2011

Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students from Graduate Business Students (GBS) in Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam.
Applied Business Research Proposal (ABR)
Prepared by: Mohd Fairuz Nizam Mohd Awal – 2009729397 Adzleen Abu Bakar – 2009946039 Azura Osman - 2009968717 Class: EMBA 14A

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Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

Table of Contents
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER (A) INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 6 1. Problem Statement ........................................................................................................................... 6 2. Gaps of Knowledge ........................................................................................................................... 7 3. Background of Study ......................................................................................................................... 8 4. Research Issues ............................................................................................................................. 10 5. Research Questions ........................................................................................................................ 13 6. Objective of the Study ..................................................................................................................... 14 7. Justification of Current Study .......................................................................................................... 14 8. Potential Outcome & Practice/Significance of Study ...................................................................... 15 9. Operational Definition...................................................................................................................... 16 10. Scope of Study ............................................................................................................................... 17 11. Summary of Research Methodology .............................................................................................. 17 12. Chapter Summary .......................................................................................................................... 17 CHAPTER (B) LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................ 19 1. Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 19 2. Definition of mobile commerce ........................................................................................................ 19 3. Mobile Device .................................................................................................................................. 22 4. Mobile Commerce Service Categories ........................................................................................... 23 5. Research Theory............................................................................................................................. 24 5.1 The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989) ..................................................... 25 5.2 The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) ........................................................ 26 5.3 The Diffusion of Innovation Theory (DOI) (Rogers, 1995) ..................................................... 28 5.4 The Techproved Model (Norzaidi et al, 2007; Norzaidi & Intan Salwani, 2011) .................... 29 CHAPTER (C) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .................................................................................... 32 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 32 2. Sampling & Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 32 2.1 Primary data .......................................................................................................................... 32 2.2 Questionnaires ...................................................................................................................... 32 2.3 Sample of Study .................................................................................................................... 33 3. Secondary Data .............................................................................................................................. 34 4. Theoretical Framework ................................................................................................................... 34 5. Research Model .............................................................................................................................. 34 6. Hypotheses Development ............................................................................................................... 36 6.1 Perceived Usefulness ............................................................................................................ 36 6.2 Perceived Ease-Of-Use ......................................................................................................... 37 6.3 Perceived Cost ....................................................................................................................... 39 6.4 Perceived Trust ...................................................................................................................... 41 6.5 Intention to Use ...................................................................................................................... 43 7. Types of Tests and Statistical Software .......................................................................................... 44 8. Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 45 CHAPTER (D) ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS ........................................................................................ 46 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 46 2. Descriptive Statistics ....................................................................................................................... 46 3. Normality Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 49 4. Scale Reliability & Validity Analysis ................................................................................................ 53 4.1 Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Test .......................................................................................... 54 4.2 Factor Analysis for Validity ..................................................................................................... 55 4.3 Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartletts’s Validity Test .................................................................... 55 4.4 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity .................................................................................................... 56 4.4 Factor Loading ....................................................................................................................... 57 4.5 Coefficient Correlation Analysis ............................................................................................. 59 4.6 Multiple Regression Analysis ................................................................................................. 61 4.7 Analysis Summary ................................................................................................................. 62

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Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

CHAPTER (E) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ............................................................................. 64 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 64 2. Findings of Study ............................................................................................................................ 64 3. Practical Implications ...................................................................................................................... 66 4. Limitations of Research................................................................................................................... 71 5. Recommendation for Further Research.......................................................................................... 72 6. Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 73 APPENDIXES ....................................................................................................................................... 74 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................... 76 Online resources ................................................................................................................................... 76 Journals / Research Publication ........................................................................................................... 76 Report / Press Publication ..................................................................................................................... 82

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Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

Abstract Purpose – The Malaysian Communications & Multimedia Commission, mobile subscribers has grown a long way from 21.8 mobile phones per 100 inhabitants in 2000 to a whopping 110.6 mobile phones per 100 inhabitants in the 3Q of 2010. Total number of mobile phone subscribers is 33.9 million or 119.2% by the end of 2010. As such, this paper proposes to provide insight on the factors of mobile commerce adoption among the part time post graduate students in University Teknology Mara (UiTM), Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach – This study will focus on exploratory research methodology where it relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature, report and/or data on mobile commerce activities in Malaysia and other parts of the world. There were also quantitative approaches in this study where a set of survey have been distributed among the target population. Various analyses such as normality test, reliability and validity tests, correlation and multiple regression analysis have been utilized to test the hypotheses as well as the data obtained from the survey Findings – The findings showed that the mobile commerce adoption factors of Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease-Of-Use (PEU) and Perceived Cost (PC) were found to have a significant relationship with Intention to Use (Actual Usage). Therefore, the three hypotheses were supported. Meanwhile Perceived Trust (PT) had no significant relationship with the Intention to Use (Actual Usage). Hence, this hypothesis are not supported. Practical implications – The results of this study lead interesting implications to various groups. In particular, the results could benefit the academics, the

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government and policy makers and ultimately.Research paper 5 Classified .Internal use .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. technology acceptance. The study also extend the Technology Acceptence Model (TAM) introduce by Davis 1986 with the inclusion of such variables of Perceived Trust and Perceived Cost. Paper type . The findings represent post graduate part time student which stand in between full time students and working adults. related industry players in that it is able to provide valuable information and perhaps provide some direction on how the mobile commerce industry can be shaped into. Keywords – mobile commerce. Originality/value – The paper investigate the factor of mobile commerce adoption with different target population from previose studies. post graduate students.

P. there is still very little adoption for mobile-application (Business Times. working adult whom therefore have the means and power to adopt and use mobile commerce application. there is minimal research conducted on the correlation and the perceived attributes that postgraduate students look into when adopting into mobile application. Malaysia. CHAPTER (A) INTRODUCTION 1.Y et al. costs. Selangor. mobile interface and quality of telecommunications services. In principle. There had been some studies conducted to find the correlation between mobile commerce use and adoption and students. However. (Ng. 2010).Internal use . (Fahad. Existing internet banking users are usually the early adopters for mobile banking. However.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Having had to work and study at the same time. Shah Alam. the success of mobile application is basically reliant on various factors. 2009) and (Hu & Allison. this paper will deliberate on the determining factors for mobile-commerce adoption among postgraduate in the Graduate Business School in Universiti Teknologi MARA. 2010). mobile commerce applications such as mobile banking and other transactional services were developed to provide convenience to the customers who have neither the luxury of time nor accessibility to conduct these transactions. Thus. mobile commerce applications is a convenience to the postgraduate student considering transactional mobile commerce such as mobile-banking and tickets booking would save time and efforts for the said student. 6 Classified . May 2010). Problem Statement While the mobile and smart phone adoption in Malaysia flourishes. amongst other factors. A postgraduate student is perceived to be a mature.

flight or cinema bookings. undergraduate students (Kini. 7 Classified . There is now very little distinction between mobile device and desktop Personal Computer (PC) (Woddrock. The rapid technology development for devices. Gaps of Knowledge Mobile communications devices has evolved from becoming just a means for communicating via telephony and text messages into a fully fledged communications medium that even allows for transactional operations such as banking.Y et al. Thus current study on mobile commerce with the existence of high technological device is important to justify relevancy of past studies on mobile commerce. 2011). However the rapid development of technology has brought new meaning to the mobility device (Gered. 2006). Thus. which will focus on different type of population that is the postgraduate students.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. 2010) have been done. which makes it an interesting juxtaposition.Internal use . 2. this study. P. Postgraduate students are both a student and working adult. 2007). studies on mobile commerce among various group of students from high school and tertiary students (Ng. platform and network can render any studies on mobile commerce irrelevant (O’Donnell. there are minimal studies done on the correlation of postgraduate students and mobile commerce adoption. At the moment. All of the studies provide different results due to the demographic characteristic of the test group. On the other hand. will definitely return with dissimilar and fascinating results compared to previous studies on mobile commerce. 2010). 2009) and graduate students (Hu & Allison. hotel.

Internal use .6 mobile phones per 100 inhabitants in the 3Q of 2010 (MCMC. 2005. These findings have practical implications for public policymakers. mobile subscribers has grown a long way from 21. 2010). This knowledge of understanding is very crucial to improve the mobile commerce adoption rate not only for student but for general consumers in Malaysia. 5. (Gartner. Background of Study Telecommunication Industry According to the telecommunications regulator. They indicated that the larger the dispensable income.Y et al.2% by the end of 2010 (MCMC. In 8 Classified . 2011) From the total.9 million or 119. the more likely that the students will use mobile commerce due to cost issues. Harris et al.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. smartphones sales totaled 115 million units. C&M Statistics 1Q2011).6% higher during the same period last year. P. market researchers and telecommunications and its ancillary services sector in Malaysia. Various studies indicated that dispensable income possessed by students are the factors that determine the mobile commerce adoption among students (Hu & Allison. Ng.8 mobile phones per 100 inhabitants in 2000 to a whopping 110. Total number of mobile phone subscribers is 33. Consider the scenario of a postgraduate student with a higher dispensable income than that of a full time student. As such. 42 percent higher than 3Q2010 and 26 percent of total number of mobile phones purchased. 2010.5 million units at 3Q2011. Worldwide sales for mobile devices totaled 440. it can be argued that the adoption of mobile commerce among postgraduate student is high but this is still yet to be proven. 3. 2010). the Malaysian Communications & Multimedia Commission. investors.

1 billion and create 7.9 trillion while internet subscribers using dial-ups will be reduced by 75%. Interest for mobile broadband was fueled by attractive promotions pricing for high-end mobile phones and other mobile multimedia devices with postpaid services. however.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. of Subscribers (Million) 2010 12 2011 15 2012 16 2013 17.3% to reach USD4. Gartner also predicted that by 2015. Malaysian mobile users might have already hit a 100% penetration rate.155 jobs by 2020.700 3G subscribers (MCMC 2011). Malaysia.1 million mobile wireless broadband and 601.5 2014 17. 50% of web sales for companies would be via social presence and mobile applications. as shown below: Year No.5 Table 1: Number of Mobile Subscribers The Performance Management & Delivery Unit (PEMANDU). This also corresponds with Frost & Sullivan which also predicted that mobile broadband adoption among Asia Pacific users is on a rise. data traffic grew 51% from 68Gbps in 2006 to 234Gbps in 2009 (Frost & Sullivan 2010). Correspondingly.Internal use . identified broadband to be key growth driver for ICT in Malaysia. In the recent info-sharing seminar by Gartner. wireless broadband subscribers totaled 4. a unit under the Malaysian Prime Minister’s Department.9 million subscribers. 2. In tandem to this 9 Classified . Ubiquitous broadband is expected to bring a Growth National Income of RM2. a market research leader stipulated that by the year 2013. global telecommunications revenue would have grown at a CAGR of 6. the trend seems to still show growth in subscriptions.

P.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. According to the Institute of Graduate Studies of UiTM. including mobile commerce applications. Ng. Shah Alam was established in 1984 and is one of the premier public post-graduate schools which provide business management related courses to students.Y et al also mentioned that apart from being early adopters to 10 Classified . There are no available results for actual statistics GBS students as yet. there are 4684 masters students attending both Masters and DBA. the second largest mobile phone manufacturer after Apple (Andy. growth. Doctorate and full PhD. Young adults are also most likely to be early adopters for mobile commerce (Kini. 2009). Masters in Science by research. This indicates that students are the largest mobile users as illustrated in Netherlands where all youths from the age of 19 to 22 years young adults owns a mobile phone (Wentzel et al.Internal use . the primary target markets for mobile commerce consumer services are students from the age range of 19 to 25 years (Chen Hu et al. 4. Research Issues Based on a study on mobile value added services carry out by Nokia. UiTM The Graduate Business School of Universiti Teknologi MARA. The Graduate Business school offers both full and part time courses such as Masters in Business Administration. 2007). 2005). Executive Masters in Business Administration. Graduate Business School. as at July to December 2010. 2010). 2005). the usability for mobile services will also grow. This phenomenon is most likely due to their nature that they are typically more interested in innovation such mobile commerce technology (Morcilio.

(Ng. Again. young consumers are technology savvy and always willing to try new things (Ng. 2010). it must be noted that this study was made among high school and tertiary students where the income of the subjects are limited. location based and content delivery in mobile applications were less significant among the high school and tertiary students. 2010) Postgraduate students. paint a different picture altogether: seeing that this group has larger dispensable income which enables them to have higher degree of commitment on any mobile commerce activities and applications. 2010). (Ng.Y et al. 2005). P. 2010). 2010). P. P. This also were proven by a study made by Cyril de Run where it indicate that internet is becoming the preferred pass time and leading form of communication for students and educated youth (Cyril de Run et al. new technologies.Internal use .Y et al. 11 Classified .Y et al. Despite the obvious correlation and benefits between students and mobile communications for education. This is perhaps due to the fact that income source for these groups are limited and mostly dependent on their parents. both mobile and internet are rarely used for educational purposes (Wentzel et al. According to the study made among the high school and tertiary students in Malaysia. it is found out that students rely on mobile phones to connect with friends and family.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.Y et al. P. on the other hands. A study found out that transaction based. A study has indicated that students with higher mobile services expenditure recognize the importance of other more extensive web-related services such as web browsing. (Ng.

Many universities have mitigated the adoption rate for wireless technology among the university communities by providing wireless infrastructure around campus plus the communication and transaction of academic information are done through Personal Digital Assistance (PDA) and mobile phones (via Short Messaging System & Multimedia Messaging Services) as part of the learning processes from students to lecturers (Kim et al 2006). fund transfers and stock trading (Kalakota and Robinson. however were focused on full time university students where they do not have fixed income to cope with better mobile application and facilities (Harris et al. 2009. 2010) The other factor that is looked into is the perceived usefulness of mobile commerce applications where it promotes convenience via its transactional mobile commerce applications. They supported the idea that the wireless networks augment the flexibility of access to learning resources (Fahad. respondents agreed that mobile technologies are perceived as an effective tool in improving communication as well as learning. The study. From a university student perspective. the study of academic communities’ behavior on mobile device ownership. On the other hand. The study by Kim et al focused on the implementation of the technologies and not the adoption of the technology by the student itself. Mobile commerce allows devices to conduct electronic business transactions such as purchasing or ordering of products. preferences. hotels and others.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. (Hu & Allison.Internal use . and activities indicate that ownership and use of mobile device has not quite achieved a tipping point of mass adoption. 2006). Kim et al. These are useful for postgraduate students 12 Classified . 2002). Transactional mobile commerce includes mobile-banking or booking applications for transportations. 2005).

Tao Zhou (2010) noted that for this transactional mobile commerce to work successfully. Malaysia? 2. who might not have the time to conduct daily errands as above. system quality and information quality are the main qualifying factors for the success of mobile website adoption. What is the correlation between perceived usefulness and mobile commerce adoption among MBA part time students in UiTM Shah Alam. Research Questions General 1. What is connection between perceived time effectiveness and mobile commerce offering among MBA part time students in UiTM Shah Alam. However. Malaysia? 4. What is the relationship between the perceived usefulness and mobile commerce adoption among part time MBA students in UiTM Shah Alam. What is the association between perceived cost and mobile commerce offerings among MBA part time students in UiTM Shah Alam.Internal use . Malaysia? 13 Classified . Malaysia? Specific 1.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. 5. What are the factors that influence the adoption of mobile commerce among part time Masters in Business Administration (MBA) student in Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam. Malaysia? 3.

4. To ascertain connection between perceived time effectiveness and mobile commerce offering among MBA part time students in UiTM Shah Alam.9 million smartphones during the fourth quarter of 2010. Malaysia. To identify the factor that influences the adoption of mobile commerce among part-time post-graduate students from the Graduate Business School of Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. 14 Classified . 2. Malaysia Specific 1. To identify the relationship between perceived usefulness and mobile commerce adoption among part time MBA students in UiTM Shah Alam. 3.2% increase from 4Q09. Justification of Current Study Malaysia mobile penetration has reached above 100%. Malaysia. Malaysia. In Malaysia. Ownership for smartphone products such as Apple. 7. To define the relationship between perceived usefulness and mobile commerce adoption among MBA part time students in UiTM Shah Alam.Internal use . HTC and Blackberry is set to grow higher. an 87. Malaysia. vendors shipped a total of 100. globally. Objective of the Study General 5. 6. To determine the association between perceived cost and mobile commerce offerings among MBA part time students in UiTM Shah Alam. According to International Data Corporation (IDC) Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker.

Malaysia for mobile commerce applications. 8.Internal use . including speedy Internet access. Post-graduate students are assumed to have their own dispensable income and as such will be able to make purchases through mobile commerce application.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.8% of total mobile telephones sold in 2010. Therefore. this would be a compelling product due to their busy schedule of having to balance work and studies commitments. IDC predicted growth of 1. Channelnewsasia. this study aims to investigate the compelling factors that would allow for mobile commerce adoption among the part-time students. Post-graduate students from the Graduate Business School of Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam fall into the age group of the highest numbers of mobile users in Malaysia.com reported in June 2010 that the sales of smartphones in Malaysia creates path for mobile commerce adoption as it was observed that there is a huge jump in mobile commerce due to the growing popularity of smartphones featuring multimedia capabilities. Potential Outcome & Practice/Significance of Study To the society The business communities would be able to identify the requirements and expectations of post-graduate students from the Graduate Business School of Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam. For part-time students. This study is also hoped to trigger the awareness of m- 15 Classified . This justifies the need to study mobile commerce adoption among mobile users in Malaysia. This study will allow them to provide the best product and services to cater to their needs. 19. the mobile commerce applications are being developed in view of the demand for faster pace of lifestyle nowadays. Additionally.8 million units of smartphones sales in Malaysia.

Graduate Business School is an academic school which offers post-graduate business management-related courses. Selangor.Internal use . To the academician The academician would be able to use this paper as a reference for future researches related to mobile commerce which includes both the criteria and findings of this research. term and condition. Universiti Teknologi MARA is a public educational institution based in Shah Alam. An example of this is booking of hotel rooms. Post-graduate student is an individual who is a full-time employee and attends classes after working hours and/or during the weekends. 9. 16 Classified . and monitoring of mobile commerce transactions. Commerce among these students thus increasing the take-up rate for mobile commerce. in full time or part time basis. flight tickets and/or mobile banking.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Operational Definition Mobile commerce transactional services between the owner of smart telephones or personal digital assistants (PDAs) and the mobile commerce vendors or suppliers. To the policy maker This study can provide an impact to the policy makers in drafting rules and regulations of mobile commerce practices such as contractual arrangements.

Summary of Research Methodology First. There is a gap between the availability of mobile commerce applications and the perceived usefulness of 17 Classified . This is to ensure the questionnaire is justified and will be able to capture the essence of this study. Scope of Study The stud y to determine the factor of mobile commerce adoption is limited to post-graduate students from the Graduate Business School of Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam. 10. The data collected will then be tabulated and analyzed accordingly. therefore is perceived to want to adopt to mobile communications services to enable to carry out transactional applications such as mobile-banking or mobile purchasing such as airline ticket bookings. the study will be able to determine the compelling factors that allows for technology adoption of mobile commerce applications among the students. 11.Internal use . Chapter Summary This chapter delineates the justification and raison d’être behind this study. 12. The questionnaires will then be distributed among eMBA and e-Track students from the Graduate Business School of Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam. a questionnaire will be adopted from existing past studies. Postgraduate students are perceived to have the buying power but not the convenience of time. movie cinema purchasing and hotel bookings. This would mean that the questionnaires will need to be distributed during the evening (for e-Track students) and weekend classes. Subsequently. Malaysia only.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. It provides an overview of the mobile communications industry and its correlation with postgraduate students.

18 Classified .Internal use .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. we explored other previous studies that were conducted on mobile commerce and adoption of the same among students. A detailed literature review pertaining to mobile commerce adoption is extensively discussed in the next chapter. From the problem and the gap of knowledge. the applications.

This indicates that business operating without technology adaptation will likely to be left behind and face the consequences of ferocious competition thus in the end make the company or business insolvent. mobile commerce is providing to be a strong contender against traditional physical shops. 2. 19 Classified . Overview The success and relevance of today’s business is heavily dependent on technology. e-commerce and most recently. purchasing and reselling via virtual world via a connected laptop.Internal use . At the same time. Similarly. 88% of CEOs and 90% of CIOs says they have the same insights for how technology can help achieved desirable business outputs at their own company (Penn. A study revealed that 99% of the top Management in the companies. 2007). An efficient technology platform will be able to cut a lot of cost and time for office operations and allow for the selling. business intelligence and others. Schoen and Berland.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Definition of mobile commerce There are many types of business technologies available on the information communications technology platform for the world market today such as social media. its platform. Current development of social media networks. the adoption of mobile commerce is an almost natural progression for the ownership of mobile phones. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and 86% of Chief Information Officers (CIOs) believe technology is essential for the companies’ development. CHAPTER (B) LITERATURE REVIEW 1. networks and applications used by the company. This section looks into the related literature reviews on the determining factors for mobile commerce adoption. cloud computing.

multimedia messaging service (“MMS”). Department of Justice. However. the extension of and the evolution of e-commerce. interact and transact) via a mobile wireless device.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Thus. technology has evolved in leaps and bounds since then 20 Classified . handheld mobile devices that typically have been used for telephonic communications. Mobile commerce is really. More detailed definition is stated in the research paper on mobile commerce from the Department of Justice. SMS or MMS. using small. A simple definition would be the conduct of business with the support of wireless technology (Sugianto. 2002). 2008).Internal use . Australia. Both e-commerce and mobile commerce have similarities in term of the commercialisation aspect (that is it an electronic business transaction process) but differs in terms of mobility capability platform. Both definitions indicates that mobile commerce is about the conduct of doing business (communicates. Before going further into mobile commerce. However. or the Internet. The definition above detailed out the mobile type transactions available. especially on its features. and transact via high-speed connection to the Internet (Consumer Affairs Victoria. the Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques (ODEC) in 2008 defined mobile commerce as a commercial transaction and communication activities conducted through wireless communication services and networks by means of short message services (“SMS”). that is. which translated mobile commerce to literally mean using handheld wireless devices to communicate. it is better to understand what mobile commerce really is in terms of definition and its features. some definition may define both e-commerce and mobile commerce. interact. There are various definitions of mobile commerce.

Buse and Herstatt (2008) argued that mobile commerce definitions that emphasis on monetary value are inappropriate because its neglects the commercial nature of marketing measures and after sales service. hotels or movie tickets. This is part of a marketing strategy to attract more people to buy and use the devices where hundreds of applications are made available to be used at will. a clear example would be the free downloadable applications such as certain downloading free games or e-books. 21 Classified . As defined by Grosche and Knospe (2007). mobile commerce is an activity using mobile device for business transactions performed over a mobile telecommunication network.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.Internal use . There are also mobile devices that are able to connect using only on wireless internet services such as iPad or tablet PCs such as HTC sense (Gered 2011). The argument continued by stipulating that some electronic business transactions does not incur any costs. To add. Tiwari. and mobile commerce transactions are not just limited to SMS and MMS but also via other interactive applications such as mobile games. current mobile devices are no longer restricted to only telephonic services. and bookings of flights. possibly involving the transfer of monitory value. They also argued that the definition also lacks the physical outcome of a product as wireless technology in the definition solely focused on electronic transaction. mobile banking operations such as paying bills and transferring of funds. Another example would be the free downloadable applications from the smart phones like a Samsung Galaxy tablet or the HTC smart telephones.

which is initiated and/or completed by using mobiles access to computer-mediated networks with the help of mobile devices. Thus by combining all of the important aspect of mobile commerce definition. palmtops. Mobile Device The definition above did not provide a clear definition of a mobile device. pocket PCs and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants). 3.Internal use . Tiwari et al derived a new definition of mobile commerce as any transactions involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services. cell phones. This research paper will follow the latter definition as a foundation of our paper. The emerging trends available on new technologies allows for the difference between mobile devices and a personal computer (PC) almost negligent. the main difference between both mobile device and PC is that user interaction with a desktop PC is done by using the mouse and the keyboard where both of which are non-existence on a mobile device. Based on a paper by Woddrock (2006). For example Samsung Galaxy SII and iphone4S are fabricated with dual core processing chip which are available in any PC or laptops nowadays. Both mobile and PC capabilities are becoming similar. This can be clearly seen by the intensive innovation of smartphones and tablets.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Zhang et al (2002) indicated that mobile devices can be in the form of pagers. 22 Classified . The devices identified can all support Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) technology but with the drawback of limited bandwidth capability which makes high graphical contents of certain applications rendered unsuitable.

smartphones. Gered (2011) identified some new devices (tablets or ipad) that do not have the capability of telephony function but which main function to access the internet wirelessly from anywhere and anytime the users wanted.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. mobile device will cover the following: mobile phones. It can be estimated that within several more years the mobile device will be a strong contender in making the desktop PCs obsolete. 4. For the purpose of this paper. 2010). The e-commerce services comprise of several business activities such as Business to Consumer (B2C). Mobile Commerce Service Categories As cited by Roshanak mobile commerce is an extension of e-commerce (Roshanak. apart from the generic term “mobile device”. Within the 23 Classified . or by a wireless local area network (“WLAN”) access point. This class of devices currently has no common name. tablets and smart phones (excluding only for desktop PC) in making mobile commerce transaction. 2009). with larger screen plus high definition quality enabling a lofty graphic content to be uploaded and play within minutes. As to date. The numbers of users increases every year due to the availability of increased capacity of the mobile device. This also indicates that there is a golden opportunity for mobile commerce to be flourishing.Internal use . record shows that the smartphones market grew by 50% yearly (Weintraub. This is done either by smartcard or through mobile communications networks (sim card). Business to Government (B2G) and Government to Consumer (B2C). Business to Business (B2B). laptops. However. mobile devices have since improved for the past five or six years. The smartphones and tablets are now equipped with high processing speed that is equal to a desktop PC.

Oliveira and Martins (2011) in its literature have indentified 5 popular theories for measuring user’s adoption and they are the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis 1986.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. graphic. 24 Classified . city guide. Research Theory There are various research theories available that can be used to measure users adoption on technology product. 5. Davis 1989. maps. Theory Of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen 1985. 2010). 2001. mobile commerce services may also be categorized into four main categories. e-mail. Grosche and Knospe. unified messaging. games. directory service. (Islam et al. context of mobile commerce. shopping. traffic and weather. Davis et al. corporate information. video and TV streaming. broking. auctions. Hsieh. and competition/contests and lastly Information which includes News.Internal use . Unified Theory Of Acceptance And Use Of Technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al. 2003). 1989). market data and mobile advertising. voting. To add. 2007). Ajzen 1991). and the Technology Organization and Environment (TOE) framework (Tornatzky and Fleischer 1990). 2007. booking and reservations. The third is Transaction which includes Banking. mobile wallet. Second is a Communications tool which is Short messaging. Entertainment category which comprises of music. Diffusion Of Innovation (DOI) (Rogers 1995). O’Donnell et al. chat rooms and video conferencing. 2007. betting. the most refer to services for mobile commerce is on B2C and B2B (Jahanshahi. Firstly.

It is noted that perceived usefulness possess the strongest predictor of an individual’s intention to use an information technology (Li. perceived usefulness is defined as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance” where as perceived ease of use is defined as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort”. Refer to the diagram 1 below for the TAM model frame work. most of them are based on theory such as TAM. 25 Classified . During the time it was proposed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are the most important individual beliefs about using an information technology tool. According to Davis. TPB and DOI (Wei et al. TAM was founded on the Theory of Reasoned Action. 2009). Although there are several framework and models to clarify the factors or determinants influencing the acceptance of technology in consumer context. In 1989 Davis had developed the TAM with the objective to identify the factors that caused people to accept or reject an information technology. 1989) Wei et al (2009) and Chuttur (2009) mentioned in their literature that TAM is widely used in adoption studies as it is information system (IS) specific and is based on a theory of social psychology.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. 5. 2007).1 The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis. These then lead to individual behaviour intention and actual behaviour.Internal use .

Li 26 Classified . intention may not characterized enough the actual use due to the period of time taken from intention to adoption could be full of uncertainties. TPB identifies that behavioural intention to perform an activity is determined by attitude. 1991) The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was developed by Ajzen in 1991 and it was an extension to Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) so as to include the mandatory situation. 5.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. 2007). behaviour could not be treated as terminal goal and it should be treated as fundamental goal. 2009). he also thinks that there would be other factors then perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use and TAM was a deterministic model (Chuttur. and subjective norm where attitude is defined as a person’s feelings about performing behaviour (Wei et al 2009). Furthermore. To add further. perceived behavioural control.2 The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen.Internal use . In addition. Perceived Usefulness Attitude toward Usage Perceived Ease of Use Intention to Use Actual Usage Diagram 1: The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Davis 1989 There are many issues associated with the TAM model and as pointed out by Bogazzi (2007) the model poses a lack theoretical relationship where there were weak relationship between the intention to use and actual usage. The TRA is used to envisage an individual’s behaviour in a real voluntary situation which is contradicting to the TAM where the situation is more towards a mandatory context (Li.

188) or “perceptions of internal and external constraints on behaviour” in IS research (Taylor and Todd 1995. where PBC and actual control are discrepant. (2007) cited that perceived behavioural control is defined as “the perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behaviour” (Ajzen 1991. 2001) 27 Classified . 2005. the problem of TPB is the predictions concerning the effects of perceived behavioural control (PBC) on behaviour where it is clouded by the explicit assumption that PBC is an accurate representation of actual control (personal constraints on behaviour). p.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. p. p. Belief and Evaluations Attitude toward Behaviour Normative beliefs and motivation to comply Subjective Norm Behaviour Intention Actual Behaviour Control Beliefs & Perceived Facilitation Perceived Behaviour Control Diagram 2: The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) Ajzen 1991 However. 234). 149). the effect of PBC on behaviour is more problematic. For example. Thus. a personal barrier might be the level of craving for cigarettes. consider cigarette smoking: environmental barrier might be that everyone at work smokes. It seems likely that PBC will rarely reflect actual control in a very accurate way. (Armitage et al.Internal use . Whereas We et al (2007) cited that subjective norm is defined as “one’s beliefs about whether significant others think that one should engage in the activity” (Fusilier and Durlabhji.

Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

5.3 The Diffusion of Innovation Theory (DOI) (Rogers, 1995) DOI is a theory to answer a questions of how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology stretch through cultures, operating at the individual and firm level (Oliveira & Martins, 2011). DOI theory identifies five perceived elements of an innovation that can verify the rate of adoption (Rogers, 1995; Oliveira & Martins, 2011) and they are relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability (Rogers, 1995). Adopters are grouped according to different degrees of willingness to adopt the innovations and they are innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards (Rogers 1995). Wei et al (2009) elucidated that relative advantage is basically the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes whereas compatibility is the degree of an innovation seems as consistent with past values, past experience, and the needs of the potential adopters. The complexity prescribes whether the innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to use and understand and trialability refers to whether an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. Finally, observability is defined as whether the results of an innovation are visible to others (Rogers, 1995). The DOI found that individual characteristics, internal characteristics of organizational structure, and external characteristics of the organization are important antecedents to organizational innovativeness. The TOE framework identifies three aspects of an enterprise's context that influence the process by which it adopts and implements a technological innovation: technological context, organizational context, and environmental context.

28 Classified - Internal use

Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

However, as with other theories discuss previously, DOI was also subject to debate. Lyytinen & Damsgaard (2001) argued that technologies are not discrete packages for example it is not clear whether the DOI list is complete and covers all features that affect adopters behaviour and not all technological innovations have a same set characterized attributes. In addition different characteristics may imply different things among different stages of diffusion for example compatibility may mean different things for the late and early adopters (Lyytinen & Damsgaard, 2001). 5.4 The Techproved Model (Norzaidi et al, 2007; Norzaidi & Intan Salwani, 2011) The techproved model represents a few variables, for example, technology characteristics, task characteristics that have effects on task technology fit. Task technology fit, on the other hand would operate as predictor on manager’s performance, perceived usefulness, usage and user resistance. To determine which variable that mainly predicts performance, user satisfaction (beside usage and resistance) is included in the model since user satisfaction and usage have rarely been included in the same study or measured simultaneously within a single sample (Al-Ghatani, 2004). Despite the fact that no single model can meet all needs, the present model should be considered as an attractive option for researchers and practitioners seeking to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of Intranet usage in the port industry in Malaysia. The techproved model is a combination of four models (i.e. task-technology fit, technology acceptance model, DeLone and McLane IS model and three theories of resistance) in determining the critical success

29 Classified - Internal use

Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

factors of Intranet usage, which impact on individual and organisational performance. A few variables from those four models are used to form a comprehensive techproved model (Figure 3). Details on each construct are explained as follow; 1) Task characteristics, technology characteristics, task-technology fit, and performance impact, are extracted from the TTF model (Goodhue and Thompson, 1995). 2) Perceived usefulness is extracted from the TAM (Davis, 1993). 3) Usage and user satisfaction, are extracted from the DMISM (DeLone and McLane, 1992). 4) User resistance is extracted from the three theories of resistance (Markus, 1983). The combination of existing IS models is not new since, a few prior models (i.e. TTF, TAM, TRA) were merged to present a holistic and comprehensive model to test the success of IS. For example, Klopping and McKinney (2004) combined TTF and TAM to determine merits of workplace technology adoption models in modelling consumer e-consumer. Klaus et al. (2003) merged TTF and TAM models and tests whether they are applicable to the Web. Dishaw and Strong (1999) combined TTF, and TAM to determine the relationship between TTF and perceived ease of use as well as perceived usefulness; and Dishaw et al. (2002) combined TTF, TAM and Computer Self-efficacy (CSE) to determine whether the addition of CSE to the integrated TAM/TTF, in place of or in addition to experience, increases its predictive or explanatory power.

30 Classified - Internal use

Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

Task Characteristic

Task Technology Fit

Performance Impact

Technology Characteristics

Perceived Usefulness

Usage

User Resistance

User Satisfaction

Diagram 3: Techproved Model Norzaidi et al, 2007; Norzaidi & Intan Salwani, 2011

31 Classified - Internal use

26 survey items for five constructs in the questionnaire actually come from the prior empirical studies. a survey technique were developed using the construct from previous research. Sampling & Data Collection 2. including providing the sources for data.2 Questionnaires The data will be collated via questionnaires. As cited by Wei et al (2009). Introduction This chapter deliberates the research methodology of the study. and are modified to fit the context of mobile commerce.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.1 Primary data Primary data is collected at the final stage of the data processing. This questionnaire is designed based on five-point Likert scales where 1 indicates a strong disagreement to the statement and 5 indicates a strong agreement to each statement. in this research. theoretical framework and hypotheses development. Hence. The remaining sections will be per details below. The data gathered would be from our questionnaires that will be distributed to the respondents. Refer to table below where its shows the sources of where the questions were adapted from: 32 Classified . In order to test the hypothesis construct above. 2.Internal use . this is to ensure the content validity of the scale used. The questionnaire is divided into separate sections such as capturing the respondents’ demographic details. 2. CHAPTER (C) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.

Lewis et al (2010) Wei et al (2009). Sources Wei et al (2009) Wei et al (2009). Currently there are approximately 300 students from the Graduate Business School during the time this study was conducted. following Field (2005). the questions were adapted from Wei et al (2009) and Faziharudean & Li-Ly (2011). Park (2009) Wei et al (2009). statements were positively worded as negative worded items are important in reducing response bias since respondents needs time to digest the questions in case they are phrased negatively. (2011).3 Sample of Study The target population of this study are individual postgraduate students in Graduate Business School of Universiti MARA Shah Alam. Malaysia.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Questionnaires were randomly 33 Classified . Faziharudean & Perceived cost 18-21 Li-Ly. As the questions were all adopted from previous studies as listed above. no sampling study weas done to ascertain that the hypotheses constructed is correctly identifying the right variables and the right concepts. 2011 Table 2: Sample Questionnaires Constructs and its Sources For Perceived Cost. Lewis et al (2010). Intention to use 22-26 Faziharudean & Li-Ly. However. 2. Wei et al (2009). This survey aims to check on the viability of mobile commerce among said postgraduate students.Internal use Constructs Perceived usefulness Perceived ease-of-use Perceived trust No of Item 1-8 9-12 13-17 . who are also mobile device users. Selangor. The reason why these users were considered was due to the fact that they are perceived to have the means to pay for the mobile devices and its related costs but also perceived as a natural adopter to mobile commerce due to the perceived convenience offered in terms of time saving and low costs.

Additionally resources in forms of newsletters and presentation slides from the 2011 CommunicAsia event in June 2011 in Singapore were also obtained. Theoretical Framework The hypotheses model constructed for the purpose of this study is derived from the literature reviews.google. 2001). 181 responses or 75 percent responses is considered as highly representative of the population studied.Internal use . The same is applied here using the usage for mobile commerce instead.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. the following websites were obtained to extract the articles: www. Prior empirical studies have validated the 34 Classified .com and www. Research Model The approach for the research model is constructed by extending the TAM theory. magazine articles.com.emeraldinsight. Sekaran (2003) stipulated that responses to any analysis should be 30 percent or higher as Roscoe (1975) too stipulated that a response rate of higher than 10 percent must be obtained to avoid sample biasness. press releases. Secondary Data The secondary data used are from various sources namely journals articles. 3. For online resources. distributed to both eMBA and part-time evening track postgraduate students from the Graduate Business School. Thus. Wei et al (2009) described that the extended TAM model retains the underlying simplicity of the TAM and improve the ability to predict and explain information system usage at the same time (Mathieson et al. adding appropriate constructs from TPB and DOI.. A total of 240 questionnaires were distributed to these students and 181 responses were received. books and newsletters which were obtained both offline and online. 5. 4.

Wei et al. this study decides on the concept of TAM but to also expand it to include two additional building blocks. Jayasingh & Eze. 2010. They are perceived cost and perceived trust. As such. 2009. while still maintaining its model simplicity. He also suggested that the study should eliminate the attitude construct from TAM for simplicity purposes. 2011. The new extended TAM for this study is as depicted in Diagram 3 below: Perceived usefulness H1 Perceived ease of use H2 H5 H3 Perceived Trust H4 Perceived Cost Intention to use mobile commerce Actual Usage Diagram 3: Proposed Research Hypothesis 35 Classified . better prediction capabilities of extended TAM (Riquelme & Rios.Internal use . Faziharudean and Li-Ly. (2009) explained perceived cost is the construct derived from TPB and DOI theories. in order to augment the forecast of usage intention for mobile commerce among post graduate students in UiTM Shah Alam.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Cheah et al. etc). 2010. Wessels and Drennan. 2011.

this could possibly be due to the very early stages of mobile commerce in Bangladesh. Lewis et al (2010) also found out that perceived usefulness and compatibility factors to have a significant effect on behavioural intention to use m-banking which later support by a study made by Wessels and Drennan in 2010.Internal use . 2009. The mobile commerce services will eventually be attractive enough for consumer adoption as the belief that mobile commerce will enhance their working lifestyle grows. However. the study will look into the definition of PU in a different context as the subject of this study comprises of post graduate students. 1989). Lewis et al. In his study on adoption of mobile commerce services in Bangladesh where it showed that PU was not a significant factor in influencing people to adopt mobile commerce services. A contradicting finding on PU was indicated in a study done by Islam et al (2010). Wei at al (2009) cited that PU in mobile commerce is able to help the users to achieve task-related goals. 2010).1 Perceived Usefulness As discuss earlier. 6. such as effectiveness and efficiency. perceived usefulness (PU) is defined as the degree of which an individual believes that using a system would improve his or her job performance (Davis. Hypotheses Development 6.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Wessels and Drennan. As such. Thus it is proposed that the effect 36 Classified . This definition has been proven by many studies in relation to intention to use (IU) (Jayasingh & Eze. A study by Jayasingh & Eze (2009) have found out perceived usefulness has a determinant contribution factor towards the behaviour factors in using mobile commerce related services which is m-coupon. 2010.

Sadi & Noordin. Faziharudean & Li-Ly (2011) found out that mobile data services adoption will increased when users believed that they have the skills to use such services and that the services are easy and user-friendly . extended to postgraduate students. the hypothesis is proposed as: H1. In a study on consumers’ behavioural intentions to use mobile data services in Malaysia. Ease of use refers to the degree to which an individual believes that using mobile commerce would be free of physical and mental efforts. Saneifard 2009). in many ways. PU has a positive effect on postgraduates students IU mobile commerce in UiTM Shah Alam. 2011.Internal use . Hence. even if a technology is perceived to be useful for the end users.2 Perceived Ease-Of-Use According to Davis (1989). 2011.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Sadi & Noordin (2011) tested the PEOU within Malaysian environment and found that PEOU was an important factor for the consumer’s intention to use mobile 37 Classified . should be. Perceived usefulness H1 Intention to use mobile commerce Diagram 4: Perceived Usefulness 6. there were also instances where the technology is not user friendly and difficult to use. Many studies on mobile commerce adaptation have used and tested PEOU (Faziharudean & Li-Ly. Perceived ease of use (PEOU) has been considered as a prime determinant in adoption of previous information technologies studies (Wei et al 2009).

In line with the Diffusion of Innovation theory. 1995). if the mobile commerce system is too complex. This report indicates that the technology is not free from mental and physical implications. Perceived ease of use H2 Intention to use mobile commerce Diagram 5: Perceived Ease-of-Use 38 Classified . a private research university in New Jersey. Saneifard (2009) in his study concluded that PEOU was a significant factor in Iran for mobile commerce adoption. FOXNews. commerce. 2009). after two weeks of implementation. students felt dissatisfied and uncomfortable to using the e-reader compared to physical books (Lee. They concluded that the mobile commerce providers should focus on the development of usefulness of the system.Internal use . PEOU has a positive effect on postgraduates students IU mobile commerce in UiTM Shah Alam. However. Similarly.com reported that Princeton University. that mobile commerce must be easyto-use thus this study proposes the following hypothesis: H2. it will then be a factor that which will discourage the adoption of innovation (Rogers. United States launched a Kindle e-reader program and expected the e-readers to be both sustainable and a valuable academic tool. This implicates the same as other studies.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

2005) and others believed that they are quite affordable (Lewis et al. Lewis et al (2010) stated that internet allowed consumers to have access to many bank facilities throughout the day. maintenance costs and upgrading costs. 2011). as cited by Wei et al (2009) is associated with the upgrading costs concerning to software or hardware upgrades on the mobile devices to enable new features available to be used.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. 2010.Internal use . P. The on-going costs are the incidentals costs that users have to bear such as subscription fees. Kim et al. 2005. The third associated costs is maintenance cost such as repairing and servicing of the mobile device possessed where such device. 2010. However. Jahanshahi et al. services fees and communication fees like packaging fees or roaming services provided by the subscribed telecommunication company. The initial purchase price is the cost paid for the purchase of the mobile devices such as smart phones. tablet or a laptop. Riquelme & Rios. Ng. 2006. on-going costs. 6. 2010.3 Perceived Cost Wei et al (2009) stipulated that the price or cost factor is one of the reasons that impede the development for mobile commerce. it must be noted that costs associated with the use of mobile commerce has depreciated over the years therefore. Moqbel et al. The fourth cost. thus allowing banks to significantly cut their costs and allow them to charge cheaper services. Harris et al. 2010. it is interesting to note of the studies above arrived at differing conclusions as they were conducted at different times. The cost factor is into four categories which are initial purchase price. Some studies indicated that associated cost of using mobile commerce is high (Wentzel et al. This is supported by 39 Classified .Y et al.

2010. Jahanshahi et al (2011) indicated that the cost for healthcare services will become lower when doctor and nurses can interchange patient profiles using mobile commerce technology. a study titled Using Mobile Technology to Enhance Student’s Educational Experience by Wentzel et al (2005) for the Educause Centre for Applied Research (ECAR) identified that majority of the students agreed that low costs for mobile services adds value to mobile phones. Kim et al (2006) explained that the price of wireless computers devices becomes similar with wired computers devices simply because of decreasing prices of hardware and software. Islam et al (2010) also stated that cost is one of the aspects in influencing the adoption for mobile commerce in Bangladesh.Internal use . as well as high costs associated with mobile commerce implementation. both high school and university students are cost cautious consumer of technology because they don’t possess a fixed income and are mostly dependent on their parents or part time jobs with limited source of money (Ng. Moqbel et al 2010 indicated that Western Europe and United States have been slow to embrace the mobile commerce phenomenon due to the slow response to the technical infrastructure.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Despite the above. 2005).Y et al. Harris et al. Tiwari et al (2008) indicated that the transaction costs seem to be 40 Classified . Naqvi and Al-Shihi (2009) stated that the nonexistence of 3G network in Oman and the existing sky-scraping costs of MMS and WAP limit adopters and developers to certain types of mobile applications. P. As indicated earlier in literature review. low speed wireless access links. Riquelme & Rios (2010) where it was concluded that the cost of a financial transaction becomes lower when using an electronic device compared to manual transactions done at a bank branch.

the cost factor will be tested as perceived cost constructed which is defined as the degree of a post graduate student perceived the costliness of a mobile commerce service. an important criterion for mobile payment acceptance. the following hypothesis is projected: H3. This later were supported by Lewis et al (2010) who also concluded that previous studies on the effect of costs produced mixed results due to the hazy distinction between actual costs of purchase and use.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.Internal use . a study done by Saneifard. and hidden transaction costs. 2010.4 Perceived Trust Many studies indicated that the element of trust is an important factor that affects the success of technologies adoption (Islam et al. found that the data plan costs in mobile services have become a primary deterrent for customers to use internet via mobile. considering that the postgraduate students is a different set of study group altogether. Perceived cost has a negative effect on postgraduates students IU mobile commerce in UiTM Shah Alam. 2010. Lewis et al. (2009) has found that price or cost factors were not one of the main determinants of mobile commerce services adoption in Iran because the mobile commerce is still at its infancy stage where the research subjects were not able to afford such services or data transaction fees. Thus. H3 Perceived Cost Intention to use mobile commerce Diagram 6: Perceived Costs 6. Hu & Allison (2010). However. 41 Classified . As such.

Jayasingh & Eze. Yeh & Li . Yeh & Li (2009) explained that building trust in e-commerce is complicated due to the security apprehension. The same can also be applied to mobile commerce 42 Classified . the more likely the users place greater trust in the channel/competence. builds mobile trust (m-trust). (2009). This is mainly due to slow variation and lack of trust in mobile payment systems. privacy. Lewis et al (2010) indicated that perceived risk and trust are intertwined notions and were repeatedly recognized as prime obstructions to adopting online and mobile services.Internal use . 2006). United Kingdom where he inserted trust as one of the factor of behavioural intent. He also added that skilful and attractive design aesthetics consequently results in the ease of use. 2011. usability of interface design and security of mobile payment system. m-banking is reliant to the literate level of mobile phone consumers where the higher the understanding of mobile commerce and its technology. Rehman et al. This. in turn. security and confidentiality are concluded to be the key success factors for Trust. The results augmented total variance from the original model by 2%. usefulness and customization. He added that trust on mobile commerce was built by two factors. He also state that. investigated the acceptance and use of mobile commerce using Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) models in Bedford.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Rehman et al (2011) in his study indicated that the mobile users around the world are slow to adapt and trust mobile commerce.2009). The m-trust is an issue in mobile commerce culture because a mobile device is a personal device almost like a wallet (Taipaleenmäki. In a case study done by O’Donnell (2007) titled Australian Case Studies in Mobile Commerce.

building customer trust on a mobile platform which is bounded by interface design. According to Yeh and Li. devices. is very much essential for vendors in order to gain longterm profitability. To add.5 Intention to Use Park (2009) cited that according to the TAM approach that was developed by Davis in 1989. speed of communication and physical capability. a modified SERVQUAL models that are related to mobile commerce were used to test the concept of service quality in relation to trust.Internal use . Intention to use mobile commerce H4 Perceived Trust Diagram 7: Perceived Trust 6. In other 43 Classified . touch and inspect products. and perceived ease of the system. personal interaction and the ability to feel. Thus the following hypothesis is developed: H4. In his study. Trust has a positive effect on the postgraduates students IU mobile commerce in UiTM Shah Alam.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. customers feel insecure towards conducting business activities without the observation of others. As such it is difficult to disregard the element of trust on IU of online technology. which comprises of perceived usefulness of the system. a person’s actual use of a technology system is influenced directly or indirectly by the user’s behavioural intentions.

in order to ascertain the reliability of the questionnaire. that is the Cronbach’s Alpha. 44 Classified . Thus this study will follow the original TAM within the context of post graduate students in proposing the last hypothesis as follow: H5: Behavioural intention will have a significant positive influence on post graduate students actual use behaviour. Teo (2011). 2004). three reliability tests were used. However. no pilot study was carried out.Internal use . the user’s behaviour of intention to use the information technology is directly correlated to actual use. Types of Tests and Statistical Software Upon data collection. The three reliability tests are further explained in the following chapter. data is then analysed using the SPSS Statistical software and Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. Davis et al and Taylor & Todd in 1995 explained that behavioural intentions were found to be a strong predictor of actual use. The link of intention to use and actual usage has been established by various studies (Schaper & Pervan. words. As the questionnaire followed previous studies on various hypotheses. the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and the Bartlett’s Tests. H5 Intention to use mobile commerce Actual Usage Diagram 7: Intention to Use 7. Common research assumptions are used for statistical techniques.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.

Summary About 240 questionnaires were distributed to the targeted population which are the eMBA and evening track Graduate Business School postgraduate students of which received 181 responses. The dependent variable is based on the hypothesis of actual intention to use. perceived ease of use. perceived cost.Internal use . The questionnaire were adopted from previous accepted studies based on five hypotheses which are based on independent variables that is perceived usefulness. 8.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. The tests conducted and its finding will be deliberated in the next chapter. perceived trust and intention to use. 45 Classified . Microsoft Office Excel and SPSS statistical software. The data are then collected and analysed using two software.

of which 75% of the 240 questionnaires were received. monthly income. Frequency Valid Male Female Total Table 3: Gender The table above shows that more than two thirds of the respondents are female (68.49 68. 46 Classified .49 100. 2. scale reliability and validity analyses utilising Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett’s Validity tests. CHAPTER (D) ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 1. types of mobile phone experience and frequency of usage. multiple regression analysis. Descriptive Statistics The questionnaires were randomly distributed to eMBA and evening track Graduate Business School students.51%) and the balance 31. Each of the analysis will be discussed separately below. marital status. types of subscription (post-paid versus prepaid mobile users) and the telecommunications provider. The demographics of the respondents are deliberated below. coefficient correlation analysis and lastly.51 100 Cumulative Percentage 31. From the data collected.49% of the respondents are male. a series of analyses were conducted normality analysis via Skewness and Kurtosis and Shapiro-Wilk Tests.0 57 124 181 . Additionally descriptive statistics of the respondents are also tabulated below. Introduction This chapter deliberates on the findings from the analysis conducted.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.Internal use Percentage 31. types of mobile phone. age. The demographics are based on gender.

87%). followed closely by the 31-35 age group (29.02 100.Internal use .47 9.0 The study shows that 61.99 29.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.28%).88% of the respondents are married. the majority of the respondent belongs to the 2630 years of 41.14 90.87 45.28 15.99%. There are no respondents that are below 20 years of age. This resonates with literature review of Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia Malaysia handphone users’ survey in 2009 that a significant number of mobile users fall between the 25-40 age group. 41 years and above (9.94 100 Cumulative Percentage 0 3.02 61.94%) and 21-25 years (3.88 100 Cumulative Percentage 37.61 100 According to the table above.86 75. Frequency Valid Single Married Total Table 5: Marriage Status 67 112 181 Percentage 37. 47 Classified .87 41. Frequency Valid < 20 years 21-25 years 26-30 years 31-35 years 36-40 years 41 and above Total Table 4: Age 0 7 76 53 28 18 181 Percentage 0 3. 36-40 age group (15.47%).

000 (7.92 61.5% of respondents use other brands.92 13.92%).21%).29%).3 76.001-RM10.36 32.000 RM4.54 100 Table 7: Types of Mobile Phone Used Most of the respondents (29.98 15.34 48. between 4.43 29. between RM2.29 Cumulative Percentage 2.18%) and above RM10. It is note that some of the respondent owns more than two mobile phones in view of the total frequency for this survey is 201.49 7. About 8.0001 to RM6. between RM8.73%).09 31.85 8.43%) and HTC (4.000 (7.69 91.000 (43.36 4.001-RM6.21 43.000 RM8.21 45. Samsung (13.001-RM4. Apple (15.000 RM2.18 8. 48 Classified .98%).001-RM8.0 The monthly personal income of the respondents are below RM2.000 RM6.79 84.000 > RM10.001 Total Table 6: Personal Income 4 78 57 14 13 15 181 Percentage 2.46 100 Cumulative Percentage 27.09%).001 to RM10. between RM6.000 (2. Frequency Valid Nokia HTC Apple Samsung Blackberry Others Total 55 10 32 27 60 17 201 Percentage 27. followed Nokia (27.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.Internal use .001 to RM8.85%) use Blackberry. Frequency Valid < RM2.49%).000 (31.52 91.7 100.36%).73 7.0001 (8.001 to RM4.

news and information (24%).8 percent of mobile telephone users own more than one mobile telephone (SKMM Handphone Users Survey 2009). it is very important to ensure that a normality test is 49 Classified . From the responses. These assumptions are without empirical evidence or test. The least use for mobile phone is online purchasing (7%). As such. Use of Mobile Phone Booking (Hotels/Movies) 12% Online Purchase 7% SMS/MMS 30% Banking 14% Email/News/Infor mation 24% Downloads 13% Chart 1: Uses of Mobile Phone. any interpretation and conclusion from improper assumptions may not be accurate. This is aligned with the national mobile telephone penetration rate of more than 100% where 23. Normality Analysis Park (2008) cited that statistical analysis is based on various underlying assumptions and one common assumption is that a random variable is normally distributed. 3. Therefore.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.Internal use . twenty more than the number of the respondents. the majority of the responses use the mobile phone for Short Messaging System (SMS) or Multimedia Messaging System (MMS) at 30% and to check email.

Perceived Usefulness . Kurtosis and Shapiro-Wilk to test the normality of the data.905 181 . Q-Q plot Darling/Cramer-von Mises tests. the KolmogorovSmirnov test can be used if the sample size available is larger than 50.916 181 . conducted to assure that the variable is randomly distributed. histogram Numerical Methods Skewness. SkewnessKurtosis test Table 8: The different approaches of Normality Analyses. As a comparison.051 Perceived Cost . which are the Graphical method or the Numerical Method. Graphical Methods can provide interactive diagrams but the bell shape diagram would not accurately show the results with a lower sample size.927 181 . however. The study. Shapiro. Kurtosis Descriptive Theorydriven Shapiro-Wilk. These are then divided into two more categories.960 181 . Jarque-Bera test.181 Perceived Ease-Of-Use . shows that both graphical and numerical methods can complement each other.961 181 .Francia test.103 Perceived Trust . Tests of Normality Shapiro-Wilk Statistic df Sig. (skeletal) box plot. Skewness. dot plot. that is descriptive or theory driven. This study has chosen the numerical methods specifically.Internal use .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.153 Table 9: Normality Tests results using Shapiro-Wilk tests. the explanation on the above is illustrated below: Graphical Methods Stem-and-leaf plot. In 50 Classified . The above table was derived from SPSS Descriptive Statistic on Explore function using the Shapiro-Wilk analysis. AndersonP-P plot. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (Lillefors test). According to Park (2008) the normality test can be conducted in two ways.121 Intention To Use . For clarity.

However.667 -. contrast.9613 2.359 . The table above showed that the entire 181 samples were used as there had been no missing value. Skewness and Kurtosis values within the range of -1 to +1 indicate an acceptable range.359 Error Table 10: Normality Analysis via Skewness & Kurtosis tests.86646 Perceived Cost 181 4 20 12. if the sample sizes are 50 or less.392 .587 -. As cited by Hani et al (2009). In addition. thus the study accepts the null hypothesis and conclude that all the variables were normally distributed. for example the variable is normally distributed. for the this study.891 -. . The normality test was further interpreted through looking at the Skewness and Kurtosis tests.181 1. the study should use the ShapiroWilk test instead. Perceived Usefulness 181 8 40 30.359 . the Shapiro-Wilk is used instead.94838 N Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic -.613 1. Even so.588 .74632 Intention To Use 181 5 25 19.181 .9227 3.5221 -.181 Error Statistic 3. .181 .8122 2.8674 5. Haris et al in 1998.5414 3. a value greater than one in the Skewness and Kurtosis tests indicates a distribution that differs significantly from normal symmetric distribution.919 . the test of normality for this study indicate that all the variable were more than to the level of significance (0.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.Internal use .359 Perceived Trust 181 5 25 15.181 .359 .207 . The null hypothesis for the test of normality states that the actual distribution of the variable is equal to the expected distribution.384 Skewness Std. while 51 Classified .269 Kurtosis Std.51097 Perceive d EaseOf-Use 181 4 20 14.01).

Skewness of less than 0 indicates that the curve was left skewed distribution. As such. Skewness is a measure of symmetry. value obtained from SPSS Frequency analysis shows that the value which is less than zero indicates that the curve was left skewed distributed. values outside that range indicate a substantial departure from normal distribution. the lack of symmetry. Data sets with high kurtosis value tend to have a distinct peak near the mean and the curve will decline rather rapidly showing heavy tails to the left and right. The Skewness of equals to 0 or in other words mean equals to median shows the distribution is symmetrical around the mean.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. is symmetric if it shows the same curve to the left and right of the center point. with most values concentrated on the right of the mean. from Skewness perspective. A uniform or linear distribution would be an extreme case. This explained that most values are concentrated on the right of the mean. A distribution. 52 Classified . Skewness of more than 0 indicate the curve were right skewed distribution. and extreme values to the left. The values were also less than one which indicates a distribution that did not differ significantly from normal symmetric distribution. or data set. On the other hand. Kurtosis in distribution analysis is used to indicate a sign of flattening or "peakedness" of a distribution. with extreme values to the left. data sets with low kurtosis tend to have a flat top curve near the mean rather than a sharp peak curve. This explained that most values are concentrated on left of the mean.Internal use . with extreme values to the right. or more precisely.

reliability is where the result is replicable. with values concentrated around the mean and thicker tails.Internal use .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. This means high probability for extreme values. 4. and the values are wider spread around the mean. The probability for extreme values is less than for a normal distribution. He also explained that validity refers to whether the means of measurement are accurate and whether they are actually measuring what they are intended to measure and to approximate the truthfulness of the results. According to Tavakol et al (2011) reliability of an 53 Classified . Kurtosis value of more than 3 indicates a Leptokurtic distribution or sharper than a normal distribution. Hair et al. Kurtosis value of less than 3 indicates a Platykurtic distribution or flatter than a normal distribution with a wider peak. Kurtosis value of equivalence to 3 indicates a Mesokurtic distribution or normal distribution. Thus the Kurtosis result shows a normal distribution. Many researchers however known that in reality there were rarely analyzed results of perfectly normal distribution unless the analysis were base on the larger sample size. consistent over time and an accurate representation of the total population under study. Golafshani et al (2003) explained that in Quantitative research. Looking at the same results. As an indicator. (1998) stipulates that a Kurtosis level that is higher than three indicates a non normality.. Scale Reliability & Validity Analysis This study will look at both the reliability and validity of the data obtained from the survey. this study have found out that the results for all the variable were less than 3 which 3 thus explained the peak of the curve are wider where probability for extreme values is less than for a normal distribution.

9 Excellent > 0.5 Unacceptable Table 11: Interpretation Scale of Cronbach’s Alpha tests results Fahad (2009) cited Hair et al in 1998 stipulated that the Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0. instrument is closely associated with its validity.5 Poor < 0.60 in exploratory research. As such. the better the internal consistency of the items in the scale.7 Acceptable > 0.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. As such this study will look upon both reliability and validity analysis and the findings were explained as follows: 4. The measurement is expressed as a number between 0 and 1.6 Questionable > 0. They also cited that the following rules of thumb for Cronbach’s Alpha reliability scale were proposed by George and Mallery in 2003: Scale Interpretation > 0. by running the survey data on the SPSS software for each of the variables the following results were obtained.1 Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Test Cronbach’s Alpha is most widely used objective measure of reliability (Tavakol et al. As cited by Gliem et al (2003). the nearer Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient is to 1. It is used to measure the internal consistency (the extent to which all the items in a test measure the same concept or construct) of a test or scale. it can be concluded that an instrument can be valid if it is reliable.60 were acceptable at 0.Internal use . 2011). 54 Classified .8 Good > 0. Thus.

0) indicate factor analysis is appropriate.842 to 0. Variables Cronbach’s Alpha Results Perceived Usefulness 0.939 Table 12: Results via Cronbach’s Alpha Test By looking at the results above it show that all the variables measures achieved results between the ranges of 0.939.3 Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartletts’s Validity Test The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy is an index used to examine the appropriateness of factor analysis.842 Intention To Use 0. Kaiser in 1974 had refined the index further and suggested the following: 55 Classified . 4. Both tests are as below: 4.2 Factor Analysis for Validity According to Golafshani et al (2003 cited in Wainer and Braun 1998). 2011). High values (between 0. In this study.878 Perceived Trust 0. Before factor analysis can be conducted. quantitative research validity is referred to construct validity.Internal use .942 Perceived Ease-Of-Use 0. it must first pass the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy test and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity.5 and 1. Thus according to rule of thumb.907 Perceived Cost 0. the construct validity is determined by factor analysis. Values below 0.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.5 imply that factor analysis may not be appropriate. In other word the variables have very good internal consistency reliability (Faziharudean & Li-ly. the variables were between the range of Good and Excellent.

The study however indicates strong relationship between all variables where in the correlation table all the diagonal elements are 56 Classified . the population correlation matrix is an identity matrix.50 to 0.49 Unacceptable 0. In Bartlett’s test. the KMO measure is 0.Internal use .69 Mediocre 0.59 Miserable 0.90 to 1. where this study needs to reject this null hypothesis. In other words. Table 14: KMO Test Results . An identity matrix is the matrix in which all of the diagonal elements are 1 and all off diagonal elements are 0.70 to 0.879 4.89 Meritorious 0. Value Interpretation 0.00 Marvellous Table 13: Interpretation Scale using KMO Test Looking at the table generated through SPSS below.878 (refer to table 14 below) and by matching this value with the extended index by Kaiser. this study needs to reject the null hypothesis of uncorrelated variable or non-identity matrix.00 to 0. KMO Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.80 to 0. The study indicates strong relationship between all variables where in the correlation table all the diagonal elements are 1. this fall under Meritorious which is commendable. This indicates that the sampling identify in this study is satisfactory for factor analysis to proceed.4 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity The Bartlett’s test of sphericity is to test the null hypothesis that the variables are uncorrelated in the population.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.60 to 0.79 Middling 0.

J. Perceived Cost and Intention to Use.000 . (1998) explained that Factor analysis is a collection of methods used to examine how underlying constructs influence the responses on a number of measured variables. Each element was tested on SPSS and the findings are depicted as individual table below.4 Factor Loading Both KMO and Bartlett tests indicated the data are ready for Factor analysis for measuring validity. This is proven further on the observed significance level is .000 (refer to table 15). Sphericity Table 15: Bartlett’s Test Results 4. Bartlett's Test Bartlett's Test of Sig. There are five elements examined in the study and they are Perceived Usefulness. Basically there are two types of factor analysis which is exploratory type analysis and confirmatory type analysis. Perceived Ease-Of-Use. As cited by Wei et al (2009.5 value and loads on one and only one factor will be moved out from the study. As such this study will look at the confirmatory type of factor analysis where it measure the most influencing predicted item in the mcommerce adoption among post graduate part time student in UiTM. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) attempts to discover the nature of the constructs influencing a set of responses whereas Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests whether a specified set of constructs is influencing responses in a predicted way.2007) items that do not meet factor loading of greater than 0. This result is small enough to reject the hypothesis thus it is a good idea to proceed with a factor analysis for the data.Internal use . cited on Liao et al . 1.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Perceived Trust. 57 Classified . DeCoster.

748 . Using mobile commerce saves my time so that I am able to juggle my work and studies better Using mobile commerce would enhance my effectiveness in my daily work.846 .796 .815 .774 . Table 17: Perceived Ease-Of-Use Item I intend to use mobile commerce if the cost is reasonable for me I believe I will use mobile commerce in the future Assume that I have access to mobile commerce systems. Mobile commerce is understandable and clear 58 Classified . Table 16: Perceived Usefulness Item Using mobile commerce would improve my efficiency in my studies. Using mobile commerce would enhance my effectiveness in my studies. I believe mobile commerce will be useful.839 .815 .815 . In general. Table 19: Perceived Cost Item The cost of mobile phone is affordable for me I believe that at the current price. Using mobile commerce enables me to do my work conveniently.836 .704 .797 Loading .778 . I intent to use them I expect to use mobile commerce frequently in the future.844 .767 Loading . I believe my interest towards mobile commerce will increase in the future Table 18: Perceived Trust Item I believe transaction conducted through mobile commerce will be secure I believe my personal information will be kept confidential while using mobile commerce technology I believe payments made through mobile commerce channel will be processed securely I would trust my telecommunication operator to provide secure data connections to conduct mobile commerce I would trust my mobile phone manufacturer to provide a mobile phone which is appropriate for conducting mobile commerce.814 Loading .823 . “mobile data services” would provide a good value.645 Loading .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.712 .749 .786 .Internal use Loading .782 .852 . The access or subscription fee is acceptable for me The mobile data services package that I subscribed to is affordable for me Table 20: Intention to Use Item It is/might be easy to learn to use mobile commerce Mobile commerce is/might be easy-to-use It would be easy for me to become skilful at mobile commerce.875 .867 . Using mobile commerce enables me to do my studies conveniently.775 .819 . Using mobile commerce would improve my efficiency in my daily work.

Factor 2 (Perceived Ease-OfUse). This represents that the item used in the questionnaire have satisfactory validity.00 +0.50 to-1.49 +0. Factor 4 (Perceived Cost) and Factor 5 (Intention to Use).00 Table 21: Interpretation Scale of Coefficient Correlation Analysis As cited by Cheah et al (2011.5 Coefficient Correlation Analysis Cheah et al (2011) and Wei et al (2009) explained that the purpose of Pearson correlation analysis is to examine the strength of relationships among variables. Perera et al (et al 2011 cited on Cohen 1998) identify a set of matrix value of correlation coefficient range as a guide for interpretation in physiological research as follows: Negative Value Positive Value Small correlation -0. 2005).49 Large correlation -0.Internal use . 4.50 to +1.29 +0.8.30 to +0. 59 Classified .10 to-0. cited on Field. where value closer to 1.10 to +0.30 to-0.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.0 is more favourable. This is also known as multicollinearity.8. All the 26 items obtained factors loading between 0. Factor 3 (Perceived Trust). This is to avoid two or more variables in the model to be correlated and thus provide redundant information which can be confusing and lead to misleading results. correlation coefficient should not exceed the value of 0. All the 26 items are sorted and clustered into the five factors namely Factor 1 (Perceived Usefulness). The above table was form from extraction method using Principal Component Analysis. This factor analysis has produced 5 factors with 26 scales loading. with a rotation method of Varimax with Kaiser Normalization with rotation converged in 5 iterations. As indicated in table 22 below.29 Medium correlation -0.6 to 0.

304** .594 ** PEU .000 .000 **.000 .000 . As such.390** .229** .000 .000 ** .01 which indicate that there are statistically significant correlations between variables except for one variable which is perceived trust.271 . (2-tailed) . (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig.527 ** PT .8.000 .594 but not for the perceived trust variable where it indicates weak or small correlation among other variables.000 .Internal use .222** . where the values for all other variables are less than 0.002 .222** .01 level (2-tailed).000 1 1 .000 .000 1 . the other variables also increases or decreases significantly accept for the perceived trust variable.002 .229 ** PC . there are no values that is higher than 0.594** .271** .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.411** .540** . Correlation is significant at the 0.000 1 .000 1 .540** .323 to 0.003 .323** .000 ** .390 ** ITU . (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig.003 .000 .000 ** . Correlations PU PU Pearson Correlation Sig. the relationships among variable were medium to strong correlation as the respective correlation value is between 0. This is also the same as for the sig (2-tailed). Table 22: Results of Coefficient Correlation Analysis As per table above. it can be concluded that multicollinearity problem did not exist in this study. (2-tailed) PEU Pearson Correlation Sig.304** .527** .323 . 60 Classified . Therefore. (2-tailed) PT PC ITU Pearson Correlation Sig. if any of the variable values increases or decreases.411 .

023 .076 .658 a R Square Adjusted R Square Std. PT. Dependent Variable: ITU Table 24: ANOVA Table Coefficients Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) PU PEU PT PC B 4.000 .263 .405 2. PU. .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.343 . PC.390 .043 . 4.031 . Predictors: (Constant).527 . PT.421 2. .434 . Error of the Estimate .242 .233 . and perceived ease of use.675 Sig.594 . perceived cost.255 .412 .055 . Model Summary Model 1 R .392 .138 Correlations Zero-order Partial Part a a.185 Std.415 .180 .022 . Multiple regressions are used to examine the relationship between intention to use. Error 1.015 7.6 Multiple Regression Analysis Regression analysis is a constructive statistical technique that can be used to analyze the associations between a set of independent variables and a single dependent variable (Hair et al.155 Coefficients Beta T 3..299 . Predictors: (Constant).939 Df 4 176 180 Mean Square 242.238 . PEU Table 23: Regression Summary ANOVAb Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 968.025 . PEU b.048 6. perceived usefulness.092 .003 .001 .016 .429 Sig.68082 a.686 .229 .059 1264. 2005).000a a.054 3. PC.Internal use . perceived time.187 F 33. PU.185 .880 2232. Dependent Variable: ITU Table 25: Coefficients Table Analysis Results 61 Classified .

Perceived Ease-Of-Use.405and p>0. Meanwhile Perceived Trust (PT) (t-value = 0. it can be observed that the R Square was 0.429 and p<0.Internal use .7 Analysis Summary The findings were first analysed using descriptive statistics from demographics of the respondents. Perceived Ease-Of-Use (PEU) (t-value = 3. However.05) were found to have a significant relationship with Intention to Use (Actual Usage). the hypotheses H1. 4. representing that 65. Hence. Most of the respondents have experienced with internet banking and this make our research more reliable.022 *PT + 0. Perceived Cost and Intention to Use. H3 are not supported.242 A big absolute t value and small p (Sig) value suggests that a predictor variable is having a large impact on the criterion variable.05 (Shapiro and Wilk.185 *PC + 4.263 *PU + 0.05) and Perceived Cost (PC) (t-value = 2.05) had no significant relationship with the Intention to Use (Actual Usage). We can conclude the following equation: Intention to Use (Actual Usage) = β1 PU+ β2 PEU + β3 PT + β4 PC privacy + ε Intention to Use (Actual Usage) = 0.255 and p<0.054 and p<0. Normality analysis was done to ensure the population of the sample comes from a normal distribution.658.8 percent of the actual usage of mobile commerce can be explained by Perceived Usefulness. the actual results shown a normal distribution as the value of ShapiroWilk are more than 0. Looking at the individual variables reveals that Perceived Usefulness (PU) (t-value = 6.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Based on table 25 above.05). H2 and H4 were supported. 62 Classified . Perceived Trust.299 *PEU + 0. Therefore. 1965).

From the result.Internal use .842 to 0. Reliability test was deployed and the Cronbach’s Alpha valued at the ranges of 0. we conclude our study with recommendation and practical implications which discuss in chapter five.7.939 as compared to the acceptance level by Hair et. The same results were also revealed in regression analysis where Perceive Trust did not give significant relationships with Intention to Use (Actual Usage).Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. (1998) that value should exceed 0. the correlation analysis was conducted and all of the variables show strong relationships accept one which is Perceive Trust. This finding is discussed further in later topic of discussion and findings. Next. al. 63 Classified .

Findings of Study It can be surmised at this point that the proposed hypothesis and theoretical framework has been validated by the empirical studies and analysis above. values within the range of -1 to +1 indicate an 64 Classified . it concluded that the variables were greater than 0. Skewness.Internal use . trust. indicative that the variables are normally distributed. Kurtosis and Shapiro-Wilk tests. the findings of the study and the practical implications will be discussed followed by limitation of the study.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. specifically. Using Shapiro-Wilk tests. correlation and multiple regression analysis have been utilized to test the five hypotheses as well as the data obtained from the survey. CHAPTER (E) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 1. Finally. cost. The data is further tested against its skewness and kurtosis tests. In Skewness and Kurtosis tests. For this purpose.01. ease of use. The normality test is conducted to assure that the data received from the survey conducted is normal to assure accuracy. reliability and validity tests. 2. these tests were conducted. Specifically. there will be a recommendation for future studies prior to the conclusion portion of this report. Introduction This chapter will discourse some of the pertinent findings of the study based on the analysis of the previous chapter. intention to use and actual use perspective. As such. Various analyses such as normality test. we are able to observe if there is a significant effect of influencing postgraduate students’ perception construct towards mobile commerce adoption from usefulness. These are all under Numerical Approaches due to lack of sample size and experience in interpreting graphical methods.

or the avoidance of two or more variables to be correlated and hence. Multicollinerity.8 which resultants the items used in the questionnaire is valid. Through all the variables tested. From this. Similarly. result showed that it falls under meritorious.942 (Perceived Usefulness) which falls within the good to excellent range per George and Mallery (2003). confusing or lead to redundancy and misleading results. All 26 items were analysed and the results showed factors loading in between 0. where the closer to 1. Cheah et al (2011) and Field (2005) enumerated that correlation coefficient should not exceed 0. This is essential to assure that all the variables tested are reliable. the data was tested through the Cronbach’s Alpha test for its reliability. when the same data is run through the Kaiser-MeyerOlkin measure of Sampling Adequacy.842 (Perceived Cost) to 0.Internal use .6 to 0. therefore it can be concluded that multicollinearity problem did not exist in this study.0 is better.8. while values outside that range indicate a substantial departure from normal distribution. the results showed the range between 0. Both the Skewness and Kurtosis indicated that the distribution did not differ significantly from normal symmetric distribution. The data was also tested against reliability analyses. Bartlett’s test of Spherecity was also conducted on the data which showed 0. coefficient correlation analysis is conducted to see if multicollinerity existed.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.000 significance which means that null hypothesis of the variables are uncorrelated in the population were rejected. acceptable range. The results all showed a less than 0. Next.8. factor loading analysis were conducted. 65 Classified . Firstly.

it can be deduced that the respondents don’t have the trust in the telecommunications companies in ensuring the security of the mobile commerce platform. however. Practical Implications The results of this study lead interesting implications to various groups. It must be noted that the sample size is somewhat restricted. This is important. This alone can 66 Classified . the results could benefit the academics. considering the penetration of mobile telephone has reached 100% in Malaysia.8% of actual usage or adoption for mobile commerce can be explained through Perceived Usefulness.Internal use . ease-of-use and perceived costs are found to create positive effect for mobile commerce adoption. Trust. Therefore.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. the government and policy makers and ultimately. it is observed that the 65. the multiple regression analysis was applied to see the respondents. Perceived Easeof-Use and Perceived Cost) are supported. In particular. Perceived Ease-OfUse. In this manner. Perceived Trust. 3. Perceived Cost and Intention to Use. H2 and H4 (Perceived Usefulness. the postgraduate students of Graduate Business School in UiTM Shah Alam’s perception towards mobile commerce adoption. related industry players in that it is able to provide valuable information and perhaps provide some direction on how the mobile commerce industry can be shaped into. Lastly. However. Using the multiple regression analysis. Our study concludes where the hypotheses H1. the Trust variable could likely increase its significance at a larger sample size. the hypothesis H3 (Perceived Trust) has no significant relationship to Intention to Use which directed to user Actual Usage of mobile commerce. perceived usefulness. is of lesser important variable.

Previous researches generally and mostly looked into a different category of sample size altogether. surely provide enough incentive for the mobile commerce industry players considering the wealth of opportunity to tap into the mobile commerce market. full time students that either in primary. 67 Classified . college or university. secondary. there had not been any specific research done on postgraduate’s perception on mobile commerce adoption thusfar.e. This study is hoped to provide a catalyst reaction to the government agencies in that they are able to provide greater policy to not only proliferate the mobile commerce adoption but also. This is to allow the government agencies to provide greater regulatory monitoring and performance audit on the mobile commerce industry players. From the academics point of view. however. this study is able to provide another perspective of mobile commerce adoption. provides a different perspective as it is thought that part-time postgraduate student would have the extra “push” factor for mobile commerce adoption seeing that they have the dispensable income but not the time to conduct daily errands.Internal use . the telecommunications industry had been inundated with unscrupulous telecommunications application players selling illegal services and even sending unsolicited messages to mobile telephone users. This study. Thus this would curb the feeling of distrust among mobile commerce users as indicated in this study. As mentioned in the Literature Review chapter of this report. the right control mechanisms for the industry to remedies any illegal or unsavoury business mobile commerce transactions. This study could likely provide an insight to the government agencies as to how these governmental agencies could shape future policies in regard to mobile commerce adoption policy landscape.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. i. For example.

ease of use and costs as primary factors for mobile commerce adoption. Customers can access and conduct mobile commerce transactions at any time of the day without having to wait for a physical shop to be open. airline companies and also the payment channel getaway provides such as the banks and other financial institutions. Ancillary industries such as the manufacturers of mobile telephones. However the industry players have to take note that based on this study the factor of trust is deem important by the respondents and may be by the overall customers as well. However this study has found out that the respondent have little perception on trust of the mobile commerce use. for example. Ultimately. They also need to work closer with the government agencies to apprehend such act that jeopardize the perception of trust among customers towards mobile commerce. vendors and retailers of the same can also be affected by the results of the study. 68 Classified . The study also provides an impact to the society at large. It would largely convenience customers who are always on the run. Thus this could be the hindering factor for consumer to use the mobile commerce as at their disposal. Thus they must ensure that the security and protection of any transaction from unsolicited users. this study effect the related industry players – the platform providers such that are the telecommunications companies.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Mobile commerce can be seen as an important tool to conduct errands or even business transaction in view of the greater ease it provide to the customers. the service providers such as the hotels.Internal use . as it saves time and it allows for the flexibility of the customer to conduct its businesses and transactions at a time most convenience to them. This study provides an insight to the industry players on the importance of use.

This can surely garner higher adoption for mobile commerce as the application transcend from a “nice to have” to a “must-have” ticket item. Perhaps. banks. however. which age group fall into the post-graduate students of the Graduate Business School of UiTM Shah Alam. Similarly. Early adopters. tour and flight operators and others must consider selling the idea of usefulness of the said mobile commerce application to garner higher consumer base. Thus. The banking industry landscape changed in the advent of e-banking where the services provided and created greater convenience for the consumers by eliminating the need for consumers to physically be at the bank for any transactions. iPad and iPhone with App Store) to ensure customer’s loyalty and prolonged use of the products. the service providers such as telecommunications companies.Internal use . mobile commerce application providers should consider taking cue from Apple Inc’s product strategy where each product is bundled together with a pervasive application (for example. might be the first to jump into the bandwagon for any new available technology. mobile commerce services and applications must be seen to provide greater convenience to the users in order to create greater awareness and adoption for mobile commerce. A consumer is likely to adopt mobile commerce if the platform provided is pervasive and deem convenient. Mobile commerce must be strategized to provide ultimate convenience to the consumers where they are able to access 69 Classified .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Other e-commerce services such as flight ticket bookings and online purchasing also sold the idea of convenience to the masses to garner greater adoption for e-commerce. there is a greater need for “staying power” elements to create a longer lasting mobile commerce adoption as well as to garner greater interests from other groups of consumers.

Thus. the mobile commerce service providers must also consider the cost factor. Also. Lastly.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Thus they are less cost sensitive compared to fulltime students that did not poses controllable income. This is mainly because that the respondents are students that working and have disposable income to spend on mobile commerce services. the application must be seen uncomplicated. mobile commerce application must be deemed easy to use by customers to create a larger pool of users. notebook or netbook platform. By ease of use. mobile commerce industry players must also consider the look and feel of the products or services that is viewed via a smaller screen of a mobile telephone. It is generally agreed that consumers have greater discerning tastes and are more penny-wise nowadays in view of escalating lifestyle and living costs.Internal use . any products or services at any time of the day and monitor their transaction from the comforts of their mobile telephone. An mobile commerce application must provide a simpler platform with lesser graphics and more text based. This is to consider the slower technology adopted in mobile telephones as compared to a personal computer. easy and not wrought with complicated processes and applications. This is especially important considering there are already other outlet or method (ecommerce) that is already seem to be convenient and easy to use. 70 Classified . cost factor is one of the pertinent aspects that must be looked into. Additionally. This is where there is a clear difference between e-commerce and mobile commerce. based on the result of this study it can be concluded that the respondent feel the cost for conducting a mobile commerce transaction are still acceptable and affordable. However. thus. the services provided must be simple and adopt less but impactful text and instructions.

the industry players must tackle the element of trust. No matter how good the design of the product or mobile commerce services. Secondly. This might limit the utility of the overall findings. the study was done within a limited period of time. There are also other hypotheses that can also be conducted. the perceived privacy and customer’s perceived perception on mobile commerce services were not looked into. These additional hypotheses could help give a stronger case study results. therefore it does not truly reflect the entire mobile phone user portfolio in the country. the research focuses only on the postgraduate students of Graduate Business School in UiTM Shah Alam. Limitations of Research The results of this study have its limitations. it must be noted that the post-graduate students of the Graduate Business School of UiTM are mostly Bumiputra. 71 Classified . 4.Internal use .Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. Selangor. Thus in order for mobile commerce to be successful not only in Malaysian market but as well as Asian market which constitute the most largest market population in the whole world. This can create a greater understanding of the subject by expanding the correlation of the adoption of mobile commerce and respondents in other groups. It is said that most of Asian people are difficult to trust on new or alien offering. Firstly. All in all. for example. the feeling of distrust in conducting such transaction using mobile commerce is still prevail in the mind of the customers. the factor of trust is the most important factor that everybody needs to take really good consideration. For example. A replication of similar study could be extended to other groups or educational institutions.

Recommendation for Further Research In view of the above. the study could be expanded to be specific in terms of mobile commerce services. This will allow the result to be more realistic and even more reliable from the viewpoint of mobile commerce industrial players as there are respondents from other Schools or educational institutions as it captures the micro details of the mobile commerce use. there are a couple of recommendation that we felt could be done to improve the study further. Secondly. for example. This could reveal some interesting insights as it can likely provide differing results from the results above. This is to say that the study could be stretched further to also include postgraduate students across of Schools in all universities in the country. 72 Classified .Internal use . i.e. comparative studies in terms of postgraduate students in other countries can also be extended considering the different mobile telephone landscape.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. specifically tailored for m-banking or m-purchasing only. an extension of the study in terms of comparative study between differing mobile commerce services could also allude to differing. Additionally. perspective and likelihood of difference of customer behaviours and purchasing power. Thirdly. Firstly. yet interesting results. 5. a further research involving a larger pool of respondents that are not limited to postgraduate students of Graduate Business School of UiTM Shah Alam only.

as telecommunications charges and fees plateau due to the eventual product life cycle norm. The objective of this study is to find the pervasive reasons for mobile commerce adoptions among post-graduate students from Graduate Business School in UiTM Shah Alam. telecommunication players should look into other pockets of opportunities to expand its product line. 6. perceived use.Internal use . Conclusion The country is currently facing more than 100% adoption for mobile commerce. Malaysia. That said. 73 Classified . Further. This study explored various hypotheses. Hence. perceived ease-of-use. ease of use. Finally. Industry analysts stipulated that there is higher percentage of users for mobile internet comparing to traditional internet browsing via computers. Selangor. the study will enable the mobile commerce industry players to strategise their products and services for greater adoption for mobile commerce. trusts and actual intention to use of adopting mobile commerce. trust is not one of the more pertinent factors in mobile commerce adoption as perhaps the respondents already placed trusts in the telecommunications companies to provide a secure and safe platform for mobile commerce or they merely did not have much trust to place at such services. mobile commerce provides a plethora of opportunity for the industry players.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. This trend is said to grow bigger in view of the strong growth and demand for smart phones in the country. perceived costs. particularly. costs are important factors for mobile commerce adoption. Respondents to the studies generally agree to the hypothesis that the usage.

Internal use . TIA’s 2010 ICT Market Review & Forecast 2. APPENDIXES 1.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students. TIA’s 2010 ICT Market Review & Forecast 74 Classified .

1 19.5 19. 2010 4.1 8.4 13.1 5.1 14.4 20.1 2008 2. PEMANDU.7 10.5 Percentage 2007 4.0 13.9 17.Determining Factors for Mobile Commerce Adoption among Postgraduate Part Time Students.4 9.4 11. MCMC launched a Handphone User Survey in 2009 (latest available data) and the following were found: Age 2006 Below 15 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Above 50 2.0 8.8 75 Classified .2 9.3 12.9 14.7 5.4 5.3 8.Internal use . 3.9 16.0 15.3 8.4 12.9 11.

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