FLUXLESS WAFER-LEVEL Cu–Sn BONDING FOR MICRO- AND NANOSYSTEMS PACKAGING

Nils Hoivik, Kaiying Wang, Knut Aasmundtveit, Guttorm Salomonsen,
Department of Micro and Nano Systems Technology - IMST, HiVe-Vestfold University College

Adriana Lapadatu, Gjermund Kittilsland and Birger Stark
Sensonor Technologies AS, Norway

ESTC2010, Sept 13-16, Berlin - Germany

Motivation • Needed a bonding technology to: – Interconnect MEMS devices (few I/O) – Encapsulation/package (bond frames) Infineon SP12T Pressure sensor • Once MEMS devices are “freestanding” on device wafer – No further wet processing allowed – MEMS devices require a well defined atmosphere. Berlin 2 . or vacuum (hermetic) • Cu-Sn SLID bonding is a “well established” interconnect technology – SLID Cu-Sn  (Cu/Cu3Sn/Cu) – Chips are joined ~235oC (Sn melts) – IMC can tolerate T > 350oC MEMS and ASIC combined: to create a package ESTC2010. Sept 13-16.

Sept 13-16. single-phase bond line (Cu/Cu3Sn/Cu) *AKA: Isothermal Solidification (IS) Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) ESTC2010.Cu-Sn Solid-Liquid Inter-Diffusion Bonding • SLID* bonding – intermetallic formation between a high-melting point component (Cu) and a low melting point component (Sn) • Bonding Temperature: 250-300oC • Final bond line can tolerate higher temperatures – Cu3Sn > 650oC – Successive stacking • Goal: Stable. Berlin 3 .

followed by grain boundary diffusion to create Cu3Sn First reaction is fast (seconds). Cu6Sn5 is formed first by solid state diffusion. Sept 13-16. Berlin 4 .Symmetric Cu-Sn Bonding Heat and Pressure Cu Silicon substrate Cu TiW/Au Cu3Sn Cu6Sn5 Cu3Sn Cu6Sn5 Sn Cu 1 min at 260C Cu Silicon substrate As electroplated Heat and pressure applied during bonding Final bond Cu3Sn 30 min at 260C • In the Cu-Sn system. however longer times are required for second diffusion (minutes) ESTC2010.

Wafer-level Fluxless Cu-Sn Bonding • Etch backside marks on wafers • Oxidize wafers – 500-750 nm SiO2 Alignement marks • Sputter seedlayer – TiW. nor pre-clean of wafers Bond frame geometry ESTC2010. Sn: 1.5 μm – Uniformity ~ 2-5% across wafer 220 um • Wafer bonding – Vacuum/N2 (EVG501) – Use no flux. Sept 13-16. Au Cu/Sn bond frame • Pattern bond frames – AZ4562 (~10 μm) Si wafer • Electroplate – Cu: 5 μm. Berlin 5 .

Berlin 6 .IMC formation – Effect of thermal ramp Rapid anneal to 400oC 400 5 10 20 25 30 Cu3Sn Cu6Sn5 Cu6Sn5 Slow anneal to 400oC 400 5 10 20 25 30 Cu3Sn Two-step anneal to 400oC Sn melting point 400 235 5 10 20 25 30 Cu3Sn Cu3Sn For thin Sn films at the bonding interface  must obtain an even IMC formation ESTC2010. Sept 13-16.

Sept 13-16. 260 Ramp 1: 7 K/min Ramp 2: 3 K/min Bond force of 7kN (20 MPa) at 150C. Berlin 7 . B: 1kN (3 MPa) at T ~240C) Wafer C. 1000 Time Ramp 1 Ramp 2 Soak time Cool down Bond force [N] 7000 Tm 150 X ESTC2010. D & E: maintained high throughout the soak time.Bond Process – Temperature & Force Employing a slow ramping rate after wafers are brought into contact (150 oC) is beneficial for reducing the flow of any excess Sn. and thus less pure liquid Sn is available at the bonding 300 interface. More Sn will have reacted with Cu by T [oC] the time the temperature reaches the melting point of Sn. Wafer A.

Bond Results 100 mm wafer Bonding and dicing yield: 96-100% IR inspection used to evaluate Sn overflow Cross-sections to evaluate IMC composition Wafer D: high force Clean edges Wafer B: High/Low force Sn overflow Sn overflow ~ 10 μm ESTC2010. Sept 13-16. Berlin 8 .

A: 7kN/1kN – 1 min 260oC B: 7kN/1kN – 10 min 300oC C: 7kN – 10 min 300oC D: 7kN – 30 min 260oC ESTC2010. this area will end up converted to Cu3Sn as well. Sept 13-16. with some remaining Cu6Sn5 observed at the frame edges. Upon further annealing. Berlin 9 . all available Sn has been converted to Cu3Sn between the Cu areas.IMC Formation Observations: A continuous high bond force in general leads to a higher dicing yield As desired.

Handling of 100 μm thick wafer did not! 100 um Cu Cu3Sn Cracks Deflected areas Cu ESTC2010. one can observe deflection of a thin “membrane” due to the pressure difference 100 um thick wafer bonded to 450 um thick Si wafer Cu-Sn bond process worked very well but. Berlin 10 . Sept 13-16.Encapsulation Evaluation – 100 um Si Wafer For wafers bonded in vacuum.

Berlin Location along membrane (mm) 11 . Sept 13-16.Encapsulation Evaluation – Membranes • Vacuum bonding of back-side etched SOI wafers (10 um device layer) • Dies measured over a period of two months • No detectable variation in deflection of membrane Measured deformation (um) Membrane SOI wafer Cu/Sn bond frame Si wafer Bond frame Membrane ESTC2010.

Sept 13-16.Shear Testing Avoid unintentional heat treatment (adhesive used to glue down dies) Test devices “as-is” after bonding fixed in place by another substrate of same thickness Delamination mainly occurs between TiW/SiO2. Berlin 12 . not at the bond interface ESTC2010.

Measured Shear Strength • From each wafer pair. Berlin 13 . Sept 13-16. – . 20 dies were tested after bonding. a wafer pair stored for ~60 days was bonded and measured E (stored) Wafer pair E ESTC2010.40 oC/150 oC – 8 cycles/hour – 1000 cycles Wafer pair D • Additionally. and 20 dies after thermal cycling.

initiates the diffusion process between Cu and Sn early on and reduces the amount of pure Sn left in the bond line when reaching the melting temperature of Sn.Summary • Symmetric Cu-Sn interdiffusion bonding offers a cost-effective packaging process compatible with sensitive micro. • Capping the Cu on both bonding surfaces with Sn. and wafers stored for nearly two months were bonded using no pre-clean or flux and without any reduction in bonding yield or shear strength. Sept 13-16.and nano-scale devices. etching or use of fluxing agent. ESTC2010. • Wafers are bonded without the use of any pre-cleaning. • Using a two-step temperature profile. • Measured shear strength is above 30 MPa. Berlin 14 . with the wafers brought into contact at 150 oC. Cu will be protected from oxidizing.

I.no/imst ESTC2010. Kittilsland. Berlin 15 .Thank you for your attention! More on Cu-Sn encapsulation will be published at ECS2010. T. B.hive. G. Guttorm Salomonsen Email: nh@hive. Lapadatu. Dalsrud. Oct 12-16. Stark N. Hoivik. V. Simonsen.no Website: www. Sept 13-16. 2010 “Cu-Sn Wafer Level Bonding for Vacuum Encapsulation of Microbolometers Focal Plane Arrays” A.

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