrated circuit chip. It‟s not very likely that a human would be able to accomplish this task without a machine. But machine task performance, as impressive as it is, isn‟t intelligence.

1.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION
In the industry carriers are required to carry products from one manufacturing plant to another which are usually in different buildings human or separate blocks. and

Conventionally, cars or

trucks w e r e u s e d w i t h

drivers.

Unreliability

inefficiency in this part of the assembly line formed the weakest link. The project is to automate this sector, using carts to follow a line instead of laying railway tracks which are both costly and an inconvenience.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• • • The robot must be capable of following a line. It must be prepared of a situation that it runs into a territory which has no line to follow. (Barren land syndrome) The robot must also be capable of following a line even if it has breaks.

• The robot must be insensitive to environmental factors such as lighting and noise. • It must allow calibration of the line‟s darkness threshold. • The robot must be reliable • Scalability must be a primary concern in the design. • The color of the line must not be a factor as long as it is darker than the surroundings.

This will indeed result in the proper functioning of the microprocessor to give instructions to the motor. the left wheel will rotate while the right one is motion-less so that the total body will turn to the right and vice-versa. it will compare the sensed line with the needed one. The block diagram as shown in figure 2.e. i. The working of the robot involves the movement of the wheels. when there is a case when a line in not sensed. .1 Block diagram of Line Following Robot The Comparator present after the sensor array will help in the noticing the line that is sensed.Chapter 2 BLOCK DIAGRAM & CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 2. It gets the signals from the infrared sensors and it drives the motors according to the sensor inputs. i. Two stepper motors are used to drive the robot. during the turnings then the microcontroller controls the wheels in such a fashion that when there is a right turn.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM The infrared sensors are used to sense the line. The microcontroller AT89C51 is used to control the motors. If the IR sensor senses the line.1 Figure -2. However. When the infrared signal falls on the white surface. it is not reflected this principle is used to scan the Lines for the Robot.e. it gets reflected and if it falls on the black surface. both the wheels are in motion.

2. and the other the motor-control or main board. . The schematic is divided into two sections. The LM324 quad comparator IC A POT to calibrate the reference voltage. The main component is the AT89C51 microcontroller. The main features incorporated into the circuit are given below        The at89c51 microcontroller The voltage regulator Crystal oscillator (4MHz) The H-bridge motor control IC (L293D) Motors. with coupled reduction gears. one the Sensor Array Board.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM The schematic of the “Line Following Robot” is shown in the figure 2.2.

.Figure 2.2 Circuit Diagram of “Line Tracking Robot” The motors are connected to port-1 of micro-controller using motor driver L293D and the sensor array is connected to port-3.

3 Sensor Circuit with Comparator IC LM324 .Figure 2.

1.1. serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM). By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip.CHAPTER 3 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 3. the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash. timer/counters. two 16-bit timer/counters. 15 I/O lines. The device is manufactured using Atmel‟s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set. In addition. ATMEL 89C51 MICRO CONTROLLER 3. the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highlyflexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. 3.000 Write/Erase Cycles • 2.1.1.2. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. 128 bytes of RAM. Introduction The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage. Features • Compatible with MCS®-51Products • 2K Bytes of Reprogrammable Flash Memory – Endurance: 10. a five vector two-level interrupt architecture. The power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.7V to 6V Operating Range • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz . a full duplex serial port. a precision analog comparator. on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry.

1.3 Pin Diagram & Description Figure .3.• Two-level Program Memory Lock • 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 15 Programmable I/O Lines • Two 16-bit Timer/Counters • Six Interrupt Sources • Programmable Serial UART Channel • Direct LED Drive Outputs • On-chip Analog Comparator • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes • Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option 3.1 Pin Diagram .

Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull ups. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs.0 and P1. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins. Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. GND: Ground. Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull ups. As an output port. they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1. As inputs. as shown table 3. In this mode. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull ups. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @DPTR).1/T2EX) respectively.VCC: Supply voltage. External pull ups are required during program verification. In addition. the pins can be used as high impedance inputs.1. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI).1. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. In this application. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 2 emits the contents of . When 1s are written to port 0 pins. P0 has internal pull ups. P1.

Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull ups.5 P3. as shown in table 3.6 P3.the P2 Special Function Register.2.3.3 P3.4 P3. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull ups.1 Alternate Functions of Port 3 RST: Reset input.0 P3. Port Pin P3. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.1 P3. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.2 P3. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins.1. As inputs. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable.7 Alternate Functions RXD (Serial input port) TXD (Serial output port) INT0 (external interrupt 0) INT1 (external interrupt 1) T0 (timer 0external interrupt) T1 (timer 1 external input) WR (external data memory write strobe) RD (external data memory read strobe) Table . Note that one ALE pulse is . they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs.

EA/VPP: External Access Enable. that if lock bit 1 is programmed.skipped during each access to external Data Memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. Note however. EA will be internally latched on reset. ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. the pin is weakly pulled high. If desired. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. . PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. Otherwise. With the bit set. This pin also receives the 12volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle.

2 Internal Architecture of AT89C51 The 89C51 contains two 16-bit registers: the Program Counter (PC) and the data pointer (DPTR). The DPTR is under the control of program instructions and can be specified by its 16-bit name. DPH and DPL. DPTR does not have a single internal address. The PC is the only register that does not have an internal address.4.3. . or by each individual byte name.3.1. Architecture of AT89C51 Program Counter and Data Pointer:- Figure . DPTR. DPH and DPL are each assigned an address. Each is used to hold the address of a byte in memory.

When data is to be placed on the stack. and Parity (P). the SP is incremented before storing data on the stack. particularly math and logical operations of the 89C51 CPU. Auxiliary Carry (AC). As data is retrieved from the stack. Overflow (OV).2 D. Program Status Word (PSW): Flags may be conveniently addressed. Timers: Timer 0 and 1: Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89C51 operate the same way as Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89C51. The 89C51 has four math flags that respond automatically to the outcomes of math operations and three general-purpose user flags that can be set to 1 or cleared to 0 by the programmer as desired. the SP decrements to point to the next available byte of stored data. inexpensive.A & B Registers: The 89C51 contains 34 general purpose working registers.C MOTORS DC motors are widely used. The B register is used with the A register for multiplication and division operations. The 8-bit stack pointer register is used by the 89C51 to hold an internal RAM address that is called the top of the stack. The A register is also used for all data transfers between the 89C51 and any external memory. small and powerful for their size. Two of these registers A and B. Reduction gearboxes are often required to reduce the speed and increase the torque output of . B0-B3 of eight registers. The address held in the SP register is the location in internal RAM where the last byte of data was stored by a stack operation. The math flags include Carry (C). The Stack and Stack Pointer: The stack refers to an area of internal RAM that is used in conjunction with certain opcodes to store and retrieve data quickly. hold results of many instructions. The other 32 are arranged as part of internal RAM in four banks. 3. they are grouped inside the program status word (PSW) and the power control (PCON) registers.

3.3 H-BRIDGE MOTOR CONTROL DC motors are generally bi-directional motors. Example specifications of the motors used are given below in table 3. (Stall) 2400 rpm 30 gm-cm Table . like operating voltage and current. torque and power. The second category is related to the motor‟s output characteristics and specifies the physical limitations of the motor in terms of speed. Several characteristics are important when selecting DC motors and these can be split into two specific categories. But once the motors are fixed. If the speed is reduced by using a gear system by a factor of ρ t h e n the torque is increased by the same factor.2 Specifications of Motor As noticed.2 Characteristic Operating Voltage: Operating Current: Speed: Torque: Value 6V to 12V 2A Max. the torque provided can hardly move 30gm of weight around with wheel diameter of about 2cm. then the torque is increased by a factor of (2400/30 = 80) in other words the torque becomes 30 × 80 2400 gm-cm or 2. 3. if the speed is reduced from 2400 rpm. This is a fairly a huge drawback as the robot could easily weigh about a kg.4 kg-cm which is more than sufficient. That is. For example.the motor. This is accomplished by gears which reduce the speed (2400 rpm is highly impractical) and effectively increase the torque. control becomes . their direction of rotation can be changed by just reversing the polarity. The first category is associated with the input ratings of the motor and specifies its electrical requirements. to 30 rpm.

then the current flows in the direction shown in the figure 3. The table 3. This is done using the H-Bridge.3. If A & D are turned on.3 H-Bridge Using Relays.3 H-Bridge action ANY OTHER STATE Figure – 3.tricky.4 shows the H-Bridge operation A 1 0 0/1 B 0 1 0/1 C 0 1 1/0 D 1 0 1/0 ACTION CLOCKWISE COUNTER-CLOCKWISE BRAKE FORBIDDEN Table .4 .

then the motor rotates in counter clockwise direction as shown in figure 3.5 Counter-Clockwise Rotation .4 Clockwise Rotation If B & C are turned on.5 Figure .Figure .3.3.

. but the DC output is varying. each of which performs a particular function as shown below. The Rectifier is used to convert AC to DC.3. It is suitable for all electronic circuits.3.4.7 Figure . The blocks of power supply unit are as shown in figure 3.6 Block Diagram of Regulated Power Supply The Transformer steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC. For example a 5V regulated supply Figure 3.7 Block diagram of power supply unit The regulated DC output is very smooth with no ripple. POWER SUPPLY A power supply can be broken down into a series of blocks. The Regulator eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage. The Smoothing filter smoothes the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple.

the comparator and control elements are fabricated on a single chip. Thus there are no discrete components and the circuitry needed for the reference source. A direct voltage of constant magnitude requires to be supplied. A properly designed voltage regulator ensures that. IC voltage regulators are designed to provide either a fixed positive or negative voltage.3. whereas the digital IC‟s and the microcontroller . VOLTAGE REGULATOR It has been shown that practically all electronic devices need DC supply. or an adjustable voltage which can be set for any value ranging between two voltage levels. This is achieved by incorporating some type of feedback in the regulator circuit.8 Voltage Regulator The circuit requires two voltage sources.5. one for the digital IC‟s (+5V) and a+12V to the motors. The motor is supplied 12V unregulated supply directly from the battery as regulation would be difficult and unnecessary. irrespective of change in supply voltage. An IC voltage regulator unit contains all the circuitry required in a single IC. Figure . Even the over load and short-circuit protection mechanism is integrated into the IC. for the smooth and efficient functioning of these devices. the DC supply is maintained at a constant level. load impedance or temperature.3.

6 D.C. 12 and 15V) or variable output voltages. Two such motors are used in the rear of the robot. Most regulators include some automatic protection from excessive current ('overload protection') and overheating ('thermal protection'). IC Voltage Regulator: Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5.C Motors The D. and a dummy castor is fixed to the front to stabilize the robot. motors have a speed of 2400rpm and a torque of 15gm-cm.9 Regulator 3.require a perfect ripple free +5V to function properly. The gears decrease the speed to 30rpm at 6V and thus considerably increasing the torque so that the robot can carry the load of its frame and the lead-acid battery. Negative voltage regulators are available. The L7805C is a5V voltage regulator IC. They are also rated by the maximum current they can pass.1 μ F capacitor is used at the input because of the fact that high value capacitors have poor high frequency response. Many of sthe fixed voltage regulator ICs have 3 leads and 7805 +5V 1A regulator shown in the figure 3.3. These are standard values. . The 10 μ F capacitor at the output is to maintain stability and improve regulation.9 Figure . The capacitors added to the input of the voltage regulator are to isolate the spikes generated by the motor from the input and to reduce noise. The 0. mainly for use in dual supplies.

. THE H-BRIDGE CONTROL HARDWARE Figure – 3.10 Motor Control.7.3.

The table below clearly indicated the operation of the IC.4 Motor Movement Figure 3.11 Motor Driver L293D Pin Diagram . IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 1 0 1 0 OPERATION BOTH MOTORS FORWARD (MOVE FORWARD) 0 1 0 1 BOTH MOTORS BACKWARD (MOVE BACKWARD) RIGHT MOTOR BACKWARD LEFT MOTOR FORWARD (TURN RIGHT) 0 1 1 0 RIGHT MOTOR FORWARD LEFT MOTOR BACKWARD (TURN LEFT) 1 0 0 1 Table 3.1 along with the internal circuitry of the L293D motor control IC.The entire motor control circuitry is shown in the above figure 3.7.

3. The sensor has a focal length of 8mm. Figure .13 Figure .10 THE IR SENSORS The MOC7811 consists of an infrared emitting diode ( λ = 950nm) and an NPN silicon phototransistor mounted to face each other on a converging optical axis in a black plastic housing.3.12 Sensors Working If a reflective (white) surface is present at the optimal distance (d = 1.13 The Sensor . thus the surface must be at an optimum distance of 1. This sensor is physically modified so that the emitter and detector face the same direction and thus the modified sensor serves the purpose of an optical-reflective sensor.6cm.3. The circuit diagram is shown in the figure 3.6cm) then the reflected waves will strike the detector which on radiation will start to conduct. The photo-transistor responds to radiation from the emitting diode only when no object is present within its field of view.

The input / output characteristics of a comparator is as shown.3. A safe margin is allowed and a current of 16mA is considered for the design. For the emitter. Figure .6V. then the potential drops to 0. R= Vcc − Vd Ic for. and produces either a high or a low output voltage. According to the data sheets. 3. The output is obviously analog in nature. depending on which input is higher.The drop across the emitter when forward biased is around 1. the collector resistor was determined experimentally on a trial and error basis. when an object reflects the rays towards the detector. to have sustained radiation.10.4V Ic = 16mA R is calculated to be approximately 220 Ω . a max of 40mA must flow through to avoid damage. COMPARATOR A comparator is a circuit which compares a signal voltage applied at one input of an op-amp with a known reference voltage at the other input. It was decided to use a value of 56 kΩ . For this value. Vcc = 5V Vd = 1.6V.4V.14 Comparator transfer characteristics. . the potential across the detector is normally 4.

A good sensor will have near zero resistance in presence of light and a very large resistance in absence of light. thus a potential of 4. The comparator is open collector.15 Comparator LM324 Pin Diagram The reference voltage is generated by the 20k POT and given to all the comparators to the non-inverting input. When the respective sensor is on the line.Figure 3.16 . the emitted light is absorbed by the line and the transistor is the cut-off mode. thus the output of the comparator goes low.6V. When the sensor is not on the line the potential across the detector is usually 0. Thus the output of the comparator goes low only when the sensor is over the line. The schematic of a single sensor is shown in figure 3.6V is given to the inverting input which is greater than Vref (which is chosen to be 2. Thus the output of the comparator goes high. 3.11. and hence a pull-up resistor of 10 kΩ is required at the output.5V). SENSOR ARRAY The resistance of the sensor decreases when IR light falls on it.

If Rsensor = a when no light falls on it and Rsensor = b when light falls on it. a good sensor circuit should give maximum change in potential at point „2‟ for no-light and bright-light conditions.Figure . The transfer characteristics of a resistance and voltage swing in shown in figure 3. the value of R1 must be carefully chosen.17 Figure 3. This is especially important if you plan to use an ADC in place of the comparator.3. Again. To get a good voltage swing.16 Schematic of a Single Sensor We have used this property of the sensor to form a potential divider.17 transfer characteristics of Resistance and Voltage swing . The potential at point „2‟ is Rsensor / (Rsensor + R1).

b/(b+R1) The sensor used has a= 930 K and b= 36 K. the current is very small and hence susceptible to be distorted by noise.b/ (b+R1)} / Vcc = a/(a+R1) . There is a catch though. .If we plot a curve of the voltage swing over a range of values of R1 we can see that the maximum swing is obtained at R1= 150 K.b/ (b+R1)} Relative voltage swing = Actual Voltage Swing / Vcc = Vcc * {a/ (a+R1) . with such high resistance. The solution is to strike a balance between sensitivity and noise immunity.The difference in the two potentials is Vcc * {a/ (a+R1) .

etc.CHAPTER5 SOURCE CODE THE SOFTWARES USED 5. macro assembler. It has the compatibility with the KEIL software. The software then checks for the available memory and the size of file to be dumped. To dump the code program first the FLASH MAGIC has to be provided with necessary information about the target. it starts writing into the microcontroller using the serial data transfer pins Txd and Rxd pins on the microcontroller. real time operating system & evaluation boards for 8051 & ARM families.1 KEIL µVISION 4: KEIL implemented the first C compiler designed from the ground up specifically for 8051 microcontroller. The HEX file generated by the KEIL is used by the FLASH MAGIC to program the microcontroller. The programs can be written in embedded C or in assembly language. an error is generated. Keil provides broad range of development tools like ANSI C Compiler. debuggers and simulators. then the software checks for the device connected to the computer serial port. linkers. If everything is fine then. IDE library managers. It is used to write programs for an application. The software uses the computer serial port to transmit data into microcontroller. The program thus written is dumped into the microcontroller using flash magic software. If the target is not connected. the clock frequency. . 5. Then it checks whether the target (microcontroller) is in ISP (In system programming) mode or not.2 FLASH MAGIC SOFTWARE: The FLASH MAGIC software is one of the best known microcontroller programs dumping software. the baud rate supported.

} } void sensors (void) . i<value. void delay (unsigned char value) { int i. j<111. while (1) { sensors (). sbit ir2=p1^1. i++) { for (j=0. dcmotor=0x05. sfr dcmotors=0x80. j.THE SOURCE CODE AS FOLLOWS: sbit ir1=p1^0. j++) { . void sensors (void). } } void main () { dcmotor=0. for (I=0.

} if (ir2==0) { dcmotors=0x01. } } .{ if (ir1==0) { dcmotors=0x04. delay (100). delay (2). } if (ir1==0&&ir2==0) { dcmotors=0x0A. dcmotors=0x00.

The steering mechanism is not easily implemented in huge vehicles and impossible for non-electric vehicles (petrol powered). 1. The motor control could be .SCOPE OF STUDY The robot can be further enhanced to let the user decide whether it is a dark line on a white background or a white line on a dark background. makes it not suitable for a rough terrain. • Lack of a four wheel drive. Few curves are not made efficiently.APPLICATIONS & CONCLUSION APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS APPLICATIONS • • • • • Industrial automated equipment carriers Entertainment and small household applications. Calibration is difficult. instead of a user interface. Tour guides in museums and other similar applications.3. Second wave robotic reconnaissance operations. and it is not easy to set a perfect value. The robot can also be programmed to decide what kind of line it is. and must be avoided. LIMITATIONS • • • • Choice of line is made in the hardware abstraction and cannot be changed by software. Automated cars.

and not require a differential steering system. Extra sensors could be attached to allow the robot to detect obstacles. In other words. The robot could be modified to be a four wheel drive. Speed control could also be incorporated . it must be capable predicting the line beyond the obstacle.modified to steer a convectional vehicle. and if possible bypass it and get back to the line.

com . second edition. Morris Mano . Ayala. “The 8051Microcontroller”.electrotech. West Publishing Company.”The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems”. Prentice Hall. Tocci Sixth Edition . 2005. Muhammad Ali Mazidi.BIBLIOGRAPHY PICmicro Mid-Range MCU Family Reference Manualby MICROCHIP Digital logic and computer design by M. 1991.Prentice – Hall of India PVT limited Kenneth J. http://www.Prentice – Hall of India PVT limited Digital Systems Principles & applications by Ronald J.

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