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JOB SATISFACTION

Dissertation submitted to the Padmashree Dr.D.Y.Patil University In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Submitted by, Yamuna.S.Gounder Roll no .0801174

Research Guide Prof. Pooja Goel Department of Business Management Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai
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JOB SATISFACTION (With respect to Micro Technologies India Limited) Dissertation submitted to the Padmashree Dr.D.Y.Patil University In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Submitted by Yamuna .S. Gounder Roll no .0801174

Research Guide Prof. Pooja Goel Department of Business Management Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai

JOB SATISFACTION (With respect to Micro Technologies India Limited) Dissertation submitted to the Padmashree Dr.D.Y.Patil University In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Submitted by Yamuna .S. Gounder Roll no .0801174

Research Guide Prof. Pooja Goel Department of Business Management Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai
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JOB SATISFACTION (With respect to Micro Technologies India Limited)

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the dissertation Job Satisfaction with respect to Micro Technologies India Limited submitted for the MBA Degree at Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Universitys Department of Business Management is my original work and the dissertation has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, associate ship, fellowship or any other similar titles.

Place: Mumbai Date:

Signature of the student

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled Job Satisfaction with respect to Micro Technologies India Limited is the bona fide research work carried out by Ms Yamuna .S. Gounder student of MBA, at Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil University, Department of Business Management during the year 2008 10, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Masters in Business Management and that the dissertation has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree, diploma, associate ship, fellowship or any other title.

Prof .Pooja Goel (Project Guide)

Dr. R. Gopal (Director) Department of Business Mgt, Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University Place: Mumbai Date:
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives me great pleasure in submitting this final project report on Job Satisfaction with respect to Micro Technologies India Limited I thank Prof. Pooja Goel for guiding me throughout this project work and also for motivating me in different ways. She has been a tremendous helping hand in completing this difficult task. I am grateful for having had an easy or any time access to such knowledgeable and guiding spirit. I feel there is ample scope of improvement upon the work of this nature and shall be thankful if any suggestion is offered for its improvement. I am also thankful to my family, friends, teachers and staff who have been of great help and support in completion of this report.

CONTENTS
1. Executive Summary 2. Introduction 3. Industry profile 4. Company profile 5. Objective of the study 6. Research methodology 7. Review of literature 8. Data analysis and interpretation 9. Findings 10. Recommendations 11. Conclusion 12. Bibliography 13. Annexure 11 12 25 31 48 51 56 74 98 104 107 109 111

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E X E C U T IV E SU M M A R Y

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Job satisfaction is very critical element for every organization. It can reduce the absenteeism and at the same time can increase the turnover. The organization need to look after all of its employees needs. Every employee should feel comfortable and should feel proud to be working in the organization. Then, their skills and efforts will be to achieve not only their individual goals but to achieve the organizational goals. Every organization is made up of its human resource. If it will not take care of it then it cannot get success. This project gives the complete theoretical and practical knowledge about the subject Job Satisfaction giving a better understanding about the topic, light has been focused on the practicality part.

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IN T R O D U C T IO N

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INTRODUCTION
Job Satisfaction: The term job satisfaction was brought to limelight by Hoppock (1935). He reviewed 32 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 and observed that job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person to say, I am Satisfied with my job. Such a description indicates the variety of variables that influence the satisfaction of the individual but tell us nothing about the nature of job satisfaction. Perhaps, one way to define job satisfaction may be to say that it is the end state of feeling. Notice the use of the word end. It emphasizes the fact that the feeling is experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective endeavour of constructing a dam. These tasks/activities could be very minute or large. They may be easily observable or could just be experienced. But in all cases, they satisfy a certain need. The feeling could be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not and could be a function of the efforts of the individual on one hand and on the other the situational opportunities available to him. Sinha (1974) defines job satisfaction as a reintegration of affect produced by individuals perception of fulfilment of his needs in relation to his work and the situations surrounding it. Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn attention of managers in the organization as well as the academicians. Various studies have been conducted to find out the factors which determine job satisfaction and the
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way it influences productivity in the organization. Though there is no conclusive evidence that job satisfaction affects productivity directly because productivity depends on so many variables, it is still a prime concern for managers. Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favourableness which an individual has about his job. DuBrins has defined job satisfaction in terms of pleasure and contentment when he says that: Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction Nasurdin and Ramayah (2003), citing the work of OReilly and Caldwell (1980), indicated that both task and organizational rewards contribute to job satisfaction. Task rewards are intrinsic rewards directly associated with the job such as interesting and challenging work, variety and opportunities to use ones skills. Organizational rewards are the tangible rewards that are visible to others such as pay, promotion and comfortable working conditions. Hoppock (1935) forwarded a traditional approach to job satisfaction. Here, job satisfaction is a result of various factors in the working environment and if these factors are present, job satisfaction will arise, otherwise job dissatisfaction will emerge. The same factors will influence job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. In contrast, Hertzberg et al. (1959) distinguished the factors like work environment, pay and company policies that eliminate job dissatisfaction as the hygiene factors while the factors creating job satisfaction like challenging work, responsibility, recognition and achievement as motivators. Hence, the job satisfaction construct can be considered to be a function of work-related rewards and work values.

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Job satisfaction as a significant determinant of organizational commitment has been well documented in numerous studies (Porter et al., 1974; Mottaz, 1987; Williams and Anderson, 1991, Vanderberg and Lance, 1992; Knoop, 1995; Young, Worchel and Woehr, 1998; Testa, 2001). Hence, managers in todays organizations have placed great importance on the issue of job satisfaction of their employees. This is because employees who are satisfied are more likely to be committed to their organizations. These workers, in return, are more likely to take pride in organizational membership, believe in the goals and values of the organization and, therefore, exhibit higher levels of performance and productivity. The importance of analyzing and enhancing the level of job satisfaction and motivation among employees, especially in the service industry was highlighted by a report in the New Straits Times (9 April 2005, p. 10).

Determinants of Job satisfaction: While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that: all individuals do not derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job in the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus, all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job, and situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are:

Individual Factors: 1. Level of Education:

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Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their case, Peters principle which suggests that every individual tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly.

2. Age: Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising up to certain stage, and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this.

When individuals join an organization, they may have some unrealistic assumptions about what they are going to derive from their work. These assumptions make them more satisfied. However, when these assumptions fall short of reality, job satisfaction goes down. It starts rising again as the people start to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions. At the last, particularly at the fag end of the career, job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future outcome.

3. Other Factors: Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. If an individual does not have favourable social and family life, he may not feel happy at the workplace. Similarly, other personal problem associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.
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Nature of Job: 1. Occupational level: Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower level jobs. This happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. For example: professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people like factory workers.

2. Job Content: Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills fir performing it and the degree of responsibility and growth it offer. A higher content of these factors provides higher satisfaction. For example: a routine and repetitive job provides lesser satisfaction; the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.

Situational Variables: Situational variables related to job satisfaction lie in organizational context formal and informal. Some of the factors which affect job satisfaction are given below:

1. Working Conditions: Working conditions, particularly physical work environment, like conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job
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satisfaction. These work in 2 ways. First they provide means for job performance. Second, provision of these conditions affects the individuals perception about the organization. If these factors are favourable, individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction.

2. Supervision: The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision; the degree of importance attached to individuals varies. In employee- oriented supervision, there is more concern for people which is perceived favourably by them and provides them more satisfaction. In job- oriented supervision, there is more emphasis on the performance of the job and people become secondary. This situation decreases job satisfaction.

3. Equitable Rewards: The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based n the job performance and equitable, it offers higher satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on considerations other than the job performance, it affects job satisfaction adversely.

4. Opportunity for Promotion: It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of job nature and work environment but they also attach importance to the opportunities for promotion that these jobs offer. If the present job offers opportunity of promotion in future, it provides more satisfaction. If the opportunity for such promotion is lacking, it reduces satisfaction.

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5. Work Group: Individuals work in group either created formally or they develop on their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace. To the extent such groups are cohesive; the degree of satisfaction is high. If the group is not cohesive, job satisfaction is low. In a cohesive group, people derive satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction.

Measurement of Job Satisfaction: There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures ones satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, co-workers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or cant decide (indicated by ?) in response to whether given statements accurately describe ones job. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It was an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focused too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general. Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale.
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The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (5 items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (1

item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of job satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face. 'Variables and Measures' The overall job satisfaction levels of the Faculty members measured with the help of 5 dimensions namely Job, supervisor, coworkers, pay, and promotion. Information regarding faculty members age, education ,job level, foreign qualification, numbers of years in organization, other source of income, gender, and marital status have also been obtained.(shamail etal,2004) (JOURNAL OF INDEPENDENT STUDIES & RESEARCH,VOLUME2,NUMBER1,JANUARY 2004). There are number of ways of measuring job satisfaction. Some of the most common include Rating scales, critical incidents, interviews and action tendencies. Some are discussed below: Rating Scales: The most common approach for measuring job satisfaction is the use of rating scales. One of the popular is the messiest satisfactions questionnaire. The instrument provides as detailed picture of specific satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees. Another popular rating scale is the Job Descriptive Index (JDI). This scale measures the dimensions identified by Smith, Kendall and Hulling that is work itself, pay, promotion, opportunity, supervision & co-workers. It has been widely used by organizational behavior research over the years and provides a broad picture of employees activities towards the major components of jobs still another popular instrument is the Porter's Need Satisfaction Questionnaire (NSQ). It is
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typically used for management personal only, the questions focus on particular problems faced by managers.

Critical Incidents: Frederick Hertzberg popularized the critical incidents approach to the measurement of job satisfaction. He and his colleagues used this technique in their research on the basis of the two-factor theory of motivation. Employees were asked to describe incidents on their job when they are particularly satisfied and dissatisfied. These incidents were then content analyzed for determining which aspects were most closely related to positive and negative attitudes. One of the major benefits of the critical incidents approach is that it allows the respondents to say whatever they want. The individuals are not restricted by predetermined categories or events as on a structured questionnaire where on the other hand, the approach is time consuming and there is a chance that both the responses and the interpretations will be biased. Respondents might tell the interviewer what they think, the interviews want to learn or something that makes them looks good.

Interviews: Another method of assessing job satisfaction is through the use of personal interview. This approach allows for an in-depth exploration of job attitudes. If the respondents say something that the interviewer can follow up with additional questions on the negative side, responses may be misinterpreted and thus lead to erroneous conclusions. A second problem is the possibility of interviewer bias. The way in which the individuals ask questions may not be understandable. Finally there is a cost factor-interviews are relatively time consuming and thus an expensive way of gathering information.
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Importance of job satisfaction: Investigated by several disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics and management sciences, job satisfaction is a frequently studied subject in work and organizational literature. This is mainly due to the fact that many experts believe that job satisfaction trends can affect labor market behavior and influence work productivity, work effort, employee absenteeism and staff turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is considered a strong predictor of overall individual well-being (Diaz-Serrano and Cabral Vieira, 2005), as well as a good predictor of intentions or decisions of employees to leave a job (Gazioglu and Tansel, 2002). Beyond the research literature and studies, job satisfaction is also important in everyday life. Organizations have significant effects on the people who work for them and some of those effects are reflected in how people feel about their work (Spector, 1997). This makes job satisfaction an issue of substantial importance for both employers and employees. As many studies suggest, employers benefit from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity if their employees experience a high level of job satisfaction. However, employees should also be happy in their work, given the amount of time they have to devote to it throughout their working lives (Nguyen, Taylor and Bradley, 2003a). The following passage summarizes the importance of job satisfaction for both employers and their workers: Job satisfaction is important in its own right as a part of social welfare, and this (simple) taxonomy [of a good job] allows a start to be made on such questions as In what respects are older workers jobs better than those of younger
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workers? (And vice versa), Who has the good jobs? and Are good jobs being replaced by bad jobs? . In addition, measures of job quality seem to be useful predictors of future labor market behavior. Workers decisions about whether to work or not, what kind of job to accept or stay in, and how hard to work are all likely to depend in part upon the workers subjective evaluation of their work, in other words on their job satisfaction. (Clark, 1998).

What Satisfies Indian employees: Although quite a number of studies on what satisfies Indian employees have been conducted, in the following table the results of a representative sample of these studies separately for managers/ supervisors and the workers are presented.

SR.NO Designation

Factors

1.

Managers

Responsibility Job security Job contents Opportunity for advancement Company itself Recognition Decision making authority Work condition Best use of abilities Adequate earning

2.

Supervisors

Adequate money

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Promotional opportunity Job security Recognition Achievement Work itself Working condition Inter-personal relations Relation with superior Use of abilities

3.

Workers

Earning Job security Free medical aid Opportunity for advancement Suitable type of work Comfortable working conditions Work group Relations with boss Recognition Duration of work

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IN D U STR Y PR O FIL E

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INDUSTRY PROFILE
Service Sector in India Service Sector in India today accounts for more than half of India's GDP. According to data for the financial year 2006-2007, the share of services, industry, and agriculture in India's GDP is 55.1 per cent, 26.4 per cent, and 18.5 per cent respectively. The fact that the service sector now accounts for more than half the GDP marks a watershed in the evolution of the Indian economy and takes it closer to the fundamentals of a developed economy. Services or the "tertiary sector" of the economy covers a wide gamut of activities like trading, banking & finance, infotainment, real estate, transportation, security, management & technical consultancy among several others. The various sectors that combine together to constitute service industry in India are: Trade Hotels and Restaurants Railways Other Transport & Storage Communication (Post, Telecom) Banking Insurance Dwellings, Real Estate Business Services
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Public Administration; Defense Personal Services Community Services Other Services There was marked acceleration in services sector growth in the eighties and nineties, especially in the nineties. While the share of services in India's GDP increased by 21 per cent points in the 50 years between 1950 and 2000, nearly 40 percent of that increase was concentrated in the nineties. While almost all service sectors participated in this boom, growth was fastest in communications, banking, hotels and restaurants, community services, trade and business services. One of the reasons for the sudden growth in the services sector in India in the nineties was the liberalization in the regulatory framework that gave rise to innovation and higher exports from the services sector. The boom in the services sector has been relatively "jobless". The rise in services share in GDP has not accompanied by proportionate increase in the sector's share of national employment. Some economists have also cautioned that service sector growth must be supported by proportionate growth of the industrial sector; otherwise the service sector grown will not be sustainable. In the current economic scenario it looks that the boom in the services sector is here to stay as India is fast emerging as global services hub.

IT Industry in India Information Technology (IT) industry in India is one of the fastest growing industries. Indian IT industry has built up valuable brand equity for itself in the global markets. IT industry in India comprises of software industry and information technology enabled services (ITES), which also includes business process outsourcing (BPO) industry. India is considered as a pioneer in software
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development

and

favourite

destination

for

IT-enabled

services.

The origin of IT industry in India can be traced to 1974, when the mainframe manufacturer, Burroughs, asked its India sales agent, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), to export programmers for installing system software for a U.S. client. The IT industry originated under unfavourable conditions. Local markets were absent and government policy toward private enterprise was hostile. The industry was begun by Bombay-based conglomerates which entered the business by supplying programmers to global IT firms located overseas. During that time Indian economy was state-controlled and the state remained hostile to the software industry through the 1970s. Import tariffs were high (135% on hardware and 100% on software) and software was not considered an "industry", so that exporters were ineligible for bank finance. Government policy towards IT sector changed when Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in 1984. His New Computer Policy (NCP-1984) consisted of a package of reduced import tariffs on hardware and software (reduced to 60%), recognition of software exports as a "delicensed industry", i.e., henceforth eligible for bank finance and freed from license-permit raj, permission for foreign firms to set up wholly-owned, export-dedicated units and a project to set up a chain of software parks that would offer infrastructure at below-market costs. These policies laid the foundation for the development of a world-class IT industry in India. Today, Indian IT companies such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Wipro, Infosys, and HCL et al are renowned in the global market for their IT prowess. Some of the major factors which played a key role in India's emergence as key global IT player are: Indian Education System The Indian education system places strong emphasis on mathematics and science, resulting in a large number of science and engineering graduates. Mastery over quantitative concepts coupled with English
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proficiency has resulted in a skill set that has enabled India to reap the benefits of the current international demand for IT. High Quality Human Resource Indian programmers are known for their strong technical and analytical skills and their willingness to accommodate clients. India also has one of the largest pools of English-speaking professionals. Competitive Costs The cost of software development and other services in India is very competitive as compared to the West. Infrastructure Scenario Indian IT industry has also gained immensely from the availability of a robust infrastructure (telecom, power and roads) in the country. In the last few years Indian IT industry has seen tremendous growth. Destinations such as Bangalore, Hyderabad and Gurgaon have evolved into global IT hubs. Several IT parks have come up at Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Pune, Gurgaon etc. These parks offer Silicon Valley type infrastructure. In the light of all the factors that have added to the strength of Indian IT industry, it seems that Indian success story is all set to continue.

HR CHALLENGES FOR THE IT INDUSTRY We are now living in knowledge society. We have also welcomed the new millennium with great fanfare and hope. We have to face broad challenges in this new millennium. We have experienced the growth of the manufacturing sector, ford assembly lines to the present emphasis on quality system. This millennium will certainly belong to convergence of IT; organisations have to leverage IT to get advantage in a highly competitive environment. We are having fast moving IT companies in this arena; they have shown their business

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excellence through optimum utilization of IT. This IT boom has introduced great challenges for these companies. Now the question is how to put in place & processes that should be in tune with IT revolution, how to strategize, compete with globalization. Perhaps this is the prime challenges for HR in the IT industry. The IT industry is a service industry. Here we have to provide quality service to individuals and organization. The IT companies have to be creative, innovative knowledgeable. This can be achieved through human capital. This will also determine the success of your organization. We have to manage through HR whose intellectual applications that will drive your business.

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C O M P A N Y P R O F IL E

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COMPANY PROFILE
Micro Technologies (India) Ltd. is an IT based company, a leading global developer, manufacturer and marketer of security devices for its clients across the globe. Product lines include the much-needed security devices, life style and support systems and web-based software. Micro Technologies has a history of leading-edge security solutions products. This tradition continues through a singular focus on innovation, advanced technology and making the life of its clients safe, secure and manageable in terms of security, time and money one of the most important defining characteristics of a security and life support solution based company in the early 21st century. It is one of the most valued security solutions across the globe and has been accorded with many national and international awards for its growth and R & D. Micro Technologies aims at displaying not just the technological innovation and prowess but also the product diversity in various segments of vehicle, premises, mobile, other assets and now entering Energy & Health Segments.

VISION Our Vision is to emerge as a Global IT based Solution for customers in the field of Security, Life Style & Life Support Systems. To identify, source and deploy infrastructure, talent and resource in order to render superior Information Technology solutions worldwide.
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MISSION To develop advanced technology products and to disseminate them

through strategic alliances with emerging and existing leaders in the field of Information Technology. To identify, source and deploy infrastructure, talent & resource to render

a Qualitative and Efficient service in the field of Information Technology Worldwide. To focus on client objectives and provide customized cutting edge

solutions. To provide innovative solutions to the global market.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Dr P. Sekhar Mrs Jayanthi S. Mr. Anant R. Kale Dr R.S. Deshmukh Mr Sudhir G. Koppikar Dr. Paul Jerome Coleman Jr. Mr Raghavendra A. Raichur Mr. Vinayak Hajare Chairman and Managing Director Executive Director Independent Director Independent Director Independent Director Independent Director Alternate Independent Director Independent Director

CERTIFICATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ARAI Certificate EMC Certificate ERTL Certificate NASSCOM Certificate IECEE Certificate
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6.

ISO 9001 : 2000

OBJECTIVE OF THE COMPANY

Objectives establish the goals and aims of business and determine its shape f future events. Objectives are the way of delivery motives for profits or self service. Objective is the way of achieving motives for profits or self service. Objectives represent a clear picture of activities which are sought to be achieved. The main objectives of Micro Technologies as given in its memorandum of associations are: To introduce new products and create new market. Increasing productivity of work force. Customer service and customer satisfaction. Improving work culture among the employees Increasing quality product and service Capitalising on company strength and use of corporate assets Improve advertising effectiveness.

BUISNESS OVERVIEW

The Business converges three most rapidly growing areas, Security Solutions, Information technology and Telecom. Company. Security and Messaging products are unique, with no major equivalent competing products in India.
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Products address large market segments comprising of Individuals, homes and enterprises. Products service needs such as Security and Productivity, which are very vital in the modern living environment. MAJOR PRODUCTS

Micro Vehicle Black Box (VBB): The VBB is a futuristic offering that gives instant information and control to a vehicle owner globally on any event that happens in his/her vehicle like positioning, pre-defined security breaches, status of doors/windows, air pressure in the tiers, contents in the boot, breath analysis of driver etc. On being informed of any event, the owner can control the subsequent events from anywhere in the world by use of his mobile phone. He can stop the car remotely, inform police and de-activate devices etc. This application has exciting potential and further refinements are in the offering. Micro Home Security Systems (HSS): Micro HSS is a premises security system, which can also be customized to specification and is available with various features and in different models to suit cost and functional requirements. It is a security system deployed on the premises to alert the registered user through SMS in case of any unauthorized or prohibited access in the user's premises. Micro Fleet Monitoring System (FMS): Micro FMS is a web based Fleet Monitoring System, which has been developed to help organizations manage and track fleet of vehicles owned by the organization. Any organization who possess a fleet of vehicles for its staff, for the transportation of goods or for passengers in case of transport companies. The size of this fleet varies as per requirements of the organizations. These organizations need to maintain various details of these vehicles, like fuel consumption, breakdown details, maintenance
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details, details of garage and staff associated with vehicles, account details of cost of maintenance, inter department billing etc. Micro Lost Mobile Tracking System (LMTS): LMTS is a comprehensive & intelligible tool to prevent theft & system integrity. It intimates the change in SIM card & the current location of the handset with the registered handset user. It requires less memory for its application asks for no additional phone accessories and uses advanced GSM technology. LMTS can be used in Nokia, Samsung & Panasonic handsets. LMTS is available in three different models Elite, Premium & Enterprise. Micro Life Line (MLL): MLL is a web based service with an Effective Solution to various problems. MLL opens up new and effective ways of communicating critical and important information with minimal time and effort. Imagine getting up in the morning and seeing all the programs/ appointments waiting ahead for you for the day all on the mobile Phone.

OTHER BUSINESS PRODUCTS Micro Shop Security System (Micro SSS): Micro Shop Security System is a one-of-its- kind security system especially designed for shops and small establishments. This advanced security system alerts you anywhere in the world through SMS in case of shutter or door break-ins, gas leakages, motion detection or fire outbreaks. Micro intelligent surveillance system (Micro ISS): Micro Intelligent Surveillance System has been designed to ensure complete security of your premises. It is an ideal security solution that implements various sensors, at various strategic points, to protect all your assets within your premises. Micro Video door phone (Micro VDP): Micro VDP (Video Door Phone), an Integrated Intercom Security System that can be integrated with the HSS- Home
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Security System into an easy to use, convenient and affordable system. It is a system that enables both video and audio communications between users over a commonly connected telephone line.

Micro Intelligent black box (Micro IBB): Micro IBB, called Intelligent Black Box, is a security solution to ensure safety & provides life-support for UNMANNED locations as well as locations of critical importance to the company. It functions with the help of various electronic sensors to detect activities and then alert the authorized users on their mobile phones, through voice calls on land lines and emails Micro Office black box (Micro OBB): It is a security system deployed in premises to alert the registered user of any unwanted access to one's premises. This security system works on the GSM technology. Apart from Messaging as a mode of intimation during any anomaly such as intrusion, smoke detection or Gas Leakage the system is also incorporated with audio effects through Siren, which is an additional facility to the system. Micro access control system (Micro ACS): Micro ACS or Access Control System is access control software which allows you to authorize, monitor, report on and manage attendance details of your Organization. It can be implemented as a stand-alone or fully integrated with your existing systems within the 24 hrs Clock Suite. Micro Disaster management system (Micro DMS): Micro DMS helps to prevent or reduce the destruction, loss, human suffering or any economic losses caused by the Calamities, Accidents, Anomalies by immediate detection and dissemination of timely, correct and relevant information to the correct recipient in the correct format and the correct communication device to mitigate the preparedness planning.
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Micro Office Security System (Micro OSS): Micro OSS is a security system deployed in office premises to warn the registered user of any unwanted access. The registered user gets intimation through an Alert Message. Any anomaly such as intrusion, smoke detection or Gas Leakage it is intimated also through the incorporated audio system which gives the sound effects of Siren, which is an additional facility to the system. Micro Secure Bank Black Box (Micro SBB): With the Implementation of this system, one can expect a reduction in the rate of robberies in Banks. With added utility of attendance monitoring and log maintenance, the following system proves to be greatly helpful for administrators. Micro Lost Notebook Tracking System (Micro LNTS): Micro LNTS (Lost Notebook Tracking System) is embedded on notebook hard drives, allowing systems to be tracked as soon as they are connected to the Internet. Micro LNTS not only tracks & recovers stolen computers - it deters theft. When a laptop is loaded with Micro Lost Notebook Tracking System, tracking-agent software silently connects with the company's monitoring centre whenever the device is connected to the Internet. If that notebook is reported stolen or lost, its location is tracked and the owner can recover the stolen property. They may login to their web-based personal tracking and monitoring page through

www.microlnts.net to view and trace where their laptop has been accessed that too from any corner of the world. Micro LNTS is far more efficient and competitive to existing low end products available in the market include Regular Emails for computer/notebook. MicroPower Sine wave Home UPS (Micro PSHU): Micro Power Sinewave Home UPS is an exceptionally powerful top of the line technology product based on Digital Signal Processing with in-built Smart Battery management, 5 stage battery Charge Control System and an in built
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Diagnostic aid. It has seven audio alarms to give an idea about Reset, System Fault, Overload, Short Circuit, Low Battery, Water Reminder or if

there is a weak DC connection. The Micro Products addresses/secures market segments and industries such as: Automobile Industry. Premises Homes, offices & factories. Fashion industry. Hospitality Industry. Health Care Industry. Jewellery Industry. Personal Communications Infrastructure Industry Energy Industry

RECENT INITIATIVES OF Micro Technologies (India) Ltd. Micro Technologies India enters Japanese market Micro Technologies has signed in for a business worth USD 5 million for its mobile controller product, Micro MCS (Mobile Controller System) from FN Systems, Japan. This marks an entry of Micro Technologies in the highly evolved Japanese market. It is first of its kind exclusive deal where an Indian Company is providing its innovative and unique solution for mobile security, data management technology to Japan. FN System would help and assist to identify and spot the potential market for IT based opportunities in Japan and Far East countries like East China, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore. Micro Technologies India Expands business in South Africa

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Micro Technologies expands its existing business in South Africa with a deal size of 6 Million USD annually with TWI International PTY. Ltd, South Africa. After the success of the Vehicle Security System, Micro Phantom, Training within Industry International (TWI) is expanding its business with Micro Technologies to distribute their other security solutions in the South African market. The products include Micro Lost Mobile Tracking Systems, Micro Mobile Controller System, Micro Buddy Tracking System, Micro Access Controller System, Micro Lost Notebook Tracking System, Micro Bike Security System and Micro Energy Black Box. Micro Technologies would upgrade these products periodically taking into account the latest technologies and user requirements. Micro Technologies will provide all the training technical support for these products.

BUSINESS STRATEGY The Company follows a cohesive strategy in developing its business: Creation of new products: The Company intends to provide Research & Development along with the initiation of Innovative Technology particularly with a view to capitalize on the first mover advantage that it has in the IT based security industry and further plans to expand the size of its market, while mitigating business risk by reducing its dependence on only a few products. Expansion and enhancement of products: The Company intends to expand and enhance its range of products. The Company operates in a highly technical and dynamic field. The Company believes that the key to success is to offer innovative and technologically advanced products. Developing marketing and sales alliances:
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The Company intends to grow and strengthen its strategic alliances with distributor networks, which will assist the Company in sales and delivery. Geographical expansion of product offerings: The Company intends to further expand the client base for its product offerings. The Company proposes to carry out the expansion with the help of strategic acquisitions and by entering into strategic alliances, with a view to eventually establishing a greater presence in new markets. Maintenance of the existing customer base: The Company trains the staff at Micro Shoppes, enabling them to meet any customer requirement. The Company also maintains a 24-hour customer care service. Further, as the Company develops its portfolio of products and services, its existing customer base should continue to grow. Brand equity: The Company intends to invest in developing and enhancing recognition of its brands, including its corporate name, through brand building efforts, communication and promotional initiatives such as interaction with industry research organizations, participation in industry events, public relations, media campaigns and investor relations efforts. Maintaining strategic focus on the Indian market: The Company believes that India remains strategically important to its growth. The Company intends to continue to focus on growing its businesses in India. It will also continue to utilize the experience and expertise gained through Indian operations to expand globally. Growth through acquisitions: The Company evaluates potential acquisition targets that offer an opportunity to grow its business by increasing its international presence. Subsidiary Formation:
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The company concentrates in forming subsidiaries for its main product line so as to create an impact and concentrate on the product based market segment.

ACHIEVEMENTS AND AWARDS

Micro Technologies wins the 'Amity Corporate Excellence Award' Accorded with the "Deloitte Technology Fast 500 Asia Pacific Award"

for being one of the 500 fastest growing companies in Asia for two consecutive years- 2007 & 2008. Awarded with the 'Deloitte Technology Fast 50 (India) Award' for two

consecutive years-2007 & 2008. Micro Technologies wins the Dun & Bradstreet - ECGC - Indian

Exporters' Excellence Award. Micro Technologies bags Maharashtra IT Awards, 2006. Dr. A P J Kalam, former president of India, felicitates Dr. P Sekhar for

his significant contribution in the security segment. Micro Technologies and Bharti Airtel Limited ties up to offer Micro

LMTS (Lost Mobile Tracking System) to secure the mobile handsets of Airtel subscribers. Micro Technologies ties up with MTNL to offer Mobile security solution-

Micro LMTS to its Mumbai & Delhi Subscribers. Micro Technologies has entered into a strategic agreement to market

Micro Products and its licenses to Sri Lanka.

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Launched new security products Micro MCS (Mobile Controller System),

Micro SAMS (Student Attendance Management System) & Micro WSS (Wi-Fi Security System). Launches an exclusive range of Products such as Micro BTS (Buddy

Tracking System), Micro LNTS (Lost Notebook Tracking System) and Micro ISS (Intelligent Surveillance System). CLIENTS

OTHER CLIENTS

M.S.E.B

ATLAS APCO

AUTOFIN LTD

B.P.C.L

BARC CIDCO

DAE

MANTRALAYAN

M.P.C.B

TVS LUCAS

MMD

M.C.G.M

N.M.M.C

SICOM LTD

TATA HONEYWELL

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MICRO SHOPEES IN INDIA

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WORKING AT MICRO TECHNOLOGIES

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Information Technology (IT) is a critical area, and in IT, we design the technology solutions that help make Micro Technologies a success. Our Microite team uses Creativity, Technology and Expertise to meet the needs of a company in an intensely competitive market. As part of our Microite team, the responsibilities allow each individual to define, implement and maintain IT based security solutions as the main component of our business strategies Micro Technologies' greatest strength is the quality and integrity of every Microite and the passion they bring to work to help others live a secured life. By providing a positive work environment that encourages collaboration and innovation, Microites are encouraged to think beyond what we do today, to what we can become. One of the Micro Technologies values, Motivate Our People,states that: "All the assets of our company are insignificant when compared to the capabilities of our employees."Every Microite has the pride in working for a company that has been recognized for its R & D,Growth,and Technology which not only secures the life of their own citizen but also masses globally. At Micro Technologies,we push the boundaries of Information Technology every day. Micro Technologies has a culture of camaraderie and pride in one's work. An opportunity to develop ones potential: At Micro Technologies,we believe talented,motivated employees are crucial to our ability to develop innovative technology, maintain leading market positions, offer responsive customer service,and report strong financial performance year after year. With our ongoing development process and tools,every Microite has the opportunity to match their goals and objectives for personal growth with the challenges of Micro Technologies' competitive business environment Competitive Pay:

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Micro Technologies pay practices are designed to attract, motivate, retain and reward employees with competitive base pay, short-term and long-term incentives. Micro Technologies also fosters a pay-for-performance culture that provides employees with opportunities to earn higher levels of compensation and receive rewards tied to company, team and individual performance.

SUBSIDIARIES Micro Secure Solutions Ltd (MSSL) - Subsidiary of Micro Technologies, is a company engaged in range of Premises security products for commercial & residential premises with an exceptionally high level of customer satisfaction, irrespective of the type of the premises. MSSL's security solutions are backed by innovative, quality driven and cost effective products developed by Micro Technologies (India) Ltd. MSSL results in savings for their clients by addressing the total security needs and reducing obsolescence: which protect people and their property. MSSL specialize in the areas of security products that have been tried and tested within the industry and at the same time are at the forefront of technological advances. This ensures that our clients receive reliable and up-to-date systems. MSSL plans to cater to a range of clients across diverse sectors such as Retail, Corporate, and Household, PSUs in India and across Middle East. Micro Retail Ltd, a subsidiary of Micro Technologies (India) Ltd, a company engaged in the area of retailing the range of Electronic Security, Software and messaging Products for vehicle, premises, and other assets. MRL plans to start its operations in "A" class cities, which includes metro and mini metro cities of India in the 1st phase than gradually to cover rest of cities. The main objective behind formation of Micro Retail is to capture the emerging Indian retail market. In combating security threats, India, has become the hot
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and potential market for companies who are into manufacturing security products, devices, technologies and new types of detection equipment etc and others. Micro Retail Ltd will market the products of Micro Technologies (I) Ltd. that has a wide range of security products which best suits the rising demand of the security product. Utilizing the strength of Micro Technologies, which is oriented towards R&D existing and new ranges of products, shall be introduced into this retail market segment.

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O B JE CTIV E STU D Y

OF

TH E

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


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PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study is an attempt to measure overall job satisfaction of Employees, to identify few of the determinants of job satisfaction, and to evaluate the perceived importance of job facets to their overall job satisfaction.

In this study an attempt is made to analyze the factors that influence the job satisfaction of executives along with the following Secondary Objectives.

This report explores the possible correlation between job satisfaction and some other work-related issues, namely Job autonomy, working time and work-life balance, worker participation, work-related stress and salary.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVE:

To identify the intensity of the job satisfaction of employees in the organization.

To find out the sources of job satisfaction in the organization.

To identify the intensity of the employee relation.


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To frame the strategies to make the employees delight.

To provide suggestions and recommendations for the future in order to improve the job satisfaction of employees.

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R E SE A R CH M E TH O D O L O G Y

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Type: The research design is descriptive research design. It includes surveys and fact finding inquires of different kinds. It is mainly considered with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs, as it exists at present. The main feature of this method is that the research has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. It seeks to describe something. This type of research is highly structured and rigid in its approach to data collection.

Sources of data: Data that is being used in this study was collected from two resources. Primary data and Secondary data

I.

Primary data: a. This primary data for this project was collected through a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to study the job satisfaction of employees.

II.

Secondary data: a. The secondary data for this project is collected from magazines, reports, websites and company bulletin. These data helped in collecting information regarding the company.
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Data collection instrument: The data collection instrument or the tool adopted in this project was by means of distributing questionnaires and collecting the responses from the employees. The various instruments to be used for the study are: 1. The job satisfaction scale 2. Personal data sheet

Sampling Technique : There are basically 2 types of research design namely the probability sampling and the non-probability sampling. Non-probability sampling is the one that doesnt afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample. It is known by different names like deliberate sampling, purposive sampling and judgment sampling. On the other hand, in is probability sampling each and every unit of population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. It is also popularly known as random sampling or chance sampling. The researcher has used Random sampling for the purpose of study where the population elements are selected for inclusion in the sample based on the ease of access.
NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING:

Convenience Sampling: The researcher selects the most accessible population members from which to obtain information.

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Procedure in this study The samples selected in this study are under convenience sampling.

Sample size: This refers to the number of respondents that is selected to constitute a sample. The sample size used for this study is 36 respondents.

Data Collection Instrument: A Survey questionnaire which rates the agreements of the respondents on a five point scale from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree along with certain demographic components like Age, Gender, Experience,

Department,Educational Qualification is designed and administered to the Employees (Staff Level) of the selected sample size to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Respondents were assured that the matter will be kept confidential.

Area of Study: This study was conducted in Micro Technologies India Ltd, Mumbai.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study is confined only to Micro Technologies India Limited, Mumbai; therefore the results and conclusion of study may not be applicable to other companies.

The study is confined to 36 respondents due to time constraint so an extensive research could not be conducted.

Analysis is done on the assumption that respondents have given correct information through the Questionnaire.

The study is limited only to Micro Technologies in Mahape, Mumbai.

Opinions of employees may be biased at time.

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L ITE R A TU R E R E V IE W

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LITERATURE REVIEW
Hawthorne studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.

Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to
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answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munster berg set the tone for Taylors work.

Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.

Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969)

The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures ones satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or cant decide (indicated by ?) in response to whether given statements accurately describe ones job. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general. Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one
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item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of job satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face. In this report job satisfaction questionnaire is used to measure the job satisfaction of the employees of Micro Technologies (India) Ltd. Job Satisfaction by Hoppock, R. (1935). Measures of job satisfaction have wide application in organizational research. The measures used in practise range from single questions specifically conceived for an individual study to more sophisticated standardized instruments such as the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) (Smith, Kendall, and Hulin, 1969). In the authors research experience, a need has been found for a job satisfaction measurement which can be obtained quickly from survey respondents and which does not absorb an extensive number of survey items. The paper examines from a validity and reliability standpoint one such measure attributable to Hoppock (1935). The authors have applied the measure in a number of large-scale survey efforts using different target populations encompassing a variety of individual respondents including research and development professionals and clerical, secretarial, maintenance and managerial employees at all organizational levels Meaning and Nature: According to Weiss and Cropanzano (1996), job satisfaction represents a person's evaluation of one's job and work context. This definition is still being debated. It captures the most popular view that job satisfaction is an evaluation and represents both belief and feelings.
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It is an appraisal of the perceived job characteristics and emotional experience at work. Satisfied employees have a favorable evaluation of their job, based on their observations and Emotional experiences. Saleh (1981) states that job satisfaction is a feeling which is a function of the perceived relationship between all that one wants from his job/life and all that one perceives as offering or entailing. The emphasis here is on all that one wants, whether it is important for self-definition or not. Luthans (1989) states that job satisfaction is a pleasurable, or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job, or job experience, and is the result of the employee's perception of how well the job provides those things which are viewed as important. The nature and causes of job satisfaction" in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Locke E, 1976. Locke (1976) states that job satisfaction is a collection of attitudes about specific facets of the job. Employees can be satisfied with some elements of the job while being simultaneously dissatisfied with others. Different types of satisfaction will lead to different intentions and behaviour. An employee might complain to the supervisor when dissatisfied with low pay but not with coworker dissatisfaction. Overall job satisfaction is a combination of the person's feeling towards the different facets of job satisfaction. He argues that the more important factors conducive to job satisfaction are mentally challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions, and supportive colleagues. One can also add the importance of good personality--job fit and an individual's genetic disposition (some people are just inherently upbeat and positive about all things including their job). Employees are concerned with their work environment for both personal comfort and how it facilitates doing a good job. People get more out of work
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than merely money or tangible achievements. For most employees, work also fills the need for social interaction. Not surprisingly, therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers leads to increased job satisfaction. Models of job satisfaction: Affect Theory: Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/arent met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesnt value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Dispositional Theory: Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of ones job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across
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careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine ones disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in ones own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.

Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory): Frederick Hertzbergs Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.

While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham
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suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.

Job Characteristics Model: Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM Three dimensions of Job Satisfaction: First, job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. It cannot be seen, only inferred. Second, it is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. For example, if organizational members feel that they are working harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards, they will
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probably have a negative attitude toward the work, the boss, and co-workers. They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated well and being paid well, they are likely to have a positive attitude towards the job. They will be satisfied. Third, job satisfaction represents several related attitudes. Scholars suggest that there are six job dimensions that represent the most important characteristics of a job about which people have effective responses. They are: The work itself: The content of the work itself is a major source of satisfaction. This means the extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept responsibility. Research made with reference to the job characteristics, and approach to the job design shows that feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two major job-related motivational factors. Some of the most important ingredients of job satisfaction include interesting and challenging work and a job that provides status. Compensation: Wages and salaries are significant, but a complex and multidimensional factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain their basic needs, but also is instrumental in providing upper level need satisfaction. Employees often consider salary as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organization. Fringe benefits are also important, but they are not as influential. One reason undoubtedly is that most employees do not even know the benefits they are receiving. Moreover, most tend to undervalue these benefits because they cannot see their practical value. Research made regarding compensation, indicates that if
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employees are allowed flexibility in choosing the type of benefits they prefer within a total package, called a flexible benefits plan, there is a significant increase in both benefit satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. Career growth: Promotional opportunities seem to have a varying effect on job satisfaction. This is because promotions take different forms and include a variety of rewards. For example, individuals who are promoted on the basis of seniority often experience job satisfaction but not as much as those who are promoted based on their performance. Supervision: Supervision is another moderately important source of job satisfaction. There are two dimensions of supervisory style that affects job satisfaction. One is employee-centeredness, which is measured by the degree to which a supervisor takes personal interest in the welfare of the employees. The other dimension is participation or influence, as illustrated by managers who allow their people to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. This approach, generally, leads to higher job satisfaction. It is proved that a participative environment created by the supervisor has a more substantial effect on workers satisfaction than participation in a specific decision. Co-workers: Friendly, co-operative co-workers are a modest source of job satisfaction. The work group serves as a source of support, comfort, advice, and assistance to the individual. A good work group makes the job more enjoyable. On the other hand, if this factor is not considered with care, then it may have reverse effects, meaning thereby, that the people are difficult to get along with. This will have a negative effect on job satisfaction.

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Work environment: Work environment and working conditions are factors that have a modest effect on job satisfaction. If working conditions are good clean, attractive surroundings- employees find it easier to carry out their job. Most people do not give working conditions a great deal of thought unless they are extremely bad. But this is crucial because it has a direct effect on job satisfaction. On the contrary, if working conditions are given importance, productivity and accomplishment of objectives are enhanced. Creating Job Satisfaction: So, how is job satisfaction created? What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then rewarded for being successful. Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following: Flexible work arrangements, possibly including telecommuting Training and other professional growth opportunities Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to "put his or her signature" on the finished product Opportunities to use one's talents and to be creative Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one's own work A stable, secure work environment that includes job security/continuity An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members Flexible benefits, such as child-care and exercise facilities Up-to-date technology
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Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. Apart from the factors mentioned above, job satisfaction is also influenced by the employee's personal characteristics, the manager's personal characteristics and management style, and the nature of the work itself. Managers who want to maintain a high level of job satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each member of the work force. For example, when creating work teams, managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing people with similar backgrounds, experiences, or needs in the same workgroup. Also, managers can enhance job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with the type of work. For example, a person who does not pay attention to detail would hardly make a good inspector, and a shy worker is unlikely to be a good salesperson. As much as possible, managers should match job tasks to employees' personalities. Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to create a stimulating work environment. One such step is job enrichment. Job enrichment is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in the work itself. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include AT&T, IBM, and General Motors (Daft, 1997). Good management has the potential for creating high morale, high productivity, and a sense of purpose and meaning for the organization and its
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employees. Empirical findings by Ting(1997) show that job characteristics such as pay, promotional opportunity, task clarity and significance, and skills utilization, as well as organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with supervisors and co-workers, have significant effects on job satisfaction. These job characteristics can be carefully managed to enhance job satisfaction. Of course, a worker who takes some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction will probably find many more satisfying elements in the work environment. Everett (1995) suggests that employees ask themselves the following questions: When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation? What did it look like? What aspects of the workplace were most supportive? What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying? What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation?

Workers Roles In Job Satisfaction: If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and well-being on the job. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay and other recognition. Develop excellent communication skills. Employers value and reward excellent reading, listening, writing, and speaking skills.
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Know more. Acquire new job-related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. This will relieve boredom and often gets one noticed. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often result in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. Accept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively. See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to satisfaction with the work itself. This helps to give meaning to one's existence, thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction. Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stressmanagement techniques.

Assuring Job Satisfaction: Assuring job satisfaction, over the long-term, requires careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzbergs (1957) and Maslow's (1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating, challenging, supportive, and rewarding work environment is vital. Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system, it is very important that salaries be tied to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather than seniority. So, in essence, job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on their jobs. Brief (1998) wrote: "If a
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person's work is interesting, his/her pay is fair, his/ her promotional opportunities are good, his/her supervisor is supportive, and his/her coworkers are friendly, then a situational approach leads one to predict he/she is satisfied with his/her job".

Factors Responsible for Job Satisfaction and Job Dissatisfaction: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom, and feedback on how well they are doing. Jobs that have too little challenge create boredom, but too much challenge creates frustration and a feeling of failure. Under conditions of moderate challenge, most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction (Katzell, Thompson, and Guzzo, 1992). Employees want a fair unambiguous pay system and promotion policies. Satisfaction is not linked to the absolute amount one is paid; rather, it is the perception of fairness. Similarly, employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. Promotion provides opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities, and increased social status. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience satisfaction from their jobs (Witt and Nye, 1992). The matching of job requirement with personality characteristics is best articulated in Holland's (1985) personality--fit theory. Holland presents six personality types. These are realistic, investigative, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic. He proposes that satisfaction and the propensity to leave a job depends on the degree to which individuals successfully match their personalities to an occupational environment. Studies to replicate Holland's

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conclusions have been supported by many researchers (for example, Feldman and Arnold, 1985). A strong indication that overall satisfaction ratings are inflated is that people typically report much lower satisfaction levels for specific aspects of the job. For instance, only 54 per cent of American workers believe that they are paid fairly, 46 per cent say their company promotes fairly, and 41 per cent claim that senior management truly cares about them. Satisfaction with co-workers seems to be one of the few ratings that come close to overall job satisfaction (84 percent) (Moore, 1997; Baker, 1997). Employees, who find themselves unable to adjust between work and family, generally seem to be less satisfied with their jobs as well as their life (Perrewe, Hochwarther, and Kiewitz, 1999). Fair promotional policies in any organization become their foundation of growth. When an employee gets fair promotion, which is generally based on his true assessment, he gets a type of recognition, and hence, increases his jobsatisfaction. Kalleberg and Mastekaasa (2001) examined the impact of intraorganisational (resignations and layoffs) and interorganisational

(promotions and downward commitment) job mobility on changes in job satisfaction and organizational commitment. They found that promotions increase employee's perceptions of the quality of their job and thereby enhance both their satisfaction and commitment. Resignations increase job satisfaction, whereas layoffs have no effect on satisfaction. The qualification of an employee must match his job, if he feels that his qualification is not matched with his job, naturally he will be dissatisfied. Johnson and Johnson (2000) investigated the effects of perceived over
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qualification on dimensions of job satisfaction, using the relative deprivation theory. The cross-sectional results supported the hypothesis and suggested that perceived over qualification has a negative effect on job satisfaction. Some demographic variables, for example, age, race, and employment status, have been found as important factors in determining level of job satisfaction (Sinacore, 1998). It has been observed that routine jobs are boring and they create a type of boredom and monotony. On the other hand, when jobs are challenging in nature, they create an environment of satisfaction. Findings of Jonge, Dollard, Dormann, LeBlance (2000) provide renewed empirical support for the view that high-strain job (high demand, low control) are conducive to ill health (emotional exhaustion, health complaints). Further, it appears that active job (high demands, high control) give rise to positive outcome (job challenge, job satisfaction). When an organization cares for its employees, it definitely gets their support in reward. Organizational investment in employee's well being results in the higher satisfaction in employees. Taylor (2000) suggested that job satisfaction is directly related to company's investment in employee's well being. Style of leadership also plays an important role in determining level of job satisfaction. Foels, Driskell, Muller, and Salas (2000), using a Meta analytic integration of research evidence to address the paradox, reveal that there was a significant tendency for groups experiencing democratic leadership to be more satisfied than groups experiencing autocratic leadership. Increased upward communication and its reward also results in job satisfaction. Avtgis (2000) indicated that people who reported increased communication and high reward in communication also reported greater relational satisfaction and greater perceived organizational influence.
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SOME

WEBSITES

WERE

ALSO

CRUCIAL

SOURCE

OF

KNOWLEDGE DURING THE COURSE OF SEARCH. www.explorehr.com It gave a brief idea about the Job Satisfcation guide for an organization. www.Workforce management.com It was used for reading the articles on the related topic to update. www.Citehr.com It was used to communicate with some expert on the topic under the study and get a direct knowledge. www.managementparadise.com Different articles were studied from this websites and chain of communication was established with the other ex management students to know the importance of the chosen topic in future.

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D A TA A N A LYSIS TIO IN TE R PR E TA T IO N

&

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE COMPANY Frequencies: Company Frequency Percent 2 1.85 7 6.48 53 49.07 37 34.26 9 8.33 108 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

Cumulative Percent 1.9 8.3 57.4 91.7 100.0

Graphical Representation:

Com pany
60 40 20 0 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral 2 7 9 53 37

Agree

Strongly Agree
Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 8% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 34% of the respondents are satisfied with the company, whereas 2% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 6% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the company and 49% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THEIR JOB


Frequencies: Your Job Frequency Percent 12 6.67 24 13.33 73 40.56 59 32.78 12 6.67 180 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total Graphical Representation:

Cumulative Percent 6.7 20.0 60.6 93.3 100.0

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 7 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 33% of the respondents are satisfied with the Job, whereas 7% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 13% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the job and 41% of the respondents replied as neutral.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE WORK ENVIRONMENT
Frequencies: Work Environment Frequency Percent 3 2.08 16 11.11 74 51.39 39 27.08 12 8.33 144 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

Cumulative Percent 2.1 13.2 64.6 91.7 100.0

Graphical Representation:

W o r k E nviron m ent
80 60 40 20 0 74 39 12 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral

16

Agree

Strongly Agree
Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 8 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 27% of the respondents are satisfied with the work environment, whereas 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 11% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the work environment and 51% of the respondents replied as neutral.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE.
Frequencies: Organizational Culture Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Strongly Disagree 5 2.78 2.8 Disagree 15 8.33 11.1 Neutral 73 40.56 51.7 Agree 61 33.89 85.6 Strongly Agree 26 14.44 100.0 Total 180 100.00

Graphical Representation:

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 14 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 34% of the respondents are satisfied with the organizational culture, whereas 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the organizational culture and 41% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPERIOR.
Frequencies: Relationship With Superior Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 5 2.78 2.8 11 6.11 8.9 74 41.11 50.0 75 41.67 91.7 15 8.33 100.0 180 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total Graphical Representation:

R el ationship W ith S uperio r


80 60 40 20 0 74

75

11 15

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree
Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 8 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 42% of the respondents are satisfied with the relationship with superior, whereas 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 6% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the relationship with superior and 41% of the respondents replied as neutral.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE TRAINING IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies:

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total Graphical Representation:

Training Frequency Percent 22 15.28 25 17.36 48 33.33 38 26.39 11 7.64 144 100.00

Cumulative Percent 15.3 32.6 66.0 92.4 100.0

T r ain ing
60 40 20 0 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral 11 22 25

48 38

Agree

Strongly Agree
Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 8 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 26% of the respondents are satisfied with the training in the organization, whereas 15% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the training in the organization and 33% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE JOB CONTENT AND DESIGN IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies: Job Content and Design Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 5 6.94 6.9 16 22.22 29.2 25 34.72 63.9 24 33.33 97.2 2 2.78 100.0 72 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total Graphical Representation:

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 3% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 33% of the respondents are satisfied with the job content and design in the organization, whereas 7% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 22% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the job content and design in the organization and 35% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies:
Career Development Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 16 10.06 10.1 35 22.01 32.1 46 28.93 61.0 39 24.53 85.5 23 14.47 100.0 159 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

Graphical Representation:

C a r eer Developm ent


60 40 16% 20 0 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral 35 46 39 23

Agree

Strongly Agree
Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 14% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 25% of the respondents are satisfied with the career development in the organization, whereas 10% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 22% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the career development in the organization and 29% of the respondents replied as neutral.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE TEAM WORK AND CO-OPERATION IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies: Team Work and Co-operation Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Strongly Disagree 8 5.56 5.6 Disagree 15 10.42 16.0 Neutral 45 31.25 47.2 Agree 57 39.58 86.8 Strongly Agree 19 13.19 100.0 Total 144 100.00 Graphical Representation:

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 13% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 40% of the respondents are satisfied with the Team work and Cooperation in the organization, whereas 6% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 10% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the Team work and Cooperation in the organization and 31% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies:
Performance Management Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 2 2.78 2.8 7 9.72 12.5 25 34.72 47.2 31 43.06 90.3 7 9.72 100.0 72 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

Graphical Representation:

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 10 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 43% of the respondents are satisfied with the performance management in the organization, whereas 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 10% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the performance management in the organization and 35% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE RECOGNITION AND REWARDS IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies:
Recognition and Rewards Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 3 4.17 4.2 6 8.33 12.5 41 56.94 69.4 18 25.00 94.4 4 5.56 100.0 72 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

Graphical Representation:

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 6 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 25% of the respondents are satisfied with the recognition and rewards in the organization, whereas 4% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the recognition and rewards in the organization and 57% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE WORK STRESS IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies:
Work Stress Frequency Percent 2 2.27 7 7.95 39 44.32 34 38.64 6 6.82 88 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

Cumulative Percent 2.3 10.2 54.5 93.2 100.0

Graphical Representation:

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 6% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 25% of the respondents are satisfied with the work stress, whereas 4% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the work stress and 57% of the respondents replied as neutral.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies:
Health and Safety Frequency Percent 7 6.48 4 3.70 45 41.67 45 41.67 7 6.48 108 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

Cumulative Percent 6.5 10.2 51.9 93.5 100.0

Graphical Representation:

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 6 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 42% of the respondents are satisfied with the health and safety in the organization, whereas 6% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 4% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the health and safety in the organization and 42% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE BENEFITS AND COMPENSATION IN THE ORGANIZATION
Frequencies:
Benefits and Compensation Frequency Percent 27 25.00 23 21.30 32 29.63 25 23.15 1 0.93 108 100.00

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total

Cumulative Percent 25.0 46.3 75.9 99.1 100.0

Graphical Representation:

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 23% of the respondents are satisfied with the Benefits and Compensation in the organization, whereas 25% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 21% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the Benefits and Compensation in the organization and 30% of the respondents replied as neutral.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF GENDER


Frequencies: Gender Frequency Percent 19 52.78 17 47.22 36 100.00 Cumulative Percent 52.8 100.0

Male Female Total

Graphical Representation:

G en d er
19 19 18 17 17 16 Male Female
Male Female

Inference: The graph shows around 58.4% of the total population for this research are male, 41.6% are women.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF AGE


Frequencies:
Frequency 2 25 7 2 36 Age Percent 5.56 69.44 19.44 5.56 100.00 Cumulative Percent 5.6 75.0 94.4 100.0

18 - 23years 24 - 28 years 29 - 33 years 34 - 39 years Total

Graphical Representation:

A g e o f th e R espon dents
25 25 20 15 10 5 0

7 2

18 - 23 years

24 - 28 years

29 - 33 years

34 - 39 years
34 - 39 years

18 - 23 years

24 - 28 years

29 - 33 years

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 6% of the respondents are of age between 18 23 years and 69% of the respondents are of age between 24-28 and 19% of the respondents are of age between 29 33 years and 6% of the respondents are of age between 34 39years.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF DESIGNATION

Frequencies:

Senior Officers Officers Others Total Graphical Representation:

Designation Frequency Percent 7 19.44 24 66.67 5 13.89 36 100.00

Cumulative Percent 19.4 86.1 100.0

D es i gnatio n
24

25 20 15 10 5 0

7 5

Senior Of f icers

Of f icers

Others
Others

Senior Officers

Officers

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 19% of the respondents are Senior Officers and 67% of the respondents are officers and 14% of the respondents are of lower designation.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF EXPERIENCE WITH THE COMPANY

Frequencies:

Less than 1 year 1 - 3 year 3 - 5 year Above 5 year Total Graphical Representation:

Tenure Frequency Percent 10 27.78 20 55.56 5 13.89 1 2.78 36 100.00

Cumulative Percent 27.8 83.3 97.2 100.0

E x p erien ce of the R espo ndents


0.69% 3.47%

6.94%

13.89%

Less than 1 year

1 - 3 years

3 - 5 years

above 5 years

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 28 % of the respondents were having experience less than one year and 20% of the respondents having experience of 1-3 years working with this organization and 5% of the respondents with 3 5 years and hardly 1% of the respondent with the experience above 5 years working with this company.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF EXPECTATION WHEN JOINING WITH THE COMPANY
Frequencies: MTIL Frequency Percent 6 16.67 8 22.22 6 16.67 9 25.00 1 6 36 2.78 16.67 100.00 Cumulative Percent 16.7 38.9 55.6 80.6 83.3

Good Pay Close Location Good Social Life Flexible Hours Clean Working Conditions Others Total Graphical Representation:

M TIL
10 5 0 6 8 6 9 1 6

Good Pay Good Social Life Clean Working Conditions

Close Location Flexible Hours Others

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 17 % of the respondents joined MTIL for Good Pay and 22% of the respondents joined because of close location and 16% of the respondents joined for good social life and 25% of the respondents joined for flexible hours and 3% of the respondents joined for clean working conditions and 16% of the respondents joined MTIL because of some other reasons.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO REFERING THEIR FRIENDS TO THIS ORGANIZATION

Frequencies: Friends Reference Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 1 2.78 2.8 4 11.11 13.9 18 50.00 63.9 13 36.11 100.0 36 100.00

Very Unlikely Unlikely Not Sure Likely Total Graphical Representation:

R ef erin g a F rien d

20 10 1 0 Very Unlikely Unlikely

18 13 4

Not Sure

Likely

Very Unlikely

Unlikely

Not Sure

Likely

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 3 % of the respondents were very unlikely to refer their friends and 11% of the respondents were unlikely to refer their friend and 50% of the respondents were not sure and 36% of the respondents were likely to refer their friends to this organization.
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CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERCEIVED SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO THE COMPANY

Frequencies: Perceived Satisfaction Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 3 8.33 8.3 8 22.22 30.6 10 27.78 58.3 15 41.67 100.0 0 0.00 36 100.00

Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Neutral Satisfied Very Satisfied Total Graphical Representation:

P er ceived S atisfactio n
15 10 5 0 15

10

Very Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Neutral

Satisfied

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 42% of the respondents are satisfied and 33% of the respondents are satisfied with the company, whereas 22% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied with the company and 28% of the respondents replied as neutral.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE OVERALL SATISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH RESPECT TO COMPANY


Frequencies:

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total Graphical Representation:

Overall satisfaction Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent 2 5.56 5.6 4 11.11 19.4 15 41.67 58.3 12 33.33 91.7 3 8.33 100.0 36 100.00

O v erall S atisfactio n
15 10 5 0 14 2 5 12 3

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Inference: From the above table it is inferred that 8 % of the respondents were highly satisfied and 33% of the respondents were satisfied with the company and 6% of the respondents were highly dissatisfied and 11% of the respondents dissatisfied with the company whereas 41% of the respondents replied as neutral.

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE OVERALL SATISFACTION AND THE PERCEIVED STISFACTION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH

RESPECT TO COMPANY
Frequencies:

Comparative satisfaction Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Overall Satisfaction 118 51.98 52.0 Perceived Satisfaction 109 48.02 100.0 Total 227 100.00 Graphical Representation:

C o m pariative S atisfactio n

48.%

52%

Overall Satisfaction

Perceived Satisfaction

Inference: Perceived satisfaction is the job satisfaction which comes in mind of the employees when they are asked to rate it on a scale. And the overall satisfaction is calculated from all the ratings which the employees had given for various parameters of job satisfaction. The above graph shows that the average perceived satisfaction is higher than the calculated average overall satisfaction i.e. the average perceived satisfaction is 52% whereas the average overall satisfaction is 48%.

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F IN D IN G S

100

FINDINGS
It is inferred that 8 % of the respondents were highly satisfied and 33% of the respondents were satisfied with the company and 6% of the respondents were highly dissatisfied and 14% of the respondents dissatisfied with the company whereas 39% of the respondents replied as neutral.

It is inferred that 7 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 33% of the respondents are satisfied with the Job, whereas 7% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 13% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the job and 41% of the respondents replied as neutral.

It is inferred that 8 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 27% of the respondents are satisfied with the work environment, whereas 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 11% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the work environment and 51% of the respondents replied as neutral.

It is inferred that 14 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 34% of the respondents are satisfied with the organizational culture, whereas 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the organizational culture and 41% of the respondents replied as neutral. Few employees feel that the individual initiatives are not encouraged and this influences their satisfaction with respect to corporate culture in the Micro Technologies India Ltd. but most of the employees are satisfied with the corporate culture.

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It is inferred that 8 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 42% of the respondents are satisfied with the relationship with superior, whereas 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 6% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the relationship with superior and 41% of the respondents replied as neutral. The employees have very good work relations with their superiors. And very few employees were about the work relations.

It is inferred that 8 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 26% of the respondents are satisfied with the training in the organization, whereas 15% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the training in the organization and 33% of the respondents replied as neutral. Most of the employees are dissatisfied and replied as neutral with the training programs at Micro Technologies India Ltd. This indicates that the training program has to be improvised.

It is inferred that 3% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 33% of the respondents are satisfied with the job content and design in the organization, whereas 7% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 22% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the job content and design in the organization and 35% of the respondents replied as neutral.

It is inferred that 14% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 25% of the respondents are satisfied with the career development in the organization, whereas 10% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 22% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the career development in the organization and 29% of the respondents replied as neutral. Many employees are dissatisfied

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with the opportunities for advancement they have in Micro Technologies India Ltd.

It is inferred that 13% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 40% of the respondents are satisfied with the team work in the organization, whereas 6% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 10% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the team work in the organization and 31% of the respondents replied as neutral.

It is inferred that 10 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 43% of the respondents are satisfied with the performance management in the organization, whereas 3% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 10% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the performance management in the organization and 35% of the respondents replied as neutral.

It is inferred that 6 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 25% of the respondents are satisfied with the recognition and rewards in the organization, whereas 4% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the recognition and rewards in the organization and 57% of the respondents replied as neutral. Most of the employees are satisfied with the rewards and recognition they get for their good performance but few employees are not satisfied as they are not getting reward or recognition for their work and some are not sure with their opinions

It is inferred that 6% of the respondents are highly satisfied and 25% of the respondents are satisfied with the work stress, whereas 4% of the

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respondents are highly dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the work stress and 57% of the respondents replied as neutral.

It is inferred that 6 % of the respondents are highly satisfied and 42% of the respondents are satisfied with the health and safety in the organization, whereas 6% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 4% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the health and safety in the organization and 42% of the respondents replied as neutral. It is inferred that 23% of the respondents are satisfied with the Benefits and Compensation in the organization, whereas 25% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied and 21% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the Benefits and Compensation in the organization and 30% of the respondents replied as neutral. Only a few employees are satisfied with the compensation they get. Therefore, this factor is influencing job satisfaction to a great extent. The study shows that most of the employees are not getting pay with respect to their work.

Around 58.4% of the total population for this research are male, 41.6% are women.

It is inferred that 6% of the respondents are of age between 18 23 years and 69% of the respondents are of age between 24-28 and 19% of the respondents are of age between 29 33 years and 6% of the respondents are of age between 34 39years.

From the above table it is inferred that 28 % of the respondents were having experience less than one year and 20% of the respondents having experience of 1-3 years working with this organization and 5% of the
104

respondents with 3 5 years and hardly 1% of the respondent with the experience above 5 years working with this company.

It is inferred that 17 % of the respondents joined MTIL for Good Pay and 22% of the respondents joined because of close location and 16% of the respondents joined for good social life and 25% of the respondents joined for flexible hours and 3% of the respondents joined for clean working conditions and 16% of the respondents joined MTIL because of some other reasons. Most of the employees will refer their friends to MTIL as a place to work. But still many employees are not sure and will not refer the same. This is an area of concern.

Perceived Satisfaction is inferred that 42% of the respondents are satisfied and 33% of the respondents are satisfied with the company, whereas 22% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 8% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied with the company and 28% of the respondents replied as neutral.

Overall Satisfaction is inferred that 8 % of the respondents were highly satisfied and 33% of the respondents were satisfied with the company and 6% of the respondents were highly dissatisfied and 11% of the respondents dissatisfied with the company whereas 41% of the respondents replied as neutral.

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R E CO M M E N D A TIO N S

106

RECOMMENDATIONS
Before giving the recommendations for improving job satisfaction, a list of suggestions given by the workers for improving Job Satisfaction is given below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Better promotional opportunities. Better Appraisal system Recognition of outstanding achievement at work. Better Compensation and Benefits. Better Travelling Facility

The suggestions made by the employees are of special significance if properly, considered, it would result in maximum job satisfaction, which in turn will increase the efficiency of the workers.

Recommendations by the Researchers The study has brought to light, that the level of satisfaction of the workers will enhance if the following recommendations are adopted by the concern.

The organization should come forward to provide job rotation in order to increase employees knowledge and skill. The concern should come forward in a big way to make a participative type of management by inviting suggestions from the workers Some measures have to be taken in improving the working environment in the organization. The management should evolve a suitable strategy that aims at improving the team spirit of the workers. Managers need to sit down with each employee and clearly define what's expected of them.
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Initiatives of every employee should be encouraged without any type of discrimination (age, experience, tenure with company, sex, etc.). More care should be given to working conditions (ventilation, space, cleanliness, etc.). Every employee should get recognition for his/her good performance. Otherwise he/she will get demotivated. By giving recognition, the employee gets motivated and all of his/ her skills get directed towards achievement of the organizational goals. Compensation is influencing job satisfaction to a great extent. The management should ensure whether all the employees are getting pay in accordance to their job. If the work of any employee is monotonous then he/ she will definitely feel boredom after a point of time. So, the management should introduce job rotation in each department. This will make employees to feel that he/she is important to the organization and they will also learn new things. This will eliminate dependency on one individual. The employees should be given good training at the time of appointment as this leaves an impact on the employee about the organization. The management should make sure that this impact is positive. The management should support its employees to learn and acquire new skills.

108

CO N CLU SIO N

109

CONCLUSION
Job Satisfaction in an organization is an important phenomenon, which directly affects the quality of the work done and indirectly affects the productivity of the organization. There are many factors that influence Job Satisfaction. Some are personnel factors like age, sex, income level of an individual and external factors like, work environment, relationship with superiors etc. The study conducted at Micro Technologies India Limited, Mumbai established that the occupational Job Satisfaction is affected by various determinants. The findings of the study would enable the management to enhance the appropriate determinants of Job Satisfaction and hence increase the level of Job Satisfaction among the Employees. This research will provide a frame work for evolving future decisions regarding how to increase the level of Job Satisfaction. If the suggestions given are implemented, it may yield positive results and in the increase of Job Satisfaction among employees in Micro Technologies India Limited, Mumbai.

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B IB L IO G R A PH Y

111

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Job Satisfaction by Hoppock, R. (1935). "The nature and causes of job satisfaction" in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Locke E, 1976. Organizational Behavior, by Luthans F, 1989, 5th edition Job Satisfaction: How People Feel About Their Jobs and How It Affects Their Performance by Cranny, C. J, Smith, P. C, and Stone, E. F. (1992). Job Descriptive Index (JDI), Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969) Principles of Scientific Management, Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911. Hawthorne studies (1924-1933), Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School The nature and causes of job satisfaction" in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Locke E, 1976. Employee handbook of Micro Technologies (India) Ltd. Research methodology by Kothari

WEBSITES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. www.microtechnologies.net www.explorehr.org/ Citehr.com Workforce management.com managementparadise.com

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A N N E XU R E

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ANNEXURE JOB SATISFACTION ANALYSIS IN MICRO TECHNOLOGIES INDIA LIMITED This questionnaire aims at finding out the employees perception about the current environment prevailing in Micro Technologies India Limited. The answer given by you will help in scientific evaluation of the project and help in its improvement. Yours answers will the treated in strict confidence. Please do not leave any questions unmarked.

RATING YOUR JOB SATISFACTION Overall, how satisfied you are with your job? number) 1 Very Dissatisfied 2 Dissatisfied 3 4 (Please tick mark one 5 Very satisfied

Neither Satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied

Kindly follow the following category: (1)Strongly Disagree (0-20%); (2) Disagree (21%-40%) (3)Neutral (41%-60%) (4) Agree (61-80%) (5)Strongly Agree (81%-100%)

Your Company My company is one of the best companies to work for (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

My company treats me well. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


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I am proud to tell people I work for this company (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Your Job: I believe my job is secure (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I like the type of work that I do & it is challenging and interesting (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I am happy with my work timings (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

My job makes good use of my skills and abilities (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I feel good about working in my department (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Work Environment: The company has got enough technology & infrastructure (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Maintenance of work environment / infrastructure is done well at my work space (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

We employees regularly share and exchange ideas (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I have confidence in the leadership and top management of the company (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

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Organizational culture: The company is outcome oriented that leads to high performance and high satisfaction (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

The company is people oriented that leads to high performance and high satisfaction (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I feel I can trust what the company tells me (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Individual initiatives are encouraged (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

The organizational culture promotes a balance between work and family life (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Relationship with Superior: He always gives clear, understandable and complete instructions (1) He always trust me (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (2) (3) (4) (5)

He takes prompt corrective action when I go wrong and motivates me to improve performance (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I feel free to offer comments and suggestion to him (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

My superior praises me when I do a good job (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

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Training: I think the company has provided as much initial training as I needed (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

The training provided is much useful and productive (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I think I am given enough time to practice and get settled to work (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I think I am satisfied with the skill based training that I receive. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Job Content and Design There is more scope for learning from my job (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I have been getting feedback on my work done (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Career Development: I have clearly established career path and job opportunities in this company (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I am encouraged to accumulate additional qualifications (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

The company recruits from within before recruiting from outside (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

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Team Work and Co-operation Different departments cooperate with each other (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

My work group resolves conflicts honestly, effectively and quickly (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

My understanding with my group is very good (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

My team focuses on fixing the plan rather than finding someone to blame (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Performance Management: I feel my services are well recognized (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I am given opportunity to write my comments in appraisal (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Recognition and Rewards: I feel I am valued at the company (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Rewards for doing a job well make me to repeat good performance (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Work Stress: The work load is too heavy (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

The work schedule is too tight (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
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The skill demands of my job are more than that I have (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Health and Safety: I am satisfied with the companys employee welfare programs like insurance, healthcare etc (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

My working environment is safe to work (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I am satisfied with the security in the company (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Benefits & compensation: My salary is appropriate for my responsibilities experience and skills (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I am satisfied with the transport facilities available in the organization (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I receive enough paid vacation time/sick leave (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Personal Details:

Name: Gender

__________________ : (2) Female

(1) Male

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Age

: (1) 18 years to 23 years (2) 24 years to 28 years (3) 29 years to 33 years (4) 34 years to 39 years (5) 40 years & above

Department:

--------------------------

Designation:

--------------------------

Tenure with the company (1) Less than 1 year (3) 3 years to 5years

: (2) 1 year to 3 years (4) Above 5 years

What did you look for most _____________________________ (1) Good Pay (3) Good social Life (5) Clean working conditions

when

you

joined

MTIL?

(2) Close Location (4) Flexible Hours (6) Low Workload/Other)

How likely would you be to refer a friend to MTIL as a place to work? 1. Very unlikely 4. Likely 2. Unlikely 5. Very likely 3. Not sure

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