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White 1. John Locke believed that all humans start with a tabula rasa, which is a _____ _____? Blank slate. 2. What did Rousseau define freedom as? Obedience to law. 3. What was public opinion, in terms of the Enlightenment? The collective force created by the literate public, which discussed the views circulated in print. 4. What is censorship? The prevention of free speech. For example, some governments prevented writers from criticizing government policies, or the church quelled any subversive ideas expressed in print. 5. What is a salonniere? A salon hostess 6. Who were the bourgeoisie? The middle class. 7. What is bigotry? Intolerance. 8. What is romanticism? The upcoming movement that would focus on the nonrational and subconscious. 9. What is the social contract? The agreement between the people and their ruler. In return for loyalty, a government had to provide certain civil rights. 10. What is the General Will? Individuals surrendered individual wills to each other into one sovereign General Will. The rule of common interest that unites people. 11. What is a republic? Any government that is not a monarchy. 12. What is Absolutism? Absolutism is where a ruler has complete power over all of his/her subject's lives.
Yellow 1. Who said "no one ought to harm another in his life, liberty, or possessions…"? John Locke 2. What are enlightened despots? People who ruled as dictators, but listened to and helped the common people. 3. Give a general description of what the age of enlightenment was all about. The enlightenment was, basically, a transition into an age where reason provided a basic authority. 4. What is Deism? The belief that there is a God, but it made the world, then left it alone
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5. Who said "Écrasez l'infâme” or “Crush the infamous thing"? Voltaire 6. What is Absolutism? Absolutism is where a ruler has complete power over all of his/her subject's lives. 7. What is “laissez faire, laissez passer” in English? Let do, let pass. 8. What work of literature begins with “All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains”? Rousseau’s The Social Contract 9. Who said “Cogito, ergo sum?” and what does it mean? Rene Descartes, “I think, therefore I am.” 10. “Her great art…was to show to advantage the minds of others, and she enjoyed doing that more than revealing her own.” Who is that quote describing? Julie de Lespinasse 11. What is the independent social force “that all powers respect, that appreciates all talents, that pronounces on all people of merit,” as described by Malesherbes. Public opinion. 12. Who said life in the state of nature was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” ? Thomas Hobbes.
Blue 1. Name two enlightened depots. Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, Maria Theresa, Frederick the Great, etc. 2. What did Rousseau believe about having a government? That a government is a necessary evil. 3. What did Baccaria believe about crime and punishment? That it should be consistent, humane, swift, and fitting. 4. Who philosophically justified absolutism? Thomas Hobbes 5. Who created the science of “physiognomy”? J. C. Lavater 6. Name a famous salon hostess Madame de Geoffrin, Suzanne Necker, Julie de Lespinasse, Sophie Condorcet, Germaine de Staeletc. 7. List the philosophes of the French trio. Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau. 8. Who was Richard Simon? He was a French priest that published the Critical History of the Old Testament, which criticized the Bible. 9. Who was the early political theorist that wrote The Prince? Niccolo Machiavelli. 10. Who originally created Methodist societies?
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John Wesley. 11. Name the Austrian physician that arranged séances in Paris and supported “animal magnetism” to cure illnesses. F. A. Mesmer. 12. Who was the German philosophe that sent a literary newsletter from Paris to his many subscribers? Baron Grimm.
Green 1. "Concerning Human Understanding" was written by whom? John Locke 2. Who published "Encyclopedia" ? Jean Le Rond D'Alenbert and Denis Diderot. 3. How many volumes of "Encyclopedia" were made (including illustrations)? 28 4. Montesquieu wrote what book showing his point of view on the law? "Spirit of the Law" 5. "Essay on Crimes and Punishment" was written by whom? Cesare Baccaria 6. Thomas Hobbs' "Leviathan" showed his ideas about life. What were these ideas? He believed that people were born miserable and that they couldn't do anything about it. 7. "The Wealth of the Nations" was written by whom? Adam Smith. 8. Voltaire wrote "Candide" to satirize what? Candide satirized life at the time, the Catholic Church, and hardships of life. 9. In what book was the phrase "pursuit of life, liberty, and estate" written in. "The Wealth of Nations"
Purple 1. Explain the purpose of salons. They became meeting places where authors could introduce new works to readers and where intellectual themes could be discussed. 2. Explain one of the ideas Adam Smith presented in The Wealth of Nations. Regulations by government hinder expansion of wealth and production. Individuals should be allowed to pursue their own economic interest – by enriching themselves by meeting the needs of others, the economy would expand. Natural resources are unlimited and humans should exploit nature’s infinite bounty for their benefit. The state should provide schools, armies, navies, and roads, while undertaking certain commercial ventures that were too expensive/risky for private enterprise. 3. According to Voltaire, explain the idea of an enlightened government.
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A government that fights against laziness, keeps the clergy in a subordinate place, allows freedom of thought and religion, and advances the cause of material and technical progress. Since only a few people could be enlightened – the king and his advisers, they should have the power to carry their program against all opposition. 4. What is the idea of the separation and balance of powers? Instead of power being concentrated in any one part of government, it should be distributed between different parts – specifically into the functions of the executive, legislature, and judiciary. 5. What is the idea of natural law? In the structure of the world, right is “natural” and not just a human invention. Right and law are not determined by any country or authority, but instead exist outside and above all peoples. 6. Explain the idea of “law of nations.” International law that would bring order between all the states developing in Europe. Sovereign states should work together to have a community of nations. Ideas involving specific agreements between governments such as freedom of the seas or immunity of ambassadors were part of this larger idea.
Red 1. Who was the Scottish mathematician that developed a table of logarithms in 1614? John Napier. 2. In which of his books did Rousseau expand upon his ideas about education? Emile. 3. Who was the first to present a purely secular conception of world history? Voltaire, in his “Universal History.”