Model Question Paper Subject Code: MC0085 Subject Name: Advanced Operating Systems (Distributed Systems) Credits: 4 Marks

: 140

Part A (One mark questions)
1) The early ARPAnet is an example of a distributed computing system based on the ________________. a) minicomputer model b) Workstation model c) Hybrid model d) Processor – pool model

2) In ______________________, if a processor writes the value 100 to the memory location x, this write operation will only change the contents of its local memory and will not affect the contents of the memory of any other processor. a) tightly coupled systems, b) loosely coupled systems c) parallel processing systems d) File management system 3) Identify the distributed computing model from the following statement. In this model, the user's processes need not be migrated to the server machines for getting the work done by those machines. a) minicomputer model b) Workstation model c) Workstation-Server model d) Processor – pool model

4) The name services of DCE include ____________________ a) the Cell Directory Service b) the Global Directory Service c) the Global Directory Agent d) a,b and c 5) IPC stands for________________ a) Integrated parallel communication b) Intermediate process call d) Internal program call c) Inter process communication 6) In the case of____________, message remains in the sender’s address space until the receiver executes the corresponding receive. a) no buffering b) single message buffering c) Unbounded-capacity buffer d) Finite bound buffer 7) Which buffering strategy is used for implementing synchronous communication? a) Single message buffer b) Unbounded - Capacity buffer c) Finite-Bound Buffer d) All can be used. 8) What do you mean by 0-reliable level in multicast communication? a) Multiple responses is expected from any receivers. b) No response is expected from any receivers. c) Multiple responses is expected from multiple receivers. d) A multicast message is received by all the members of the group or none. 9) Identify the server: This type of server generally remains in existence indefinitely. It is shared by many clients. Servers of this type are created and installed before the clients use them. a) Instance-per-call-servers b) Persistent Servers c) Non-Persistent Servers

d) Semantic server 10) The ______________ unpacks the call receipt messages from local RPC Runtime and makes a perfect local call to invoke the appropriate procedure in the server. a) server Stub b) server c) client d) client stub 11) Transparent RPC mechanism refers to : a) Existance of multuple computer visible and a provide a single system image to its users. b) It runs the program transparently. c) It is a technique to shift the program to other computer. d) It is technique in which local procedures and remote procedures are indistinguishable to programmers. 12) IDL stands for_____________________ a) Integrated Data library b) Isolated Data Library c) Interface Data Language d) Interface Definition Language 13) In_________________ model, when a process does a release access, the contents of all the modifications are not immediately sent to other nodes but they are sent only on demand. a) Release Consistency Model b) Lazy Release consistency model c) Weak Consistency Model d) Processor Consistency Model 14) DSM stands for______________ a) Direct shared memory b) Direct system memory c) Distributed shared memory d) Distributed system memory 15) Having data belonging to two independent processes in the same page is called____________. a) buffering b) blocking c) message-passing d) false sharing

16) _____________refers to the block size of the DSM system, i.e. to the units of sharing and the unit of data transfer across the network when a network block fault occurs. a) Granularity b) Coherence c) Abstraction d) Synchronization 17) Most accurate global time is based on oscillations of the ______________ a) Cesium-130 atom b) Cesium-133 atom c) Cesium-136 atom d) Cesium-139 atom 18) The Network Time Protocol is similar to _______________algorithm in that synchronization is also performed using time servers and an attempt is made to correct for communication latencies. a) Banker's b) Divide and conquer's c) Cristian’s d) Xdelta's 19) Two clocks are said to be synchronized at a particular instance of time if the difference in time values of the two clocks is less than some specified constant. The difference in time values of two clocks is called _________________. a) Interrupt b) Clock Frequency c) Clock Ticks d) Clock Skew 20) In ________________________ each node periodically sends a message to the time server. a) Passive Time Server Centralized Algorithm b) Active Time Server Centralized Algorithm c) Global Averaging Distributed Algorithms d) Localized Averaging Distributed Algorithms 21) Load balancing algorithms in ______________ class use the processor and process characteristics to allocate processes to nodes. a) static b) dynamic c) deterministic d) probabilistic

22) A process is already split into pieces, called________________. a) tasks b) program c) processors d) routines 23) In ____________ location policies a random node is polled to check its state and the task is transferred if it will not be overloaded; polling is continued until a suitable node is found. a) threshold b) shortest c) bidding d) pairing 24) The algorithm should be scalable i.e. ____________________________.

a) the system should not enter a state in which nodes spend all their time migrating processes or exchanging control messages without doing any useful work. b) the system should be able to handle small and large networked systems. c) the algorithm should not be affected by the crash of one or more nodes in the system. d) the process assignment decisions should be based on the current load of the system and not on some fixed static policy. 25) A process is ____________________

a) a program in Execution. b) an asynchronous activity. c) the 'dispatchable' unit. d) All a,b,c 26) In case of good process migration mechanism, _____________ means failure of any node other than the one on which the process is running should not affect the execution of the process. a) robustness b) efficiency c) transparent d) interference 27) Process migration involves__________________

a) selection of a process to be migrated b) selection of destination system or node c) actual transfer of the selected process to the destination system or node d) all a,b,c 28) _____________________typically contains temporary data such as subroutine parameter, return address, and temporary variables. a) Current value of Program Counter b) Value of the variables c) The process stack d) A data section 29) In case of ____________________transparency a file can transparently move to another server.

a) location b) migration c) replication d) concurrency 30) _______________, as a feature of good distributed file system, clients should be able to continue working if a file server crashes. Likewise, data must not be lost and a restarted file server must be able to recover to a valid state. a) Scalability b) Reliability c) Flexibility d) Fault tolerance 31) In the case of____________ , changes to an open file are only locally visible. a) session semantics b) immutable files c) atomic transactions d) None of the above. 32) In case of ________________the server automatically copies files to other servers after the files are written.

a) explicit replication b) implicit replication c) lazy file replication d) group file replication 33) A _______________in a distributed system is a string of bits or characters that is used to refer to an entity. a) name b) attribute c) identifiers d) addresses 34) __________________ manage the name spaces and binds an object to its location. a) Name Server b) Name agent c) Context d) Name resolution 35) Find out the characteristics of System-oriented names: a) They are large integers or bit strings. b) They are of the same size c) Generally shorter than human-oriented names and are easy for manipulations like hashing, sorting and so on. d) All a,b,c 36) Object’s location is found by _________________ a) Broadcasting b) Encoding Location of objects within UID c) Searching creator node first and then broadcasting d) All a,b,c 37) An unauthorized party inserts counterfeit objects into the system is called_________________ a) interruption b) interception

c) fabrication d) modification 38) Wiretapping to capture data in a network is an example of ________________ a) interruption b) interception c) fabrication d) modification 39) In case of modification an unauthorized party not only gains access to but tampers with an asset. This is an attack on ____________________. a) availability b) confidentiality c) integrity d) authenticity 40) The _____________ are based on modification of the original message in some manner, or on creation of a false message. a) Passive attack b) Release of message content attack c) Traffic analysis attack d) Active attack

Part B (Two mark questions)
41. __________ transparency deals with masking from the users' partial failures in the system where__________ transparency means that users should not need or be able to recognize whether a resource (hardware or software) is remote or local.

a) Location, Failure b) Access, Location c) Access, Failure d) Failure, Access
42. State whether the following statements are true / false: 1) Name transparency refers to the fact that no matter which machine a user is logged onto. 2) The aim of migration transparency is to ensure that the movement of the object is handled automatically by the system in a user-transparent manner.

a) 1.True, 2.True

b) 1. True, 2. False c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False
43. Find out the important issues to be considered for the design of an IPC protocol based message passing system from the following list: 1) Acknowledgement by the sender 2) Handling system crashes or link failures 3) Handling of buffers 4) Structural Information

a) 1,2,3 b) 2,3,4 c) 1,3,4 d) 1,2,3,4
44. What do you mean by blocking semantics of communication primitives?

a) A communication primitive is said to have blocking semantics if its invocation does not block the execution of its invoker. b) A communication primitive is said to have blocking semantics if its invocation blocks the execution of its invoker. c) A communication primitive is said to have blocking semantics if a a test primitive is used by the receiver to check the buffer status. d) A communication primitive is said to have blocking semantics when a timeout value is used with a blocking receive primitive to prevent a receiving process from getting blocked indefinitely if the sender has failed.
45. Choose the correct sequence for the following case: The RPC model is used for transfer of control and data within a program in the following sequence: 1) The procedure body is executed in a newly created execution environment that includes copies of the arguments given in the calling instruction. 2) For making a procedure call, the caller places arguments to the procedure in some well-specified location. 3) After the procedure’s execution is over, control returns to the calling point, possibly returning a result. 4) Control is then transferred to the sequence of instructions that constitutes the body of the procedure.

a) 1--> 2--> 3--> 4 b) 2--> 4-->1-->3 c) 2--> 4--> 3--> 1

d) 2--> 1--> 3--> 4
46. State whether the following statements are true/false: 1) RPCs consume less time (100 to 1000 times) than local procedure calls. 2) Remote procedure calls are more vulnerable to failure than local procedure calls.

a) 1.True, 2.True b) 1. True, 2. False c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False
47. Fill in the blanks: 1) Under ______________replication and migration strategies for DSM design, only one copy of each block of the shared memory is in the system and its location is fixed. 2) Under _____________strategy blocks are replicated, and blocks do not migrate to other nodes.

1) Non-replicated, non-migrating blocks, 2) Non-replicated, migrating blocks 1) Non-replicated, migrating blocks, 2) Replicated, migrating blocks 1) Replicated, migrating blocks, 2) Replicated, non-migrating blocks 1) Non-replicated, non-migrating blocks, 2) Replicated, non-migrating blocks
48. State whether the following statements are true or false: 1) A major disadvantage of non-replication strategies is lack of parallelism because only the processes on one node cannot access data contained in any given block at any given time. 2) In case of Write-Invalidate Protocol, all copies of a data block except one are invalidated before a write can be performed on it.

a) 1.True, 2.True b) 1. True, 2. False c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False
49. Fill in the blanks: a) In ____________ approach for implementing mutual exclusion in distributed systems, the decision making for mutual exclusion is distributed across the entire system. i.e. all processes that want to enter the critical section cooperate with each other before reaching a decision on which process will enter the critical section next. b) A_________________ is a special type of message that entitles its holder to enter a critical section.

a) Token – Passing, token

b) Distributed Approach, token c) Distributed Approach, interrupt d) Centralized Approach, token
50. State whether the following statements are true/ false: 1) Lamport’s logical clocks can be implemented as a software counter. 2) The main advantage of Lamport’s clocks is that anyone can deduce causal dependencies from time stamps.

a) 1.True, 2.True b) 1. True, 2. False c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False
51. Find out the goals of a good task assignment algorithm. 1) Minimize IPC cost 2) Efficient resource utilization 3) Quick turnaround time 4) A low degree of parallelism 52. State whether the following statements are true/ false: 1) An advantage of Sender-Initiated location Policy is that sender can transfer the freshly arrived tasks, so no preemptive task transfers occur. 2) Under Sender-Initiated Policy, lightly loaded nodes search for heavily loaded nodes from which tasks may be transferred.

a) 1.True, 2.True b) 1. True, 2. False c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False
53. A good process migration mechanism must possess _________________________ 1) Transparency 2) Minimal interferences 3) Portability 4) Robustness 5) Consistency

a) 1,2,3,4,5 b) 3,4,5 c) 2,3,4 d) 1,2,4
54. State whether the following statements are true/ false: 1) System calls should be location-independent. 2) Interprocess communication should not be transparent.

a) 1.True, 2.True b) 1. True, 2. False c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False
55. Fill in the blanks: 1) Files and directories are stored on a collection of trusted servers called _________________. 2) Using _________________would turn NFS more secure, but it has high entry costs.

a) Vice, cryptography b) Vice, Kerberos c) volumes, kerberos d) volumes, Diffie-Hellman public key cryptography
56. State whether the following statements are true/ false: 1) Ceph is a scalable, low-performance research DFS. 2) Files in Coda are organized in organizational units called records.

a) 1.True, 2.True b) 1. True, 2. False c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False
57. State whether the following statements are true/ false in case of Encoding Location of objects within UID: 1) An object is fixed to one node throughout its life time. 2) Object naming is location transparent.

a) 1.True, 2.True b) 1. True, 2. False

c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False
58. ___________________ approach of object locating mechanism is very efficient if high degree of locality is exhibited in locating objects from a node and it is flexible since it can support object migration.

a) Broadcasting b) Searching creator node first and then broadcasting c) Using forward location pointers d) Using hint cache and broadcasting
59. A _________________ consists of a digital signature generation algorithm, along with a method for formatting data into messages which can be signed, where a _________________________is a method for verifying that a digital signature is authentic.

a) digital signature verification algorithm, digital signature scheme b) digital signature signing process , digital signature verification algorithm c) digital signature scheme, digital signature verification process d) digital signature signing process, digital signature verification process
60. State whether the following statements are true / false: 1) Mandatory access controls access based on the identity of the requestor and on access rules stating what requestors are allowed to do. 2) Role-based access controls access based on the roles that users have within the system and on rules stating what accesses are allowed to users in given roles.

a) 1.True, 2.True b) 1. True, 2. False c) 1.False, 2. True d) 1. False, 2. False

Part C (Four mark questions)
61. Match the followings: Ser I : 1) Fault avoidance 2) Fault tolerance 3) Fault Detection and Recovery Set II:

A) It is a method of improving reliability deals with the use of hardware and software mechanisms to determine the occurrence of a failure and then to correct the system to a state acceptable for continued operation. B) It is the ability of a system to continue functioning in the event of partial system failure. C) It deals with designing the components of the system in such a way that the occurrence of faults is minimized. a) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C b) 1. C, 2.B, 3.A c) 1. B, 2.C, 3. A d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B
62) State whether the following statements are true / false as the distributed operating system components: 1) The shell is the only part of an operating system that a user cannot replace or modify. 2) Caching of data at clients' sites frequently improves overall system performance. 3) System performance may also be improved by increasing internode communication costs.

a) 1. True, 2.True, 3. True b) 1. True, 2.True, 3. False c) 1. False, 2.False, 3. False d) 1. False, 2.True, 3. False
63. Match the followings: Set I: 1) A four message reliable IPC 2) Three message reliable IPC 3) Two message reliable IPC Set II: A) In this case, the kernels of both the client and server will continue to retransmit after timeout until an acknowledgement is received from both. B) In this method there is no requirement either from the client or the server for receiving acknowledgements from each other. C) In this method, the server may use the concept of piggybacking, wherein it may attach the acknowledgement to the client with a message in the form of a reply to the client.

a) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C b) 1. A, 2.C, 3.B c) 1. B, 2.C, 3. A d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B
64. State whether the following statements are true/ false:

1) An idempotent operation produces the different result without any side effect no matter how many times it is executed. 2) The most elementary form of message-based interaction is many-to-many communication in which a single-sender process sends a message to a single receiver process. 3) A closed group is one in which only the members of the group can send a message to the group.

a) 1. True, 2.True, 3. True b) 1. True, 2.True, 3. False c) 1. False, 2.False, 3. True d) 1. False, 2.True, 3. False
65. State whether the following statements are true/false: 1) Call-by-Reference is possible only in a distributed shared memory system. 2) Possibly or May-be Call Semantics are the strongest semantics. 3) A remote invocation operation may cause another remote invocation.

a) 1. True, 2.True, 3. True b) 1. True, 2.False, 3. True c) 1. False, 2.False, 3. True d) 1. False, 2.True, 3. False
66. State whether the following statements are true or false: 1) Distributed Shared Memory systems are costly to build than tightly coupled multiprocessor systems. 2) In message passing systems, passing complex data structures between two different processes is difficult. 3) DSM provides a complex abstraction than the message passing model.

a) 1. True, 2.True, 3. True b) 1. True, 2.False, 3. True c) 1. False, 2.False, 3. True d) 1. False, 2.True, 3. False
67. Match the followings: Set I: 1) Sequential consistency 2) Strict consistency 3) Processor Consistency Model Set II: A) This model is proposed by Goodman.

B) All processes in the system observe the same order of all memory access operations on the shared memory. C) Each read operation returns the most recently written value.

a) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C b) 1. C, 2.B, 3.A c) 1. B, 2.C, 3. A d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B
68. Match the followings: Set I: 1) Mutual exclusion 2) No Starvation 3) Deadlock Set II: A) If every process that is granted the resource eventually releases it, every request must be eventually granted. B) A process that has been granted the resource must release it before it can be granted to another process. C) It can be defined as the permanent blocking of a set of processes that either compete for system resources or communicate with each other.

a) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C b) 1. B, 2.A, 3.C c) 1. B, 2.C, 3. A d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B
69. State whether the following statements are true/ false: 1) The resource allocation graph is a directed graph. 2) A safe state is one in which there are multiple sequences of resource allocations to processes that does not result in a deadlock. 3) Each process in the system has a unique priority number.

a) 1. True, 2.True, 3. True b) 1. True, 2.False, 3. True c) 1. False, 2.False, 3. True d) 1. False, 2.True, 3. False
70. Match the following load balancing algorithm: Set I:

1) Centralized 2) Distributed 3) Non-cooperative Set II: A) In these algorithms, individual entities act as autonomous entities and make scheduling decisions independently of the action of other entities. B) Each node is equally responsible for making scheduling decisions based on the local state and the state information received from other sites. C) System state information is collected by a single node.

a) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C b) 1. C, 2.B, 3.A c) 1. B, 2.C, 3. A d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B
71. State whether the following statements are true/ false: 1) Periodic broadcast avoids fruitless messages. 2) In case of altruistic priority assignments rules Local processes are given higher priority than remote processes. 3) Pairing approach of location policies tries to increase the variance in load between pairs of nodes.

a) 1. True, 2.True, 3. True b) 1. True, 2.False, 3. True c) 1. False, 2.False, 3. True d) 1. False, 2.False, 3. False
72. Match the followings: Set I: 1) Process Migration in Heterogeneous Systems 2) Process Migration Merits 3) Threads Set II: A) A popular way to improve application performance through parallelism. B) Reducing the average response time of the processes C) Use external data representation mechanism to handle this.

a) 1. C, 2.B, 3.A

b) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C c) 1. B, 2.C, 3. A d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B
73. Match the followings: Set I: 1) Google file system 2) Andrew File System 3) Coda Set II: A) It offers the same API as Unix, implements Unix semantics for processes on the same machine, but implements write-on-close semantics globally. B) It supports disconnected operation, which works as follows. C) It is a distributed file system developed to support a system with very different requirements than traditionally assumed when developing file systems.

a) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C b) 1. C, 2.B, 3.A c) 1. B, 2.C, 3. A d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B
74. Match the followings: Set I: 1) Static mounting 2) Automounting 3) Manual mounting Set II: A) Client uses the mount and unmounts command to to mount and unmounts remote server’s directories to client’s name space. B) Allows the servers’ directories to be mounted and unmounted on a need basis. C) This is done by running a shell script at the time the client machine is booted.

a) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C b) 1. C, 2.B, 3.A c) 1. B, 2.C, 3. A d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B
75. Match the followings:

Set I: 1) Denial of Service 2) Masquerade 3) Replay Attack Set II: A) Caused when an unauthorized entity pretends to be another entity. B) These attacks make an attempt to prevent legitimate users from accessing some services, which they are eligible for. C) A user captures a sequence of events, or some data units, and resends them.

a) 1. A, 2.B, 3.C b) 1. C, 2.B, 3.A c) 1. B, 2.A, 3. C d) 1. C, 2.A, 3.B

Answer Keys
Part - A Q. No. Ans. Key Q. No. Ans. Key Q. No. Part - B Ans. Key Q. No. Part - C Ans. Key

1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 D 6 A 7 A 8 B 9 B 10 A 11 D 12 D 13 B 14 C 15 D 16 A 17 B 18 C 19 D 20 A

21 C 22 A 23 A 24 B 25 D 26 A 27 D 28 C 29 B 30 D 31 A 32 C 33 A 34 A 35 D 36 D 37 C 38 B 39 C 40 D

41 D 42 C 43 A 44 B 45 B 46 C 47 D 48 C 49 B 50 B 51 A 52 B 53 D 54 B 55 B 56 D 57 B 58 D 59 B 60 C

61 B 62 D 63 B 64 C 65 B 66 D 67 C 68 B 69 B 70 B 71 D 72 A 73 D 74 B 75 C

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