# 1.2.

1 Definition The absolute value or magnitude of a real number a is denoted by |a| and is defined by

Example |5|=5 Since 5>0 |-4/7|= -(-4/7) = 4/7 Since -4/7<0 |0|=0 Since 0≥0

Remark |a| is a non-negative number for all values of a and -|a|≤ a ≤ |a| If a itself is negative, then -a is positive and +a is negative!!!

Example Solve |x-3|=4 Solution x-3= 4 x= 7 -(x-3)= 4 x-3= -4 x= -1

Example Solve |3x-2|=|5x+4| 3x-2 = 5x+4 3x-5x = 4+2 -2x = 6 x = -3 3x-2 = -(5x+4) . . . x = -1/4

b. a.2 (a) |-a| = √(-a)2 = √a2 = |a| (b) |ab| = √(ab)2 = √a2b2 = √a2√b2 = |a||b| Examples (a) |-4| = |4| (b) |2.3 THEOREM If a and b are real numbers then.2. c.-3| = |-6| = 6 = |2|. |ab| = |a||b| The absolute value of a product is the product of the absolute values.2.2. THEOREM 1. √(-4)2 = √16 = 4 = |-4| 1.2 For any real number a √a2 = |a| e. |a/b| = |a|/|b| The absolut value of a ratio is the ratio of the absolute values. |-a| = |a| a number and its negative have the same absolute values.g.|3| = 6 .SQUARE ROOTS AND ABSOLUTE VALUETS b2 = a (3)2 = 9 so b = 3 but!!! (-3)2 = 9 so b = -3 The positive square root of the square of a number is equal to that number. Proof From theorem 1.

2.. The distance between A and B is Theorem 1. a+k) ...4 (Distance formula) If A and B are points on a coordinate line with coordinates a and b respectively..|an| (b) |an| = |a|n Geometric interpretation of Absolute Value Where A and B are points with coordinate a and b. a3..an| = |a1| |a2| .2 (a) |x-a| < k (k>0) Alternative Form -k < x-a < k Solution Set (a-k. then the distance d between A and B d = |b . a2..an (a) |a1 a2 . For n-many real numbers a1.(c) |5/4| = 5/4 = |5|/|4| = 5/4 The result (b) of above theorem can be extended to three or more factors.2..a| TABLE 1.

+∞ ) On real line THE TRIANGLE INEQUALITY It is not generally true that |a+b| = |a| + |b| .7) On real line Example Solve |x+4| ≥ 2 x+4 ≤ -2 x ≤ -6 x+4 ≥ 2 x≥ -2 On combining these two sets (-∞ . -6] ∪ [-2 .Example The inequality |x-3| < 4 rewritten as -4 < x-3 < 4 adding 3 throughout gives -1 < x < 7 solution set (-1.

if a = 2 and b = -3. we know that -|a| ≤ a ≤ |a| and -|b| ≤ b ≤ |b| -|a| ≤ a ≤ |a| + -|b| ≤ b ≤ |b| ______________ = -|a| + -|b| ≤ a+b ≤ |a|+|b| ______________________________________________ Now we have two cases: Case 1 where a+b ≥ 0 certainly a+b=|a+b| Hence |a+b| ≤ |a|+|b| And Case 2 where a+b < 0 |a+b| = -(a+b) or (a+b) = -|a+b| Comparing with the intial inequality -(|a|+|b|) ≤ . then a+b = -1 so that |a+b| = |-1| = 1 whereas |a|+|b| = |2|+|-3| = 2+3 = 5 so |a+b| = |a|+|b| 1.(Triangle Inequality) If a b then |a+b| ≤ |a|+|b| Proof Since for any real number a and b.e.g.5 THEOREM .2.