Laundry

L.

Manual

RAY BALDERSTON

DIRECTOR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE IN BOARDMAN MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, NEW HAVEN, CONN.

M.

C LIMERICK

INSTRUCTOR OF DOMESTIC- SCIENCE IN DREXEL
INSTITUTE, PHILADELPHIA, PA.

Third Edition
Revised and Enlarged

Philadelphia

AVIL PRINTING COMPANY
Market and Fortieth
Z903.
Sts.

CONTENTS.
PAOB

CHAPTER

—Introductory
Equipment
for

7

Home Laundry ....
Work

7

Outline of Laundry

9

General Rules

9
16
17

CHAPTER

II.—;Stains

Removal
Recipes

24
26 29
. .

CHAPTER

III.

-Table Linen

Bed Linen

CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER

IV. -Body Linen
V.

.

.

35

-Flannels

42
45
.

VI. -Shirts
Collars and Cuffs
.

49
49
51

Shirt Waists

....
...
.
. .

CHAPTER-

VII.

-Colored Clothes

Stockings

51

CHAPTER

VIII.

-Embroideries

.

.

-53
54 54 56
59

Laces
Clear Starching

CHAPTER CHAPTER

IX.

-Cleansing

X.

•Soap

Making

Recipes for Soap

60

CHAPTER

XI.-

Outline of Course for Instructors

....

6i

(5)

LAUNDRY MANUAL.
CHAPTER
I.

Introductory.

Mquipment for a Home Lanndry.
Set tubs, three or four.

Clothes wringer. Clothes stick. Clothes boiler (tin or copper).

Clothes line.

Wash

board.

Clothes pins.

Clothes basket or

pail.

Water pail.
Scrubbing brushes. Saucepan for starch.

Spoon

for starch.

Strainer for starch.

Agate pan

for starching.

Heavy

cloth for tubs

and

boiler.

Clothes horse.

Duster for

lines.

Bosom

board.

Skirt board.

Sleeve board. Small pointed irons.

Heavy

irons.
(7)

8
Iron holders.
Flannel.

Laundry Manual.

Iron

rest.

Wax.
Polishing iron.

Heavy

paper.

Small pieces of muslin and cheese cloth. Ironing table, covered with canton flannel, or coarse
blanket and fine cotton cloth.

Reagents.
Salt.

Vinegar.

Borax. Naphtha. Hydrochloric

acid.

Alum. Ammonia.
Oxalic acid.

French chalk.
Javelle water.

Bran

in cheese cloth bags,

9x9

inches.

Other agents:
Soda,

Washing powders,
Turpentine,

Kerosene,
Starch,

Bluing,
Paraffine.

Introductory.

9

I.

Preparation of the
Sorting,

Outline of haundry Work. Wash:
Removing stains, Water used,
Soap,
Blue.

II.

Method of Washing
Soaking,

:

Washing,
Rinsing,
Boiling,

Rinsing,

Bluing,
Starching,

Hanging,
Drying,
Sprinkling,
Stretching,

Folding.
III.

Ironing.

IV.

Folding.

General Rules.

Washing

is

the mechanical cleansing of clothes to
all

remove

impurities and dirt.

This

is

necessary

for health

and

cleanliness.

All clothes should be
;

two weeks once a week more cleanly and sanitary. If clothes are only washed every two weeks, they should be put away with care and should be thoroughly dry.

washed
being

at least once in

still

Sorting

is

the separating of clothes, before washing,

into the divisions in

which they are

to

be washed.

and also because they require s-iich care in quick drying and ironing while daijip. that the laundress has not the time to care for them properly. Table linen may have tea and coffee stains. as it attacks the fibres of the cloth.at the same time. Aprons and dresses may have ink or grass stains. chocolate or fruit stains. j Stockings. so that each stain may have its individual — treatment. Clothes which are damp. Sheets and clothing may have grease or rust spots. if possible. There are several equally good methods for sorting. as they are seldom washed. Table linen. Prints. grease spots. /Embroideries have not been classified with th»t regular laundry. and allowed to lay This is a vegfetable folded. and rust or grease spots. and the garments should be laid aside. Bed and body linen. as the hot water and soap are likely to set stains. thev must be washed alone and with great care. .lo Laundry Manual. Removing stains. They should be collected and washed when there is time to care for them.tio' matter when they are washed. In sorting the linen. growth and hard to remove. The flannels may be washed ^rsti_bii|. Each stain should be carefully examined and removed. Flannels. before any washing. care should be used to find all stains. are likely to mildew.

there will be a scuin on the water. whitening the One-half lb. and upon the kind of fat. ^ater soiled water. (For the sake of thorough cleanliness not advisable. Hard water may be softened by using alkalies. as soda or ammonia. Some are kneaded like bread dough. These are agents whereby the laundress hopes to make laundry work less of a drudgery. either to soften the water. it will precipitate the dirt. and in that way they are made to float. or to make the rubbing easier.Introductory. Soaps are manufactured by mixing a fat and an alkali hard. If it is when the soap is used. by boiling. and thus depositing the minerals which make it hard. Other agents are generally used. many varieties have coloring matters and perfumes in addition. Alnxn is used to clear the water. and giving gloss to them. 1 should be clear and soft for washing. if water is very scarce. Soda is used to soften the water. so that the water can be used again. clothes. water is a good proportion when it takes . therefore they contain air. whiten the clothes. so that it may be put in a moderately warm room to dry and harden.) Ammonia is used in softening the water and remov- ing dirt from the clothing. (like soda or potash). Borax is valuable in removing dirt. The value of the soap depends upon the alkalies present. One tablespoon of alum dissolved in water and added to the water If added to a tub of will precipitate the mud. It is more economical to buy soap in large quantities. or by a slower method of exposing to the air. to lo gal.

It is not so violent in action as soda but has a powerful effect in softening the water. con- an acid and soda. as should all prepared washing powders. made from wood ashes water. not harmful to the hands or clothes. Ultramarine is insoluble in water and gives is Pearline a substitute for borax. be very thoroughly rinsed before putting into the blue water. Prussian Blue is a chemical compound containing iron. Turpentine will whiten the clothes. It is a good cleansing agent as it does not harm the material or color hence it . Blue or Indigo. used carefully. the clothes must the yellow from the soap. compound and the result is seen in iron and sometimes in a yellowish tint over the clothes. .12 Laundry Manual. used for softening the Paraffine Wax is may be used instead of kerosene or if turpentine. a tint by means of a very fine powder which enters Any of the blues are used to counteract Garments should be thoroughly shaken out before going into the blue water. and. of soap. sisting of It is a salt. and so should be used with care. as the alkali of the soap decomposes the iron rust. is the safest agent to use for delicate fabrics or colored material. and may be added i in the proportion of 3 tablespoons to lb. Egypt and Guatemala. It has a very strong alkali present. is Kerosene I/ye used to loosen the is dirt. — the cloth. If Prussian Blue is used. the place of a washing powder. Indigo is made from a plant which comes from Calcutta.

JVasbing as to is a mechanical means of removing is dirt. they should be tied in a cloth and then rubbed in the water until the water is the required color.Introductory. Test is — Blue water cold water. as the soap and blue combine and cause iron rust. This is good for hand towels and overalls. A thrown into the boiler for suds. 1 Process of Washing all Clothes in General. briskly. Miusimf The water is again necessary after boiling. and placed in the boiler with — — few pieces of soap may be After coming to a boil the clothes should boil briskly for five minutes. lumps of indigo are used. after being rinsed. Rinsing. A clothes board used and the clothes are rubbed so dirt. longer. The clothes are washed first on the right side and then are turned and washed on the wrong side. clear. Clothes should always be rinsed well before bluing. remove the If some of the clothes are very coarse and dirty. cold water. they may be cleaned with a short. BluiMf. Boiling. so as to keep the scum from setIf they are not clean they may boil tling on them. are wrung and soaped all over. The clothes. should be cold and clear. small scrubbing brush. Use a clothes-stick to open the clothes and to take them from the boiler. If . After the two washings. the clothes should be rinsed in clear water so as to remove any loose dirt before putting them into the boiler. Two waters for rinsing will whiten the clothes and will remove all soap. made by adding indigo to clear.

When dry. Potts' irons convenience. the clothes should be stretched and folded carefully. as is necessary. Polding. — Irons table rolls to distribute the moisture.14 Laundry Manual. The clothes. may remain in the blue water a little while. polishing irons for for cuffs and Mrs. heavy ones for easily. Always shake the garments well. be more evenly dampened and will iron more — — Irons. the clothes are wrung and are then starched. Starching. rolled. If they stand some time they will before ironing. then they will have fewer creases and will iron more easily. Pound the and bed collars. and allowed to stand an hour or so. should be of various sizes: small ones with points for small clothing. as the indigo settles to the bottom. The line should be perfectly clean and the pins clean. sometimes over night. if quite yellow. In making the bluing. or by bluing opened well before going a small garment. Sprinkling. Thickness of starch depends upon the — articles to Hanging be starched. the water should be well stirred each time before more blue is added. and the pins should be scrubbed well when soiled. so that they will not be streaked with blue. The clothes should be into the bluing. or not. hang straight. . should be in the open air. by holding in the palm of the hand. linen. and then hung. and with the wind. After bluing. The water should be well stirred every time the clothes are added. They are sprinkled. The line should not be left out to get soiled.

Introductory. Rinse with boiling water and wipe dry. and a cloth. Wipe with a cloth before using. They should always be kept in a dry place. then rubbing with sand soap. then rubbed quickly with Irons are improved by washing frequently with soap and water. . Place on the stove and when hot rub with beeswax. Irons not in use will be kept from rusting if covered with wax. 15 Irons which are rusty should be rubbed while warm with beeswax.

Cold raw starch Brass I^ard Olive Chocolate Tea. Ammonia and Alcohol Molasses. (i6) soap and cooking . Vinegar. II. water Paste of soda. . . Fels Naptha soap and water. Character of Stain. Cold water. Fruit Boiling water Javelle water Glue Grass. Blood.CHAPTER Stains. Reagent. Borax and cold water. . Fels Naptha soap and warm water. Coffee oil. Boiling water.

then wash in warm water and soap. pour boiling water on from a height so as to strike the stain with force. Use Javelle solution and boiling water in equal quantities and immerse stained portion. If color may be affected. . Wash in cold water until stain turns brown. will aid the action of the boiling water. Wash in Fels Naptha Ammonia and water colors. make oil- a paste of is raw starch and apply removed. rinse thoroughly with boiling Apply vinegar with a cloth until stain is removed. soap and warm water.CHAPTER Stains. If thick goods. II. allowing it to soak a few minutes. Spread stained part over a bowl. it Use same as for coffee stains. then rub with Pels Naptha soap and soak in warm water. use molasses or the paste on and allow to stand for several hours. Method of Removing. several times until the stain Rub either lard or on stain. (17) spread . applied at once if not on delicate Wash in alcohol. Sprinkling the stain with the borax and soaking in cold water" first. then water.

Javelle water. Indigo. Iodine. Salt and lemon juice. . Fels Naptha soap and warm water Iron rust. Milk Oxalic acid. . Hydrochloric acid. . Lemon juice and salt.18 Laundry Manuals Boiling water. Ink. Bther Chloroform. Collins' Ink Kradicator. . .

. Some ink. wash in water to which When stain ammonia has been added. Care should be taken to use either borax or ammonia in rinsing water. Note. If milk is discolored use more. Use as directed on the box. stand a few. it is best to try the different reagents on a small piece of the goods before attempting to remove stain. drop by drop. is more easily removed by one method than by another. to affect material. Wet with let is cold water. use same method until into water. Wash while fresh in Fels Naptha soap and warm water.minutes and then rinse. removed. Sometimes boiling the article will draw out the spots of indigo formed from im- perfect bluing. cover with salt and lemon juice. place stained. Either of the last three methods is likely to extract color. pour oxalic acid on the stain. or use Javelle water as for other stains. stain disappears. Sprinkle stain with salt and moisten with lemon juice lay in the sun. portion in milk and allow to stand. Apply acid. This method is slower and less likely . Spread stained portion over a bowl containing one quart of water and one teaspoon borax. Either method will extract color. until stain brightens. If stain — I<et stand in ether or chloroform until iodine is dissolved and disappears.Stains. 19 Wash in boiling water. is dry and well set. then dip stain at once If not removed. If stain is fresh. If the kind of ink is known. owing to its chemical composition.

Cold water. Fels Naptha soap. Turpentine Meat juice. Soap solution and sunshine. Machine oil. tablespoon powd. Fuller's earth. Salt and cold water. Laundry Manual. Cold water and soap. Kerosene. soft soap. . Ammonia Soap.. . Alcohol. . Medicine Mildew Lemon juice and Paste I I : sunshine. Perspiration.. Benzine Turpentine. . Milk Cream. salt. lemon (juice). . Cold water and Ivory Soap. Paint. I/amp black. Mucus. Javelle water . starch.. Mucus mixed with blood.20 Kerosene.

one quart cold water. For delicate colors.Stains. chloroform or naphtha is best. then fcUow with soap. Two tablespoons several hours. stain with turpentine. then wash with Pels Naptha soap and warm water. then wash in cold water and soap. in alcohol. Cover the spot with the paste and allow to stand eight hours. ^ Put on lemon juice and let stand in direct sunlight. Wash Soak in cold water. Wash Soak in cold water. then follow with soap. Soak for Use double quantity of salt if articles are of thick material or badly stained. Javelle water may be used on white goods. salt. having been previously washed with soap suds. Wash Rub in soap and cold water. . Place in sunshine. forty- A second application may be necessary. 2 Cover the stain with thick layer of hot Fuller's earth and let it remain twenty-four hours. in ammonia water. Rub with benzine or turpentine. then brush off. Wet with kerosene.

Fels Scorch Stove polish Naptha soap and cold water. Lard. . paper and warm iron Wine. Vaseline Turpentine. Salt and boiling water. Varnish Alcohol. Olive oil. Absorbent . Turpentine. Wagon Wax.22 Laundry Manual. Sunlight. . grease.

Rub either oil or lard on stain.Stains. then wash with warm water and soap. may be used in the same way. but for blue inaterial use Wash a fresh vaseline stain with turpentine. . 23 Hang If in sunlight. Stain cannot be removed after it has been boiled. If there is color as from colored candle wax. This will soften wax and cause it to be absorbed by the paper. and slight scorch will be removed. it Wet the stain with alcohol or turpentine and allow to ofE stand a few minutes. Put thick layer of salt on stain as soon as made. use wax. In case the color is afifected by alcohol. sponge with chloroform dilute viiiegar. Soaking may aid the removal. Continue this until stain is removed. then wet again and sponge with a clean cloth. Scrape off all that is possible. alcohol to extract color after removing . the stain is easily removed. then place blotting paper over spot and press with warm iron. then Boiling milk treat with boiling water as fruit stains. washed while fresh.

Bran water will as rubbing causes the color to run. and pour the clear liquid into the dissolved and keep in a dark place. stiffen articles washed in it. settle I. cold water.24 Laundry Manual. as well as for cotton goods that have become yellow with dirt and age. Boil one-half hour. cold water. I qt. then bottle. Stir occaStrain through fine muslin. boiling water. Gum Water. I oz. then strain and add another pint of warm water. add melted soap to the bran preparation. Put the soda into an agate pan and add the boiling water. best gum arabic. 2 qts. soak the article in equal quantities of Javelle . Recipes.et the mixture soda. i pt. Javelle water forms a very efficient bleaching liquid for unbleached fabrics. ^ pt. }4 cup wheat bran. This will keep a long time and may be used sionally until dissolved. Mix the cold water with the bran. Water and hot water until the stain disappears then rinse . Wash by squeezing and shaking in water. washing soda. To remove stains from white goods. Pour the water over the gum and let stand. I lb. according to the stiffness required. -rinse articles in salt and water. Javelle Water. Bottle. boiling water. Dissolve the lime in the cold water. If articles are greasy or very dirty. Bran Water. If stiffness is not desired. chloride of lime. j4 lb.

ammonia. muslin hangings and them non-inflammable.uM Water. and ammo- nia water.Recipes. alcohol. I gal. i oz. 3 quarts of cold water and the other For cleaning black goods. white castile soap. apply (only slightly diluted) with a sponge. alum. in i Cut soap solved. then add the add Stir before using. This is children's dresses. yi. boiling water . 2 oz. For removing spots from woolen goods. Cold Starch. ether. . I 1 J^ oz. 4 oz. 2 cups cold water. 2 tablespoons laundry starch. on colored goods. oz. and therefore should not be used injured. water. . the fibre will be Detergent. fine and heat pint of soft water until dis- Then add i ingredients. If articles remain too long in the Javelle water. as men's clothing. cold water gradually to the starch mix well. If this makes the add more water. rendering used for rinsing curtains. may affect the Ai. teaspoon borax. 25 finally in dilute thorouglily in several waters. Javelle removes all stains and all colors. It is always safer to test any cleansing solution with a piece of the material before attempting to remcg^e stain. as the ether color. little Dissolve the borax in a the dissolved borax. use i wine glass pint of this liquid in article too stifi". warm water.

Ironing. wringer should be loosened for all table linen as because the material and creases easily. Fold table cloths by folding selvages together. except when folding the lengthwise folds in Here the upper half should be drawn back about one-half inch. — Table linen should be well sprinkled straight. — The doth or napkin should be ironed partly dry and then. in making the last half. Iron on the right side last so as to bring out the pattern. —Table linen does not need so much rubbing is soft The clothes it is rarely very dirty. and then. coffee. when ironed dry. ironed dry. Use heavy irons and iron both sides. Hanging. (26) . Chocolate. —All table linen should be well stretched and hung very Sprinkling. : —Fruit. Washing. Tea and Grease. Table Linen. Iron rust. Napkins should be folded with selvages together. Fold all edges very evenly. the gloss will be more perfect and the pattern will shine prettily. otherwise. They may be folded with either four or three lengthwise folds. when it is turned on the right side. Fold evenly and wrap in a heavy cloth.CHAPTER Stains III.

Laundry Manual. . I. 27 Plate No. THE FOLDING OF TABLE LINEN.

In washing bed linen the hems require the most care. them flat. they should be washed systematically from one side Pillow cases should be turned to the other. as a tablecloth. . in order that every part receive attention. They should be well soaped and rubbed. Soaking. are liable If opened to the wind. tance. Hanging. Sheets may be hung out full. —Soak half an hour with soap in cold or Washing. or roll It is better to lay roll. and then left in that condition until folded for ironing. they torn.Bed Linen. making the edges uneven. Fold hems until — selvages even. Doylies may have the fringe brushed with a strong whisk broom. Blood. Medicine. Iron rust. should be washed on both sides and. ^nra pillow of sheets together and pull cases right side out. Stains : — ^Vaseline. wrong side out in the washing. rather than combing which tears the Tray cloths should be folded in three folds fringe. Folding. fold this part will be 29 pushed out about that disThis applies as well to table cloths. if a pole is not used. to be as there is no opening opposite. — Sheets lukewarm water. they must be folded in half over the line. sheets and handkerchiefs. if it is necessary to fold them. around a paper Bed Linen. Pillow cases are hung by the seam — opposite the hems.

or may be folded the same as tablecloths. that only two creases. The sheets may be folded with the ordinary fold.) Pillow cases should be If the ironed very smooth. Always iron the case its by beginning in the corner where the side and e seams meet. especially the hems. iron from the side seam across the cai The cases should be folded in thirds. (See chart under table linen. Ironing. is. is embroidery on the cases it should be ironed y?^ and on the wrong side. wiiu . —Care should be exercised in ironing hems.30 Laundry Manual.

. 2.Laundry Manual. 31 t TH:e 3. Plate No. FOLDING OF NIGHT DRESSES.

Laundry Manual. . 33 'M'lii"i>'iii"iit"i'ii|'^ Plate No. THE FOLDING OF DRAWERS. 3.

boiling water. lard and borax. Corset covers. iron rust. blood. teaspoon lard. Washing. and be sure to turn them flat so as not to force them off. (35) . the starch should be thinner % i body of the garments. In wringing. Grease. medicine. If two waters are not used. Soaking. Aprons. Add the cold water to the starch. Soap the bottom hems. Handkerchiefs. Skirts. I teaspoon borax. Body Linen. cup cold water. Wash drawers and nightdress in the first water on the right side. than — For trimming. Wash in warm water and soap. turn the buttons inside. Soak one-half hour with soap in cold or lukewarm water. seams and bands well and rub thoroughly. vaseline.CHAPTER IV. in the second water wash on the wrong side. Drawers. — — — — in cold water. Night dresses. qt. Soap oands. Boiling. Starching. For body ofgarments use: ij^ tablespoons (instead J^ tablespoon) starch. For trimming use: for the ^ J^ tablespoon starch. Stains. the clothes are turned and both sides washed in the same water. seams and hems well before boilBoil briskly for five minutes and then rinse ing.

Corset cover.36 stirring to Laundry Manual. Borax stiffens and the fat smooths it. The starch should be cooked slowly one-half hour and strained. then slowly add the stirring boiling water. tightly. which have been dipped in water. All oi corset cover with thin starch. Add a little blue water to the starch. or thrown over the line and pinned by middle seam of back. but not too heavily. — Iron side. Skirt. Iron buttons on . —Sprinkle well. the body of the underclothes Sprinkling. as dry as possible Use starch very hot. the hems. Wring fingers. remove lumps. by one side of lower hem. —Hang wrong side out and with the wind. or sometimes the lower half. constantly. because quickly. RufEle of skirt. Both hems and trimming should be well sprinkled. Hanging. —Lay trimming Iron all inside and fold in the hems before folding the garment. Hems and tucks of drawers. because they are thick and the Rub trimming. and rub in with the Starch: Cufis and yoke of nightdress. Roll smoothly and Ironing. the lace and trimming between the fingers. Drawers. Nightdress. by the band. by one side of lower hem. it is thin and likely to dry Folding. ironing as large one time as is possible. a space at embroidery on flannel and on wrong all garments quickly. by one of fronts.

/. THE FOLDING OF CORSET COVERS. 37 Plate No. .Laundry Manual.

39 Plate No.Laundry Manual. . s- th:e foi/Ding of chemises.

Corset covers should be ironed with smaller iron. Run the In ironing drawers. are washed and boiled as body linen. and between the seams. Then iron the while body. —Do not use alkaline substances. They Note. first. are ironed on both sides and folded in three folds. In ironing nightdress. Do not fold the skirt at once but hang to dry.Body Linen. body of the nightdress. tucks. Fels Naptha soap and warm water may be used in place of the washing powders. with the exception of those with colored borders. as they irritate. iron the trimming. "1 Handkef chiefs are ironed the same as napkins. as soapine. and then iron well into the gathers. In ironing then the skirt. as it for diapers. use a cloth dampening. and may be laid back without wrinkling hem of the skirt is ironed. the rufiQe is ironed first. lengthwise pearl- washing soda. and Ammonia and so will leave the fabric. If clothes are too dry. as the folds are usually damp. iron the embroidery and tucks on the sleeve Then iron the yoke. the fold. and then the body and the band. Towels. the for 41 wrong side. is may be used volatile . remain in the fabric after drying. ine.

soiled that causes the fibres of which flannels are shorten. They should be passed quickly from one water another. Wash up and down in the water without rubbing. better results may be obtained by using a second suds. In many cases. —Four short rules may be observed in wash- ing flannels: Wash one piece at a time. Wash in waters of same temperature. the flannels become so rubbing is necessary. Do not wash in dirty water. This is necessary as soap should not be rubbed on flannel. Wash in lukewarm water to which melted soap has been added one-fourth pound of Ivory or Wool soap in one quart of water. hence the garment shrinks. It is a mistaken idea to wear flannels as long as possible. Flannels should be washed either that they first or last so to may have the attention they require. (42) . if possible. If this idea is followed. V. boil or rub. Do not soak. made to use i tablespoon ammonia to 2 gallons of water. If very soiled. Washing. as rubbing or wringing. until ready for the line. Any mechanical treatment.CHAPTER Flannels. thinking they will shrink when first — washed.

all flannels should be pulled and stretched into shape while drying. shirt waists. I large bar Ivory Soap. Underwear and stockings are pressed ofi" after — drying. Hanging. Stockings or socks may be dried on wooden forms. be dried on a sheet placed on the floor. 3 quarts cold water. side out and when nearly dry. Soap for Washing Blankets. not dried in stretchers. — Blue and squeeze as dry as possible. cup wood alcohol. add borax and alcohol. Unless held by stretchers. pull in soft. Flannels often shrink from being hung too near a fire and dried quicklj'. Hang wrong turn. Shake shape and hang to dry in a moderately warm place. all of the same first wash water. the cheese cloth. Shave the soap into the cold water and heat to boiling point. . skirts and blankets. Adding one tablespoon of glycerine to the last water helps to keep the wool well. the fibres will be drawn up giving the flannel the fluffy appearance of new material. may be ironed by laying a In removing dampened cheese cloth over the flannel and pressing with a moderately hot iron. ^ When cold. instead of being hung. 2 tablespoons borax.0VL\6. Knitted shawls or squares 0/ flannel sh. Ironing. 43 Rinsing. Flannel slightly shirts. —Rinse in temperature as the two or three waters. Blankets may be stretched in curtain stretchers to dry. This is frequently done for children's socks.Flannels.

44 Laundry Manual. temperature. . This solution will wash four pairs of blankets. one pint into the second tub and then rinse in clear All three waters should be of the same water. Follow the rules above for washing. Put one quart of this solution into the first tub.

Sometimes one. For black waists. Blue waists may have blue water added to the starch before starching. and sometimes the other is better. It by using salt care should be used as the is well to guard against this and water. —The whole starch made as follows: ij^ tablespoons starch. shirt —Rinse quickly in clear water. (45) . using proportions above. —In washing. color may fade. 5^ teaspoon borax. then vinegar — waist may be starched with Starching. Prepare and cook as described on page 35. the starch may be darkened with one-half cup of coffee solution reducing the boiling water that much. Do not bail colored clothes. —Rust. or vinegar and water. and water. and. J^ cup to i gallon water. Use one-half at first. Grease. Washing. Shirts. cools. as it thins and use the rest. J^ cup cold water. rinse in vinegar and water. Boiling. Shirt Waists. i tablespoon to i gallon of water. boiling water. Rinsing. I qt.CHAPTER Stains : VI. Collars and Cuffs. Ink. If it seems faded before putting in it into water. Fruit.

Sprinkle the rest of the waist or shirt evenly roll. collars hang out of the sun. Then the starch must be wiped from both In finishing the rubbing. the shirt or may be sprinkled. shirt waist Dampen the bosom of the shirt. Sprinkling. the laundry method. Hang by the neck band so that it will dry — well. bosoms on a bosomsame width as the shirt bosom. if of delicate colors. Drying. that the stripes are perfectly straight. may now A will cloth should be stretched it tacked to keep be like on the table and smooth and tight. the front plait and the collar (if attached) by rubbing on both sides with a damp cloth. The rubbing is not complete until sides the various thicknesses of material are as one. Do not add blue water to the starch for pink. a damp cloth. the goods are free from wrinkles and. Starching. — Shirt bosoms. Collars and cuffs are dampened the same as those attached to shirt waists and rolled in a cloth. This is a small board of about the . consequently the bosom may be ironed without the body of the shirt First iron the —Shirts. The starch a jelly and should be rubbed in with the fingers. green or lavender shirt waists. damp Ironing. If desired. —After drying the second time. cuffs.46 Laundry Manual. the starch may be colored with corresponding dye. txA front plaits of shirt waists be starched according to Use Jive tablespoo7is of staxch for this instead of one and a half as used for the body. the cuffs. and then a folding the heavily starched parts in damp cloth. by see that if striped. board.

.Laundry Manual. 47 Plate No. THE FOLDING OF SHIRTS. 6.

so that the cord or trouble with wrinkles. 49 board of the same shape may be fastened permanently to the end of a laundry table. and then rubbing with a polishing iron until thoroughly dry. at the same time curving the collar or cuff over after the iron. remove the board. Collars and cuffs are rolled in the last stage of their ironing. and Cuffs. Iron as quickly as possible. This is accomplished by passing the iron over the wrong side. Turned-down collars should be ironed flat and when finished. Pique or embroidered shirt waists should be ironed on wrong side excepting the sleeves and on well-padded ironing table. Collars and cuffs. Next iron yoke. there will be little or no as they will have been stroked out. heavy iron. The iron should be started at the extreme end of the collar This should be repeated two or three or cuff. After the bosom is ironed. This will soften the fold so that the turning may be accomplished without blistering or cracking. so that the waist will not need a second dampening. Shirt Waists. as any ironing-board. then the It A flannel and the body of the shirt. but not made too soft. If the starching sleeves — has been carefully done. with and muslin.Shirts. should be rubbed with a damp cloth just on the folding line. then front plait and the rest of the waist. Collars interfering. — — figure may stand out. Iron the cufiFs and collars (if attached) by first partially drying each side with a plain. should be covered. Skirt waists. . iron the neck-band and wrist-bands. —Whether the collars and cuffs by the are attached or adjustable they are ironed above method.

as colored waists.50 Lazmdry Manual. . . is the method of starching and same as used and collars ironing. rolled after being folded. as there is not such an opportunity to stroke out the wrinkles. on the wrong side. In this method more care is necessary in ironing the cuffs and collar. home method at first is preferred. —The this chapter. It will. after they are ironed. Flannel shirt waists are washed as flannels. given in in laundries. Note. Silk Shirt Waists. A little gum water (described on page 24) if will give a slight stiffness desired. chapter on flannels. starch the cuffs extra rub- whole waist bing. and give the is When the waist roll dry. collars ajid cufis and shirt bosoms. them damp cloth. and lay inside the sprinkled waist. but give stiffer cuffs than if done in the ordinary If the home method. times from each end. starch the cuffs in a with cold starch. may be carefully rubbed with a slightly moistened cheese cloth. Turned-down collars are For a dull finish. iron See —Wash-silk waists are washed Before they are entirely dry. requires the extra time for the drying.

ammonia. — Do not sprinkle until a short time before ironing. to is less noticeable than that produced by the chemical used remove it. They may be rinsed in water containing salt or vinegar. Washing. as the reagents themselves are likely to leave a stain. Salt or vinegar may be added to the rinsing waters (there should be two) to brighten the colors. Washing. with the in the Hanging. being careful to wrap each piece separately while damp. as shirt waists. the starch should be colored as for shirt waists. Stockings are first washed on the right side and then turned and washed on the wrong side. —Stains in colored clothes must be removed with Often the original stain " great care. Avoid using strong yellow soaps. Very hot water will dull the color. — Colored clothes must not be soaked. Colored Clothes. starch after they are dry. The starch will show less if the garment is wrong side out when starched.CHAPTER Stains. VII. Wash as quickly as possible in clear water. Starching. and all washing powders. Stockings. For dark goods. For proportions see page 45. with little soap. Sprinkling. —Hang shade and dry quickly. This may set the color before the washing. (51) — . — If desired very in the case stiff.

as well as colored clothes. Woolen stockings same as flannels. lint. Ironing. . The feet should have special care. salt New stockings the color. Rinse in clear water.52 Lajindry Manual. and hung wrong They should be pulled into shape when hung and pinned to the line by the top. but on the wrong side. — are ironed Silk stockings are washed in same silks. —Stockings side out. not boiled. blued Hanging. manner as pages 56. 57. page 42. should be rinsed in water to set Stockings. are are rinsed. Stockings are not sprinkled. as the rinse water used for other clothes contains which will cling^ to the stockings.

ironed at once if preferred. —In ironing. If inclined to pucker. Do not fold but lay away paper. where there is no embroidery. If a large piece and much plain linen. By the time the last piece is washed. — Make a suds of Ivory Soap and warm water. Wash the embroidery up and down in the Rinse thorDo not allow to stand in water. turn and iron lightly on the right side.CHAPTER Vin. If several pieces are to be washed. rolled. the first one may be suds. wash one at a time and hang out straight. ironed. to give a gloss to the linen. This will prevent the center from puffing straight up. Washing. as they should not be sprinkled. Embroideries. They may be boil. holding the iron until the cloth is dry. without rubbing. oughly as soap will make them yellow. If a circular piece. lay several thicknesses of not blue or flannel on the table or board. instead of around the embroidery and then in the center. soft cloth. Always have the goods perfectly and iron with the grain. have some one hold it and iron straight across. flat or roll on a heavy roll of (53) . or folded. so that the colors will not touch each other. Do Ironing. until clean. Iron on the wrong side until dry. over this place a clean. iron straight across the grain of the goods.

— Baste cloth. Then put the lace into warm soapy water and let stand for some time. rinsing in borax water (4 teaspoons i pint) will threads are very tender. first.54 Laundry Manual. After standing. lace into the starch solution and squeeze until almost Then clap in the hands . strain. lace may be bleached by laying in sun or by soakfinal ing for a few minutes in Javelle water. The give a slight stiffness like thinner the material. I teaspoon starch. Washing. Clear Starching. Squeeze. on strips of cheese being careful to baste all points down. soapy water. the less likely to hold starch. and use hot. quart boiling water. wring out and put into fresh. Cook Dip the very dry. the lace. Gum arable may be used in place of borax. yi hour. I ^ cup cold water. shake out. — A new lace. If yellow. and squeeze again. —^Laces may be clear starched and in that way given a little of a new appearance. Clear Starch. Laces. perfectly clean. taking care to work gently as the Do this until the lace is Rinse in clear water. Judgment should be used in starching lace curtains.

page 24. by pinning every flannel covered with a soft cloth. ened by using bran water. 55 Ironing. as the scallop will be out of shape and irregular. being careful to iron out all the points. Retiaissance lace may be ironed by placing over it a piece of muslin which has been wrung out Iron in cold starch. should be laid on a piece of Iron on the wrong side. is to fasten the lace to a pillow or stretched sheet. over this lay a dry cloth. No pins should be inserted in any other places besides the points. much better way. the curtains may be pinned to the carpet which has been covered with Curtains may be stiffa tightly stretched sheet. Lace handkerchiefs should be washed and partly dried. however. but are stretched in curtain stretchers and dried. then clapped and ironed. If curtain stretchers cannot be procured. Lace curtains are not ironed. .Laces. remove the starched muslin and complete the ironing by using the top cloth. slightly with a hot iron. Here great care should be used in pinning the points. —If ironed. lace A point down. then put in the hot starch and wrung out.

but iron detergent. Cleansing. which will give a slight firmness. In using cleansing solutions. small piece of the material the colors will it is well to test a present. cleanse perfectly dry. Before putting garments away for the summer. Wash in soap bark or Shake and Do not allow to become dry. is the garments and then remove the linings. borax is Wash in soap lather. brush well. In last rinsing water. Take out all the threads. A little dissolved may be added to the wash water if the silk much soiled or greasy. all prevent moths.CHAPTER IX. Wash by squeezing soil is more than rubbing. let the last rinsing very obstibe slightly blued. with detergent or any good cleansing solution. Wrap the silk in soft cloth (56) . while quite damp. put into every pint of water one teaspoon prepared gum arable. Iron on the wrong side until If only one or two spots. unless the nate. If pure white. be soaked for a few hours in Squeeze or lightly rub in soaking water. whether blue or clear. but not for cream white. Woolens. as sometimes change by the ether which is Clear water and a little white soap is first. Undyed Silks may cold water. often all that is needed. see that This is necessary to the soiled spots are removed. it —In washing black or better to first rip colored woolen goods.

it at first. articles a little boiled starch. will have a better appearance water. They should be A little vinegar in the last finished ofE quickly. the nap. It requires no drying. All silks. rolled Leave it until ready for ironing. 57 and press very dry with the hands. it becomes a kind of mud. but without soaking or being laid aside while dampened. is not only difficult to remove. Cover with a thin. smooth cloth. rinsing water will help brighten and set the color. when Miderdown may be washed in the same way as flannels. . should be gently but thoroughly shaken before being wet. which. lay the silk on the table right side up and very smooth.Cleansing. It is with a a great improvement to the garment to brush it Brush with stift' clothes-brush after ironing. if a little gum is added to the last For large diluted. much may be used and will be cheaper. folds taken out by velvets may be freshened or steaming. For ironing. not removed. full Bangings of any kinds. If dust is which are of dust. stand a hot iron on end and cover Over this pass it with a wet cloth. When nearly dry. To Steam the bottom of Velvets. press on the wrong side. but discolors the fabric permanently. then Colored silks and stockings must be done in the same way. I/igbt Colored Velvets may be cleaned by brushing All with corn-meal until the soil is removed. Run the iron lightly over iron until dry. wet. except the stockings.

58 Laundry Manual. Surplices and Cottas. washing —No starch or altar linen . AIL the embroidery should be ironed on the wrong side. if yellow. the velvet. may be whitened by using a little bluing in the rinsing water. Altar l/inen. holding the wrong side next to the damp cloth. bluing should be used in ironing board and irons The should be thoroughly cleaned before ironing. and on a board covered with heavy flannel. . No starch should be used.

fresh oil and fat should be used. Dissolve lye in cold water and set aside to cool. added just as the soap thickens. All soap mixtures should stand until of the consistency of hone)^ and then be moulded. — . it should be clarified by boiling iu it several pieces of raw potato. the box with several thicknesses of yellow paper. Lye irritates the hands hence it is better to protect them by putting paper bags over them. Mixing of Soap. for —Fresh fat or oil may be used making soap. If cooking fat is used. If borax and ammonia are used. Preparation of Fat. quantities are cared for more easily by pouring In this case. A small quantity of soap may be moulded in an agate pan. Directions. — (59) . greasing the top layer on the side next the soap. For toilet soaps. but fat left from frying is equally good and more economical for ordinary soap. It is then ready for soap. add them to the Perfumery is lye mixture before adding the fat. 5oap Making. The lye mixture should be stirred with a stick. line the mixture into a wooden box. which should be wet I^arger before pouring in the soap mixture.CHAPTER X. The scum which rises should be taken off and the fat strained through cheese cloth. Moulding of Soap. Generai.

I 3j^ pts. cold water. 5>^ lbs. a moderately warm temperature until hard. cold water. utensils should be used in Agate ware or wooden eat the tin the mixing and moulding of soap. I lb. clarified fat. ij^ qts. clarified fat. Soap No. 5 drops of lavender \% and oil cup cold water. It is ing it more economical to dry the soap by spreadon paper in a warm room. of geranium. white lard. lye. Yz i^ II. Individual round cakes may be formed by using agate gem pans for moulds. cotton seed oil. lo tablespoons lye. Soap No. i can Toilet Soap. can best lye.6o Laundry Manual. cup ammonia. as the lye will and so ruin a good pan. i I. tablespoons borax. . |4 lb. 5 lbs. and then may be cut into All soap should stand in cakes.

The classes average eight students. I/esson J. Iron. dinner napkin for each student. napkins and doylies. Iron. pillow case for each student. J^esson II. Sheets and pillow cases. Wash. I I I Javelle Water. Table cloth. Two and a half hours are required for each of these lessons. table cloth for every four students. I/CSSon IV. Outline of Laundry Course. (6i) . Wash.CHAPTER XI. I I sheet for every four students. Detergent. This outline is given as an aid to instructors. I I nightdress for every two students. Wash. doylie for each student. pair of drawers for each student. Table I/inen. General notes to be given. Bed Linen. I/esson III. It is used by the authors in instructing their classes in laundry work. Making Soap.

Skirts and corset covers. Lesson VIL Wash. I/esson VL Wash. Flannels. Lesson IX. Collars and cuffs. I short. Body Linen. Iron.62 Laundry Manual. Iron. collars and cuffs. or I I long skirt for every two students. Nightdress and drawers. Starch. corset cover for each student. Collar and one pair of cuffs for each student. Wash. I piece for each student. Lesson VIIL Iron. Shirt waist. . Lesson Wash. Shirt waist. I I Shirt waist for two students. Stockings and towels. white skirt for every stu- dent.

Goods and curtain. embroideries. clear starch sash curtains. Wash. Clean and wash black or woolen goods. Embroideries. Iron. Iron. Iron. Colored clothes. Wash. I piece of woolen goods for each student. Flannels.Outline of Laundry Course. . Lesson XII. Handkerchiefs. Handkerchiefs. Iron. Wash and Iron. Clear starching. Colored clothes. Laces. Lesson X. 63 Wash. }i curtain for each student. l/csson XI. Stockings and towels. I piece for each student.

. Diapers Doylies drawers embroideries flannels . 45 11 stockings tablecloths . • napkins nightdresses pillow cases sheets shirts shirt waists silks skirts . 43 24 12 drawers napkins nightdresses pillow cases sheets shirt waists skirts 36 36 26 36 29 29 45 13 . collars 14 14 15 49 41 corset covers cuffs Detergent recipe 56 25 41 29 35... . . ... ... Hanging corset covers Ammonia Aprons Bed linen Blankets Bleaching Blue Bluing . 3) 33 handkerchiefs •29 26 napkins nightdresses (PI. 5) . 36. 53 43 41 53 26 41 Drawers Eiderdown . i) . 53 49 41 . .31 pillow cases 29. 4) . 39 corset covers (PI. . Altar linen Alum water 58 II Folding table lineu Gum water recipe (PI. -35 13. . . . 50 Folding 14 chemises (PI. ..27 24 14 25 . 24 56 46 51 36 58 46 Handkerchiefs Irons kinds of care of Ironing.. sheets shirts (PI. 36. 11 35 29 42.. 6) shirt waists skirts 29 tablecloths Javelle water recipe 54 24 12 47 45 .INDEX. Body linen Boiling . . 2) . 41 Kerosene Laces Lace curtains (6S) 54 5$ . . . 36 52 Borax Bran water recipe Cleansing Collars . . 29 41. 55 Colored goods Corset covers Cottas Cuffs . 43.. 36. 30 30 46 49 57 41 26 . 4i 57 35. . handkerchiefs laces Embroideries Flannels 42. 36.37 drawers (PI. . 35. 30 .

26 26 41 29 12 cold .. . . Sheets Shirts .. .. . 16-23 Water Starching aprons Woolen goods 56 .. collars corset covers cufls Laundry rules 9 7 Laundry. . .. 54 25 Washing .. . .. ... 49i 5° 50.66 Index.. ... 41 29. 46 36 51. .. . .. -36 53 .. . . Shirt waists Silks Skirts . 14 55 24 25 Surplices Table linen Table cloths ... . 42 56 29. ...58 24 24 35 Starch... . . ... equipment of outline of 8 12 . 35. . Lye Napkins Nightdress Outline for teachers of laundry ParaflSne drawers laces . 56. 14 muslin embroideries table linen Stains 46 46 36 26 14 stockings table cloths tray cloths woolen goods 26 26 56 12 12 11 Washing powder Pearline . .... 41 61 nightdresses shirts shirt waists skirts . . 37.35 .. 8 12 12 36 46 45. 51 colored embroideries corset covers diapers doylies .. .. 57 53 35 41 26 35 42 54 26 35 drawers flannels laces napkins nightdresses pillow cases sheets shirts shirt waists silks. . . 36.. 35 II . Soaking Soap Recipes Toilet soap Soap for blankets .... ... 30 24 25 Stockings Stretching lace curtains ^ Alum water Bran water Detergent Gum water Javelle water . . 52 .. . 30 45. 29. . PAOB PAGE Starching. 46 36 46 . 60 60 43 II skirts Soda Sprinkling collars cuffs .. .. 46 45. boiled clear Towels Tray cloths Turpentine Velvets . . 26 35. .. 57 13 Rinsing colored clothes flannels silks 13 45. Pearline Pillow cases Recipes . . -29 29 45 45 56 35 51 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful