# Emilian Popa

1- Temperature Control Basics

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Temperature control for a mold refers to a control of receiving and releasing heat on the mold. In this connection knowledge of heat conductivity is important for consideration of heat reception and heat dissipation. Thus the basics if thermal conductivity will be reviewed as follows. 1.1 Heat transfer When there is a certain temperature difference in an object or between objects, heat will transfer to keep thermal equilibrium in a system. Heat will be transferred from high side to low side and the transfer modes are classified as follows: Heat transfer: Heat conduction Convection heat transfer (Heat delivery) Radiation heat transfer.

Above three occur in a complex manner, but one normally dominates others. 1.1.1 Heat conduction

Characteristics of heat conduction is the conductor does not move. Thus heat transfer in a solid object is considered to be the result of genuine heat conduction. To a certain extent heat conduction occurs in gas and liquid but the conductivity there is prohibitively small in comparison with that of solid body. Transfer of heat is made from high temperature area to low temperature area and the transfer rate is proportional to the temperature gradient and the cross section area of heat passage. This is called Fourier’s Heat Conduction Law and the formula is shown below (Fig 1-1-1).

In the case of heat transfer from resin to mold in the molding process, both heat conduction and heat convection occur simultaneously during the injection process but heat conduction dominates during cooling process under holding pressure after the injection process. Heat transfer from cavity surface t wall surface of cooling water pipe is made under genuine heat conduction because it is a heat transfer in a solid body.

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Incidentally, heat conductivity of S50C steel, which is often used as mold material, is about 46 kcal/m•h•℃, while heat conductivity of HDPE, which has rather high heat conductivity among resins, is 0.4 kcal/m•h•℃ and that of GPPS, lower heat conductivity among resins, is about 0.1 kcal/m•h•℃. The ratio to S50C is 1:115 and 1:460 respectively (Fig. 1-1-1.2).

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1.1.2

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Convection heat transfer (Heat delivery)

Looking into heat transfer between liquid and solid, effect of heat transfer along with movement of liquid is much greater than heat conduction. It is called convection heat transfer or heat delivery. The heat transfer rate is proportional to temperature difference between solid and liquid and transfer area between the same. The formula is shown below:

Difference between heat delivery and heat conduction is that in the heat delivery heat transfers along with moving liquid media and heat transfer coefficient α is not a specific constant for material like λ (formula 1.3.8.1) and varies depending upon flow condition. It is considered that there exists a stable film of liquid (or gas), named boundary film, between solid and flow media. This film is not subject to convection heat transfer but conduction heat transfer only. As heat conductivity of flow medium is small in comparison to solid, this boundary film can be treated as a kind of insulation layer made of flow medium (Fig. 1-1-2.1). Accordingly if a flow makes the film thinner, the heat transfer coefficient α becomes greater and the heat transfer rate becomes faster. Generally in the case of slow flow velocity, the flow forms so called laminate flow in which liquid is not mixed. In this case the boundary film is thicker. On the other hand the film is thinner if the flow is under turbulent flow with high velocity where liquid is well mixed. As explained, heat transfer coefficient α is the one having a boundary film in between and influenced substantially by the film thickness. Thus it may be called as boundary film heat transfer coefficient. It is important how to determine α in the convection heat transfer. One way is to determine α on the basis of Nusselt Number (Nu) which represents magnitude of heat transfer between solid and flow medium.

Convection heat transfer can be classified by two. One is natural convection heat transfer and another is enforced convection heat transfer. Heat discharge from mold to atmosphere is mainly influenced by natural convection heat transfer together with radiation heat transfer to be explained later. While, heat transfer from mold (internal wall of cooling water tube) to cooling medium (water or oil) is mainly affected by enforced convection heat transfer. -3-

Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

1.1.3

Thermal energy from the sun is brought to the earth through a space without any transfer media. This is because heat transfers as electro magnetic wave as same as light and electric wave. This sort of heat transfer is called radiation heat transfer or simply radiation. Any material radiates heat unless its temperature is 0°K (-273℃) in absolute temperature. The radiation is mutually absorbed, reflected or passed trough. The heat transfer rate in radiation is proportional to difference of the 4th power of absolute temperature (Kelvin’s temperature). It is shown below (Fig. 1-1-3.1).

Proportion constant k includes various elements. This k is not given based on physical property like heat conductivity (λ) but calculation like heat transfer coefficient (α). In the case of radiation from a mold, a formula is given below considering object a (mold) is surrounded by object b (air) and radiation area ratio (AA/AB) is negligibly small.

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Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

In the formula (1.1.3.2), let us see the influence to heat flow due to radiation of mold temperature by varying the temperature TA like 40℃, 80℃, and 120℃. Room temperature TB is assumed to be 25℃. Result shows when TA changes to 2 times and 3 times, resultant Q changes 4.5 times and 9.3 times. This tells you that radiation transfer cannot be ignored if temperature difference between room temperature and heated object temperature is big when the object is exposed to atmosphere.

1.2 Received heat of a mold In terms of received heat (QI) of a mold, the biggest source must be from resin (QA). Other received heat from hot runner manifold and hot tip area (QC) in the case of hot runner mold (Fig. 1-2.1).

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Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Let’s take up received heat from resin (QA). When W (kg/h) is resin weight injected per hour, received heat (QA) can be calculated by applying following formula.

In the formula (1.2.2), temperature at mold separation (TR) can be replaced by thermal deformation temperature to assure the temperature in the center of the thickest portion of the product to be lower than the heat distortion temperature. In this case, try to set the temperature 10~30℃lower than the heat distortion temperature to entertain safety consideration. A part of the formula {CP(TP-TR) +L•C} can be roughly estimated by resin material, when the value is represented by total heat amount (Q), formula (1.2.2) can be shown as below.

Table 1-2.1 shows estimate values of Q by resin material in the safe direction (estimating q in the bigger side). 3) Released heat from a mold If there is no temperature control device on a mold (natural radiation only), released heat from a mold (QO) should consist of transferred heat to platen of injection machine (QD) and radiated heat to atmosphere (QE) (Fig. 1-2.2).

QD is calculated as heat passing through composite wall surfaces, but estimation of heat resistance between mold clamping plate and platen of injection machine is very difficult. QE is considered as a mixture of convection and radiation heat transfer. It is influenced by molding conditions such as mold temperature, airflow, mold open time, etc.

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

1.3 Heat to be removed from a mold -8-

Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

A mold reaches to thermally balanced condition through heat receiving and heat releasing process. Thus theoretically speaking, molding can be made without temperature control device as long as the balanced temperature is suitable for the plastic molding. However it is advised not to precede molding without temperature control device because a long time will be needed before reaching to a balanced condition and moreover mold temperature cannot be stable being influenced by environmental disturbances. If receiving heat is more than releasing heat and thermal balanced point is higher than be required temperature range, cooling device is needed. On the other hand, if receiving heat is less than releasing heat and balanced temperature point is lower than required temperature range, heating device should be arranged (Fig. 1-3.1). Here in this section, condition QO< QI, in other words, condition required to cool off a mold, will be taken and heat to be removed from a mold will be discussed. Removed heat QR can be expressed in a molding cycle where receiving and releasing heat are to be balanced.

If you understand basics behind the formula (1.3.3), you may simplify the calculation as follows. In the cold runner mold, QB can be traded off by (QD + QE) because (QD + QE) is usually bigger than QB. By trading them off, cooling calculation will come to safe side (increased requirement for cooling). In this way, you may treat heat to be removed (QR) is equivalent to received heat (QA) from resin.

In the heat transfer calculation, you may apply formula (1.3.4) for approximate result because q in formula (1.2.3) and table (1-2.1) are given in the safe side. However if you intend to apply formula (1.2.2), it is advised to incorporate 1.5 times safety factor taking account of possible requirement of cycle shortening and expected deterioration in the heat exchanger performance.

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Assuming QR can be applicable to all kinds of cooling medium, following formula can be derived.

TL in formula (1.3.6) is average temperature of the cooling medium other than that in the boundary film. In the case of water as cooling medium, (TW–TL) can be regarded as about 2~3℃. WL and VL, required volume of cooling agent can be expressed as follows:

Flow velocity V can be derived from formulae (1.3.4) or (1.3.5), (1.3.6), (1.3.7) and (1.3.8), as follows:

More accurate formula must be:

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Internal diameter of cooling tube (D) in above formulae should be picked up from Table 13.1 temporally, and confirm them if it falls in the range of 10,000~30,000 of Reynolds number (RE) and then finalize the diameter. Be aware that unit of d is in m.

Next, Nusselt number (NU), important parameter in the convection heat transfer calculation, will be calculated. Prantle number (PR) in Nusslet number is defined as follows.

Nusselt number is given as follows. Be aware NU formula varies slightly depending upon where to get the formula from.

Formula (1.3.13) is effective only for turbulent flow. In the case of laminated flow or transition flow, in which Raynold’s number is less than 10,000, re-evaluation of mold temperature and cooling tube diameter must be carried out.

Once Nusselt number (NU) is decided, heat transfer co-efficient α can be calculated by formula (1.1.2.1). And cooling tube surface area (AL) can be calculated by a converted formula from (1.2.2).

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Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

As cooling tube diameter (D) is known, cooling tube length can be calculated as follows:

As described, total cooling circuit length of cavity and core can be calculated. So far, all formulae assumed that heat from injected resin W (kg/h) is transferred perfectly to a mold. Here we should evaluate if such assumption is reasonable or not. Bahlman’s formula should be effective for the evaluation. It is to evaluate if W (kg/h) is possible by estimating molding cycle from theoretical cooling time calculation.

This formula can be used as a guideline because all kinds of condition have to be assumed for calculation. Molding cycle should be evaluated by estimating injection time, mold opening time duration, mold take-out time duration.

If you design temperature control system by applying above explained basics on the heat transfer thermal dynamics, you should be able to provide temperature control system with improved heat exchanging efficiency comparing with traditional system, which was made based on past examples. - 12 -

Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

In the end of basics on thermal transfer theory, a calculation example is shown below for your better understanding. Try to solve the example before you read the answer to follow. Mind units are to be carefully treated.

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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Coolant circulation method

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

1.4 Design of Temperature Control Device

Important point for the design of coolant circulation system is to optimize the design in terms of coolant circulation channel, size and location in consideration of product quality and productivity. For the design of pressurized water circulation system, basic design concepts are the same but special attention should be paid for sealing and safety as well. It is suggested to refer technical information supplied by the system suppliers. Reduced pressure suction type of temperature control device will not be treated in this section because of its specialty in the circuit design. Hereafter, we will discuss about design concept for standard temperature control device utilizing water, an excellent coolant for heat exchanging. 1.4.1 Coolant channel diameter and flow velocity Cooling efficiency is higher if coolant in the channel is under turbulent flow where boundary film is thin. Thus it is important to decide proper diameter of coolant channel so as to make the flow stable turbulent with Reynolds’s number RE 10.000~30.000. As you may refer to formula (1.3.11), RE seems proportional to diameter d; in other words, a big diameter seems to give a big RE. This may be true if other factors stay the same. But if flow volume is given constant, flow velocity is reversibly proportional to channel cross section area, which is proportional to the 2nd power of channel diameter in case of round channel. Therefore if flow volume is given constant, flow velocity and RE become small with big diameter D referring to formula (1.3.8) and formula (1.3.11). Accordingly if channel diameter D is too big, heat-exchanging performance drops due to smaller flow velocity, Reynolds’s number, Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient. If the diameter is too small, the heat exchanging performance will also drop due to less flow volume and increased pressure loss in the flow channel. Thus the channel diameter should be appropriately designed referring to Formulae (1.1.2.2), (1.3.8) Table (1.1.2.1). When passage is not of round shape, equivalent diameter should be applicable as explained in the “Gate Runner System”. The equivalent diameter (DE) was as follows:

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

1.5 Heater capacity Heater capacity can be calculated as follows:

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

η Is a value due to heat transfer loss due to radiation loss or loss due to heater mounting, etc, and normally it is set as 0.5. If you utilize a heater with higher capacity and with adjustable power arrangement, you may ensure stable mold temperature by adjusting heating and radiation conditions in addition to shortened preparation time.

1.6 Clamping force - 17 -

Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

In order to calculate required clamping force of a mold used for a product, we need to know a force on the mold toward opening direction received from injected resin. This mold opening force (FO) can be expressed as the product of total projected area of a product and a runner and average molding pressure (cavity inside pressure) as follows

Projection area is the area of a product projected in the mold clamping direction (usually perpendicular to PL). Total area is shown below (Fig. 1-6.1)

In the case of 3-plate mold, notice that projection of cavity and runner overlaps. If separately calculated, overlapped area will be calculated twice. Assuming mold is of transparent, project parallel light from nozzle side, and then figure projected area on the movable platen surface (Fig. 1-6.2).

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Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Formula (1.6.1) shows that mold-opening force is proportional to projected area if averageclamping force is constant. Let us look into molding pressure. Injected mold by injection machine fills a mold space against pressure loss caused by nozzle, sprue, runner, gate and cavity. Thus there exists a big pressure difference between sprue area and a part of cavity where resin is filled in the end. Even after resin filling, molding pressure varies from place to place (Fig. 1-6.3). However, mind that you need to know average pressure, not all in different parts. Although average clamping force varies depending upon product shape, molding condition, mold structure, etc., Table 1-6.1 can be practically used for your guideline. If your calculation reveals clamping force exceeds average mold opening force, the machine should be well justified. In practice, the clamping force should be evaluated as 80% of maximum clamping force against mold opening force compensating estimated average of the opening force. Required clamping force (FC) then is shown as follows.

If your selected injection machine has a clamping force more than above described force, you will be able to mold products without burrs on PL surface. But be minded that too big a clamping force may cause you a trouble such as partial concentration of the force in the center or ineffective clamping force due to excessive size of locating hole, etc. (Fig. 1-6.4). Rule of thumb is not to go beyond 20% of above formula.

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Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

1.7Required injection capacity A general injection machine provides 3 screw size options per clamping unit. Accordingly you should know which=0.h screw size is selected for evaluation of required injection capacity. As screw size is given bigger, maximum injection capacity becomes bigger. But injection pressure goes opposite direction. In other words, as screw size is given bigger, maximum injection pressure becomes smaller (Fig. 1-7.1) as long as diameter of hydraulic cylinder is the same. Thus under the same clamping force, injection machine with small screw is suited for precision thin wall products and injection machine with large screw is suited for large products with thick walls. Injection capacity is a product of internal cross section area of injection cylinder (screw cross section area) and injection stroke.

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Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Maximum injection capacity shown in the specification of injection machine is calculated by above formula. This means a capacity of an object (air for example) injected under normal temperature and pressure by screw size. Practically molding is operated by injecting plastic with viscosity and elasticity under high temperature and pressure. Therefore maximum injection capacity for injecting PSGP (General purpose polystyrene) is usually given together with theoretical value. Actually, internal pressure of injection cylinder is high, but density of the plastic there is smaller than that under normal temperature and pressure condition because plastic in the cylinder is expanded due to high temperature (Fig. 1-7.2). Calculation of required injection capacity has two folds. The first step is to calculate expanded capacity of plastic per one shot for product, sprue and runner under high pressure and temperature condition, then the second step to compare it with maximum injection capacity assigned for an injection machine. Specifically, total injection capacity can be given as follows:

To figure volume expansion accurately, we need PVT data per plastic material, but in our purpose it is not necessary to go to those details. Although there is some variations in pressure and temperature conditions, we may approximately estimate 90% of density (1.11 times volume expansion) for amorphous resin, of which specific volume is not - 24 -

Emilian Popa

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

much influenced by temperature, and 80% of density (1.25 times volume expansion) for crystalline resin, of which specific volume is much affected by temperature. Furthermore taking account of injection efficiency due to back flow and cushion amount, additional safety factor 80% shall be introduced. To make a formula applicable to all resin, regardless of crystalline and amorphous, density in the injection cylinder is now assumed to be 85% of the value under normal pressure and temperature condition. Then required injection capacity (VS) will be as follows:

Injection machine with larger injection capacity than above can be utilized, but it should not be too large. Expected problem is that resin starts decomposition in the cylinder if it stays too long in the cylinder. As a minor problem, measuring accuracy drops due to small measuring stroke. Thus similarly to the case of clamping force, calculated injection capacity (VS) should not be less than 20% of theoretical maximum injection capacity of the injection machine. Accordingly formulae (1.7.4) and (1.7.5) can be expressed as follows.

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

1.8 .Mold Strength

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Mold strength should be evaluated to see if the deformation of the mold due to molding pressure (injection pressure or holding pressure) stays within allowable tolerance limit. Two considerations must be highlighted. One is how to estimate molding pressure. Another is how to decide allowable tolerance limit. Molding pressure comes from resin. With some exceptions, you need not take up a pressure during injection but a pressure after injection. This is nothing more than the molding pressure inside cavity pressure that was explained and calculated in the previous section for calculating required clamping force. But in this section we choose 500 kgfcm2 with some margin. Tolerable deformation varies depending upon product accuracy, mold structure, locations, etc. One practical reference is if the deformed amount results in generation of burr or not. Clearance to generate burr can be considered as the depth of air ventilation. If burr cannot be a reference, the allowable tolerance should be looked into from the aspect of allowable repeated stress on the mold or product accuracy. Generally allowable deformation amount is 0.1~0.2mm unless the mold is extremely small in size. 1) Side walls of rectangular cavity There are two types. One is of split type consisting of sidewalls and bottom plate. Another is made from one block, in other words one-piece cavity. Split type can be machined easily with high accuracy but weaker in strength. Let us see the difference in strength between split type and one-piece rectangular cavity.

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

1-8-1) Split type In the split type, calculation disregards restraint of bottom plate. Actually sidewalls are bolted together with bottom plate or mounting plate. Thus calculation results in the value with safety factor by disregarding binding and friction influence from bolts (Fig. 1-8-1.1). We apply a model of a beam both side fixed and with equal weight distribution to cavity walls for strength analysis (Fig. 1-8-1.2). Be minded molding pressure uses cm unit, while strength calculation uses mm unit. The maximum deformation (δMAX) on the both side fixed beam appears in the middle as follows:

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Cross section of the beam is of rectangular, thus moment of inertia is as follows:

Wall thickness (H) is derived from formulae (1.8.1.1) and (1.8.1.2) as follows:

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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1-8-2) One-piece type

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

One-piece type cannot be simplified as split type. Table 1-8-2.1 shows coefficient (C) corresponding to ratio (L/A) of product length to height. Then allowable deformation (δMAX) is calculated as below (Fig. 1-8-2.1).

Cavity wall thickness can be derived from formula (1.8.2.1) as follows.

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

1-8-3 Wall thickness of cylinder type cavity Thick wall cylinder is applicable in material strength analysis. Similarly to rectangular type cavity calculation, we will try to make the clearance resulted from deformation smaller than the clearance to cause burr for different resin materials. It will be complicated if we try to calculate wall thickness of cylinder tube. Therefore we evaluate if the deformation is within allowable tolerance under a given wall thickness. Deformation (δ) in Fig. 1-8-3.1 is given as follows.

1-8-4 Mold weight and center of gravity Calculation for mold weight and center of gravity is required to determine size and position of hook bolts for hoisting a mold. Normally the shape of a mold is of rectangular sections. Thus the volume can be easily figured, so as weight by multiplying specific weight of mold material. In case of steel, apply 7.87. Regarding center of gravity, it can be determined by estimating the position in the direction of mold thickness. Mold is normally symmetrical with a centerline in the injecting direction. The center of gravity should locate on the centerline. Calculation proceeds firstly to calculate weight on the center of gravity of each plate and secondly to find a point where each moment can be balanced. Referring to Fig. 1-8-4.1, calculate each moment as a product of weight on the center of gravity of each plate and distance based on fixed side clamping plate. The total moment should balance with a moment as a product of total mold weight and distance from the reference point to the center of gravity.

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Distance from reference point to center of gravity can be derived as follows:

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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1-8-5 Return force of ejector plate

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Ejected ejector plate is normally returned to its original position by spring force of a spring installed on the periphery of return pin. If the spring force is too weak, the ejector plate cannot fully return to its original position. If it is too strong, operational balance will be affected and galling may be caused on the return pin. Thus we may define the return force of ejector plate should stand weight of ejector plates (upper and lower) and their friction force. Friction force is related to friction coefficient of ejector plates (upper and lower). As we know the maximum friction coefficient is 1, it must be enough to estimate the friction force 2 times of the plate weight. Generally, number of springs to be installed on the periphery of return pin is 4. Thus you should calculate the shared friction load per spring is 1/2 of ejector plate weight (2×1/4). The spring is better to have a smaller spring constant value to assure smoother load transfer to the spring while stroking (Fig. 1-8-5.1). In addition initial deflection of the spring is better not to exceed thread length of stripper bolt (normally 10~15), otherwise you will have a difficulty in installing stripper bolt to female thread hole because of the long spring (Fig. 1- 8-5.2). Following checkpoints may be useful for selecting correct spring from available ones in the market. Internal diameter of the spring should be at least 1 mm larger than return pin outside diameter. - Maximum deflection in usage should be within allowable limit. - The spring should have enough returning force at the initial deflection. - When spot facing is made for the spring, clearance around return pin can be secured (two times pin diameter) and there should be no interference with coolant channel. -

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Calculation for the appropriate diameter of support pin and Deflection of Support pin

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

Ejector Pin-Ejector Sleeve Strength Calculation Ejector pins and sleeves are subjected to compressive loads when the cavity is filled with molten plastic. When long thin objects are subjected to such compressive loads, buckling, bending of the pin, or breakage can occur. In order to prevent buckling, we recommend that you select an appropriate configuration by performing strength calculations beforehand 1. Computing buckling load P (kgf) Euler’s formula is usually used to calculate the bucking strength of ejector pins.

(2) Computing compression load P1 (kgf) Compression load refers to load that is applied to the ejector pin during filling and pressurization with molten plastic.

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P1 = p x A

Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

(3) Computing safety factor: - 39 -

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

(Considerations regarding safety factor values): Safety factor (S) is affected by a wide variety of elements including those listed below. Inaccuracy of load estimates – inconsistent strength of materials – effect of heat treatment Notch effect – finished roughness: abrasion and corrosion during use. Expansion and contraction due to heat – fatigue – impact mold separation resistance during ejection of the molded object etc.

In specific terms, we recommend that you decide in advance on an in company design standard taking into consideration the empirical values of the various companies and then use this to gauge the appropriateness of the computed results.

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Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012

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