PGDM

(BATCH 2011-13)

URBAN PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH PROFILING

Submitted By : APOORVA BANGARD SAKSHI MELWANI RAMANUJ SARAF VINAYAK GATTANI (196) (206) (232) (231)

Faculty Guide : Prof. ANKUSH GUHA

CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Health is very crucial to the overall development of any nation. No society can progress unless its citizens are healthy. It is disheartening to see the world‟s second most populous country having the largest pool of patients and the highest proportion of malnourished children in the world. Health is not possible without sanitation. Indians especially in rural areas and urban slums have to be taught about basic sanitation. The severity of the problem in India can be judged from the fact that hardly 33% population has sanitation facility available. Around 400,000 children under five years of age die each year in India due to sanitation related ailments alone. The problem of sanitation has to be resolved urgently. Rajasthan is one of the least developed states of India. Rajasthan, with a geographical area of 3,42,239 square kilometers is India‟s largest State. It is home to 56.5 million people. Rajasthan has not experienced improvements but worsened in overall health indicators over the last decade. The current scenario in Rajasthan indicates that one out of every five urban dwellers is poor. The real health conditions and service coverage among this section of the population is masked by the urban average figures. Jaipur, commonly known as the „pink city‟, is the capital of Rajasthan, and has a population of around 2.3 million. Jaipur also faces rampant unplanned growth and development. The city has a total of 183 slums where 31% of its total population resides. The per capita average income was relatively high and the family size was small. While these were positive indicators, it was also revealing that most families lived in kuccha houses, half of them had no access to toilet and sewerage facilities, were poor, and their access to water was varied. The project comprises of a URBAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP in which Urban Poverty and Livelihood, Solid Waste Management, Lake Restoration, Waste Water Management were covered and we were the volunteers for the workshop and we were in the organizing committee. Another was a HEALTH PROFILING SURVEY by questionnaire and focused group discussions in a basti for which the primary goal was “ Make basic health services available and accessible to unreached and underprivileged communities with sustainable approach” . The basti selected was LAL KHAND KUNDA BASTI which is situated at malviya nagar which has has around 1000 households most of which settled around 5-6 years back in the area. Most of the households contribute to the informal economy, predominant amongst the occupation groups are daily wage labourers, vegetable vendors, rickshaw pullers. In terms of basic amenities, the locality is electrified. As the locality is located near Malviya nagar industrial area it is well connected by a pucca road, however inside the locality the by lanes are kuccha. In order to study the impact of health and sanitation in the selected area of the study, analysis of the collected data was carried out. Specific performance indicators were identified to find out and understand the extent of sanitation coverage, improvement in the health status of community, etc. The tabular and graphical presentations have been made use of to display the results and analysis of data and on the basis of the analysis some suggestions were given to the CENRE FOR DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION

11. Urban planning and development workshop Urban poverty and livelihood 6. 10. 15. Solid waste management Lake restoration Waste water management Medical health profiling Research methodology Collection and data analysis Conclusion Recommendations and suggestions Learning‟s accumulated Bibliography Annexure . 3. 14. 2. 8.NO 1. 9. 12. 7. 13. 16. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO. Introduction Objectives Urban health Present scenario In India In Rajasthan 5.TABLE OF CONTENTS S. 4.

Microfinance. gregarious. Professional Internship. CDC has direct operations in Jaipur. Jalandhar. in Jaipur. governance. RTI and public participation.that communication. women and youth through action organisation. capacity building. research and networking activities. Our thought . We have been recognized nationally and internationally by various rewards and appreciations for our outstanding social and an educational service across India.INTRODUCTION Centre for Development Communication (CDC) is a national non-profit organization working in 15 cities across the country. Social Security of waste workers and street vendors. Aurangabad etc and engages in state. national and global action through its training. slum dwellers. Mohali and Vadodara. We are second most organization in India which has received “UN-Habitat Scroll of Honor Award” in 2004 for our best practices across the country and has been recognized by Dubai Municipality twice in a fiscal year 2006 & 2008. livelihood self-help groups. women unorganized sector and vendors on areas of education. a scientific approach acts as catalytic revolutionizing the process in an essential employing communication for the same to improve the quality of life of the masses & different fragments of the society CDC has expanded its activities to various parts of India . thereby facilitating positive social change. Baddi. yet the demand grows. Currently. Though. Urban Health. Nagpur. advocacy. developmental process for the community has been going on for more than 60 years. MISSION: Our elusive & illimitable goal is improvement in quality of life by following a concrete concerted explicit approach with dedication & determination for the community. Ludhiana. The head office is in Jaipur with its three regional offices in Nagpur. CDC's work in cities dates back to its activities with urban poor communities in the Jaipur and Nagpur in 1995 and subsequent engagement with Municipal solid waste management. explicit. Mohali. state and national interventions on MSW. Shimla. Daman. Training & Research and an initiative for RTI awareness. waste workers. Our key operational areas are Waste Management. Thane. livelihood and rights of vendors and waste workers. microfinance. indoctrinated & equitable community. Bhilai. Patiala. . Rajasthan. ORIGIN: CDC is registered under public trust act 1959. our vision is through compassionate & rationales efforts help build an altruistic. By 2001 our work expanded to city. VISION: As illimitable as the ocean. urban health. research and advocacy. Surat.

community groups. states and countries. .OBJECTIVES: CDC's main focus area is urban poor communities and urban community development programs on addressing human rights violations in cities and enabling vulnerable groups in the city to access these rights. and encouraging new formations .  We are providing door to door collection services to over 5 million houses per day. we imparted well structured knowledge about hygiene amongst rag pickers. We work to build linkages between the direct experiences of communities and the larger contexts of the cities. We strengthen the capacities of communities to understand and involve in main stream development process and respond effectively to the local development issues.  We have moved from supply oriented approach to need oriented approach in which we focus on the needs of the society not on just giving them the unwanted services.to engage in development. The primary objective of CDC is „zero garbage on roads‟ and “improvement in quality of life” by following a concrete. Our Endeavour to engage holistically on social issues accounts for the broad range of our activities that span from action organization in communities to national and international solidarity action.such as Self-help Groups. concerted.  Along with livelihood creation initiatives.  We have replaced normal manually operated equipments with advanced technological equipments and vehicles. vendors cooperatives and microfinance . explicit approach with dedication & determination for the community. ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN BY NGO: Urban Health Solid waste management Social Security for Street vendors Social security for waste workers Self-help groups and micro credit Right to Information Annakshetra MILESTONES:  Dignified livelihood creation for 8000+ households.

The policy scenario in India has also been rural centric. use of contraception. flip charts. Sessions. The rapid expansion of urban population in recent decades has rendered the already inadequate primary health care facilities further deficient.on preventive measures of diseases. Since it is established that health is not just a biomedical phenomenon it is multidimensional field.Mobile Health Clinic School based and community based programs      School health check up programs Personal hygiene and nutrition sessions Counseling – for youth on substance abuse. documentaries etc. facilities and implementation mechanism for health in urban areas. health care structure. menstruation health and anaemia.To enhance health care accessibility. management of diseases e.URBAN HEALTH Health is central in social and economic development of a Nation. This also reflects in inadequate infrastructure.the resource centre will be equipped with health information education material in form of flip books. to understand health from other perspective CDC conducts studies and research on various social determinants of health. Unlike rural areas which have a Govt. Our initiatives . awareness and health seeking behavior among underprivileged masses. The issue of primary health care for urban poor requires immediate attention. domestic violence etc.. What we do: Urban Health Goal . urban areas do not have such structure. Hence. for women on their health issues especially of reproductive health. Adolescence girl’s program (for school going and school drop outs) To impart accurate and reliable information to adolescence girls on topics identified as important to their health and hygiene like family life education.g. It is estimated that nearly 30% of India‟s population lives in cities and town. . Why urban health India is witnessing a volatile growth in the population living in urban areas.diarrhea etc Health information system. thus CDC strives to work in urban health issues to provide sustainable improvement in accessibility to quality health care services to unreached and underserved communities. This has resulted in relative neglect of urban areas especially the urban poor.

without adequate water and sanitation. The severity of the problem in India can be judged from the fact that hardly 33% population has sanitation facility available. The current scenario in Rajasthan indicates that one out of every five urban dwellers is poor. It is disheartening to see the world‟s second most populous country having the largest pool of patients and the highest proportion of malnourished children in the world. half of them had no access to toilet and sewerage facilities. No society can progress unless its citizens are healthy. the slum dwellers are the poorest. With over 575 million people. The problem of sanitation has to be resolved urgently. and has a population of around 2. Jaipur. Rajasthan. India is urbanizing very fast and along with this. The per capita average income was relatively high and the family size was small. Slum in India is defined as a cluster inside urban areas without having water and sanitation access. Around 400. While these were positive indicators. Health is not possible without sanitation. Jaipur also faces rampant unplanned growth and development. Around 40 million people reside in slums. Slum population is constantly increasing: it has doubled in the past two decades. However. the slum population is also increasing. The real health conditions and service coverage among this section of the population is masked by the urban average figures. is the capital of Rajasthan. . Indians especially in rural areas and urban slums have to be taught about basic sanitation. most of them are not having basic facilities like drinking water and sanitation. URBAN HEALTH IN RAJASTHAN Rajasthan is one of the least developed states of India. with a geographical area of 3. and their access to water was varied. were poor. India‟s urban population is increasing at a faster rate than its total population.PRESENT SCENARIO OF URBAN SLUMS IN INDIA Health is very crucial to the overall development of any nation. It is home to 56. commonly known as the „pink city‟.239 square kilometers is India‟s largest State. India will have 41% of its population living in cities and towns by 2030 from the present level of 286 million and 28%.42. This growing slum population and the lack of basic facilities will badly impact on India‟s overall target achievement in water and sanitation sector. India‟s slumdwelling population rose from 27. Rajasthan has not experienced improvements but worsened in overall health indicators over the last decade.3 million.9 million in 1981 to over 40 million in 2001.000 children under five years of age die each year in India due to sanitation related ailments alone. The city has a total of 183 slums where 31% of its total population resides.5 million people. it was also revealing that most families lived in kuccha houses. Among the urban poor.

The concept of „Primary Health Care‟ facilities should be made available to improve the treatments rates among the urban poor. . The pace of urbanization in India is set to increase. The improved literacy levels among the poor would enable them to know more about their rights and empower them to fight against the bureaucratic red tape to access public services. India will have 41% of the people living in urban areas by 2030 from the present level of 286 million and 28%. and with it. Urban poverty and livelihood Poverty is pernicious and distressing feature of an economy. The rural poor have more institutional interventions in health and nutrition compared to their urban counterparts. There is urgent need for a mission mode approach to combat urban poverty. to assess the tasks at hand. Health and nutrition aspects of is often neglected aspect of the urban policy makers. Education should always be made an integral part of urban development plans. Urban India has a high incidence of poverty despite being hailed as an engine of growth and instrument of globalization. Nearly 13% of the urban poor sufferings from serious ailments do not receive treatment in a timely and affordable manner. and plan for the future. public policy measures for urban India have lacked focus and proper allocation of funds. The upgradation of the skills and training is the basic necessity to revive the livelihoods of the urban poor in a sustainable way. However. Urban planning and development workshop.PROJECT WORK Project comprises ofI. There is thus an urgent need at the national level to document the key issues in urban poverty. Urban poverty is as acute and chronic as rural poverty in India. Eighty-one million people subsist in urban areas on incomes that are below the poverty line. The policy makers of urban development should always accord highest priority to alleviate urban poverty and distress. urban poverty and urban slums.

Door-to-door collection of waste will be carried out through Tri Cycle (TC) & Low Capacity small Vehicles such as Auto Rickshaw (AR) from Residential/ Domestic & Commercial Establishment (Shops). the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. The remaining AR will have provision for directly tipping into Refuse Compactors. And finally the compressed waste is disposed off using following methods of disposal: 1.Solid waste management Solid Waste Management is the collection. Once the Tricycle/ AR are full than it will unload either to AR/ Refuse Compactor (if possible as per micro planning) or goes to secondary collection point and unload the waste into Bins/Containers and waste from these bins/containers shall be transported directly by compatible Dumper Placer/ Refuse Compactor to Processing Site (PS). processing or disposal. Although the collection of waste generated from Street Sweeping and Drain Cleaning & its transportation up to secondary collection point will be carried by Urban Local Body‟s staff but the TC & AR deployed within that particular area shall also be responsible to fetch the collected waste up to SCP (secondary collection point). The management of wastes treats all solid materials and tries to reduce the harmful environmental impacts through different methods. Energy recovery 4. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity. Resource recovery 5. Incineration 3. and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health. Landfill 2. transport. Tricycles & some of AR shall be duly equipped by Six buckets and Handcarts. managing and monitoring of waste materials. Avoidance and reduction methods .

The problems of the lake were first identified . a lot of desilting has been done this summer and seven lakh cubic metres of soil was taken out. The water passes through the sedimentation basin which is made of sand and rubble.Lake Restoration at Jal Mahal Jaipur's Jal Mahal is undergoing a massive restoration effort that includes cleaning the lake. Storm water was the biggest pollutant for the lake. will be used to generate revenue for the company. Jal Mahal Resorts. For years. Only the silt dredged from the lake is being used. the water around it in the Man Sagar lake stinking terribly . Expert says that it will take at least 5-6 years for a project of this scale to break even. This kind of restoration has never been tried in India before. Right next to the basin is a natural wetland with variable depths to allow different kinds of vegetation to come up. Natural processes are used to clean the lake. The deal is taken over by Jal Mahal Resorts. The 310 acres of the lake and the Jal Mahal cannot be used for any commercial purposes but a 100-acre stretch.a major reason why visitors and locals stayed away from this otherwise splendid monument. Being true to nature.it will treat the water and will also be a natural habitat for birds. to create a fully integrated tourism destination with the Jal Mahal and the Man Sagar Lake being the nodal points. Even today there are a few layers of soil left and you can see methane coming out of the bed. no civil work with cement has been done here.two huge nullahs carrying sewage from the city are dumped directly into the lake.now converge. . The idea is to create a tourism hub. It has been lying disused for many years. the bed of the lake has been filled with muck and rubbish which has depleted the lake of its oxygen. has taken the whole area of the lake (310 acres) and around it (totalling 432 acres) on a 99-year lease from the government of Rajasthan. The government has since set up a secondary treatment plant at Brahmpuri but still a lot of the sewage gets to the lake untreated. a destination in itself. a privately owned company. A sedimentation basin has been created at the mouth where the two large nullahs Brahmpuri and Nagtalai . and is owned by N R Kothari. Jal Mahal located where Amber ends and Jaipur starts. After a detailed hydrology report. which is the parent company of Jal Mahal Resorts. restoring the garden and cleaning up the monument. on the outer side of this complex. The complete project will cost over Rs 1. using Jal Mahal as bait. chairman of KGK Enterprises.000 crore (Rs 10 billion). This will serve a dual purpose .

The most prevalent primary employment for the entire population are daily wage labour and house work with around 31% of the adult population engaged in each of the activity. Medical Health Profiling for urban poor people and providing suggestive measures for better health care facilities in the slum area. Lal khand kunda basti . 6. Health profiling of the people residing in slum area. the majority of the population is part of the informal economy. 3. Most of the households contribute to the informal economy. Identification of sanitation conditions and lifestyle of people residing in the bastis. . vegetable vendors. predominant amongst the occupation groups are daily wage labourers. To find out the health expenditures. Only 14% of the Household had a toilet within their houses which with increasing lack of open spaces has created a problem for women. the locality is electrified. 2. As the locality is located near Malviya nagar industrial area it is well connected by a pucca road. Majority (64%) of the Household reported that they „owned‟ the house. In terms of basic amenities. 4. often unskilled earning meager incomes. To arouse adequate consciousness about health and hygiene among urban slums. 5. Around 45% men and 73% women have reported daily wage labour and house work as their primary employment.It has around 1000 households most of which settled around 5-6 years back in the area. To encourage and support programs to integrate traditional and western systems of health care. Providing suggestive measures for improvement of their health and sanitation conditions. rickshaw pullers. PROJECT GOAL – Make basic health services available and accessible to unreached and underprivileged communities with sustainable approach. PROFILE OF PROJECT AREA: Location – The slum is situated in Malviya nagar kacchi basti.II. however inside the locality the by lanes are kuccha. tailors and others. Some of the women are also engaged in salaried jobs primarily as saleswoman. Thus. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSAL: 1. It illustrates that most adult women do not work outside their house.

Selection criteria    This place is near to industrial area. as there have not been any verifiable performance indicators to access this huge program till date.It included discussions with people of basti. We will find out the various problems faced by the poor people and identify major diseases prevailing in that area. .It included various questions regarding personnel hygiene. school. Project design / strategy First we will conduct a survey based on the questionnaire and on the basis of which we will do the analysis. Study of implementation of health and sanitation will be carried out in the selected basti. focused group discussions will be utilized to assess the implementation of the program. Criteria for sampling  Economic status  Gender  Occupation Sample size taken is 10% of total households in the basti Method of data collection   Questionnaire: .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Need Need of this study is to evaluate the outcome of total sanitation campaign in slum areas in terms of its impact on disease reduction and consequently on quality of living in residents of Lal khand kunda basti of Jaipur. There is improper drainage facility and no government authority to collect solid waste. we will give suggestive measures catering to generic and specific needs of slum. Various tools such as Questionnaires. Focused group discussion: . Women and School children. sanitation and safe drinking water. At last. People working in various factories and industries so they are prone to various diseases. Scope A representative sample of Lal khand kunda basti will be selected from the city. community hygiene.

) Age of respondents Age 10% 7% 18-35 36-45 24% 59% 46-55 above 55 2. Because of this. improvement in the health status of community. 1. Specific performance indicators were identified to find out and understand the extent of sanitation coverage. analysis of the collected data was carried out. The tabular and graphical presentations have been made use of to display the results and analysis of data.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS In order to study the impact of health and sanitation in the selected area of the study.) Education Education Primary 39% 37% secondary graduate 20% 4% no education As per the data. their standard of living is very low and thus there is no awareness regarding individual and community development. either the people are primarily educated or not educated at all. etc. .

85% 5.) Income Level Income 33% 36% 31% 0-3000 3000-6000 above 6000 Since the average income in the locality is very low. Food.) Drop outs from school Percentage of Drop outs 27% Yes 73% No There are 27% drop outs and most of them are voluntarily drop outs as they are not willing to study &want to work and earn something for their family. .e.3.) Knowledge about school in nearby area Knowledge about nearby Govt. 15% of people don‟t have the knowledge about the nearby school. Clothing. therefore. or Private school Yes 15% No As per the data. and Shelter and thus the people are deprived of good health and education facilities. 4. they only cater to the basic needs i. This also shows that they are not willing to educate their children.

67% . 7. Private Both Majority of people prefer private clinics over government health centre because of the inefficiency and careless attitude of government doctors and hospital staff.) Access to Health facility Health facility 14% 19% Govt.) Knowledge about Health centre Knowledge about Health Centre 14% Yes 86% no 14% of the population is not aware of the health centre in their locality and thus goes out of locality for treatment. 8. so there is lack of awareness regarding general health and sanitation issues. Also they are not happy with the health facility provided by the local health centre.Prevalent Diseases Viral fever Malaria Stomach/Diarrhea others 23% 10% 18% 49% By the observations we can see that seasonal disease are prevalent in this locality.

A major amount of their income is going in health expenses. 10.) Frequency of visit to doctor Visit to Doctor 16% 38% 30% 16% Once in a week Twice in a month Once in a month once in a quarter 38% of people visit to doctor every week that means they are more prone to diseases.) Monthly Health expenses incurred Monthly health expenses 0-500 1000-1500 23% 21% 500-1000 above 1500 29% Near about 44% of the population are spending more than Rs. There is no easy access to water facility people have to go far from their houses to fetch water. 1000 on health expenses. Thus there is a dire need of health awareness and remedial measures. . because of the careless working attitude of municipal authority.9. 27% 11. thus they are left with very less disposable income to spend on other needs.) Water supply Easy Accessibility to water supply 44% 56% Yes No Water supply is not adequate.

which can either be saved or for other useful purposes. rest of them go for open defecation. 98% 13.12.) Alcoholism Households where Alcoholism is prevelent 2/5th of the total household are spending some part of their income in consuming alcohol. which is one of the major causes for diseases in the area.) Drainage and sanitation Availibility of sanitation facility Yes No 2% Only 2% percent are having sanitation facility in their house. 40% 60% Yes No .

3. 9. 7. People are going for open defecation due to lack of proper sanitation and drainage facilities. Due to many problems in the locality people have chosen alcoholism as one of the way to reduce their mental stress. 6. many children are voluntarily going for drop outs and instead of studying they are working. Majority of the people living in the locality are deprived of the primary and secondary education. Due to low income in the family. Frequency of visits to the doctor is very high in the households. 2. 4. 8. Water supply is not adequate due to sheer negligence of the municipal authority. . People prefer private clinics over government specified health centers due to lack of trust in Government health centers. Around 40% of the income is being spent on health issues which results in very low or no savings.CONCLUSION 1. 5. Income level and standard of living is very low because of which there is no proper health and hygiene facilities.

2. 8. 9.RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 1. Lastly. . Providing cost-effective quality services by skilled professionals. CDC can initiate their self help groups and microenterprises project so that it can provide people with employment opportunities. health camps can be organized catering to their diseases and making them acquainted with preventive measures against various seasonal diseases. Awareness camps can be organized to make people aware about how they can keep their locality clean by following some basic sanitation and drainage methods. 5. Augment urban health infrastructure and services in order to increase access of primary health care services to the urban poor. Providing women and children friendly services with trained professionals. 7. Improve capacity of Municipalities and Municipal Corporations to manage health services better. Partnerships with the private sector is an effective way to improve access to health services in urban slums. 3. Necessary work should be done in the locality to provide them basic primary education by way of education camps etc. 6. 4.

Overall it was a good learning experience and we will undoubtedly take the skills we have learnt and apply them in our future endeavors. etc. Dherawas sewage treatment plant for waste water management.) and apply them within a volunteer organization. We had gone to various places like compost plant for solid waste management. Jal mahal for lake restoration. creating and analyzing surveys. While doing the project of urban development. We learnt a lot during this 7 days workshop.e. Our internship at CDC was an experience that enhanced our understanding about the working of an NGO. we also took part in a workshop held by CDC and Yashda regarding urban planning and development. It was great doing internship at CDC. Working at CDC was an absolute pleasure. We learnt many new skills and took part in this interesting project of urban development of slum people.LEARNINGS ACCUMULATED This is our first experience working with an NGO and as such we have gained incredible insight into how these organizations assess the needs of people and then face the challenges of coming up with a way to meet those needs. This has inspired us to take these new skills (i. . We met a lot of diverse people who helped and made our experience an amazing one. hosting dialogues. We gained valuable experience and learned about areas in which we knew relatively less..

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