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The word “danger” in sea transportation was considered to be objective in past, but today its more specific, surrounding all who are affected by these cargoes. The history of dangerous cargoes starts from centuries ago and in past safety aspects were mainly concentrated on safety of vessel, her crew or passengers and the cargoes .In present day along with the previous aspects more focus is given to the protection of marine environment. Dangerous goods/cargoes are carried in
water in form of bulk (oil, chemicals, oil products, liquefied gas.etc) or in packaged form .Dangerous packaged cargoes comprises of 10-15% of total cargoes carried by sea (Berry, Antony; Collier & Paul 2008)This paper deals with the different perspectives of dangerous packaged cargoes along with the responsibilities involved in the safe movement of these cargoes in sea.
Packaged Dangerous Goods
Dangerous goods can be defined as any substances whether packaged or in bulk, intended for carriage or storage and have properties coming under the classes listed in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code. Packaged Dangerous Goods are dangerous cargo contained in a receptacle packages, portable tank and freight container or in a vehicle. Dangerous Goods classified under IMDG Code are as follows Explosives Gases Flammable liquids and Solids Oxidizing substances Organic peroxides Toxic and infectious substances Radioactive material Corrosive substances Miscellaneous dangerous goods and articles.
Packing is done for the following reasons To avoid exposure to the atmosphere Easy identification from other goods Durability of the goods Easy and safe recovery of the cargo in case of incidents Dangerous goods should use good quality packing‟s to withstand shock and load occurring during transportation and it must be closed tightly to prevent leakage and loss of contend. it plays an important role in minimizing the risk associated with the nature of the goods(Willinger.2007) Safe movement of dangerous cargo In order to confirm the safe movement of the packaged cargoes categorised under IMDG code. air.1981). which should be done by the shipper in accordance with IMDG code. Packing of cargo Packing is the process of assembling items into a unit with necessary protection coatings and marking . special care to be taken on each process from packing of the goods to the delivery of cargo at the destination point.It is evident that the improper packing of above listed goods can causes serious threat to a lot of factors. Climatic condition. Packing should be done in such a way that it should not be affected by Outside force such as impact or vibration. Contamination due to unwanted substances like water. 2 . The first procedure involving in this process is to determine the class of goods and sorting it. (Armstrong.
2002) 3 .(IMO) Two incompatible articles when kept together may result in undue hazard in case of leakage.This is where importance of segregation or separation takes place. 2004)Goods on ship are subjected to all type of stresses mainly during handling. dangerous goods having certain similar chemical properties should be grouped together in segregation groups (Williams. with proper bracing. Detailed provisions regarding stowage and segregation of dangerous goods are given in chapter 7 of the IMDG Code. stow. (Karan. or a combination thereof. It is the duty of a carrier to carefully load.(Peermohamed. It‟s important that stowage plan for dangerous goods should ensure that only valid positions are used for dangerous goods when planning and loading For protecting the dangerous goods from adverse weather and from the collision impact it is better to stow goods in outboard stacks. spillage or if an accident occurs . Segregation is obtained by maintaining certain distances between incompatible goods or separating by one or more steel bulkheads or decks between them. handle. blocking and dunnage inside. therefore stowage must be perfect because poor stowage can lead to serious problems both at sea and land. Dangerous goods plan must be properly filled with information pertaining to the dangerous goods on board and this helps quick and easy location of dangerous goods.Packing is either done by the shipper himself or by a third-party and naturally the responsibility falls on him for the comprehensive and relative legislation which must be observed during the preparation for transportation (Wong. Stowage and Separation of Dangerous Packaged Goods Stowing and lashing of cargo comes under loading operation and can be defined as placing of goods in a ship‟s spot or container. 1976) Loading. For the purpose of segregation. 1999) Stowage into containers must be properly and carefully done. carry and keep the cargo according to the applicable regulation. transfer between ships and shore and due to bad climate.
Requirements for inner package marking are different from standard marking and for packages the standard marking must include: Proper shipping name of each type of dangerous goods in the package UN Number Class label for each class of dangerous goods in package Markings must pass tests for legibility. colour fastness and staying affixed (stickers are commercially available) (Armstrong. Format. If the dangerous goods are not properly packed.2007) 4 . Packaging should be of a contrasting colour or be clearly visible against the packaging used on the other goods. for appropriate handling of the goods for the safety and health purposes and for identifying the goods during transportation. This is predominantly important because when an accident involving these goods occurs. the carrier should not take the goods on board (SOLAS) Some of the guidelines of marking dangerous packaged goods are stated below The size of the labels depends on amounts of goods packaged Labels should be placed in such a way that they should be visible when packages are stacked. design and colour of the labels should follow the standards as per the Dangerous Goods Code. labelled and documented in accordance with the regulations. marking and labelling give more clear and immediate notice of dangerous characteristics of the goods. marked.Marking. Labelling and Placarding of Dangerous Goods The main aim of marking and labelling dangerous goods is to inform related persons about package contends . water resistance.
According to the SOLAS Convention. handled and loaded and if an incident or accident occurs. provided it contains all the information required by the IMDG Code. unless the labels affixed on the packages are clearly visible from the exterior of the cargo Transportation of Packaged Dangerous Goods There are lot of factors to be considered during the carriage of dangerous goods and most important of it is information.The other cargoes stacked nearby can also catch fire and if this cargo happened to be a undeclared hazardous cargo consequences can be unimaginable. 1981) Documentation for Dangerous Goods The paper declaration of dangerous goods by the shipper makes sure that all in the transportation chain are aware that dangerous goods are being transported. The dangerous goods transport document may be in any form.2008) 5 . For example a burning cargo placed deep down in stow cannot be discarded by a ship during its voyage . therefore it is vital to have a precise and dependable information about the cargo as decision made on partial information can result in more damage (Jackson. It‟s very vital that all the persons especially crew and master involved in a voyage must be aware of the nature and properties of the cargo and this is mainly for cargo protection and safety of the lives and properties in ship.Placards should be attached on cargo transport units to notify that the contents of the unit are dangerous goods and present risks. either in ship or in the port. the IMDG Code demands the consignor who offers dangerous goods for transport must describe the dangerous goods in a transport document and should provide additional information and documentation as specified. If the carrier is unaware of the nature of the cargo loaded in his ship it will be impossible for him to take necessary precautions and obviously consequences will be there.( Özbek. what the accurate response should be.. This ensures that they are correctly accepted.
Dangerous Goods Flow –Chart Inbound Source:UKOOA 2002 6 .
Common law In common law.(Hameed.of the goods UN number on goods Information about other packaged goods (non dangerous goods) within the load and placed after listed dangerous goods(IMDG Code. Failure to comply with any of the above steps will result in rejection.1965) Legal Aspect of Transportation of Dangerous Packaged Goods. if any .1996) 7 . Based on these notions. refuse the goods where there is no possibility to carry the goods in safety or where the goods are insufficiently protected. it has been said that there are no common carriers of dangerous goods. According to IMDG code following details should be included in the documentation Consignor‟s name and contact telephone number Subsidiary risks. however. He may.The cargo will only be accepted if all the above steps have been taken. the common carrier is the insurer of the goods and is bound to carry goods he publicly professes to carry unless there is reasonable excuse.
and covers all features of the cargo which might result in detention of the ship. crew.( Özbek.The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code There had been limited recognition of the potential problem and lack of international response by the International Maritime Organization for a number of years.ISM Code has larger Implications for the carriage of dangerous goods The Safety Management System (SMS) provides the framework for compliance with the Code. Thus the term „dangerous‟ extent beyond matter likely to result in physical loss of or damage to ship. The IMDG Code is brought into UK law through the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods and Marine Pollutants) (IMO. Under the ISM Code. Other transport modes were also consulted and the best and most effective methods examined and tested in conjunction with technical experts and the insurance industry. The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code requires either two signatures on a single transport document.2008) Role of English Law English court normally acts in this situation when there is a resultant damage due to hazardous nature of the good .The court looks at many factors and the dangerous nature of the goods is not sufficient enough because the law is more concentrated or focused on dangerous situation rather than dangerous nature. or one signature on each of the Dangerous Goods Transport Document and Container/Vehicle Packing Certificate which shall be attached to each other.2010) The International Safety Management Code The ISM Code is a major development in safety in the marine context. In 1965 IMO introduced International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDGC) . It heralds a period of significant change in the marine industry and its repercussions are likely to be felt right up to the very top of the marine food chain. cargo or cleaning expenses and delay.(Özbek.2008) 8 . if the cargo is to be carried on the specific type of vessel.The new code attempted to merge many varying customary rules and procedure related to the transportation of dangerous cargo at sea. the company has the duty to ensure that the ship is properly constructed and equipped to carry dangerous goods safely.
In present day there is still doubt about the problem arising out of transportation of dangerous and hazardous goods like noxious and polluting substances and industrial wastes. The only way to eliminate this risk is either to prohibit the carriage of dangerous goods by sea or to impose such strong measures. but they are handled frequently and in close proximity to people. but this is practically impossible but however packaged goods generally cause less accidents. packaged dangerous goods also have reported some major disaster. Word Count: 1966 9 .Conclusion An increasing number of dangerous cargos are now transiting our globe. However rarely. in circumstances with a high potential for minor troubles. They are mixed freely with a great amount of normally combustible material. namely general cargo.
imo.pdf Accessed on 24 November 2010 IMO(2010) International Maritime Organisation. Available from http://www.A Legal Overview” in Maritime Movement of DangerousCargoes. Australian National Training Authority.Public Regulations Private Liability Karan(2004).com/pdf/imdgmaritime-shipping-codes. Vol 1Chapter 11 Page 167.Hague-Visby. Antony.aspx Accessed on 30th November 2010 Jackson(1981). “Dangerous Cargo.Reference: Armstrong (2007) Prepare for transport of packaged dangerous goods Learners Guide. The Carriers Liability under the International Maritime Conventions the Hague. Australia Barker(1992). Marine policy Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd Publication Berry. IMDGC(2010) International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code 6th edition. and Hamburg Rules 10 . Rights and Liabilities ofthe Parties to the Maritime Adventure Unpublished Thesis Southampton University PP 117. Collier.(1996) Loss or Damage from the Shipment of Goods. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management. Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 8.A.Available From : http://www.org/OurWork/Safety/Cargoes/Pages/DangerousGoods. Hamid.Hazardous goods at Sea.flexocleaners. Paul (2008): “Risk in supply chains: exploratory case studies in the automotive industry”.
pdf&searchx=SOLAS%20consolidated%20edition Accessed on 01 December 2010 UKOOA(2002) Guidelines for the Safe Packing and Handling of Cargo to and from Offshore Locations UK Offshore Operators Association Limited 2nd Issue November Willinger.2.temaiso. Johann(1981) Dangerous.Ozbek. “The Implications of Shipping Dangerous Cargo”.php?urllink=http://www.2dix. SOLAS Reg 4 Available from http://www. 395 Williams(1999). & Com.no/docs/Splash%20P rotection%20-%20SOLASguidelines%20ChII-25.G(2008) The Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Sea Hamburg Studies on Maritime Affairs Springer publication Berlin Heidelberg Peermohamed. PP 387. hazardous and noxious cargoes ButterworthHeinemann Ltd Publication Wong K.com/view/view.A (2002) Dangerous Cargo  P&I International Publications pp 17. 13.K(1976) Packing Dangerous Goods 8 J. 11 . International Symposium on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Inland Waterways 10th & 11th May 1. Mar L. 19. in Pursuit and Defence of Cargo Claims.
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