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• Where does Branding fit in business processes? • What is the difference between Marketing Strategy and Brand Strategy ? • Why brands? Why not create uniquely different products/services? • What makes Consumers Choose Brands ? • How is Brand Equity linked to Customer ?
– What is Customer Based Brand Equity
• How to express or manifest the Brand? • How to Select a Brand Name & Brand Logo?
• Brand Marketing is not about products, services or processes. • It‟s about understanding & satisfying consumer needs, profitably.
• Products & Processes are only the means, the end is the consumer need.
“In our factories we make products, in the market we sell hope.” - Charles Revson, Founder of Revlon “I clothe egos.” - Versace
Brand is a Two-way Pact
“In return for your preference and loyalty, we will give you a shortcut to the best purchase decision. We also understand that if we screw up, the deal‟s off!”
What is the difference between Marketing Strategy and Brand Strategy ?
I. Corporate Objectives & Brand Portfolio
II. Marketing Objectives
III. Brand Strategy
Communications Strategy Product and Pricing Strategy Channel and Distribution Strategy
IV. Marketing Execution & Monitoring
What makes Consumers Choose Brands ? ?? .
better appearance. work. leisure. embarrassment. pride. trend setting. doubts. praise. worry. acquire/collect things.. comfort. hospitable. social. popularity. SEEK… health. emulate idols. satisfy curiosity.Types of Needs / Benefits People want to …. creative. win affection/love. improve themselves. prestige. DO… SAVE… time. time. money. advancement. security. self-confidence. money. enjoyment. . appreciate beauty. influential. status. discomfort. up-to-date. BE… good parents. efficient. risks. resist domination. acceptance. express their individuality.
Macho . Soap with cold cream. Sexy. Shape. intangible. tangible. Soap gets you clean. perceived. Macho. real. Price. – Non-functional discriminator : Indulgent. Size. functional or non-functional. glamorous soap. A camera takes photographs. Soap with Olive Oil. Gentle. hardworking soap. Glamorous. Flavour. A pen writes. • Functional benefits : physical.Brand Benefits What tool to use to measure Brand Benefits? • Motivators : The reason why people buy a product type. • Non-functional benefits : emotional/sensory. Colour. • Discriminator : Difference between brands. – Functional discriminator : Soap with deodorant. Caring.
• Brand knowledge. • Consumer response to marketing. It is a bridge between Reflection PastPresent-Direction for Future How does Branding add value ? .Power of the brand = what resides in the mind of the consumers • Differential effect.
Value through branding. . because they represent familiar attributes • Benefit assurance. – Brands offer an implicit assurance of a particular customer experience because of their meanings. Branding influences both sides of the value equation • Search costs – Brands reduce search costs by clearly identifying the product as different from others • Psychic costs – Brands can reduce the psychic costs associated with purchase.
How good are its functions? 4)Brand as a symbolic device . 2)Brand as a differentiating device 3)Brand as a functional device .makes people feel as if they are part of something special or unique .Consumer‟s connect with Branding 1)Brand as a sign of ownership : who owns the product rather than the attributes of the product itself.
? 6)Brand as a shorthand device cut through all the information being processed 7)Brand as a legal device 8)Brand as a strategic device -Identify the strong characteristics and attributes. to maintain and further its success .-25)Brand as a risk reducer .
within which they buy. Brands may remain. • • Brand Task : Enter „repertoire‟ and stay in it. Stimulate „higher share‟ of repertoire purchases. . enter or exit this shortlist over time. A brand ‘repertoire’.Brand Repertoire Theory : The Shortlist Principle • People don‟t always consider only one brand in a category. They have a shortlist of acceptable brands (3 to 4). over competing brands.
edu/chandon/personal_page/docum ents/case-note_brand%20audit-inspection%20copy.Brandrepublic.pdf .Useful references • www.com • www.com • www.insead.Interbrand.com • http://faculty.Brandchannel.
5. Aaker‟s model Consumer based Brand Pyramid Kapferer‟s model (Brand Identity Prism) Branding Onion Brand Molecule Model . 3.Models to explain Brand as a concept 1. 4. 2.
Aaker‟s Model Extended Core Brand Essence • • • • Brand as Product Brand as Organization Brand as Person Brand as Symbol Value Proposition (Emotional/Rational/Self-expressive) Credibility (Support / Proof / Story ) .
2. Keller‟s Consumer based Brand Equity Model .
Sub-Dimensions of CBBE Pyramid LOYALTY ATTACHMENT COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT QUALITY CREDIBILITY CONSIDERATION SUPERIORITY WARMTH FUN EXCITEMENT SECURITY SOCIAL APPROVAL SELF-RESPECT PRIMARY CHARACTERISTICS & SECONDARY FEATURES PRODUCT RELIABILITY. & EMPATHY STYLE AND DESIGN PRICE USER PROFILES PURCHASE & USAGE SITUATIONS PERSONALITY & VALUES HISTORY. HERITAGE. EFFICIENCY. DURABILITY & SERVICEABILITY SERVICE EFFECTIVENESS. & EXPERIENCES CATEGORY IDENTIFICATION NEEDS SATISFIED .
The Kapferer Brand Identity Prism PICTURE OF SENDER Physique Personality EXTERNALISATION Relationship INTERNALISATION Culture Reflection Self-Image PICTURE OF RECIPIENT .3.
How to express brand? …. PERCEPTION = VALUE . Brand manifestations (Hofstede’s Culture Model) Symbols Role Models Rituals Core Value Consumer must not think that all brands in the category are the same..
Strive to achieve harmonized EXPERIENCES! .. Systems .Slogan Logo and typeface Colours Music Themelines BRANDING COMPONENTS Name Stationery and business cards Offices & Outlet decor Equipment & Vehicles Dress-code etc. Processes ….
Brand name spectrum Company as brand name Strong company endorsement Weak company endorsement Individual brand name .
) • Do you expect a long-term position in the market? – If yes choose something unique and memorable • Is the name irritating or insulting to any market segment? . then finally to Westin. a neologism (made-up word) such as Kodak or Exxon • Will this product be a bridgehead to a line of products? – Avoid being a limitation in the future (Western Hotels changed name to Western International.Choosing a Brand name -Guidelines • What is the brand's role or purpose? – To aid in positioning. choose a brand name with meaning (Holiday Inn). – For identification.
• The ultimate brand builders are employees and operations. • A brand should depict a process (McDonald‟s.e. . i. Amazon). performance. not marketing communications. • A great brand triggers emotions (Harley-Davidson).A Brand Must be More Than a Name • A brand must trigger words or associations (features and benefits). • A great brand represents a promise of value (Sony).
Building the Identity .
Brand Management Process .
Strategic Brand Management Brand Vision Brand Values & Brand Positioning Brand Marketing objectives Brand Marketing strategies Brand Marketing Programs Implementing brand marketing program Measuring brand performance Growing and sustaining brand equity .
What is Brand Equity ? • Brand Equity the added values endowed to product or service. Brand Awareness Brand Image / Brand salience Awareness Brand Experiences / Brand Users Brand loyalty .
Community. Brand Awareness A good brand . provides positive consumer responses . .Conceptual Model of Brand Equity . . . Price. Communication and Distribution Programs . . . Marketspace Analysis . and benefits both target customers and firm Customer Benefits Depth Breadth Confidence Loyalty Wraparounds Satisfaction Brand Associations Core Product/ Service Strength – Relevant – Consistent Valence Uniqueness – Memorable – Distinctive Firm Benefits Reduced marketing costs Increased margins Opportunity for brand extensions Source: Keller (1996). . Product. . . Strategic Market Research Group. Aaker (1996).
How is Brand Equity linked to Customer? Brand Relationship (What about you and me?) Brand response (What about you?) Brand Meaning (what are you?) Brand Identity (Who are you?) Resonance Judgment Brand Performance Feeling Brand Imagery Brand Salience Brand awareness .
How is Brand Equity Model linked to Brand Management Model? Brand Relationship (What about you and me?) Brand response (What about you?) Brand Meaning (what are you?) Brand Identity (Who are you?) Equity & Valuation Implementation of Strategy Strategy for Brand Identity & Audit .
symbol. messaging) Identifying the brand elements to be highlighted Phase V: Launch Building the right plan for making the new/refreshed brand identity come alive .Brand Development Phases Phase I: Discovery Examining the brand to determine what can it sustain ? Phase II: Research/Brand Analysis Examining what the organization stands for and evaluating its current perceptions to find competitive opportunities for the brand Phase III: Definition Determining what the brand should represent Phase IV: Expression (logotype. color.
value nets . portable and persistent.personal. • How to foster customer participation and collaboration on an equal level with the company thus enrich the brand engagement • How to create strategic brand communities.From Managing Brand to Managing Brand Interactions – Issues for Brand Manager • How to maximize customer autonomy and freedom. through the brand thus deliver value the customer can use • How to make the brand a “second skin” to customers.
Assessing Brand Health Brand Report Card Brand Audit .
Managing Luxury Brands .
Luxury Brands – Typology basis Nature of Production • Signature brands – – the most expensive brands in their category. Availability in a market • Old Luxury brands • Old luxury brand extensions • Accessible super premium • Mass-tige • Supreme brands – – produced in limited series. one of a kind. often hand crafted • High End brands – – High quality mass production . – personal creations.
Private labels as brands .
• about 25% cheaper • Perceived as delivering comparable product quality. FACTS !! • account for about 15% of U. • established through – minimal expenditures in product R&D.S. – imitative packaging. • Real appeal is lower prices. – little or no advertising. .store brands aka private label v/s "name" brands. • trade on the categorybuilding efforts of branded products. providing lower cost alternatives to name brands. – simply shoved onto store shelves. retail sales and up to 40% of retail sales in European countries.
Category partner: Together. Cheap me-too: imitates the brand leaders to generate a “rub-off” effect 3. the manufacturer and retailer drive total category growth Increasingly.Key categories of Private labels 1. Budget alternative: is the store‟s value brand 2. manufacturers are manufacturing for these private label offers to ensure product differences are maintained. Genuine competitor: valid branded offer in its own right may have a position of strength where manufacturer brands are weak or the market is fragmented 4. .
flavors adapted to different cultures eco-sustainability etc . Child-safe. • Establish an ownable style of communication. – Increasing consumer concerns about healthy living. evokes and enriches its content..Some pointers to manage Private labels • Supporting the packaging with consistent information. products for diabetics. and quality • Focus on the brand‟s verbal identity. product safety. convenience information. – choosing photography that not only helps to identify the product but also suggests. • Associate with emotional issues of product selection – – – – Universal design. nutritional facts both in and outside the purchase space. guidelines.
Heritage Brands .
Different types of brands • • • • • • • Product Brands Service Brands E-brands Media Brands Not-for-profit Brands Nation Brands Government Brands • • • • • • Global Brands Organization Brands Heritage Brands Luxury Brands Private Labels Top-of-Mind Brands .
And brands create differentiation and distinction. and memorable story . They produce a choice. • Heritage is born in. a classic film or an individual successfully attaches themselves to one of these stories. And when they are in our minds and hearts. a university. meaningful. time to make the brand a part of their lives. is that they have had the time to build a meaningful and relevant past a heritage. and nurtured. Customers need time to buy and use the brand. When a consumer product. The common stories of our heritage live in our minds and hearts. over time. It speaks of a traditional way of life that is of value to present and future generations. and a history. what they all have in common. social class. • Brands express and share their heritage in the form of a narrative . they gain entrance into our minds and hearts. they take on the stature of a brand. It speaks of inheritance. • Heritage speaks of status.a brand story. and time to endow the brand from one generation to the next. character. and of a common history. relevant.a crisp.Heritage Brands • What makes these brands great. You cannot be chosen unless you are a choice . of shared experiences.
• Heritage brand may or may not maintain umbrella brands • Entry into new Market Segments: heighten life span: • Overhauling yet retaining Originality and Consistency • They can appeal to more than one Age Cohort or Generation. • Heritage Brands: Command Pioneer advantage .
SERVICES BRANDING & CORPORATE BRANDING .
Goods Tangible Services Intangible Services Branding Implications •Service brands cannot be patented •Service brands cannot be inventoried •Service brands cannot be readily displayed or communicated •Pricing service brands is difficult •Service brands face difficulties delivering on promises •Service brand quality uncontrollable factors depends on many Standardised Heterogeneous Inseparability Simultaneous production Non-perishable Perishable •Customers participate in the service brand transaction •Employees may affect the service brand outcome •Customers may affect one another in the service brand transaction •Satisfaction of service brand is influenced by expected and perceived behaviour of service provider and customer • Mass production of service brands is difficult •Service brands face challenges to build and sustain image and reputation to retain customers •Fluctuating demand can cause problems for branding services .
SERVICE BRANDING MODELS Aaker’s brand identity model: Brand as Product Brand Brand as Organisation Brand as Person Brand as Symbol Brand Proposed services branding model: Brand as Product(5P’s) Brand as Process Brand as Person Brand as Symbol Brand as Organisation .
LIVING THE CORPORATE BRAND Enacted VISION Throug h CULTURE Staff Behaviour Interact s with Stakeholder Satisfaction OBJECTIVES CORPORATE BRAND CONCEPT (Character) Interact s Systems with BRANDSPHERE Monitor then Revisit To identify the gaps between actual and intended brand promise .
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