Lecture 9

NDT of Composite Materials

Introduction to Composite Materials NDT methods for composites

Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment

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COMPOSITE MATERIALS
What are composites?
Definitions & Classifications

Why are composites used instead of metals, y p ceramics, or polymers?
How do composite materials differ from other materials? What are the constituent materials, and how do their properties compare?

What are some typical applications?

Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment

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Materials perspective

Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment

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Definitions and Terms of Composites
COMPOSITE

REINFORCEMENT (DISPERSED PHASE)

MATRIX

Composites are combinations of two (or more) materials, usuallly:
the reinforcing (dispersed) phase,
fibers, sheets, or particles, and is embedded in the other materials called

the matrix phase.

Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment

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Create a hybrid or a composite by:
Combining any material with any other material to take advantage g of their mutual properties Design the material to meet the requirements!

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Classification

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Matrix phase
Structures cannot be made from fibres alone the high properties of fibres are not realisable in practice
A matrix is required to: hold reinforcement in correct orientation protect fibres from damage transfer loads into and between fibres

Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment

http://www.carlosant ulli.net/aim2001.pdf 7

Reinforcing Phase
Reinforcing phase is added
to strengthen weak materials to toughen brittle materials

Reinforcing phase
Particles Whiskers Fibres (Continuous Long Short) (Continuous, Long, Flakes, sheets Woven assemblies
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Matrices Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 9 Fibres Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 10 5 .

The downside is that such composites are often more expensive than conventional materials Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 12 6 . correctly it combines the strength of the reinforcement with the toughness of the matrix to achieve a combination of desirable properties not available in any single conventional material.Structural composites Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 11 Properties of Composites If the composite is designed and fabricated correctly.

Composites provide a means of achieving good specific properties.Addition of properties: GLASS + POLYESTER = GRP (strength) (chemical resistance) (strength and chemical resistance) Unique properties: GLASS (brittle) + POLYESTER (brittle) Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment = GRP (tough!) 13 Specific Strength/Stiffness Specific properties are properties that have been divided by the material density. This chart is useful for identifying materials for components which require high stiffness and/or strength combined with low weight. Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 14 7 .

continuous property spectrum .Why are composites used in engineering? Weight saving (high specific properties) Corrosion resistance C i i t Fatigue properties Manufacturing advantages: .anisotropic properties Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 15 Why aren’t composites used more in engineering? High cost of raw materials Lack of design standards Few ‘mass production’ processes available Properties of laminated composites: .low cost tooling Design freedoms .novel geometries .low through-thickness strength .low interlaminar shear strength No ‘off the shelf’ properties .performance depends on quality of manufacture Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 16 8 .reduced parts count .

Applications Aerospace Energy Automobile Recreation Structures Marine M i Electronics Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 17 Composites in airplanes Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 18 9 .

Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 19 Airbus .composites Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 20 10 .

carbon? Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 21 Offshore oil industry: flexible pipes Composite Armor Layers (Wellstream I ) (W ll t Inc.longer life. lower deck loads Corrosion resistance .greater depths.) Advantages of Polymer Composite material in flexible pipes 30% weight reduction . more fluid options Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 22 11 .Energy: Composite – wood. glass.

Composite Leaf Springs Leading car and truck designers are achieving significant weight and cost savings by building leaf springs in composites. These weight savings save costs by providing the driver or operator with a greater loading capacity and/or reduced fuel consumption. reduced emission. Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 24 12 . Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 23 Automotive. lower weight and demanding cost reductions.Automotive The automotive industry has long recognized the potential of advanced composites and carbon fiber to help it meet the increasing need f i i i d for improved safety. and gaining performance advantages f d i i f d t from th material. the t i l Composite leaf springs weigh up to 60% less than their steel counterparts. d f t d d i i improved fuel consumption.

stiffness weight reduction. provides the safest yet most efficient framework through a combination of stiffness.Motor sport The composite carbon body . Combination of stiffness. Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 25 Structures: FRP BRIDGE ENCLOSURES Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 26 13 . lightness and strength. impact/damage resistance and occupant crash protection. shell. which forms the basis of most modern day racing cars.Automotive . corrosion resistance.

Carrillion School of Engineering & Built Environment 28 14 .Structures: FRP MOSQUE DOMES PHOTOS COURTESY OF NORTHSHORE COMPOSITES Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 27 GLASGOW SCIENCE CENTRE FRP OBSERVATION CABIN & CARBON FIBRE MAST Dr A De Silva Photo .

Sports Equipment Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 29 NDT of Composites Materials/Structures NDT is an essential part of composite manufacturing and usage Requires trained and experienced inspectors inspectors. NDT methods are used in: Pre-production for process development During production to provide process information and ensure part conformance In service to maintain Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 30 15 .

to provide process information and ensure part conformance Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 32 16 .NDT Utilisation .Airplane Product Life Cycle Pre-production for process development Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 31 NDT Utilisation .Airplane Product Life Cycle During production .

Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 34 17 .Airplane Product Life Cycle In service to maintain a safe fleet Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 33 Composite failure modes Delaminations: Separation of the layers of material in a laminate. gas or vacuum within a solid material. A fracture. Crack: An actual separation of material visible on opposite surfaced of the part. Porosity: A condition of trapped air. either p y local or covering a wide area. and extending through the thickness. Disbond/Unbond: An area within a bonded interface between two adherents in which adhesion failure or separation has occurred.

Defects in Composites Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 35 Defects in laminates Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 36 18 .

Sandwich panel defects Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 37 NDT methods for composites Visual Inspection: Using the eye alone or in conjunction with aids Ultrasonic Testing: Most Common NDT Method for the inspection of Composites Radiography: Bond Testing: Single sided Bond Testing utilizing Pitch Catch or Resonance testing modes Tap Testing: Oldest and simplest method of Bond Testing. Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 38 19 .

NDT Methods Traditional Methods Eddy current Radiography Ultrasonic Penetrant Magnetic particle Non-traditional Methods Thermography Shearography Bond Testing Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 39 Eddy current Advantages Highly portable Moderate cost Immediate results Sensitive -to small imperfections Minimum part preparation required Disadvantages Suitable for inspection of conductive materials only Surface must be accessible S f tb ibl to probe Usually no permanent record Manual tests require high degree of operator skill to properly use test equipment Defect Types: Cracks. conductivity. corrosion. coating measurement Seldom used for composite inspection Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 40 20 .

foreign material.Radiography . internal damage. water ingestion Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 42 21 . internal damage. water ingestion Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 41 Non-film Radiography Advantages Lower recurring costs Shorter cycle time Elimination of chemical processing Portability Disadvantages Radiation safety hazard (reduced from film) Higher initial cost Proper interpretation of results may require high degree of operator skill Defect Types: Voids.Film Advantages Well proven p Permanent record of test results Minimum part preparation required Disadvantages Radiation safety hazard y Moderately expensive Wet-chemical processing required to develop Proper interpretation of results may require high degree of operator skill Defect Types: Voids. foreign material. core conditions. core conditions.

Non-Film Radiography Real-time (a. Flat Panel Detectors: Consist of a coated Thin Film Transistor (TFT) array that captures and converts XRay energy into electronic signals Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 43 Real Time Radiography Principle of Operation Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 44 22 .k.a. radioscopy) Digital Radiography Storage Phosphor: Use a flexible “imaging plate” to produce a latent image that must be subsequently scanned by a laser and converted into a video image Linear Diode Array: Uses an x-ray sensitive photodiode array in place of film.

5 bits usable) = limited sensitivity Most applications require magnification 45 Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment Real Time Radiography Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 46 23 .Real Time Radiography Advantages Inexpensive Well established Instantaneous “realtime” (dynamic) imaging Disadvantages Analogue device Detector blooming (washout) Limited bit depth (Typically 4.

Linear Diode Arrays – Principle of Operation Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 47 Linear Diode Arrays Advantages Robust design Fast High dynamic range No blooming Digital imaging Can be tailored to application Disadvantages Requires movement between part and detector Resolution can be limited Low kV applications only Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 48 24 .

ray LDA image of y honeycomb structure with excess resin Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 49 Thermography Methods Liquid Crystal and Electronic Thermography Pulsed Thermography (Thermal Wave Imaging) Ultrasonic Thermography (ThermoSonix) Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 50 25 .Linear Diode Arrays X.

Liquid Crystal Thermography Principle of Operation Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 51 Electronic Thermography Principle of Operation Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 52 26 .

Liquid Crystal and Electronic Thermography Advantages Real time imaging Non contact (electronic) Remote inspection Low non-recurring costs Disadvantages Not effective for panels with metal skins Liquid crystal method requires intimate contact Defect Types: Water in honeycomb structure Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 53 Liquid Crystal and Electronic Thermography Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 54 27 .

Liquid Crystal and Electronic Thermography Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 55 Pulsed Thermography -Principle of Operation Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 56 28 .

Pulsed Thermography Advantages Rapid.New applications being approved and developed Disadvantages High equipment cost Application base still limited Defect Types: Moisture in composites. Rapid wide area technique Real time imaging. Noncontact. metal skin to metal doubler disbonds Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 57 Pulsed Thermography Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 58 29 . remote inspection Versatile .

Pulsed Thermography Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 59 Ultrasonic NDT Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 60 30 .

Defect Types: Delaminations.Pulse Echo Ultrasonics Advantages Single sided inspection Identifies defect depth relative size of defect Reasonably high resolution depending on equipment Sensitive to a wide range of g foreign materials Disadvantages May be difficult to resolve defects near surface defects May be ineffective with porosity May not be sensitive to off angle defects May not be effective with sandwich structures. porosity (loss of back) Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 61 Ultrasonic scanning Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 62 31 . foreign material.

C Scan porosity Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 63 Pulse Echo Ultrasonics Automated Pulse Echo Scanner for 777 empennage skins Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 64 32 .

porosity (equipment dependant) foreign materials (equipment dependant) Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 65 Through Transmission Ultrasonics Automated Thru-transmission Ultrasonic Scanner for 737 Engine Cowls Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 66 33 .Through Transmission Ultrasonics Advantages Complete part inspection with single scan Large dynamic range available Relatively fast inspection Irregular part contours Disadvantages Requires access to both sides of part Does not identify defect type or depth Not as sensitive to foreign materials as other methods Defect Types: Delaminations and voids.

mechanical mode and are used for single.80 kHz) Mechanical impedance Eddy Sonic Velocimetric methods Audible Tap test (resonance) Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 68 34 .500 kHz) Ultrasonic resonant transducer Low frequency (7 .Through Transmission Ultrasonics Through Transmission Scan Image Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 67 Bondtesters Bondtesters operate in the acoustic.sided bond inspections Bondtesters are classified by their operating frequency High frequency (100 .

Resonant Transducer Bondtesters – Principle of Operation Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 69 Resonant Transducer Bondtesters Advantages Single sided inspection Inspect an area of a part at one time Fast data acquisition Disadvantages Limited defect types Limited sizing capability Defect Types: Delaminations Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 70 35 .

Resonant Transducer Bondtesters Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 71 Velocimetric Bondtesters Velocimetric bondtesters measure stiffness changes of the structure through ultrasonic mechanical vibrations. The transducer produces a flexural (bending) wave mode Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 72 36 .

interply delaminations Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 73 Velocimetric Bondtesters Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 74 37 .Velocimetric Bondtesters Advantages Single sided inspection Inspect an area of a part at one time Fast data acquisition Disadvantages Limited defect types Poor sizing accuracy Defect Types: Skin to core disbonds.

Tap Testers – Principle of Operation Tap testing is a process of evaluating a structure by lightly tapping (structure vibrated) with a metallic disk. or an automatic tap tester instrument. The taping excites structural t ti t t t i t t Th t i it t t l resonances that will vary with how the energy is transferred into the part. interply delamination Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 76 38 . rod. Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 75 Tap Testers Advantages Low Cost Relatively simple to use Disadvantages Somewhat unreliable Limited to defects 3 to 4 plies deep Limited to defects larger than 1 inch diameter Results affected by environmental noise Results affected by hearing ability of inspector Defect Types: Skin to core disbonds.

… Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 78 39 ..g.Acoustic Emission Testing Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 77 Activity of AE Sources in Structural Loading AE Sources Non-metallic inclusions Cracks Frequency range 100 – 500kHz Activity Primary activities Permanent changes in material ( P t h i t i l (crack growth) k th) Secondary activities E. impacts. crack surface rubbing Noise in AE testing Friction.

one hit may produce one or many counts. MARSE. it usually needs to be combined with amplitude and/or duration Dr A De Silva measurements to provide quality information about the shape of a signal. E. refers to the number of pulses emitted by the measurement circuitry if the signal amplitude is greater than the threshold. Counts. MARSE is also sensitive to the duration and amplitude of the signal but does signal. Duration. It is useful as the energy of the emission can be determined. This parameter is related to the propagation of the wave between peak the source of the acoustic emission event and the sensor. this parameter relies upon the magnitude of the signal and the acoustics of the material. N. Depending on the magnitude of the AE event and the characteristics of the material. MARSE is regularly used in the measurements of acoustic emissions. Signals with amplitudes below the operatordefined. is the greatest measured voltage in a waveform measured in decibels (dB). is the time difference between the first and last threshold crossings. sometimes referred to as energy counts. Like counts (N). R. minimum threshold will not be recorded. An important parameter in AE inspection because it determines the detectability of the signal. While this is a relatively simple parameter to collect.AE Signal Features Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 79 AE Signal Features Amplitude. is the measure of the area under the envelope of the rectified linear voltage time signal from the transducer. is the time interval between the first threshold crossing and the signal peak. Rise time is used for qualification of signals and as a criterion for noise filter. A. D. not use counts or user defined thresholds and operating frequencies. Used to identify different types of sources and to filter out noise. Rise time. School of Engineering & Built Environment 80 40 .

AE Source Location Techniques Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 81 AE Source Location Techniques ∆T approach Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 82 41 .

Good and Ambiguous Locations Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 83 Lamb Wave Modes in Plates Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 84 42 .

AET Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 85 AE signals Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 86 43 .

permanent sensor mounting for process control. and no need to disassemble and clean a specimen specimen. only active features (e. AE testing usually provides an immediate indication relating to the strength or risk of failure of a component. Secondly. However. AET deals with d S dl d l ith dynamic processes. or changes. Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 87 Laser Shearography The basic principles of the measurement method are interferometry and correlation techniques Loading: Thermal Shearographic head (Laser + optical system) Stimulating load Laser beam Defect Object Image processing Birefringent element Polarizer Image processing CCD Lens Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment Illuminated object 88 44 . Another drawback of AE stems from loud service environments which contribute extraneous noise to the signals. it is possible for flaws to go undetected altogether if the loading is not high enough to cause an acoustic event. AE tests are often performed on structures while in operation. and overall acceptability of a part. i a i h in material. AE systems can only qualitatively gauge how much damage is contained in a structure. depth. Furthermore. Other advantages of AET include fast and complete volumetric inspection using multiple sensors. For successful applications. as this provides adequate loading for propagating defects and triggering acoustic emissions. crack growth) are highlighted. Unfortunately.g. other NDT methods (often ultrasonic testing) are necessary. signal discrimination and noise reduction are crucial. The ability to discern between developing and stagnant defects is significant. instead of supplying energy to the object under examination. For quantitative results about size.AE Summary Acoustic Emission differs from other NDT techniques: Firstly. AET simply listens for the energy released by it.

The rotor measurements show a dis-bond (left).Laser Shearography The defects become visible on measuring their inhomogeneous deformation gradients. a crack (right) and a dis bond structural transition (centre). Compare fringe density and distribution. Depending on the spatial distribution of deformation the defect or the structure itself can be characterised. Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 89 Shearography-Capabilities DAMAGE TYPE DETECTED – Adhesive craking under impact Cross section Adhesive cracks Skin Honeycomb Top view Visible impacted area Multiple adhesive cracks Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 90 45 .

Shearography .Capabilities Example of vacuum loading Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 91 Comparison with Ultrasonics Impacted Monolithc (CFRP) Displacement field US C-Scan Corrosion Detection Aluminium Alloys Displacement field CF C-Scan Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 92 46 .

Numerical acquisition give rise to efficient follow up. New type of damage are now detectable without opening the structure… Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 93 Selecting the NDT method Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 94 47 . Quicker than most of the NDI methods.Benefits of Shearography Contact-less Global method. Working on all type of materials and structures. Good sensitivity. Real time inspection.

NDT Summary Dr A De Silva School of Engineering & Built Environment 95 48 .

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