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Exam 3: Energy, Photosynthesis & Respiration
Part I: Critical thinking questions 1. What does fermentation and alcohol production have to do with cell respiration? 2. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? 3. What are the stages of aerobic respiration? 4. If yeast cells are used to make a carbonated soft drink, would alcohol still be produced? 5. Why is oxygen important in cellular respiration…or… why do we breathe? In other words, what is the molecular need for oxygen in cellular respiration? 6. Is energy created during cellular respiration? 7. ATP is produced during cellular respiration. However, it is also required. Explain. 8. What is the function of the 3 (or 4) stages of respiration? 9. How is ADP converted to ATP? 10. Explain chemiosmosis. 11. Explain substrate-level phosphorylation. 12. Why is acetyl Coenzyme A an important molecule in cellular respiration? 13. Oxidative phosphorylation involves redox reactions. Explain. 14. Why do we breathe? (The answer is not… “to live”… or…”because otherwise we would die”.) 15. Why do we respire? 16. What is the difference between respiration and breathing? 17. How do plants get ATP from glucose? 18. How do animals get ATP from glucose? 19. If glucose is burned (literally), the energy in it can be released as heat and light. What happens to the energy in glucose when glucose is “burned” in aerobic cellular respiration? 20. What organelles can produce ATP? (Hint: Think about both plants and animals.) Part II: Multiple Choice Questions 1) The term anaerobic means A) without bacteria. B) without CO2. C) without ATP. D) without O2 E) with O2. 2) How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration? A) They store it in molecules of carbon dioxide. B) They produce glucose. C) The energy is coupled to oxygen. D) They produce ATP. E) None of the choices are correct. 3) Which one of the following is true? A) Cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. B) Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria. C) Photosynthesis occurs in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. D) Photosynthesis occurs in mitochondria and cellular respiration occurs in chloroplasts. E) Neither cellular respiration nor photosynthesis occurs in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. 4) Respiration _____, and cellular respiration ______. A) uses glucose . . . produces glucose B) produces glucose . . . produces oxygen C) is gas exchange . . . produces ATP D) produces ATP . . . is gas exchange E) produces glucose . . . is gas exchange 5) Which of the following are products of cellular respiration? A) energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide B) glucose and carbon dioxide
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D) makes carbon dioxide 10) During redox reactions A) a substance that gains electrons is said to be oxidized. B) is converted to NAD+ by an enzyme called dehydrogenase. 13) During cellular respiration. . E) glucose. and reduction is the __________. Page 2 of 11 . B) electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance. . C) releases heat. an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is A) oxygen. loss of protons D) gain of oxygen . B) is a single chemical reaction with just one step. D) consumes glucose. B) water. . 11) Oxidation is the __________. loss of electrons B) loss of electrons . the energy in glucose A) is used to manufacture glucose. gain of electrons C) gain of protons . A) gain of electrons . C) dehydrogenase. B) Cellular respiration converts all of the energy in glucose into high-energy ATP bonds. gain of oxygen 12) In biological systems. . . . NADH A) is chemically converted into ATP. . E) All of the choices are true. C) The heat produced during cellular respiration is only a tiny fraction of the chemical energy available in a glucose molecule. 8) The overall equation for the aerobic cellular respiration of glucose is A) CO2 + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2 + ATP + Heat B) C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O + ATP + Heat C) C6H12O6 → Lactic acid + ATP + Heat D) C6H12O6 CO2 + Ethyl alcohol + ATP + Heat 9) During cellular respiration. D) ATP. E) produces water. loss of oxygen E) loss of oxygen . . D) Cellular respiration converts the kinetic energy of glucose into chemical energy. . .Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 C) oxygen and energy to make ATP D) oxgyen and carbon dioxide E) oxygen and glucose 6) Which of the following statements is/are true about the energy yields from cellular respiration? A) Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline. C) the loss of electrons from one substance is called reduction. 7) Which one of the following statements is false? Cellular respiration A) produces carbon dioxide. D) protons from one molecule replace the electrons lost from another molecule. B) is used to make ATP C) becomes stored in molecules of ammonia. E) None of the choices are correct.
E) None of the statements are true. B) the citric acid cycle. 14) During cellular respiration. the citric acid cycle. D) delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule. and the citric acid cycle B) glycolysis. C) oxidative phosphorylation. the citric acid cycle. E) the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. E) does not occur in plant cells. 17) During which phase of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place? A) the citric acid cycle B) "grooming" of pyruvic acid C) glycolysis D) oxidative phosphorylation E) glycolysis and the citric acid cycle 18) Which one of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic organisms? A) oxidative phosphorylation B) chemiosmosis C) glycolysis D) the citric acid cycle E) None of the choices are correct. glycolysis. C) does not occur in yeast cells. C) Electrons release large amounts of energy each time they are transferred from one carrier to another. Scientists suspect that the drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit A) glycolysis. oxidative phosphorylation. and oxidative phosphorylation C) the citric acid cycle. Which of the following is a true statement about this process? A) Molecular oxygen is eventually oxidized by the electrons to form water. E) None of the choices are correct. and glycolysis D) oxidative phosphorylation. 21) Pyruvate Page 3 of 11 . B) takes place in virtually all cells. and the citric acid cycle 16) A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. D) the formation of alcohol. 15) Which one of the following is the correct sequence of stages in cellular respiration? A) glycolysis.Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. oxidative phosphorylation. 19) Which of the following is a result of glycolysis? A) a net loss of two ATPs per glucose molecule B) conversion of FAD to FADH2 C) conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds D) production of CO2 E) conversion of NADH to NAD+ 20) Glycolysis A) does not occur in bacterial cells. Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 C) is reduced to form NAD+. D) does not occur in animal cells. and glycolysis E) oxidative phosphorylation. D) The carrier molecules are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. B) Electrons move from carriers that have more affinity for them to carriers that have less affinity for them. electrons move through a series of electron-carrier molecules.
23) During cellular respiration. B) a molecule of carbon dioxide. D) FADH2. Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 A) is the molecule that starts the citric acid cycle. E) NADH. These molecules A) together contain less chemical energy than was found in the original glucose molecule. B) is the end product of oxidative phosphorylation. C) pyruvic acid. D) More than one of the choices is correct. dinitrophenol blocks the passage of electrons through electron carriers. E) forms at the end of glycolysis.Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. glucose is converted into two pyruvic acid molecules. D) of inadequate ATP production. B) water will not be produced and dehydration will occur. B) makes the membrane of mitochondria leaky to H+ ions and prevents a concentration gradient from building up. 28) Cyanide differs from dinitrophenol because cyanide A) is an electron transport blocker and dinitrophenol is a reaction uncoupler. A) pyruvate is oxidized while a molecule of NAD+ is reduced to NADH. 27) Rotenone is a poison commonly added to insecticides. D) ATP. 26) In the electron transport chain. D) is the end product of chemiosmosis. which is released as CO 2) ) . C) inhibits the production of ATP by inhibiting ATP synthase. C) ATP. C) is a six-carbon molecule. D) is highly toxic to human cells and dinitrophenol is nontoxic. C) each lose a carbon atom. Insects exposed to rotenone will die because A) high levels of fermentation products will build up. 22) Between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. E) ATP. most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in A) FADH2 B) CO2. E) None of the choices are correct. E) an oxygen atom. E) None of the choices are correct. B) are oxidized. 24) The end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except A) CO2. D) are each converted into a two-carbon molecule joined to a coenzyme A molecule. C) a carbon atom is added to make a four-carbon compound. dinitrophenol causes mitochondrial membranes to become less permeable to H+ ions. the final electron acceptor is A) a molecule of water. C) pyruvic acid. E) None of the choices are correct. Page 4 of 11 . C) anaerobic respiration can't occur. B) NADH. B) coenzyme A is cleaved off of the four-carbon compound. E) All of the choices are correct. D) ADP. 25) At the end of the citric acid cycle.
C) is always 38 ATP. D) an excess of ATP that builds up during vigorous exercise. E) lactic acid is produced during anaerobic respiration. C) lactic acid is produced during glycolysis. E) Each FADH2 molecule yields 2 ATP molecules and each NADH molecule generates 3 ATP molecules. D) H+ ions serve as the final electron acceptor. E) are converted into glucose molecules. B) energy is generated by coupling exergonic reactions with other exergonic reactions.Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. B) increases as the supply of oxygen increases. 36) When a fatty acid is used for aerobic respiration. 31) During chemiosmosis A) a concentration gradient is generated when large numbers of H+ ions are passively transported from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the mitochondrion's intermembrane space. electrons are stripped from the amino acids and passed to the electron transport chain. it first hydrolyzes fats to A) glycerol and fatty acids. 30) The energy yield from the complete aerobic breakdown of a single molecule of glucose A) is less than the yield from anaerobic respiration. 34) In yeast cells. Page 5 of 11 . the proteins A) are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and converted to acetyl CoA. which is fed into glycolysis. E) energy is released as H+ ions move freely across mitochondrial membranes. C) ATP is synthesized when H+ ions move through a protein port provided by ATP synthase. D) can vary with the mechanism used to shuttle NADH electrons into the mitochondrion. D) Glycolysis and the "grooming" of pyruvate together produce more NADH per glucose molecule than does the citric acid cycle. E) None of the choices are correct. 33) Muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at least partly due to A) the presence of lactic acid produced during fermentation in muscle cells. B) glucose is produced during photosynthesis. C) Less than 50% of the chemical energy available in glucose is converted to ATP energy. B) Oxidative phosphorylation resulting from one glucose molecule may yield 32-34 ATP molecules. C) are hydrolyzed to glycerols and then converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. E) is equivalent to the yield from alcoholic fermentation. 32) Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized? A) aerobic respiration B) alcoholic fermentation C) lactic acid fermentation D) anaerobic respiration E) All produce approximately the same amount of ATP per molecule of glucose. C) the accumulation of alcohol from anaerobic respiration. 35) When proteins are used as a source of energy for the body. B) are converted mainly into intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle. D) alcohol is produced during the citric acid cycle. B) the large amount of carbon dioxide that builds up in the muscle. A) alcohol is produced after glycolysis. which enters the citric acid cycle. D) are hydrolyzed to their constituent amino acids. which are fed into glycolysis. Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 29) Which of the following statements about the energy yield of aerobic respiration is false? A) Most of the ATP derived during aerobic respiration results from oxidative phosphorylation.
39) The summary equation for photosynthesis is A) CO2 + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2 + ATP + Heat B) C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O + ATP + Heat C) CO2 + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2 D) C6H12O6 CO2 + Ethyl alcohol + ATP + Heat 40) Which one of the following statements is false? A) Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide that was removed from the atmosphere millions of years ago. 37) The conversion of CO2 and H2O into organic compounds using energy from light is called A) photorespiration. B) glycolysis. E) heterotrophs. D) NADH and ATP. 41) Photoautotrophs A) produce organic molecules from inorganic molecules. B) carbon dioxide and ATP. E) fatty acids and sugars. C) include only the green plants. C) glycerol and amino acids. E) None of the choices are correct. water. D) consumers. D) fermentation. C) chemosynthetic autotrophs. B) make sugar by using organic raw materials. D) sugars and amino acids.Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. D) eat other organisms that use light energy to make food molecules. Page 6 of 11 . C) Plants require carbon dioxide. E) Burning wood contributes more to acid rain than burning fossil fuels. B) Willows pack more fuel and power than most native trees. E) FADH2 and NADH. and sunlight to make glucose. 44) Producers A) sustain themselves without eating. Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 B) sugars and glycerol. C) photosynthesis. B) photoautotrophs. 42) Which of the following is not an example of a photoautotroph? A) algae B) kelp in an underwater forest C) cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems D) herbs like thyme and basil E) fungi 43) Autotrophs that utilize light as their energy source are A) fungi. D) All of the food for people can be traced back to photosynthetic plants. E) cellular respiration. 38) By-products of cellular respiration include A) carbon dioxide and water. C) oxygen and heat.
. . . C) vacuoles. E) stroma. C) manufacture the biosphere's food supply. carbon dioxide is oxidized to form sugar while in respiration. 48) Where is chlorophyll found in a plant cell? A) cytoplasm B) thylakoid membranes C) stroma D) matrix E) cristae 49) Which of the following is true concerning the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis and cellular respiration? A) In photosynthesis. 46) The oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from B) chlorophyll. nucleus Page 7 of 11 . E) None of the choices are correct. carbon dioxide is reduced to form sugar while in respiration.Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. sugar is reduced to form carbon dioxide. . . stroma C) thylakoid membranes . stroma D) cytoplasm . E) All of the choices are correct. 50) What is the source of energy that provides the boost for electrons during photosynthesis? A) ATP B) light C) cellular respiration D) electromagnetism E) None of the choices are correct. B) mesophyll. thylakoid membranes B) cytoplasm . B) Photosynthesis involves only oxidations while respiration involves only reductions. 51) The light reactions occur in the _____ while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ______ A) stroma . . Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 B) make organic food molecules from simple raw materials. . C) stomata. . C) Photosynthesis involves only reductions while respiration involves only oxidations. 47) In the chloroplast. . E) None of the choices are true. D) thylakoid. D) are autotrophs. D) stroma. D) water. B) thylakoids. 45) Chloroplasts contain disklike membranous sacs arranged in stacks called A) cristae. thylakoid membrane E) stroma . sugar is oxidized to form carbon dioxide. E) grana. . D) In photosynthesis. C) carbon dioxide. sugars are made in a compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called the A) matrix.
B) powers the process of glucose synthesis by supplying the cell with ATP. Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 52) Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis? A) ADP. NADP+. E) provides the cell with a supply of NADPH molecules. NADP+. NADPH. CO2 E) ATP. 58) Of the following wavelengths of light. CO2 D) glucose. NAD+ C) ATP. NADP+ B) ATP. NADPH. C) occurs during the light reactions. O2 B) glucose. CO2 D) glucose. ADP. E) All of the choices are correct. one of its electrons____ A) gains energy. NADP+. B) Chlorophyll b primarily uses green light as the source of energy for photosynthesis. D) Chlorophyll a absorbs green light. 56) Sunlight is a type of __________ energy. D) uses noncyclic electron flow to capture energy in glucose. C) is put into an unstable state. CO2 E) ADP. 60) Clusters of light-gathering antenna pigments in a photosystem__ Page 8 of 11 . 55) The Calvin cycle involves all of the following except: A) addition of electrons and protons to carbon. ADP. B) formation of waste products in the form of CO2 C) reduction of carbon. C) Green helps plants blend into their environment as a sort of camouflage. which would you expect to be least absorbed by chlorophyll a? A) blue B) yellow C) green D) red 59) When a pigment molecule absorbs a photon. O2 C) ATP. O2 54) Carbon fixation A) occurs when carbon and oxygen from CO2 are incorporated into an organic molecule. NADPH. A) potential B) kinetic C) nuclear D) stored E) electromagnetic 57) Why are (most) plants green? A) Chlorophyll a reflects green light. E) All photosynthetic pigments are colored green. D) is raised from the ground state. ADP. O2 53) Which of the following are produced during the Calvin cycle? A) glucose. NADP+ . ADP.Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. E) regeneration of NADP+. D) carbon fixation. NADPH. B) becomes excited.
. clusters of chlorophyll a. 68) The ultimate source of all the food we eat and the oxygen we breathe is Page 9 of 11 . . . . 62) As a result of the cascade of electrons down the electron transport chains of the light reactions. C) production is associated with events taking place on the inner mitochondrial membrane. D) are found in the roots of plants. . B) do not absorb photons. E) All of the choices are correct. 63) The electrons lost from the reaction center of photosystem I are replaced by electrons from A) ATP. D) NADPH is oxidized to NADP+ E) NADP+ is reduced to NADPH. B) is analogous to the production of ATP in mitochondria. C) requires the input of NADPH. . chlorophyll b. E) All of the choices are correct. the chemiosmotic production of ATP A) requires oxygen. B) are inputs to the photosystems. . and carotenoid pigments function most like A) an electrical generator. . D) an antenna. chloroplasts transform ___ energy into the chemical energy of ATP. D) carbon dioxide. 61) In a photosystem. . 64) In photosynthesis. kinetic 66) Photosynthetic organisms derive their carbon from A) hydrocarbons. B) CO2 C) H2O D) the top of the electron transport chain. .Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. light . A) NADPH is reduced to NADP+ B) NADP+is oxidized to NADPH. . . food . 65) Mitochondria transfer ___ energy from ___ to ATP. E) break down H2O. . C) pass energy to the reaction center. light D) nuclear . . light . nuclear C) chemical . C) a windmill. 67) ATP and NADPH A) play a role in glucose synthesis by plants. light . . Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 A) absorb electrons. . E) the bottom of the electron transport chain. . E) a spring. D) is done by the Calvin cycle. B) carbon monoxide. A) food . . food E) light . chemical B) food . B) a propeller on a motorboat. food . C) methane. . D) are products of the Calvin cycle. . C) water is formed.
H+ 73) Plant cells A) lack mitochondria and chloroplasts. . to convert glucose into starch. grana . ATP D) H+ to power of ((+) ) . . C) passes electrons to photosystem I. . D) glycolysis.Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy. . C) it involves an electron transport chain. E) Yes. E) ATP. 72) In photophosphorylation. D) lack mitochondria but have chloroplasts. A) H+. 71) Photophosphorylation differs from oxidative phosphorylation in that A) regeneration of ATP is driven by a flow of protons through an ATP synthase. E) cellular respiration. stroma . H+ C) H+. but only in CAM plants. E) They allow the plant to fix carbon more efficiently in dim or cool conditions. . E) All of the choices are correct. D) energy is stored in the form of a proton concentration difference. to supply the plant with the ATP needed to power various cell activities. E) its enzymes are membrane-bound. D) H2O. . chloroplasts produce ATP and glucose. stroma . . C) photosystem I. . 75) Do photosynthesizing plants have mitochondria? A) Yes. in which carbon is fixed at night. 69) The electrons lost from the reaction center of photosystem II are replaced by electrons from A) CO2 B) NADPH. B) Yes. . . . C) have mitochondria but do not have chloroplasts. . B) have mitochondria and chloroplasts. 74) What is the main advantage of the C4 and CAM photosynthesis strategies over the C3 strategy? A) They allow the plant to avoid photorespiration by producing a four-carbon sugar in place of glucose. D) has P700 at its reaction center. . stroma . . electrons B) electrons . D) Yes. . B) anaerobic metabolism. . H+ E) electrons . . but they are used mainly to produce certain Krebs cycle intermediates. which are needed for the synthesis of compounds such as amino acids. Page 10 of 11 . dry conditions. . . B) is reduced by NADPH. C) No. B) the final electron acceptor is NADP+ and not oxygen. C) They allow the plant to fix carbon more efficiently under conditions of low atmospheric CO2 D) They help the plant conserve water and synthesize glucose efficiently under hot. 70) Photosystem II A) does not have a reaction center. C) chemiosmosis. generating a concentration gradient of __________. energy from electron flow is used to transport ______ from the ______to the thylakoid compartment. Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 A) photosynthesis. grana . B) They make it possible for the plant to use the Calvin cycle at night and during the day. .
Photosynthesis & Respiration Fall 2006 Page 11 of 11 .Biol 101 Exam 3: Energy.