11/11/2011

APPLIED CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY BS4135

An Analysis and Critical Evaluation of a Heineken Christmas Advertisement | Matriculation number: 0705350 Word Count: 3994

Executive Summary
The purpose of this report is to analyse a print advertisement by Heineken (Appendix 1) and identify the theories of consumer psychology adopted. This has been achieved by a mixed methods research approach, by using both secondary data for the identification of theories used, and primary data which was collected via a questionnaire. This questionnaire measured the attitudes and opinions towards the selected advertisement. The theories which were identified as being present in the current advertisement have been linked to the relevant elements of the undifferentiated models. This is displayed in Appendix 2. The selected advertisement was found to adopt theories linked to a number of factors including colour, symbolism and learning theory. However, after conducting primary research it was found that the advertisement rated only averagely amongst the consumers asked. These results were analysed to find where the strengths and weaknesses of the current advertisement lay. They were then used to develop a new advertisement (See Appendix 4). The new advertisement has used the strengths of the previous advertisement, and improves on the weaknesses to produce what should be a better constructed advertisement

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Contents
Executive Summary ................................................................................... 2 1.0 Introduction ......................................................................................... 4 2.0 Background to Heineken ........................................................................ 5 3.0 Learning ........................................................................................... 6 4.0 Motivation ........................................................................................... 8 5.0 Imagery .............................................................................................. 8 5.1 Symbolism ........................................................................................ 9 6.0 Colour ................................................................................................. 9 7.0 Attitudes, Believability & Involvement ................................................... 11 8.0 Strengths and Weaknesses .................................................................. 14 9.0 The New Advertising Message .............................................................. 19 9.1 Rationale ........................................................................................ 20 References .............................................................................................. 22 Bibliography ............................................................................................ 24 Appendix 1 Original Advert ........................................................................ 27 Appendix 2 The Undifferentiated Models...................................................... 28 Appendix 3 Questionnaire Results .............................................................. 29 Appendix 4 New Advertisement ................................................................. 39

List of Tables and Figures
Figure 1 Classical conditioning in original advertisement..........................................................7 Figure 2 ABC Model of attitudes………………….………….………………………………….…….……………………………...11 Figure 3 Male Vs Female average response………………………………………………………………………………………14 Figure 4 Brand Identification……………………………………………………………………………..……………………………..15 Figure 5 Colour……………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………16 Figure 6 Average ratings for advertisement………………………………………..…………………………………………..16 Figure 7 Tradition in Christmas Adverts………………………………………….……………………..…………………………17 Figure 8 Effects of Behaviour..............................................................................................18 Figure 9 New Advertising message......................................................................................19 Table 1 Undifferentiated models of consumer behaviour.........................................................28

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0 Introduction The aim of this report is to gain an understanding of consumer psychology theories and how they are used in practice.1. Each of the elements discussed in this report have been arranged in a table to show where they apply to each of the undifferentiated models (See Appendix 2). The market research method of triangulation will be adopted. Primary research will be addressed in the form of a questionnaire which will seek to find consumer‟s attitudes and opinions on the advertising message presented(Saunders 2008). 4 . Secondary research conducted will be used to analyse the Christmas print advertisement from Heineken by using elements of the undifferentiated models of consumer psychology deemed relevant.

Ltd 5 . Heineken is a premium branded beer held at the centre of the company‟s business model.0 Background to Heineken Heineken is Europe‟s largest brewer and has an extensive portfolio of products across over 70 countries. Although there has been a general shift away from brand loyalty. Heineken‟s main competitors consist of Anheuser-Busch Inbev UK. Molsow Coors Brewing Company with Corona and Grolsch. The advert which has been selected for analysis is a Christmas advert which was initially used in Puerto Rico and created by advertising agency Y & R in 2010(Young & Rubicam 2011).05. In the premium beer market place.2009). who offer Becks. this is not the case in the premium beer market (SAB Miller 14.2. (Heineken International 2010). it may be considered as a minor purchase decision for the modern consumer (Surowiecki 2004). As the beer is a fast moving consumer good. SAB Miller with Peroni and Carlsberg with Carlsberg Export an Tuborg (Key Note 2011). Leffe and Stella Artois.

L. This means there is a greater chance that the product will become part of the individuals evoked set. In addition Heineken have used symbols of Christmas.}}. This advertisement is an example of reminder advertising. L. G.0 Learning Heineken have used their logo consistently throughout all of their marketing communications.. Kanuk L. 2004.. .}}. This reminder advertisement aids the audience's recall of previously learned information linked to the brand. where the advertiser attempts to reinforce any previous promotional activity which has foregone the current advertisement {{62 Boone.}}. Kanuk L.}}. G. a nut cracker and nuts. 6 . al 2010. L. it has been assumed that classical conditioning has already taken place and that the awareness of the product already exists. L. increasing the chances of the purchase of Heineken {{40 Solomon et. Louis E. Kurtz.}}. David L 2011. This will initially have been paired with the product information. allowing for Heineken's audience to become classically conditioned into understanding the meaning of the Heineken logo after a number of exposures {{59 Schiffman. In the selected advertisement. which has been assumed to provoke positive emotions linked with Christmas amongst their target audience {{63 Confraternity of Penitents 2006.3. The purpose of this is so the customer will come to associate these positive emotions with the Heineken brand (Scott 2004. 1994)This has been demonstrated in Figure 1 {{59 Schiffman.

Classical conditioning in current advertisement Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Nutcracker and nuts Positive Emotive Response Conditioned Stimulus Positive Emotional Response Brand logo After repeated pairings Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Brand Logo Positive Emotive Response Figure 1 7 .

}}. 2006. 8 . 2004 2). L. beer.4. 5. it serves only the purpose of reminding the potential consumer that the product is available. R. so it will depend on how the consumer processes it. but in this case the advertiser has done this purposefully in order to allow for “audience participation”(Schiffman. This blurring of which section is the figure and which is the ground may confuse the consumer. This is however subjective in nature. whereas the shape within the nutcracker uses the background to form the shape of a Heineken bottle(Solomon et. L. if the individual wishes to belong to a particular reference group he may purchase a particular brand because it expected of this group. Using this figure ground principle for audience participation relates to the “involvement” factor of the 3 I‟s model..}}.0 Imagery The advertisement uses Gestalt psychology‟s figure ground principle. The figure. G.Kfir & Spiegler. Kanuk L. particularly premium branded beer is likely to appeal to the consumer‟s social. These kinds of needs can be referred to as emotional motives.0 Motivation Using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. This kind of reminder increases the likelihood that when the consumer becomes motivated to buy beer that the brand information is easily recalled and can become part of their evoked set {{32 Eliaz. As the Heineken advertisement is but only a reminder advertisement.Ran 2011. al 2010). in this case the nutcracker is the focused object. {{57 Wright. So in context. hedonistic needs.

This has been accepted by many as a symbol of Christmas in Western societies.1 Symbolism As previously mentioned in section 3. It was recognised by Peter and Olson (2005) that these kinds of positive emotions can be paired with a brand or product so that the product or brand themselves gains these positive associations (Peter 2005). this symbol is appropriate for its audience (Encyclopaedia Britannica 2011). An individual from a culture where Christmas is not celebrated this advertisement may be deemed irrelevant. 6. Green has been noted to having a calming effect.}}. reducing anxiety and tension which makes green possibly one of the most positive colours (Wright 2006 ). in which green means 'go'. and create an impact on the individual. 9 .5. However the understanding of this is dependent on the experiences of the individual viewing it (Scott 1994). Heineken have predominantly used bright green in the selected advertisement which should initially grab the attention of the consumer. as this advertisement was used in Puerto Rico.0 Colour Up to 60% of a consumer's first impression is made up of colour (Heath 1997)Therefore. This association with movement and forward motion will emphasise the positivity of the colour(Brennan 2008). where the majority of people are Christian. Another modern day association stems from the traffic light system.0 the selected advertisement has used a nutcracker and nuts as a symbol for Christmas {{63 Confraternity of Penitents 2006. However.

Heineken have consistently communicated green as the Heineken brand colour. This allows the consumer to build an attitude towards the brand and any prior associations with the colour may become associated with the brand(Heineken International 2006). So this level of understanding will only be derived if this idea has previously been adopted in the consumer‟s „perceptual set‟ which will be constructed from these cultural and environmental experiences(Wright 2006 ). any positive associations made with Christmas will Heineken brand. Again. (Demand Media 2011). Again. be thereafter linked with the 10 . an assumption has been made in this particular advertisement that the consumer will understand a link between green and Christmas. the understanding of this symbolic use of colour will be dependent on the individual‟s exposure to culture and other environmental factors. Lastly.In addition to these associations.

0 Attitudes. Thereafter.7.) This is also known as the ABC model of attitudes where A is the affect (emotion). it is hoped that behaviour will follow due to the 'reminder' that is provided by this advert. Fishbeil et al. Heineken have already assumed the consumer to have „limited beliefs‟ about their product through previous advertising messages. beliefs. Believability & Involvement Many theorists believe that there are three components to an attitude. In this particular advert. Ajzen. there may be some kind of loyalty attachment(Wright 2006 ). These three components can be arranged into a hierarchy which explains the relative impact of three components (Solomon et. So if the product is liked. as for this kind of decision the customer's information search is likely to be limited (see figure 2). emotions towards the product should be reinforced through consumption. al 2010). emotions and behaviour (e.g. Limited Beliefs Behaviour Affect Attitude Based on behavioural learning processes Figure 2 11 . behaviour and cognition (beliefs)(Wright 2006 ). After exposure to the advertisement. the low involvement hierarchy of effects is predominantly. Allport.

The advertisement takes relatively little capacity to comprehend the meaning.. Kanuk L. 12 . L. As a result it could be debated that the emotional involvement hierarchy has been used to a certain degree through the use of Christmas symbols and colour to provoke an emotional response. 2004 2). The onlooker is only required to decipher the sensory content using categorical codes. L. This may be prestige that may be associated with the Heineken brand which will have been learned from previous advertising messages and general experience with the product.However it could also be argued that this product appeals specifically because of its premium branding appeals more to the hedonistic needs of the consumer. This would suggest that emotion may come before behaviour and beliefs for some consumers(Schiffman. This particular advertisement is found to operate on the second level of involvement. therefore limiting the believability of the advert. values. it is possible the advertisement may provoke an emotional response. Without an understanding of what Heineken is. which are in this case almost entirely in semiotic form (Greenwald and Leavitt 1984). and cannot form a belief about the product. This may mean that the consumer may never reach the behavioural stage. 'focal attention'. but it might not be possible for the individual to link this response with the product due to the lack of product information in the advert. G. the advertisement selected will fall under the value expressive function due to the hedonistic nature of the product (Katz 1960). This attitude function is an expression or a reflection of the consumer's beliefs. Using Katz' four functions of attitude. lifestyle and overall outlook.

and feels the product is in fitting to their personality and encourage them to purchase Heineken(Shavitt 1989).If this prestige associated with the product is perhaps something that is in their general values. it may appeal to these values that the individual already holds. The aim of the advertisement is purely to reinforce the beliefs already in place that are part of the individual's 'cognitive structure'(Maloney 1963). these messages will be more readily believed. 13 . So on viewing of the advertisement. It has been identified by Maloney that when a reminder advertisement is concerned.

such as the shape of the bottle and the brand colour will have been used as tools to decode that the advertisement was for Heineken. although some of the aspects of the advertisement were stronger than others. other features of the advertisement. they were also not rated exceedingly positive. Although the brand logo is not obviously stated in the advertisement.0 Strengths and Weaknesses Using the results form the primary research gathered (Appendix 3) strengths and weaknesses of the advertisement have been identified which have been used as a guide for the development of the new advertisement. Average Rating 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Male Female Figure 3 Although average ratings for each aspect of the advertisement were not particularly negative. However. this advertisement will only have been clear to those who knew the brand and its attributes well and were able to recall this learned information from 14 . Using this feedback there is room for improvement in almost all areas. so all analyses will be done using the total of the responses collected.8. The average results between male and female respondents were very close (see figure 3). The brand identification was by far the strongest point in this advertisement with precisely 50% of respondents finding the branding very clear (see figure 4).

This inability to decode information may result in perceptual blocking (Hoyer. Although the advertisement is bright. Wayne. not very exciting'. So despite the brightness of the colour. Someone new to this product and brand would have had to spend longer in decoding the information presented and for this reason.. it did not necessarily mean that this is the only factor which an advertiser should look at when deciding on colour composition for a marketing communication. D. However it has been noted by Wright (2006) that too much green can lead to lethargy. 2009 5). Macinnis. One respondent commented 'very bright but unappealing' and another commented 'it is green on green. Brand Identification Number of respondents 30 20 10 0 5 5 8 1 3 3 25 1 Very Clear 2 3 4 5 Figure 4 For the new advertising message. Deborah. Respondents rated the colour used in this advertisement quite bright (see figure 5). 15 . the balance of colours is perhaps not at its optimum. complacency and inactivity.the stimuli provided in the advertisement. the probability of Heineken being in the consumers consideration set will be greater. the brand should be communicated just as strongly as this will mean that when the consumer becomes motivated to purchase a beer product. This is a good tool in order to gain the attention of the consumer. J.

84 4. the colour green will be used to a certain extent in the new advertising message but a more complex pallet of colours will be used in order. For this reason. the overall aesthetics had not been addressed effectively.1 3. One of the respondents to the questionnaire stated that 'a nutcracker is not very appealing to look at‟ and another describing the image as 'dull' and 'lacking a point'.However. Although the advertisement was clever in its use of the figure ground principle. The colour will also be kept relatively bright so that the attention of the target audience is still drawn. as previously mentioned. Colour 20 18 16 1 Bright 2 3 7 4 5 4 5 6 7 Dull Number of respondents 15 10 5 0 Figure 5 Imagery was rated the weakest out of the elements of the advertisement (see Figure 6).28 Visual Context 4 Colour Imagery 5 4 3 2 1 Figure 6 16 . This is to avoid over exposure to one specific colour. green may already be associated with the Heineken brand.3 4. Average ratings for advertisement 7 6 Average Rating Brand Indentification 4.1 3.

In a study conducted by Weinberger and Gulas it was concluded that humour attracts attention. This preference for tradition in Christmas advertisements is a great opportunity to appeal to the customer on a more personal level and encourage involvement. It was also commented that in addition to this weak link to Christmas.Many of the respondents commented that they did not find the link between the nutcracker and Christmas particularly strong. Gulas. The average rating on the likert scale (1 Funny . 17 . Using humour would not be recommended for a high involvement product. C. This rating indicates that the advert was not found funny or serious. Figure 6 This preference for tradition and lack of interesting subject matter should be addressed in the new advertising message. this should not be an issue(Weinberger. It was realised in the analysis of consumer's preferences in Christmas advertisements that 72% of respondents‟ preferred seeing tradition in Christmas advertisements (see Figure 6).28 (see Figure 5).G. It was also found that 98% of respondents preferred humour in adverts. M. there was no Christmas greeting in semantic form (Nielsen.. Shapiro and Mason 2010). Semiotics which is likely to have stronger associations with Christmas should be used in order to increase the level of consumer‟s interest. 1992). but as Heinken is a FMCG.S.7 Serious) for the advertisements content was 4.

Figure 7 The level of involvement in this particular advertisement is not particularly high. Dudek‐Singer and Gautreaux 2006). and The advertisement capacity encourage elaboration(Greenwald and Leavitt 1984). This should be considered in the development of the new advertisement. Using modelling in the advertisement would allow for these effects to be seen by the consumer. There is a potential here for modelling to be used which will stimulate observational learning(Douglas Greer. the durability should of the require memory more of this information.When communicating preferences in advertising. This effect is not clearly demonstrated in the selected advertisement. It is suggested that if the consumer is to process data more in depth. 18 . It was also recognised by the majority of respondents that they prefer seeing the effects of behavioiur in adverts. Learning through involvement will allow for an attitude to the product being formed through the consumer developing beliefs about the product from recall of previously learned information. This could be seen as a particular weakness in the selected advertising message. 54% of respondents said that they preferred real people in advertising.

stockings. Chritmas tree and wreath all symbols of Christmas Positive Reinforcement through modelling Brand name and product stated clearly.9. Effect of behaviour shown Negative Reinforcement through modelling Use of green and red which are symbolic of Christmas Figure 8 19 .0 The New Advertising Message The new advertisement (see Figure 8 or Appendix 4) has been developed by keeping or improving the elements that were already well rated and adding to the elements that were weak or not included in the original advertisement Fireplace.

Two figures have been used to demonstrate what may happen as a result of the consumer’s behaviour. All of these symbols are well known symbols of Christmas throughout the western world. by the use of the tree. This has been noted to be a powerful colour and is associated with vitality. 20 . wreath and stockings. but also tie in to the brand colours. This advertisement attempts to replicate the strong brand identity which was identified in the original advert by the clear display of the Heineken logo. The red with the green (seen in the carpet. product placement.9. For individuals that are not familiar with the product. that this a relatively low risk purchase. a peripheral route to persuasion has been used as the consumer is unlikely to want to analyse a large amount of information(Schiffman. which is quite likely to be due to social risk involved (Clark 2011). Not only have they been used as symbols. tree and wreath) have been used to symbolise Christmas. The combination of this caption and the use of modelling allows for both positive and negative reinforcement. the Heineken keg. 2004 2). It must be noted that for a fast moving consumer good like beer. will be able to decode from the image that Heineken must be a company that produces beer from the in ad. it must also be taken into consideration that Heineken’s target audience are still relatively concerned about the brand of beer they buy. which are clearly stated on the Heineken keg. For the new advertisement. However. This will be understood by most individuals that this is your ‘Christmas list’ of gifts you hope to get. L. This has been supported by the display of the product. whereas the individual sat on the floor makes for the negative reinforcement. In addition to this the caption of ‘Is it on your list’ has been added. The symbolism has been continued in the advertisement. This means that individuals already familiar with the brand and the product this will be a reminder that the product is available. Kanuk L. and seems joyous.. L.1 Rationale Red has been used as the primary background colour to gain the attention of the consumer. joy and excitement (Wright 2006 ). is implied to have put Heineken on his list. as the result of his actions (or in this case no action) is being miserable and disappointed at his gifts. The individual in the advertisement who is standing. G. and should be understood by any consumer who celebrates Christmas (Apples4theTeacher 2011).

Furthermore. This may be when the consumer becomes motivated to buy beer in the Christmas period.0 Conclusion and Recommendations This report has identified the key theories that were relevant to the Heineken advertisement selected. al 2010). This should hold the consumers interest long enough to communicate the message. In order to gain the best results. it must also be noted that the sample collected only totalled 50 respondents. rated only average by respondents leaving a lot of room for improvement. The use of the model who has received a badly designed jumper for Christmas can be counted as quite comical due to the situation being quite clichéd. In order to increase the reliability of the results it is recommended that the sample size be increased. This kind of processing will aid memory of the product. The newly developed advertisement. the questionnaire used for investigating the attitudes and opinions of consumers was a standardised questionnaire used for a number of different advertisements. If a further study is to be conducted. To increase the involvement of the consumer. that the route to persuasion will become more central. 21 . but indeed how these factors interconnect. and then they must convert this information into actions once a situation arises wherein the behaviour is useful to the consumer (Solomon et. and where the advertisement could be improved even further. Through the use of secondary and primary research it can be concluded that it is not just one factor. it would be recommended that for further study the questionnaire be tailored to the sample advertisement. The original advertisement that was used by Heineken. The use of a child-like collage has allowed for both the use of ‘real people’ which was communicated to be a preference by respondents. 11. in theory should be an improvement on original. This could be a 100 word submission with the best answer winning a prize. Heineken could encourage customers to visit their website or Facebook page to answer the questioned posed in the advertisement. but also may provoke some feeling of nostalgia. according to the elaboration likelihood model. The overacted expressions also add to the comic effect.The consumer should then retain this behaviour in their memory. This increase in involvement. However. further research should be conducted to find out whether these improvements have been successful. or a list of factors which will indeed make a successful advertisement.

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Appendix 1 Original Advert 27 .

he does identify that they do in fact cover some of the basic elements of consumer behaviour. AIDA (Awareness. Three examples (all pre-1960s) of undifferentiated models of consumer behaviour are. From this the overlaps can be identified The three I's Impact AIDA Desire AUB Action Awareness Understanding Believability Imagery Involvement Attention Interest Imagery Symbolism Colour Attitudes Believability Involvement Motivation Learning                                Table 1      28 .Appendix 2 The Undifferentiated Models Numerous theorists have attempted to capture consumer behaviour in a single model to be used as a marketing tool. Action) and AUB (Attention. & Johnson. 1990. The table below shows which consumer behaviour theories from the advertisement apply to which section of the undifferentiated models. overlap. Desire. Understanding. Involvement). but used concurrently as tools of analysis to allow us to gain the best understanding of the psychology of consumer behaviour. the particular study builds on this model and usually ignores behaviour not included in the model”. needs or situations and make the assumption that ‘this is really what man is like’. B. meaning that most models. Then. C. Although there is an element of scepticism in Kover’s attitude towards these models. Interest. Image. to some extent.}}. The Three I’s (Impact. Believability) {{43 Mullen. These models should therefore not be viewed as explicit frameworks to psychological analysis. Kover (1967) reviewed a number of consumer behaviour models like these and suggested that “All models have one thing in common: they describe some basic behaviours.

Appendix 3 Questionnaire Results Section 1 Q1 Gender Cumulative Frequency Valid Male Female Total 29 21 50 Percent 58.0 34.0 29 .0 100.0 34.0 100.0 Q2 Occupation Cumulative Frequency Valid Student Professional Total 33 17 50 Percent 66.0 42.0 100.0 Valid Percent 58.0 100.0 Percent 58.0 100.0 Valid Percent 66.0 100.0 Percent 66.0 42.

0 10.0 92.0 100.00 21.00 24.00 25.0 2.00 28.0 2.0 88.0 2.0 8.0 96.0 76.0 14.0 Valid Percent 4.0 2.00 20.0 54.0 10.0 100.00 32.0 32.00 19.0 22.0 2.0 86.0 90.0 4.Q3 Age Cumulative Frequency Valid 18.0 Percent 4.0 100.00 30.00 22.00 Total 2 2 7 16 11 5 1 1 1 2 1 1 50 Percent 4.0 14.0 22.00 23.0 2.0 32.0 2.0 4.0 22.00 26.0 98.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 30 .0 2.0 4.

Section 2 2 Q3 I think I am influenced by adverts 1 Q4 I think I would follow an adverts recommendation of behaviour 2 12 5 Q5I prefer authoritative people in adverts 3 9 16 5 11 31 20 14 19 Q6 I prefer humour in adverts Number of respondents 1 21 28 Strongly Disagree 1 9 4 1 9 Q7 I prefer seeing real people in adverts 13 23 Disagree Unsure Agree Q8 I prefer seeing the effects of behaviour in adverts 16 Strongly Agree 22 2 3 8 6 Q9 I like cartoons in adverts 10 23 Q10 I like to see tradition in Christmas adverts 1 7 6 10 8 26 Q11 I prefer modern themes in Christmas adverts 0 10 2 10 19 20 30 40 Number of respondents 31 .

0 Valid Percent 50.00 5.0 2.0 10.0 6.0 6.0 16.0 88.0 6.0 94.0 60.0 86.00 6.0 32 .0 100.0 6.0 100.0 10.0 70.0 2.0 16.0 10.00 Not Clear Total 25 5 5 8 1 3 3 50 Percent 50.0 10.00 4.0 100.00 3.Section 3 Brand Identification 30 25 25 Number of respondents 20 15 10 5 5 1 0 5 3 3 8 1 Very Clear 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not clear Cumulative Frequency Valid Very Clear 2.0 Percent 50.

0 14.0 72.0 100.0 22.0 18.0 2.Visual Context 14 12 12 Number of respondents 10 8 6 4 4 2 0 1 11 1 Appealing 9 7 6 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not appealing Cumulative Frequency Valid Appealing 2.0 24.00 4.0 12.0 100.0 22.00 6.0 86.0 24.0 2.0 98.0 18.0 12.0 33 .0 14.00 3.0 54.0 100.0 30.0 Percent 8.0 Valid Percent 8.00 Not Appealing Total 4 11 12 9 7 6 1 50 Percent 8.00 5.

0 68.00 5 10.0 3.0 4.0 32.0 5.00 7 14.0 14.0 100.0 36.0 10.0 32.0 Total 50 100.00 4 8.0 82.0 2.Colour 20 18 18 16 16 Number of respondents 14 12 10 8 6 4 4 2 0 7 5 1 Bright 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dull Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Bright 16 32.0 100.0 34 .0 8.00 18 36.0 90.

0 5.00 8 16.0 88.0 100.0 12.0 4.0 35 .0 12.0 70.00 8 16.0 28.0 12.0 16.Imagery 14 12 Number of respondents 1 Very Attractive 10 8 8 6 6 4 2 0 0 6 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not attractive 13 Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Attractive 6 12.0 Total 50 100.00 13 26.0 100.0 2.0 16.0 3.00 9 18.0 26.0 18.0 44.00 6 12.0 6.

0 32.Content 14 12 Number of respondents 1 Funny 10 8 6 4 2 0 5 4 4 7 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 Serious 13 12 Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent 5 4 7 13 4 12 5 50 10.0 8.0 14.0 90.0 26.0 100.0 66.0 24.0 10.0 26.0 8.0 14.0 100.0 58.0 10.0 10.0 18.0 10.0 8.0 100.0 36 .0 24.0 8.

0 18.0 8.0 Total 50 100.0 10.0 40.0 26.0 100.0 2.00 8 16.0 4.0 8.0 16.0 14.0 4.00 7 14.Did you like this advert? 14 12 10 8 8 6 4 4 2 2 0 5 7 11 1 Very Much 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all 13 Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Very Much 4 8.0 56.0 100.0 Not at all 2 4.0 37 .0 82.00 5 10.00 11 22.0 5.0 3.0 6.0 96.0 22.00 13 26.

3 4.1 3.7 Not Clear Visual Context = 1 Very Appealing .1 4 3 2 1 3.Average ratings for advertisement elements 7 6 Brand Indentification Average Rating 5 4.7 Not at all 38 .7 Not Clear Visual Context = 1 Very Appealing .7 Not Attractive Content = 1 Funny .7 Not Appealing Colour = 1 Bright .7 Dull Imagery = 1 Very Attractive .7 Not at all 7 6 5 Average Rating 4 3 2 1 Brand Identifation Visual Context Colour Imagery Content Did you like this advert Male Female Brand Identification = 1 Very Clear .7 Not Appealing Colour = 1 Bright .7 Dull Imagery = 1 Very Attractive .7 Serious Did you like this advertisement = 1 Very much .28 4 Visual Context Colour Imagery Content Do you like this advert? Brand Identification = 1 Very Clear .84 4.7 Not Attractive Content = 1 Funny .7 Serious Did you like this advertisement = 1 Very much .

Appendix 4 New Advertisement 39 .

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