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Research Summary Proposal

Research Title:

Marine Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Evaluation Using Water Diesel Emulsion (WiDE)
Samsol Azhar Zakaria, Zaimi Zainal Mukhtar & Muhammad Nasuha Mansor
Marine Design Technology,UniKL MIMET


Introduction To date, ship may have to meet a new design regulation to help reduce greenhouse gas emission. lf

the mandatory regulation, such as C02 Emission Indexes Scheme and the C02 Emission baseline is

. ._, ntroduced, it will force the ship-owner to have the minimum carbon dioxide emission from their fleet.
At present, diesel engines are still the most fuel efficient combustion engines, and diesel fuel is the dominant fuel used by the commercial transportation, industrial and agricultural sectors. This is because it offers fuel economy, efficient power, durability and heavy-duty application. However, diesel engines are considered a major source of air pollution due to the black smoke, nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), sulfur oxides (SOx), carbon dioxide (C02) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Therefore, Water Diesel Emulsion (WiDE) is often promoted as being able to overcome these difficulties. In this research, the performance of an engine together with its effect on environment will be tested when engine is powered by both pure diesel and emulsified fuel.


Background of Study International Marine Organization (IMO) has estimated that ships engaged in international trade in

2007 contributed about 2.7 per cent of the world's anthropogenic C02 emissions and also states that
emission reductions are feasible through technical and operational measures as well as through the introduction of market-based reduction mechanisms. One of the current method is through the usage of homogenizer to create emulsion fuel. The emulsion fuel is defined as an emulsion of water in standard diesel fuel with specific additives and surfactants to stabilize the system. There is a growing interest in the use of diesel emulsions and environmental aspects are the main driving force. The presence of water has a significant

Research Summary Proposal


effect on several emission constituents: exhaust gases such as nitrogen oxides (both NO and N02, which are collectively referred to as NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO), as well as black smoke and particulate matter. Until today, engine manufacturers have not stated the negative consequences through the use of water diesel emulsion. There may be a certain loss in engine performance due to the presence of water, and other consequences. Therefore, this research is intended to identify the marine diesel engine performance with its effect on environment when engine is powered by both pure diesel and emulsified fuel. After experiment and data gathering, the data will be analyzed and the result will be translated for engine performance comparison study.


Problem Statement In carrying out the research on Marine Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Evaluation

Using Water Diesel Emulsion (WiDE), several issues will be addressed as follow: 1. 2. Will homogenizer I WiDE system minimize the polluted gas emissions? How efficient the WiD;E system to be implemented in marine sector to control greenhouse gas emissions in shipping industry? 4.0 Objectives

In addressing the above issues, this research work is carried out with the following objectives:
1. 11. 111.

To identify the merits and drawbacks of water diesel emulsion method. To obtain experimental results for comparison study. To evaluate on techno economics of this system application.


Scopes of research

The scopes ofthis project are listed as follows:


Conduct literature research on Water Diesel Emulsion and Homogenizer

Research Summary Proposal u. m. 1v. v. 6. 0 Conduct an experiment on manne diesel engme powered by both pure diesel and emulsified fuel Gather and analyze the local data using several statistical software available in order to detetmine the engine performance and emission Conduct Techno economic analysis Compile result and prepare report.


Research Methodology For completing this research, it will go through five stages. The stages are as follows: Stage 1: Literature Review major factor in design of WiDE System, type of WiDe and engine requirement. Stage 2: Survey A survey of homogenizer system that is available and suitable to be used in order to generate water diesel emulsion for marine diesel engine. Also, the standard operation procedure will be identified .This will cover for small, medium and large size engine. Stage 3: Experiment and Data Gathering Marine diesel engine will be selected and experiment will be carried out at engine test bed using both pure diesel and emulsified fuel. Then, data gathering from this experiment will be compiled.

view through journals, books and internet will be done to find the specific marine environment features that have

Stage 4: Analyzing Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission will be measured and analyzed such as torque, engine brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), specific fuel consumption (SFC), particulate matter (PM), NOx and CO emissions and etc. Several statisticals software will be used in this analysis.

Stage 5: Data Comparing and Evaluating Analysis and comparison study will be carried out with the data obtained from the experiment. Results and evaluation will be produced as outcome of this research. Later, technical and economic study will be carried out.

Research Summary Proposal

In Figure 6.1 , its show that this research is divided into five (5) main stages ; Background/Literature study

Detail study on Homogenizer/WiDE

Experiment and Data Collection of Marine Diesel Engine Performance (efficiency, emission, torque, etc)



Evaluation &Technical and economic Figure 6. 1: Research stages 7.0 Literature Review
It was observed that International regulations to control harmful emissions from ships' exhausts

enter into force on 19 May 2005. Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships are contained in Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention and were adopted in the 1997 Protocol to that Convention. The Annex VI regulations set limits on sulphur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx)
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emissions from ship exhausts and prohibit deliberate emissions of ozone-depleting substances. 1 The air pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines vary with the operational and design parameters. Other factors affecting air pollutant emissions include ignition and valve timing, fuel types and additives combusted, lubricants employed in the engine, and exhaust gas treatments employed (Abdel-Rahman, 1998). These air pollutant emissions can be broadly characterized as gaseous and nongaseous emiSSions. Urbach et al. (1997) demonstrates water mist injection into the bell housing of diesel-fueled turbine engines with promising results. Water mist introduced to the intake of reciprocating compression ignition ICEs, particularly two-stroke engines with the intake air passing through the crankcase, poses



significant corrosion potential. Separate water injecting valves in the engme avoids intake system contact with the mist (Yoshihara et al., 1996). Several authors have evaluated all or most of the options for introducing water into the combustion process and have primarily determined that water-in-fuel emulsions, stabilized or unstabilized, are most effective in reducing NOx, BSFC, and result in lower increases of CO and UHC emissions (O'Neal et al.,1981; Greeves et al., 1976).


Expected Benefit/Outcomes

The result of this study will be useful for knowledge and technical know how, on the water diesel emulsion system in shipping industry. This research presents the influence of water on the emissions of engine exhaust system. Hence, the result can be evaluated to measure the efficiency of engine ombustion between pure diesel engine and water diesel emulsion engine system. engine manufacturer.
9.0 Reference

Furthermore, the

techno-economic analysis will serve as pure to show viability of this newly proposed system to the

1. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78). 2. Abdel-Rahman, A.A., 1998, "On the Emissions from Internal-Combustion Engines: A Review," Int. J Energy Res., Vol. 22, pp. 483-513. 3. Urbach, H.B., Knauss, D.T., Emory, J., Wallace, B.L, Wasser, J.A., Sexton, M.R., and Frese, J.,1997, "The Reduction of NOx Emissions from Marine Power Plants," Paper No. 97-MP5.08, Proceedings of the Air & Waste Management Association's 90th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, June 813, 1997, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. -..::; Yoshihara, S., Okabe, M., and Nakamaura, T., 1996, "Water Injecting Type Diesel Engine," U.S. ;4. Patent 5,522,349, United States Patent Office. 5. O'Neal, G.B., Storment, J.O., and Waytulonis, R.W., 1981, "Control of Diesel Exhaust Emissions in Underground Coal Mines-Single Cylinder Engine Experiments with Modified and Non- Conventional Fuels," SAE SP-495, Diesel Combustion and Emission Part 3, Int. Off-Highway Meeting & Exposition, Milwaukee, WI, pp. 13-23. 6. Greeves, G., Khan, I.M., and Onion, G., 1976, "Effects of Water Introduction on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions," Proceedings, 16th Annual Symposium (Int.) on Combustion, Williams & Wilkins Co., pp. 321-336.