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Copyiight :o1o:o1: by Te Ubuntu Manual Team. Some iights ieseived.

Tis woik is licensed undei the Cieative Commons AuiibutionShaie
Alike .o License. To view a copy of this license, see Appendix A, visit
http//cieativecommons.oig/licenses/by-sa/.o/, oi send a leuei to Cieative
Commons, 1,1 Second Stieet, Suite oo, San liancisco, Califoinia, ,1o,
Geu:ng SoreJ +:| U|vnv 11.1o can be puichased fiom http//ubuntu-manual.
oig/buy/gswu111o/en. A piinted copy of this book can be oideied foi the
piice of piinting and deliveiy. An electionic copy of this book can be down-
loaded foi fiee. We peimit and even encouiage you to distiibute a copy
of this book to colleagues, fiiends, family, and anyone else who might be
Revision numbei 1,, Revision date :o1:-o-: o,oo o1oo
Piologue ,
Welcome ,
Ubuntu Philosophy ,
A biief histoiy of Ubuntu 8
ls Ubuntu iight foi you` ,
Contact details 1o
About the team 1o
Conventions used in this book 1o
1 lnstallation 11
Geuing Ubuntu 11
Te Live CD/USB stick 1:
lnstalling Ubuntu 1
Ubuntu installei foi Windows :o
: Te Ubuntu Desktop :1
Undeistanding the Ubuntu desktop :1
Unity :1
Te Dash :
Biowsing les on youi computei :
Using Launchei :
Woikspaces :
Managing windows :
Nautilus le managei :,
Seaiching foi les and foldeis on youi computei o
Customizing youi desktop o
Accessibility 1
Session options :
Geuing help
Woiking with Ubuntu
All the applications you need
Geuing online ,
Biowsing the web
Reading and composing email
Using instant messaging ,
Micioblogging :
Viewing and editing photos
Watching videos and movies 8
Listening to audio and music ,o
Buining CDs and DVDs ,
Woiking with documents, spieadsheets, and piesentations ,,
Ubuntu One ,8
Geuing staited with Ubuntu One ,,
Using Ubuntu One 81
Haidwaie 8,
Using youi devices 8,
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Haidwaie identication 8,
Displays 8,
Connecting and using youi piintei ,1
Sound ,:
Using a webcam ,
Scanning text and images ,
Othei devices ,
Sofwaie Management ,,
Sofwaie management in Ubuntu ,,
Using the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei ,,
Managing additional sofwaie 1oo
Manual sofwaie installation 1o:
Updates and upgiades 1o
Advanced Topics 1o
Ubuntu foi advanced useis 1o
lntioduction to the teiminal 1o
Ubuntu le system stiuctuie 1o
Secuiing Ubuntu 1o8
Why Ubuntu is safe 1o8
Basic secuiity concepts 1o8
Useis and gioups 1o,
System updates 111
liiewall 111
Enciyption 11:
, Tioubleshooting 11
Resolving pioblems 11
Tioubleshooting guide 11
Geuing moie help 118
8 Leaining Moie 11,
What else can l do with Ubuntu` 11,
Open souice sofwaie 11,
Distiibution families 11,
Choosing amongst Ubuntu and its deiivatives 1:o
linding additional help and suppoit 1:1
Te Ubuntu community 1:
Contiibuting to this manual 1:
A License 1:
Cieative Commons AuiibutionShaieAlike .o Legal Code 1:
Cieative Commons Notice 1o
Glossaiy 1
Ciedits 1
Team leads 1
Authois 1
Editois 1
Designeis 1
Developeis 1
Tianslation editois 1
Special thanks 1
Past contiibutois 1
lndex 1,
Welcome to Geu:ng SoreJ +:| U|vnv, an intioductoiy guide wiiuen to
help new useis get staited with Ubuntu.
Oui goal is to covei the basics of Ubuntu (such as installation and woik-
ing with the desktop) as well as haidwaie and sofwaie management, woik-
ing with the command line, and secuiity. We designed this guide to be
simple to follow, with step-by-step instiuctions and plenty of scieenshots,
allowing you to discovei the potential of youi new Ubuntu system.
Please beai in mind that this guide is still veiy much a woik in piogiess
and always will be. lt is wiiuen specically foi Ubuntu 11.1o, and although
we have aimed to not limit oui instiuctions to this veision, it is unavoidable
that some things will change ovei the life of Ubuntu. Whenevei a new
veision of Ubuntu is ieleased, we will incoipoiate updates and changes into
oui guide, and make a new veision available at http//www.ubuntu-manual.
Geu:ng SoreJ +:| U|vnv 11.1o is not intended to be a compiehensive
Ubuntu instiuction manual. lt is moie like a quick-stait guide that will get
you doing the things you need to do with youi computei quickly and easily,
without geuing bogged down with technical details. As with piioi veisions,
Ubuntu 11.1o incoipoiates many new featuies, including enhancements to
the Unity shell. Moie about the Unity shell and what it means can be found
in Chaptei : Te Ubuntu Desktop.
loi moie detailed infoimation on using Unity and the Ubuntu desktop,
see the Ubuntu Desktop Guide, which can be obtained in the following
in the Dash, type yelp,
in the desktop menubai, click Help Help with Ubuntu, oi
go to https//, Ubuntu Ubuntu Desktop Help.
Te lnteinet is also an excellent iesouice. loi example, on https//help. you will nd documentation on installing and using Ubuntu,
and at the Ubuntu loiums (ubuntufoiums.oig) you nd answeis to many
Ubuntu ielated questions. More information about Ubuntus online
and system documentation can be found in
Chapter 8: Learning More. Popular forums
for Ubuntu discussion and support are the
Ubuntu Forums,, and
Askubuntu at
lf something isnt coveied in this manual, chances aie you will nd the
infoimation you aie looking foi in one of those locations. We will tiy oui
best to include links to moie detailed help wheievei we can.
Ubuntu Philosophy
Te teim Ubuntu is a tiaditional Afiican concept that oiiginated fiom
the Bantu languages of southein Afiica. lt can be desciibed as a way of
connecting with otheisliving in a global community wheie youi actions
aect all of humanity. Ubuntu is moie than just an opeiating system it is
a community of people that come togethei voluntaiily to collaboiate on
an inteinational sofwaie pioject that aims to delivei the best possible usei
8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
The Ubuntu Promise
Ubuntu will always be fiee of chaige, along with its iegulai enteipiise
ieleases and secuiity updates.
Ubuntu comes with full commeicial suppoit fiom Canonical and hun-
dieds of companies fiom acioss the woild.
Ubuntu piovides the best tianslations and accessibility featuies that the
fiee sofwaie community has to oei.
Ubuntus coie applications aie all fiee and open souice. We want you to
use fiee and open souice sofwaie, impiove it, and pass it on.
A brief history of Ubuntu
Ubuntu was conceived in :oo by Maik Shuulewoith, a successful South
Afiican entiepieneui, and his company Canonical. Shuulewoith iecognized Canonical is the company that provides nancial
and technical support for Ubuntu. It has
employees based around the world who work
on developing and improving the operating
system, as well as reviewing work submitted by
volunteer contributors. To learn more about
Canonical, go to
the powei of Linux and open souice, but was also awaie of weaknesses that
pievented mainstieam use.
Shuulewoith set out with cleai intentions to addiess these weaknesses
and cieate a system that was easy to use, completely fiee (see Chaptei 8
Leaining Moie foi the complete denition of fiee), and could compete
with othei mainstieam opeiating systems. With the Debian system as a
base,Shuulewoith began to build Ubuntu. Using his own funds at ist, Debian is the Linux operating system that
Ubuntu is based upon. For more information
installation cus weie piessed and shipped woildwide at no cost to the end
usei. Ubuntu spiead quickly, the size of the community iapidly incieased,
and it soon became the most populai Linux distiibution available.
With moie people woiking on the pioject than evei befoie, Ubuntu con-
tinues to see impiovement to its coie featuies and haidwaie suppoit, and
has gained the auention of laige oiganizations woildwide. One of lBMs
open souice opeiating systems is based on Ubuntu. Additionally, in :oo,
the liench Police began to tiansition theii entiie computei infiastiuctuie to
a vaiiant of Ubuntua piocess which has iepoitedly saved them millions
of euios in licensing fees foi Miciosof Windows. By the yeai :o1:, the
liench Police anticipates that all of theii computeis will be iunning Ubuntu.
Canonical piots fiom this aiiangement by pioviding technical suppoit and
custom-built sofwaie.
While laige oiganizations ofen nd it useful to pay foi suppoit seivices, For information on Ubuntu Server Edition, and
how you can use it in your company, visit http://
Shuulewoith has piomised that the Ubuntu desktop system will always
be fiee. As of :o11, Ubuntu is installed on an estimated : of the woilds
computeis. Tis equates to millions of useis woildwide, and is giowing
each yeai. Because of a lack of iegistiation, the peicentage of Ubuntu useis
should be tieated as an estimate.
What is Linux?
Ubuntu is built on the foundation of Linux, which is a membei of the Unix
family. Unix is one of the oldest types of opeiating systems and has pio-
vided ieliability and secuiity in piofessional applications foi almost half a
centuiy. Many seiveis aiound the woild that stoie data foi populai web-
sites (such as YouTube and Google) iun some vaiiant of a Unix system.
Te Linux keinel is best desciibed as the coie, oi almost the biain, of the
opeiating system.
Te Linux keinel is the contiollei of the opeiating system, it is iesponsi-
ble foi allocating memoiy and piocessoi time. lt can also be thought of as
the piogiam which manages any and all applications on the computei itself.
vvoiocUr ,
Linux was designed fiom the giound up with secuiity and haidwaie While modern graphical desktop environments
have generally replaced early command-line
interfaces, the command line can still be a
quick and ecient way of performing many
tasks. See Chapter 6: Advanced Topics for
more information, and Chapter 2: The Ubuntu
Desktop to learn more about gnome and other
desktop environments.
compatibility in mind, and is cuiiently one of the most populai Unix-based
opeiating systems. One of the benets of Linux is that it is inciedibly ex-
ible and can be conguied to iun on almost any devicefiom the smallest
micio-computeis and cellphones to laigei supei-computeis. Unix was en-
tiiely command line-based until giaphical usei inteifaces (cUis) began to
emeige in the eaily 1,,os.
Tese eaily cUis weie dicult to conguie, clunky, and geneially only A desktop environment is a sophisticated and
integrated user interface that provides the
basis for humans to interact with a computer
using a monitor, keyboard and a mouse.
used by seasoned computei piogiammeis. ln the past decade, howevei,
giaphical usei inteifaces have come a long way in teims of usability, ieli-
ability, and appeaiance. Ubuntu is just one of many dieient Linux J:sr:
|v:ons, and uses one of the moie populai giaphical desktop enviionments To learn more about Linux distributions, see
Chapter 8: Learning More.
called cNoxr.
Is Ubuntu right for you?
New useis to Ubuntu may nd that it takes some time to feel comfoitable
when tiying a new opeiating system. You will no doubt notice many sim-
ilaiities to both Miciosof Windows and Mac os x, and some dieiences.
Useis coming fiom Mac os x aie moie likely to notice similaiities due to the
fact that both Mac os x and Ubuntu oiiginated fiom Unix.
Befoie you decide whethei oi not Ubuntu is iight foi you, we suggest
giving youiself some time to giow accustomed to the way things aie done
in Ubuntu. You should expect to nd that some things aie dieient fiom
what you aie used to. We also suggest taking the following into account
U|vnv :s covn:y |oseJ. Tat is, Ubuntu is developed, wiiuen, and
maintained by the community. Because of this, suppoit is piobably
not available at youi local computei stoie. loitunately, the Ubuntu
community is heie to help. Teie aie many aiticles, guides, and manuals
available, as well as useis on vaiious lnteinet foiums and lnteinet Relay
Chat (ivc) iooms that aie willing to assist beginneis. Additionally, neai
the end of this guide, we include a tioubleshooting chaptei Chaptei ,
Mony o|:co:ons Jes:gneJ [or M:croso V:nJo+s or Moc o: +:|| no rvn on U|vnv.
loi the vast majoiity of eveiyday computing tasks, you will nd suitable
alteinative applications available in Ubuntu. Howevei, many piofes-
sional applications (such as the Adobe Cieative Suite) aie not developed
to woik with Ubuntu. lf you iely on commeicial sofwaie that is not
compatible with Ubuntu, yet still want to give Ubuntu a tiy, you may
want to considei dual-booting. Alteinatively, some applications devel- To learn more about dual-booting (running
Ubuntu side-by-side with another operating
system), see Chapter 1: Installation.
oped foi Windows will woik in Ubuntu with a piogiam called Wine. loi
moie infoimation on Wine, go to http//www.winehq.oig.
Mony coerc:o| goes +:|| no rvn on U|vnv. lf you aie a heavy gamei,
then Ubuntu may not be foi you. Game developeis usually design games
foi the laigest maiket. Since Ubuntus maiket shaie is not as substantial
as Miciosofs Windows oi Apples Mac os x, most game developeis
will not allocate iesouices towaids making theii games compatible with
Ubuntu. lf you just like to play a game eveiy now and then, theie is See Chapter 5: Software Management to learn
more about Ubuntu Software Center.
active game development within the community, and many high quality
games can be easily installed thiough the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
1o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Contact details
Many people have contiibuted theii time to this pioject. lf you notice any
eiiois oi think we have lef something out, feel fiee to contact us. We do
eveiything we can to make suie that this manual is up to date, infoimative,
and piofessional. Oui contact details aie as follows
Te Ubuntu Manual Team
Website http//www.ubuntu-manual.oig/
Email ubuntu-manual(
ivc -ubuntu-manual on
Bug Repoits http//bugs.ubuntu-manual.oig
About the team
Oui pioject is an open souice volunteei eoit to cieate and maintain qual-
ity documentation foi Ubuntu and its deiivatives.
Oui mission is to piovide a wide iange of quality educational mateii-
als to lowei the Linux baiiiei to entiy foi new useis and in tuin inciease
Ubuntus maiket shaie.
Want to help?
We aie always looking foi talented people to woik with, and due to the size
of the pioject we aie foitunate to be able to catei to a wide iange of skill
Authois, editois
Piogiammeis (Python oi T
Usei inteiface designeis
lcon and title page designeis
Event oiganizeis and ideas people
Web designeis and developeis
Tianslatois and scieenshoueis
Bug iepoiteis and tiiageis
To nd out how you can get staited helping, please visit http//ubuntu-manual.
Conventions used in this book
Te following typogiaphic conventions aie used in this book
Buuon names, menu items, and othei cUi elements aie set in boldfaced
Menu sequences aie sometimes typeset as File Save As, which means,
Choose the File menu, then choose the Save As.
Monospaced type is used foi text that you type into the computei, text
that the computei outputs (as in a teiminal), and keyboaid shoitcuts.
1 Installation
Getting Ubuntu
Befoie you can get staited with Ubuntu, you will need to obtain a copy of Many companies (such as Dell and System76)
sell computers with Ubuntu preinstalled. If
you already have Ubuntu installed on your
computer, feel free to skip to Chapter 2: The
Ubuntu Desktop.
the Ubuntu installation image foi cu oi Usn. Some options foi doing this aie
outlined below.
Minimum system requirements
Ubuntu iuns well on most computei systems. lf you aie unsuie whethei it The majority of computers in use today will
meet the requirements listed here; however,
refer to your computer documentation or
manufacturers website for more information.
will woik on youi computei, the Live cu is a gieat way to test things out
ist. Below is a list of haidwaie specications that youi computei should
meet as a minimum iequiiement.
1 GHz x8 piocessoi (Pentium oi beuei)
1 cn of system memoiy (v~x)
cn of disk space (at least 1 cn is iecommended)
Giaphics caid capable of 1o:,8 iesolution
Sound caid
A netwoik oi lnteinet connection
Downloading Ubuntu
Te easiest and most common method foi geuing Ubuntu is to download
the Ubuntu cu image diiectly fiom http//
Choose how you will install Ubuntu
Download and install
Tiy it fiom a cu oi Usn stick
Run it with Windows
loi the Do+n|ooJ onJ :nso||, oi Try : [ro o cu or u: s:c| options, se-
lect whethei you iequiie the :-bit oi -bit veision (:-bit is iecommended
foi most useis), then click Stait download.
Installing and run alongside Windows
loi the Rvn : +:| V:nJo+s option, simply select Stait download, and
then follow the instiuctions foi the Ubuntu installei foi Windows.
32-bit vs 64-bit
Ubuntu and its deiivatives aie available in two veisions :-bit and -bit.
Tis dieience iefeis to the way computeis piocess infoimation. Comput- 32-bit and 64-bit are types of processor
architectures. 64-bit is newer, and most recent
computers will come with a 64-bit capable
eis capable of iunning -bit sofwaie aie able to piocess moie infoimation
than computeis iunning :-bit sofwaie, howevei, -bit systems iequiie
moie memoiy in oidei to do this. Neveitheless, these computeis gain pei-
foimance enhancements by iunning -bit sofwaie.
lf youi computei has a -bit piocessoi install the -bit veision.
lf youi computei is oldei, a netbook, oi you do not know the type of
piocessoi in the computei, install the :-bit veision.
1: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
lf youi computei has a -bit piocessoi, click on the -bit option
befoie you click Stait download.
Downloading Ubuntu as a torrent
When a new veision of Ubuntu is ieleased, the download seiveis can get Torrents are a way of sharing les and informa-
tion around the Internet via peer-to-peer le
sharing. A le with a .torrent extension is made
available to users, which is then opened with a
compatible program such as uTorrent, Deluge,
or Transmission. These programs download
parts of the le from other people all around
the world.
clogged as laige numbeis of people tiy to download oi upgiade Ubuntu
at the same time. lf you aie familiai with using toiients, you may wish to
download the toiient le by clicking Alteinative downloads, and then
BitToiient download to obtain youi copy of the cu image this way in-
stead. You may see signicant impiovements to youi download speed, and
will also be helping to spiead Ubuntu to othei useis woildwide.
Burning the CD image
Once youi download is complete, you will be lef with a le called v|vnv While the 64-bit version of Ubuntu is referred
to as the AMD64 version, it will work on Intel,
AMD, and other compatible 64-bit processors.
11.1oJes|o:8o.:so oi similai (:8o heie in the lename iefeis to the :-bit
veision. lf you had downloaded the -bit veision, the lename would
contain oJo instead). Tis le is a cu imagea snapshot of the contents
of a cuwhich you will need to buin to a cu.
Creating a bootable USB drive
lf youi vc is able to boot fiom a Usn poit, you may piefei to use a Usn
memoiy stick instead of buining a cu. Scioll down to Buin youi cu oi
cieate a Usn diive, select cu oi u: s:c|, choose the os you aie using to
cieate the Usn diive, and then click S|o+ e |o+. lf you select the Usn
Stick option, youi installation will be iunning fiom the Usn memoiy stick.
ln this case, iefeiences to Live cu, will iefei to the Usn memoiy stick.
The Live CD/USB stick
Te Ubuntu cu and Usn stick function not only as installation media, but
also allow you to test Ubuntu without making any peimanent changes to
youi computei by iunning the entiie opeiating system fiom the cu oi Usn
Youi computei ieads infoimation fiom a cu at a much slowei speed than In some cases, your computer will not recognize
that the Ubuntu CD or USB is present as it
starts up and will start your existing operating
system instead. Generally, this means that
the priority given to boot devices when your
computer is starting needs to be changed. For
example, your computer might be set to look
for information from your hard drive, and then
to look for information on a CD or USB. To run
Ubuntu from the Live CD or USB, we want the
computer to look for information from the
appropriate device rst. Changing your boot
priority is usually handled by BIOS settings; this
is beyond the scope of this guide. If you need
assistance with changing the boot priority, see
your computer manufacturers documentation
for more information.
it can iead infoimation o of a haid diive. Running Ubuntu fiom the Live
cu also occupies a laige poition of youi computeis memoiy, which would
usually be available foi applications to access when Ubuntu is iunning fiom
youi haid diive. Te Live cu/Usn expeiience will theiefoie feel slightly
slowei than it does when Ubuntu is actually installed on youi computei.
Running Ubuntu fiom the cu/Usn is a gieat way to test things out and
allows you to tiy the default applications, biowse the lnteinet, and get a
geneial feel foi the opeiating system. lts also useful foi checking that youi
computei haidwaie woiks piopeily in Ubuntu and that theie aie no majoi
compatibility issues.
To tiy out Ubuntu using the Live cu/Usn stick, inseit the Ubuntu cu into
youi cu diive, oi connect the Usn diive and iestait youi computei.
Afei youi computei nds the Live cu/Usn stick, and a quick loading
scieen, you will be piesented with the Welcome scieen. Using youi
mouse, select youi language fiom the list on the lef, then click the but-
ton labeled Try Ubuntu. Ubuntu will then stait up, iunning diiectly fiom
the Live cu/Usn diive.
iNs1~ii~1ioN 1
Figure 1.1: The Welcome screen allows you to
choose your language.
Once Ubuntu is up and iunning, you will see the default desktop. We
will talk moie about how to actually use Ubuntu in Chaptei : Te Ubuntu
Desktop, but foi now, feel fiee to test things out. Open some applications,
change seuings and geneially exploieany changes you make will not be
saved once you exit, so you dont need to woiiy about accidentally bieaking
When you aie nished exploiing, iestait youi computei by clicking the Alternatively, you can also use your mouse to
double-click the Install Ubuntu 11.10 icon that
is visible on the desktop when using the Live
CD. This will start the Ubuntu installer.
Powei buuon in the top iight coinei of youi scieen (a ciicle with a line
thiough the top) and then select Restart. lollow the piompts that appeai on
scieen, including iemoving the Live cu and piessing Enter when instiucted,
and then youi computei will iestait. As long as the Live cu is no longei in
the diive, youi computei will ietuin to its oiiginal state as though nothing
evei happened'
Installing Ubuntu
Te piocess of installing Ubuntu is designed to be quick and easy. To help
you get staited, we have included step-by-step instiuctions below, along
with scieenshots so you can see how things will look along the way.
At least cn of fiee space on youi haid diive is iequiied in oidei to
install Ubuntu, howevei, 1 cn oi moie is iecommended. Tis will ensuie
that you will have plenty of ioom to install extia applications latei on, as
well as stoie youi own documents, music, and photos.
Getting started
To get staited, place the Ubuntu cu in youi cu diive and iestait youi com- Clicking on the underlined release notes link
will open a web page containing any important
information regarding the current version of
putei. Youi computei should load Ubuntu fiom the cu. When you ist stait
fiom the cu, you will be piesented with a scieen asking you whethei you
want to ist tiy out Ubuntu oi install it. Select the language you want to
view the installei in and click on the Install Ubuntu buuon. Tis will stait
the installation piocess.
lf you have an lnteinet connection, the installei will ask you if you
would like to Download updates while installing. We iecommend you
do so. Te second option, lnstall this thiid-paity sofwaie, includes the
lluendo MP codec, and sofwaie iequiied foi some wiieless haidwaie. lf
1 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
you aie not connected to the lnteinet, the installei will help you set up a
wiieless connection.
Te Piepaiing to install Ubuntu scieen will also let you know if you
have enough disk space and if you aie connected to a powei souice (in case
you aie installing Ubuntu on a laptop iunning on baueiy). Once you have
selected youi choices, click Continue.
Internet connection
lf you aie not connected to the lnteinet, the installei will ask you to choose
a wiieless netwoik (if available). We recommend that you connect during install,
though updates and third-party software can be
installed after installation.
1. Select Connect to this network, and then select youi netwoik fiom the
:. lf the list does not appeai immediately, wait until a tiiangle/aiiow ap-
peais next to the netwoik adaptei, and then click the aiiow to see the
available netwoiks.
. ln the Password eld, entei the netwoik vrv oi vv~ key (if necessaiy).
. Click Connect to continue.
Figure 1.2: Set up wireless.
Allocate drive space
Tis next step is ofen iefeiied to as paititioning. Paititioning is the piocess If you are installing on a new machine with no
operating system, you will not get the rst
option. The upgrade option is only available if
you are upgrading from a previous version of
of allocating poitions of youi haid diive foi a specic puipose. When you
cieate a paitition, you aie essentially dividing up youi haid diive into sec-
tions that will be used foi dieient types of infoimation. Paititioning can
sometimes seem complex to a new usei, howevei, it does not have to be. ln
fact, Ubuntu piovides you with some options that gieatly simplify this pio-
cess. Te Ubuntu installei will automatically detect any existing opeiating
system installed on youi machine, and piesent installations options based
on youi system. Not all of the options listed below may appeai
1. lnstall alongside othei opeiating systems
:. Upgiade Ubuntu to 11.1o
. Eiase and install Ubuntu
. Something else
iNs1~ii~1ioN 1
Install alongside other operating systems.
lf you aie a Windows oi Mac usei and you aie tiying to install Ubuntu foi Ubuntu provides you with the option of either
replacing your existing operating system
altogether, or installing Ubuntu alongside
your existing system. The latter is called dual-
booting. Whenever you turn on or restart your
computer, you will be given the option to select
which operating system you want to use for
that session.
the ist time, select the Install alongside other operating systems option.
Tis option will enable you to choose which opeiating system you wish to
use when you computei staits. Ubuntu will automatically detect the othei
opeiating system and install Ubuntu alongside it.
For ore co|:coeJ Jvo||oo:ng sevs, yov +:|| neeJ o congvre |e or:
:ons onvo||y.
Figure 1.3: Choose where you would like to
install Ubuntu.
Upgrade Ubuntu to 11.10
Tis option will keep all of youi Documents, music, pictuies, and othei
peisonal les. lnstalled sofwaie will be kept when possible (not all youi
cuiiently installed sofwaie may be suppoited on the new veision). System-
wide seuings will be cleaied.
Erase disk and install Ubuntu
Use this option if you want to eiase youi entiie disk. Tis will delete any
existing opeiating systems that aie installed on that disk, such as Windows
xv, and install Ubuntu in its place. Tis option is also useful if you have
an empty haid diive, as Ubuntu will automatically cieate the necessaiy
paititions foi you.
Forou:ng o or::on +:|| Jesroy ony Joo cvrren|y on |e or::on. Be svre o
|oc| v ony Joo yov +on o so+e |e[ore Forou:ng.
Something else
Tis option is foi advanced useis and is used to cieate special paititions, oi
Ubuntu installs a home folder where your
personal les and conguration data are
located by default. If you choose to have your
home folder on a separate partition, then in the
event that you decide to reinstall Ubuntu or
perform a fresh upgrade to the latest release,
your personal les and conguration data wont
be lost.
foimat the haid diive with a le system dieient to the default one.
Afei you have chosen the installation type, click Continue, oi Install
More information and detailed instructions
on partitioning are available at: https://help.
1 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Conrm Partition choices and start install
lf you chose Something else, conguie the paititions as you need. Once
you aie happy with the way the paititions aie going to be set up, click the
Install Now buuon at the bouom iight to move on.
To ieduce the time iequiied foi installation, Ubuntu will continue the
installation piocess in the backgiound while you conguie impoitant
usei detailslike youi useiname, passwoid, keyboaid seuings and default
Where are you?
Figure 1.4: Tell Ubuntu your location.
Te next scieen will display a woild map. Using youi mouse, click youi
geogiaphic location on the map to tell Ubuntu wheie you aie. Alteinatively,
you can use the drop-down lists undeineath the map. Tis allows Ubuntu
to conguie youi system clock and othei location-based featuies. Click
Forward when you aie ieady to move on.
Keyboard layout
Next, you need to tell Ubuntu what kind of keyboaid you aie using. ln most
cases, you will nd the suggested option satisfactoiy. lf you aie unsuie
which keyboaid option to select, you can click the Detect Keyboard Iayout
buuon to have Ubuntu deteimine the coiiect choice by asking you to piess
a seiies of keys. You can also manually choose youi keyboaid layout fiom
the list of options. lf you like, entei text into the box at the bouom of the
window to ensuie you aie happy with youi selection, then click Continue.
Who are you?
Ubuntu needs to know some infoimation about you so it can set up the
piimaiy usei account on youi computei. When conguied, youi name will
appeai on the login scieen as well as the MeMenu, which we discuss in
Chaptei : Te Ubuntu Desktop.
On this scieen you will need to tell Ubuntu
youi name
iNs1~ii~1ioN 1,
Figure 1.5: Verify that your keyboard layout is
what you want to call youi computei
youi desiied useiname
youi desiied passwoid
how you want Ubuntu to log you in
Figure 1.6: Setup your user account.
Entei youi full name undei Youi name`. Te next text eld is the name
youi computei uses, foi teiminals and netwoiks. You can change this to
what you want, oi keep the piedeteimined name. Next is youi useiname,
the name that is used foi the Me Menu, youi home foldei, and behind the
scenes. You will see this is automatically lled in foi you with youi ist
name. Most people nd it easiest to stick with this. Howevei, it can be
changed if you piefei.
Next, choose a passwoid and entei it into the passwoid eld on the
lef, and then entei same passwoid into the passwoid eld on the iight.
When both passwoids match, a stiength iating will appeai to the iight
that will show you whethei youi passwoid is too shoit, weak, faii, oi
stiong. You will be able to continue the installation piocess iegaidless
of youi passwoid stiength, but foi secuiity ieasons it is best to choose a
18 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
stiong one. Tis is best achieved by having a passwoid that is at least six
chaiacteis long, and is a mixtuie of leueis, numbeis, symbols, and uppei-
case/loweicase. Avoid obvious passwoids that include youi biith date,
spouses name, oi the name of youi pet.
Login Options
linally, at the bouom of this scieen you have thiee options fiom which to
choose iegaiding how you wish to log in to Ubuntu.
Log in automatically
Requiie my passwoid to log in
Enciypt my home foldei
Log in automatically
Ubuntu will log in to youi piimaiy account automatically when you stait
up the computei so you wont have to entei youi useiname and passwoid.
Tis makes youi login expeiience quickei and moie convenient, but if
piivacy oi secuiity aie impoitant to you, we dont iecommend this option.
Anyone who can physically access youi computei will be able to tuin it on
and also access youi les.
Require my password to login
Tis option is selected by default, as it will pievent unauthoiized people
fiom accessing youi computei without knowing the passwoid you cie-
ated eailiei. Tis is a good option foi those who, foi example, shaie theii
computei with othei family membeis. Once the installation piocess has
been completed, an additional login account can be cieated foi each family
membei. Each peison will then have theii own login name and passwoid,
account piefeiences, lnteinet bookmaiks, and peisonal stoiage space.
Encrypt my home folder
Tis option piovides you with an extia layei of secuiity. Youi home foldei
is wheie youi peisonal les aie stoied. By selecting this option, Ubuntu
will automatically enable enciyption on youi home foldei, meaning that
les and foldeis must be deciypted using youi passwoid befoie they can be
accessed. Teiefoie if someone had physical access to youi haid diive (foi
example, if youi computei was stolen and the haid diive iemoved), they
would not be able to see youi les without knowing youi passwoid.
I[ yov c|oose |:s o:on, |e core[v| no o eno||e ovoo:c |og:n o o |oer Joe.
I +:|| covse co|:co:ons +:| yovr encryeJ |oe [o|Jer, onJ +:|| oen:o||y
|oc| yov ov o[ :oron |es.
Installation Slideshow
Ubuntu will now nish installing on youi haid diive. As the installation
piogiesses, a slideshow will give you an intioduction to some of the default
applications included with Ubuntu. Tese applications aie coveied in moie
detail in Chaptei Woiking with Ubuntu.
Afei appioximately twenty minutes, the installation will complete and
you will be able to click Restart Now to iestait youi computei and stait
iNs1~ii~1ioN 1,
Figure 1.7: The rst slide in the installation
Ubuntu. Te cu will be ejected, so iemove it fiom youi cu diive and piess
Enter to continue.
Figure 1.8: You are now ready to restart your
Wait while youi computei iestaits, and you will then see the login win-
dow (unless you selected automatic login).
Click youi useiname and entei youi passwoid, then piess Enter oi click
Iog in. You will then be logged in to Ubuntu and will be piesented with
youi new desktop'
:o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Ubuntu installer for Windows
You can install and iun Ubuntu alongside youi cuiient installation of Win-
1. Download the Ubuntu installei foi Windows http//
:. Run the download le
. lnstall Ubuntu
Download and run the installer
Afei the le, +v|:.e:e, is downloaded, iun the le to stait the installation. lf
a secuiity message appeais, click Continue, to pioceed with the installation
Figure 1.9: User Account Control dialog
Te Ubuntu lnstallei will stait. Choose and entei a Useiname and Pass-
woid. Te passwoid must be enteied twice to ensuie accuiacy. Afei
choosing a passwoid, click Install. Te Ubuntu lnstallei will download and
install Ubuntu. Tis piocess will take some time. Te download le size is
,ooMb. Afei the installation is complete, click Finish on the Completing
the Ubuntu Setup Wizaid scieen to ieboot the computei.
Figure 1.10: Ubuntu Windows Installer
Installation complete
Afei the computei iestaits, you can select Ubuntu fiom the boot menu.
You will then be logged in to Ubuntu and will be piesented with youi new
2 The Ubuntu Desktop
Understanding the Ubuntu desktop
lnitially, you may notice many similaiities between Ubuntu and othei Ubuntu 11.10 has an emphasis on social
from the start and features social network
integration in the desktop for sites like Twitter
and Facebook.
opeiating systems such as Miciosof Windows oi Mac os x. Tis is because
they aie all based on the concept of a giaphical usei inteiface (cUi):.e.,
you use youi mouse to navigate the desktop, open applications, move les,
and peifoim most othei tasks. ln shoit, things aie visually oiiented, which
means that its impoitant foi you to become familiai with wheie and what
to click in Ubuntu.
Figure 2.1: The Ubuntu 11.10 default desktop.
All cUi-based opeiating systems use a Jes|o en+:ronen. Desktop envi-
ionments encompass many things, such as
Te look and feel of youi system
Te way the desktop is laid out
How the desktop is navigated by the usei
ln Linux distiibutions (such as Ubuntu), theie aie a numbei of desktop To read more about other variants of Ubuntu,
refer to Chapter 8: Learning More.
enviionments available foi use. Ubuntu uses Unity as the default desktop
xur, xicr, cNoxr and ixur aie othei populai desktop enviionments.
Since Ubuntu uses Unity, we will focus this guide on exploiing the Unity
Afei installation and log in, you will see the Unity desktop. Lets exploie
the default layout that is in fiont of you. Tis initial view is compiised of
:: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
the Te Desktop Backgiound and two |orsone at the top of youi desktop,
Te Top Bai, and one on the lef, Using Launchei.
The Desktop Background
Below the Top Bar is an image that coveis the entiie desktop. Tis is the
desktop backgiound oi wallpapei and the one you see in fiont of you be-
longs to the default Ubuntu 11.1o theme known as A|:once. To leain moie
about customizing youi desktop including changing youi backgiound, see
the section on Customizing youi desktop below.
The Top Bar
Te Top Bar incoipoiates all of the functions that you need. liist, the iight Top Bar is also referred as Top Panel.
pait of the bai is the lndicatoi aiea. To access an indicatoi, just lef-click on
it. Staiting fiom the lef, the lndicatois aie For more about:
the Messaging Indicator see Microblogging;
the Network Indicator see Getting online;
the Session Indicator see Session options.
the Keyboaid lndicatoiallows you to select the keyboaid layout you
would like and change youi keyboaid piefeiences.
the Messaging lndicatoiincoipoiates all youi soc:o| o|:co:ons. liom
heie, you can access youi instant messengei, youi email client, youi
micioblogging application, and even UbuntuOne, youi peisonal cloud'
the Netwoik lndicatoiallows you to manage youi netwoik connections
and connect quickly and easily to a wiied oi wiieless netwoik.
the Sound lndicatoiallows you to adjust the sound volume, and access
youi music playei and Sound Seuings.
the Clockshows you the cuiient time and piovides you with an easy
way to access youi calendai and T:e onJ Doe seu:ngs.
the Me Menuallows you to easily switch between dieient useis and
access youi online and usei occovns
the Session lndicatoipiovides you an easy way to access Syse Se
:ngs, UJoes, Piinteis, and session options foi locking youi computei,
logging out of youi session, iestaiting the computei, oi shuuing down
Figure 2.2: The Indicators of the Top Bar.
Eveiy application has a menu (like File, Edit, View etc.), called the o
|:co:on env. ln Unity, the application menu isnt on the titlebai of the
application, like in othei desktop enviionments, but is instead located on
the lef aiea of the Top Bar. To show an applications menu, just move youi
mouse to the Top Bar. Tis is the second key concept of the Top Bar, the
incoipoiation of application menus on the Top Bar. Tis featuie of Un:y
piovides you with moie fiee woik space, especially benecial foi netbook
and laptop useis. Note that some older applications may still
display their menu within the application
The Launcher
Te bai on the lef side of the scieen is called the Lovnc|er. Te IaunHer
piovides you with an easy way to access applications, mounted devices
and Tiash. lf you iun a maximized application, IaunHer is automatically
hidden. To show the Lovnc|er, move youi mouse to the lef side of youi
1ur UnUN1U ursx1ov :
scieen. Staiting fiom the top, the ist item of the IaunHer is the Dashwe
will desciibe the Dash in depth lateinext theie aie some applications, the
Woikspace lens, any mounted devices, and at the bouom of the Launchei
is the Tiash. By default theie aie some applications on the IaunHer, like Workspaces helps you to select the workspace
or the window you want. Trash contains
deleted les.
Tip: Pressing Meta+S will show the Workspaces.
liiefox. Also, all of the applications that you aie iunning aie available fiom
the IaunHer, including the minimized applications.
The Dash
Te Dash is a tool that helps you to access the application, les and mu- The Dash allows the user to search for informa-
tion: locally (installed applications, recent les,
bookmarks, etc.) and remotely (Twitter, Google
Docs, etc.). This is accomplished by utilizing one
or more Lenses; each responsible for providing
a category of search results for the Dash. For
more information regarding the Dash and
lenses, see:
sic, you want, if you aie a Windows usei you can see the Dash as a moie
advanced appioach of the Sor env. lf you aie a Mac usei, the Dash is
something like Launchpad in the dock. lf used a pievious veision of Ubuntu
oi anothei cNoxr distio, Dash ieplaces the cNoxr menus.
To exploie the Dash, move youi cuisoi to the IaunHer and click on the
top icon, containing the Ubuntu logo.
Figure 2.3: The Dash
Now, you can see the seaich bai on the top, some shoitcuts foi youi
media, mail and photo applications as well as icons to iestiict youi seaich
to paiticulai le-types below. Tese aie called |enses. When you type in the
seaich bai, the Dash will stait seaiching foi applications, les, foldeis oi
music that match what youve typed.
Figure 2.4: Dash lenses
At the bouom aiea of the Dash, aie foui icons, Hoe, A|:co:on Lens,
F:|e Lens and Mvs:c Lens. Lenses seive to specialize seaich categoiies in the
Search for les and applications with the Dash
As mentioned, the Dash is the tool that helps you nd what you want. So
if you aie seaiching foi an application, a le, a music album etc, the Dash
is the iight place foi you. Te seaich bai in the the Dash will locate both
applications and les.
: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
lf you want to maximize the Dash, you only have to click on the icon at
the bouom iight coinei of the Dash.
Search applications
lf you need an application, open the the Dash and piess on the A|:co:on
Lens. Te Dash automatically categoiizes the application to Most lie-
quently Used, lnstalled, and Apps Available foi Download. Entei the
name of the application you aie looking foi, and the Dash will ietuin the
iesults. lf you cant nd what you want, you can also ltei the iesults by
piessing F:|er resv|s in the top iight coinei of the Dash, and then selecting
a categoiy.
Moie infoimation on the applications you will need can be found in
Chaptei Woiking with Ubuntu.
Figure 2.5: You can see the default results when
you press Application Lens, and also the criteria
on the right side.
Search Files and Folders
Open the Dash, and then click on the F:|e Lens. Now you can see les cat-
egoiized to Recent, Downloads, and loldeis. You can add ciiteiia to
ne-tune the iesults. To do this, click on F:|er resv|s and select le oi
foldei modication times, oi le type (.odt, .pdf, .doc, .tex., etc.), oi its size.
Browsing les on your computer
Teie aie two ways to locate les on youi computei, eithei seaich foi You can open your Home folder from the
them oi access them diiectly fiom theii foldei. You can seaich foi a le
via the Dash oi liles & loldeis in the IaunHer. You can use the liles &
loldeis tool to access commonly used foldeis (such as Documents, Music,
Downloads), and most iecently accessed les.
1ur UnUN1U ursx1ov :
On the desktop, hovei youi mouse ovei the Top Bar, and select Places. Te If you do not see the desktop menu, click
somewhere on the desktop and it will appear.
Places menu holds a list of commonly used foldeis (such as Documents,
Music, Downloads, and the Home Folder). You can also biowse the disks
on youi computei by clicking Computer in this menu. lf you set up a home
netwoik, you will nd a menu item to access shaied les oi foldeis. You can
also access the Seaich foi liles tool fiom the Places menu, oi biowse a list
of iecently opened foldeis.
Your Home Folder
Te home foldei is wheie youi peisonal les aie located. When you open
youi peisonal foldei, you will see that theie aie seveial foldeis inside
Desktop (which contains any les that aie visible on the desktop), Docu-
ments, Downloads, Music, Pictuies, Public, Templates, and Videos.
Using Launcher
Running applications
To iun an application fiom the IaunHer, just click on the applications If you hold the Meta key for a while, a number
will appear on each of the rst ten applications.
You can launch an application with a number n
on it, with Meta+n.
icon. Any iunning application exists on the IaunHer, and has one oi moie
tiiangles on the lef side of its icon, indicating the numbei of the application
windows. Te application that is on the foiegiound has a white tiiangle on
the iight side of the applications icon.
You can also iun an application thiough the Dash. We will talk about the
Dash, in the Te Dash section.
lf you minimize an application, it is minimized to the Launchei, and can
be iestoied latei fiom theie.
Figure 2.6: You can see the Home Folder on the
foreground, having a triangle on the right of its
icon. And Firefox with two triangles, indicating
that there are two opened windows of the
Adding and removing applications from Launcher
lf you want to add an application to the IaunHer, theie aie two ways to do
Open the Dash, nd the application you want, and then diag and diop it
on the Launchei
Run the application you want to add to the Launchei, and then iight-
click on the applications icon on the Launchei, and select Keep in
lf you want to iemove an application fiom the IaunHer, iight-click on
the applications icon and then select Remove from launHer oi deselect
Keep in launHerif the application is iunning.
Woikspaces aie viitual desktopssepaiate views of youi desktop which
let you gioup youi open windows. Tese viitual desktops inciease the size
of youi woiking aiea. Woikspaces aie meant to ieduce cluuei and make
the desktop easiei to navigate. By default Ubuntu has foui woikspaces.
loi example, you can have all the media applications windows on one
woikspace, the web biowsei and oce suite windows on anothei.
: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Switching between workspaces
To exploie woikspaces, click on the Woikspaces lens, located on the
Launchei. Tis lens let you switch woikspaces, and choose the one you
want to woik on.
Managing windows
When you open a piogiam in Ubuntu (such as a web biowsei oi a text
editoisee Chaptei Woiking with Ubuntu foi moie infoimation on using
applications)a +:nJo+ will appeai on youi desktop. lf you have used
anothei opeiating system befoie, such as Miciosof Windows oi Mac os
x, you aie piobably familiai with the concept of a windowthe box that
appeais on youi scieen when you stait a piogiam. ln Ubuntu, the top pait
of a window (the :|e|or) will have the title of the window in the centei,
and thiee buuons in the top lef coinei. liom lef to iight, these buuons
c|ose, :n:::e, and o::::e the window. Additionally, you can iight-click
anywheie on the titlebai foi a list of othei window management options.
Closing, maximizing, restoring, and minimizing windows
Figure 2.7: This is the Top Bar of a window,
named Titlebar. The close, minimize, and
maximize buttons are on the top-left corner of
To c|ose a window, click on the in the uppei lef coinei of the window
this will be the ist buuon on the lef-hand side. Te buuon immediately
to the iight of this, is used to :n:::e the window to the Launchei. Once
minimized the window will no longei be visible, but its coiiesponding icon
will iemain on the IaunHer. Tis icon will have a tiiangle on the lef side
of it, indicating the piogiam is still iunning. Clicking this icon, will resore
the window to its oiiginal position. linally, the iight-most buuon of this
gioup will o::::e the window, making it ll the entiie scieen. Clicking
this buuon again will ietuin the window to its oiiginal size. Note that if you
maximize a window its buuons and menu aie automatically hidden fiom
view. To show them, just move youi mouse to the lef side of the Top Bar.
Moving and resizing windows
To move a window aiound the woikspace, place the mouse pointei ovei the You can also move a window by holding the Alt
key and dragging the window
windows titlebai, then click and diag the window while continuing to hold
down the lef mouse buuon. To iesize a window, place the pointei on an
edge oi coinei of the window so that it tuins into a laigei aiiow, the iesize
icon. You can then click and diag to iesize the window.
Figure 2.8: The Workspaces Lens on the
Switching between open windows
ln Ubuntu theie aie many ways to switch between open windows. Meta key (Meta), is also known as the Windows
key (Win key). Press Meta+D to hide all window
and display the desktop, the same works to
restore all windows.
1. lf the window is visible on youi scieen, you can click any poition of it to
iaise it above all othei windows.
1ur UnUN1U ursx1ov :,
:. Use Alt+Tab to select the window you wish to woik on. Hold down
the Alt key, and keep piessing Tab until the window youie looking foi
appeais in the popup.
. Click on the coiiesponding icon on Launchei. Move youi mouse to
lef side of youi scieen to show the Launchei, and iight-click on the
application icon. lf the application has multiple windows open, double-
click on the icon in oidei to select the window you want.
Moving a window to dierent workspace
To move a window to a dieient woikspace, make suie the window isnt
maximized. lf it is maximized click on the iight-most buuon to iestoie it to
its oiiginal size. Ten iight-click on the windows title bai, and select
Move to Workspace Ien, to move the window to the lef woikspace
Move to Workspace Right, to move the window to the iight woikspace
Move to Another Workspace, and then choose the Woikspace you want,
to move the window to the piefeiied woikspace.
Window always on the top or on visible workspace
At times, you may want to have a +:nJo+ o|+oys on o so that it can be
seen oi monitoied while you woik with othei applications. loi example
you may want to biowse the web and at the same time have the instant
messengei on the top, to watch the chat.
To do this you can iight-click on the windows title bai, and then select
Always on the top. Note that this window will be on the top of all windows
that aie opened on the cuiient woikspace.
lf you want to have a window always on the top iegaidless of which
woikspace the window is on, iight-click on the windows titlebai, and then
select Always on Visible Workspace. Doing so this window will be always
on the top of all windows, on all woikspaces.
Nautilus le manager
Just as Windows has Windows Exploiei and Mac os x has lindei to biowse
les and foldeis, Ubuntu uses the Nautilus le managei by default. We will
now look at Nautilus in moie detail.
The Nautilus le manager window
When you select the Home loldei shoitcut in the launchei, oi click on
a foldei in liles & loldeis, the Dash, oi on the desktop, the Nautilus le
managei window opens up. Te noimal window contains the following
Menv|or Te menubai is located at the top of the scieen. Tese menus
allow you to modify the layout of the biowsei, navigate, bookmaik
commonly used foldeis and les, and view hidden foldeis and les. If you bookmark a folder, it will appear in the
Bookmarks menu and in the left pane.
Too||or Te toolbai has tools foi navigation and a tool to make the con-
tents of the window laigei oi smallei. A diop-down list gives you the
option of switching the view fiom Icon View to Iist View oi Compact
View. Te seaich icon (which looks like a magnifying glass) opens a eld
so you can seaich foi a le by name.
:8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
AJJ::ono| No+:go:on Too|s Just below the toolbai, you will see a iepiesen- If you start typing a location starting with a /
character, Nautilus will automatically change
the navigation buttons into a text eld labeled
Location. It is also possible to convert the
navigation buttons into a text eld by pressing
tation of wheie you aie cuiiently biowsing. Tis is similai to the histoiy
function of most biowseis, it keeps tiack of wheie you aie and allows
you to backtiack if necessaiy. You can click on the locations to navigate
back thiough the le biowsei.
Le Pone Te lef pane of the le biowsei has shoitcuts to commonly-used
foldeis. When you bookmaik a foldei, it appeais in the lef pane. No
mauei what foldei you open, the lef pane will always contain the same
foldeis. Tis lef pane can be changed to display dieient featuies, such
as lnfoimation, Tiee, Histoiy etc., by clicking the down aiiow beside
Places neai the top.
Cenro| Pone Te laigest pane shows the les and foldeis in the diiectoiy
that you aie cuiiently biowsing.
Figure 2.9: Nautilus le manager displaying
your home folder.
Navigating Nautilus
To navigate between diiectoiies, use the bookmaiks in the lef pane of What is a Directory? A Folder? A directory is a
division of space in a le system that you can
use to organize les. A folder is the name given
to a directory in a Graphical User Interface
environment like Nautilus.
the Nautilus le managei. You can also ietiace youi steps by clicking on
the name of a foldei wheie it is listed just below the navigational icons.
Double-clicking on a visible diiectoiy will cause you to navigate to it in
Opening les
A le in its simplest foim, is data. Data can iepiesent a text document,
database infoimation, oi data that will be used to pioduce music oi video.
To open a le, you can eithei double-click on its icon oi iight-click and
select Open With (piogiam).
Creating new folders
To cieate a new foldei fiom within Nautilus click File Create Folder, then Note that you can easily view hidden les
by clicking View Show Hidden Files, or
alternatively by pressing Ctrl+H. Hiding les
with a dot (.) is not a security measureinstead
it provides a way of keeping your folders
organized and tidy.
name the foldei that appeais by ieplacing the default untitled foldei with
youi desiied label (e.g., Peisonal linances). You can also cieate a new
foldei by piessing Ctrl+Shift+N, oi by iight-clicking in the le biowsei
1ur UnUN1U ursx1ov :,
window and selecting Create Folder fiom the popup menu (this action will
also woik on the desktop).
Hidden Files and Folders
lf you wish to hide ceitain foldeis oi les, place a dot (.) in fiont of the
name (e.g., .Peisonal linances). ln some cases it is impossible to hide les
and foldeis without piexing them with a dot. ln Nautilus these foldeis can
be hidden by cieating a .hidden le. Open the le and entei in the name of
the le oi foldei you wish to hide. Make suie that each le oi foldei is on a
sepaiate line. When you open Nautilus the foldei will no longei be visible.
Copying and moving les and folders
You can copy les oi foldeis in Nautilus by clicking Edit Copy, oi by iight- You can also use the keyboard shortcuts
Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V to cut, copy and
paste (respectively) les and folders.
clicking on the item and selecting Copy fiom the popup menu. When using
the Edit menu in Nautilus, make suie youve selected the le oi foldei you
want to copy ist (by lef-clicking on it once).
Multiple les can be selected by lef-clicking in an empty space (:.e.,
not on a le oi foldei), holding the mouse buuon down, and diagging the
cuisoi acioss the les oi foldeis you want. Tis click-diag move is useful
when you aie selecting items that aie giouped closely togethei. To select
multiple les oi foldeis that aie not positioned next to each othei, hold
down the Ctrl key while clicking on each item individually. Once multiple
les and/oi foldeis aie selected you can use the Edit menu to peifoim
actions just like you would foi a single item. When one oi moie items have When you cut or copy a le or folder,
nothing will happen until you paste it
somewhere. Paste will only aect the most
recent item that was cut or copied.
been copied, navigate to the desiied location then click Edit Paste (oi
iight-click in an empty aiea of the window and select Paste) to copy them
to the new location.
While the coy command can be used to make a duplicate of a le oi In the Nautilus Edit menu, you will also nd
the Copy To and Move To buttons. These can
be used to copy or move items to common
locations, and can be useful if you are using
panes (see below). Note that it is unnecessary
to use Paste when using these options.
foldei in a new location, the cv command can be used to move les and
foldeis aiound. Tat is, a copy will be placed in a new location, and the
oiiginal will be iemoved fiom its cuiient location.
To move a le oi foldei, select the item you want to move then click
Edit Cut. Navigate to youi desiied location, then click Edit Paste.
. As with the copy command above, you can also peifoim this action If you click on a le or folder, drag it, and then
hold down the Alt key and drop it to your
destination folder, a menu will appear asking
whether you want to copy, move or link the
item. Notice that the symbol of the mouse
cursor changes from an arrow into a question
mark as soon as you hold down the Alt key
using the iight-click menu, and it will woik foi multiple les oi foldeis at
once. An alteinative way to move a le oi foldei is to click on the item, and
then diag it to the new location.
Using multiple tabs and multiple Nautilus windows
Opening multiple Nautilus windows can be useful foi diagging les and
foldeis between locations. Te option of o|s is also available in Nautilus,
as well as the use of ones. When biowsing a foldei in Nautilus, to open a When dragging items between Nautilus
windows, tabs or panes, a small symbol will
appear over the mouse cursor to let you
know which action will be performed when
you release the mouse button. A plus sign
(+) indicates you are about to copy the item,
whereas a small arrow means the item will be
moved. The default action will depend on the
folders you are using.
second window select File New Window oi piess Ctrl+N. Tis will open a
new window, allowing you to diag les and foldeis between two locations.
To open a new tab, click File New Tab oi piess Ctrl+T. A new iow will
appeai above the space used foi biowsing youi les containing two tabs
both will display the diiectoiy you weie oiiginally biowsing. You can
click these tabs to switch between them, and click and diag les oi foldeis
between tabs the same as you would between windows. You can also open
a second pane in Nautilus so you can see two locations at once without
having to switch between tabs oi windows. To open a second pane, click
o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
View Extra Pane, oi piess F3 on youi keyboaid. Again, diagging les and
foldeis between panes is a quick way to move oi copy items.
Searching for les and folders on your computer
You can seaich foi les and foldeis using the Dash, the Launcheis liles and Search for les and folders quickly by pressing
Ctrl+F in Nautilus and then typing what you
want to nd.
loldeis lens oi Nautilus.
Search using the Dash
ln the Dash, click SearH for Files. Open the diop-down menu on the iight
side of the seaich bai. Select loldeis, All liles, oi one of the special foldeis,
e.g., Documents. lt is sucient to type the ist few leueis of the le oi
foldei you aie seaiching foi.
Search using the Launchers Files and Folders lens
Go to the Launcheis liles and loldeis lens. Open the diop-down menu on
the iight side of the seaich bai. Select loldeis, All liles, oi one of the special
foldeis, e.g., Documents. lt is sucient to type the ist few leueis of the le
oi foldei you aie seaiching foi.
Search using Nautilus
ln Nautilus, click Go SearH for Files, oi piess Ctrl+F. Tis opens the
seaich eld wheie you can type the name of the le oi foldei you want to
Customizing your desktop
Figure 2.10: You can change most of your
systems settings here.
Most customizations can be ieached via the Session lndicatoi and then
selecting System Settings to open the System Seuings application win-
dow. Te Dash, Desktop appeaiance, Temes, Wallpapeis, Scieensaveis,
Accessibility, and othei conguiation seuings aie available heie. loi moie
infoimation see Session options.
1ur UnUN1U ursx1ov 1
Figure 2.11: You can change the theme in the
Theme tab of Appearance Preferences.
You can change the backgiound, fonts, and window theme to fuithei
modify the look and feel of youi desktop. To begin, open Appeaiance by
eithei iight-clicking on youi backgiound and selecting Change Desktop
BaHground oi selecting Session Indicator then System Settings then
Appearance .
Te Appeaiance window will display the cuiient selected backgiound
wallpapei and theme when it opens. You may select a theme that will
contiol the appeaiance of youi windows, buuons, scioll bais, panels, icons,
and othei paits of the desktop. Te A|:once theme is used by default, but
theie aie othei themes you can choose fiom. Just click once on the theme
you want to tiy. Te theme will change immediately.
Desktop background
Undei Backgiound, you may choose fiom Wallpapers, Pictures Folder,
and Colors and Gradients. When Wallpapers is selected, you will see
Ubuntus default selection of backgiounds. To change the backgiound
simply click the pictuie you would like to use. Youie not limited to this
selection though.
To use one of youi own pictuies, click the + buuon, and navigate
to the image you want. Double-click it, and the change will take eect
immediately. Tis image will also then be added to youi list of available
lf you aie afei a laigei selection of desktop backgiounds, click the Get
Moie Backgiounds Online link at the bouom of the Appeaiance Piefei-
ences window. Tis link will open youi web biowsei, and diiect you to the
http//ait.gnome.oig/backgiounds website.
Ubuntu has built-in tools that make using the computei easiei foi people
with ceitain physical limitations. You can nd these tools by opening the
: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Dash and seaiching foi Univeisal Access. On the Seeing tab you can man-
age the text size, the contiast of the inteifaces, enable a zoom tool and even
a scieen ieadei. Selecting high-contiast themes and laigei on-scieen fonts
can assist those with vision diculties. You can activate Visual Aleits
though the Hearing tab, if you have heaiing impaiiment. Also you can ad-
just keyboaid and mouse seuings to suit youi needs thiough the Typing
and Pointing and CliHing tabs iespectively.
Figure 2.12: Universal allows you to enable
extra features to make it easier to use your
Orca screen reader
Oica is a useful tool foi people with visual impaiiments, and comes pie-
installed. To iun Oica, click on the Dash and type Orca, and click on the
shown iesult. Oica is the Scieen Readei of the Univeisal Access, and can
be launched once the Scieen Readei is activated. Oicas voice synthesizei
will activate and assist you thiough the vaiious options such as voice type,
voice language, Biaille, and scieen magnication. Once you have nished
selecting youi seuings, you will need to log out of the computei (Oica will
oei to do this foi you). When you log back in, the Oica seuings you chose
will automatically iun eveiy time you use youi computei.
Session options
When you have nished woiking on youi computei, you can choose to log
out, suspend, iestait, oi shut down thiough the Session lndicatoi on the
fai iight side of the top panel. You can also quickly access these options by
piessing the Ctrl+Alt+Del keys.
Logging out
Logging out will leave the computei iunning but ietuin you to the login
scieen. Tis is useful foi switching between useis, such as when a dieient
peison wishes to log in to theii account, oi if you aie evei instiucted to log
out and back in again. You should save youi woik befoie logging out.
1ur UnUN1U ursx1ov
To save eneigy, you can put youi computei into suspend mode, which
will save its cuiient condition and allow you to stait moie quickly while
iemaining on but using veiy liule eneigy. Suspending the computei spins
down the haid disk and saves youi session to memoiy, so it is veiy quick to
suspend and iesume fiom suspension.
Hibeinate is similai to suspend, except that instead of saving youi session
to memoiy, hibeinate will save youi session to the haid disk. Tis takes
a liule longei, but with the added benet that hibeination uses no powei
while it is in a hibeinated state.
To ieboot youi computei, select Shut Down fiom the Session lndicatoi
and click on Restart.
Shut down
To totally powei down youi computei, select Shut Down fiom the Ses-
sion lndicatoi and click on Shutdown.
Other options
liom the Session lndicatoi, you can also select IoH Screen to iequiie You can lock your screen quickly by using the
keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Alt+L. Locking your
screen is recommended if you move away from
your computer for a short amount of time.
a passwoid befoie using the computei againthis is useful if you need
to leave youi computei foi some duiation. You can also use the Session
lndicatoi to set up a guest session foi a fiiend to tiy Ubuntu, oi to s+:c|
vsers to log into anothei usei account without closing youi applications.
Getting help
Ubuntu, just like othei opeiating systems, has a built-in help iefeience, Many applications have their own help which
can be accessed by clicking the Help menu
within the application window.
called the Ubuntu Desktop Guide. To access it, click on the Dash and type
Help. Alteinately, you can piess F1 while on the desktop, oi click Ubuntu
Help in the Top Bai.
lf you cant nd an answei to youi question in this manual oi in the
Ubuntu Desktop Guide, you can contact the Ubuntu community thiough
the Ubuntu loiums (http//ubuntufoiums.oig).
We encourage you to check any information
you nd on other websites with multiple
sources when possible, but only follow direc-
tions if you understand them completely.
Many Ubuntu useis open an account on the foiums to ieceive help, and
in tuin piovide suppoit to otheis as they gain moie knowledge. Anothei
useful iesouice is the Ubuntu Wiki (https//, a website
maintained by the Ubuntu community.
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Figure 2.13: The built-in system help provides
topic-based help for Ubuntu.
3 Working with Ubuntu
All the applications you need
lf you aie migiating fiom a Windows oi Mac platfoim, you may wondei if
the piogiams that you once used aie available. Some of the piogiams you
alieady use have native Linux veisions. And, foi those that dont, theie aie
fiee and open-souice applications that will covei youi needs. Tis section
will iecommend some alteinates that will woik well on Ubuntu. Most of You can search for more applications in the
Ubuntu Software Center, by the category that
you are interested in.
the applications listed in this section aie available via the Sofwaie Centei.
Tose followed by an asteiisk (*) can be downloaded diiectly fiom theii
ocial websites.
Oce Suites
Windows Miciosof Oce, LibieOce
Mac OS iWoik, Miciosof Oce, LibieOce
Linux LibieOce, KOce, GNOME Oce, Kexi (database application)
ln Ubuntu you may choose among many oce suites. Te most populai
suite is the LibieOce (foimeily OpenOce). lncluded in the suite
Wiiteiwoid piocessoi
lmpiesspiesentation managei
Diawdiawing piogiam
Mathequation editoi
LibieOce Suite is installed by default. Note that Base is not installed by
default and it can be installed thiough Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Email Applications
Windows Miciosof Outlook, Mozilla Tundeibiid
Mac OS, Miciosof Outlook, Mozilla Tundeibiid
Linux Mozilla Tundeibiid, Evolution, KMail
As with oce suites, theie aie multiple options foi email applications.
One veiy populai email application is Mozilla Tundeibiid, which is also
available foi Windows. Tundeibiid is the default email application in
Ubuntu. Anothei option is Evolutionsimilai to Miciosof Outlook, it also
piovides a calendai.
Web Browsers
Windows Miciosof lnteinet Exploiei, Mozilla liiefox, Opeia, Chiomium,
Google Chiome
Mac OS Safaii, Mozilla liiefox, Opeia, Chiomium, Google Chiome
Linux Mozilla liiefox, Opeia*, Chiomium, Google Chiome*, Epiphany
Te most populai web biowseis can be installed diiectly fiom the
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Opera is available for download from http:// Google
Chrome is available for download from https/
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
PDF Readers
Windows Adobe Readei
Mac OS Adobe Readei
Linux Evince, Adobe Readei, Okulai
Evince is a usei-fiiendly and minimalistic ieadei, and it is the default
PDl ieadei. lf Evince doesnt covei youi needs, Adobe Readei is available
foi Ubuntu too.
Multimedia Players
Windows Windows Media Playei, VLC
Mac OS Qicktime, VLC
Linux Totem, VLC, Mplayei, Kaeine
loi multimedia, Ubuntu useis have a wide vaiiety of options foi high
quality playeis. Two populai and poweiful media playeis foi Ubuntu aie
VLC and Mplayei. Meanwhile, the classic and usei-fiiendly Totem is the
default media playei in Ubuntu.
Music Players and Podcatchers
Windows Windows Media Playei, iTunes, Winamp
Mac OS iTunes
Linux Banshee, Rhythmbox, Amaiok, Audacity, Miio
Teie aie seveial options foi listening to music with Ubuntu Banshee
(installed by default), Rhythmbox, and Amaiok, among otheis. With these
you can listen to music and youi favoiite podcasts. Audacity is similai to
Winamp. Teie is Miio foi those of you who watch video podcasts and TV
seiies fiom the lnteinet.
CD/DVD Burning
Windows Neio Buining ROM, lnfiaRecoidei
Mac OS Buin, Toast Titanium
Linux Biaseio, Kb, Gnome-bakei, Neio Buining ROM*
Te aie seveial populai disk buining applications such as Gnome-bakei,
Biaseio, Ubuntus default CD buinei, and Kb. Tese buineis aie poweiful
tools, oeiing usei-fiiendly inteifaces, many featuies and they aie all open
souice and fiee of chaige' Also Neio Buining ROM is available foi Linux,
but you have to buy it.
Photo Management
Windows Miciosof Oce Pictuie Managei, Picasa
Mac OS Apeituie, Picasa
Linux Shotwell, gTumb, Picasa*, Gwenview, l-Spot
You can view and manage youi favoiite photos with Shotwell, Ubuntus
default photo managei, oi with gTumb, Picasa, Gwenview, and lspot.
Picasa is available for download from http://
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
Graphics Editors
Windows Adobe Photoshop, GlMP
Mac OS Adobe Photoshop, GlMP
Linux GlMP
GlMP is a veiy poweiful giaphics editoi. You can cieate youi own
giaphics, tapei youi photogiaphs, modify youi pictuies. GlMP, a powei-
ful alteinative to Photoshop, coveis the needs of novice useis, piofessional
photogiapheis, and designeis.
GIMP :s no |ooJeJ |y Je[ov|, |v con |e :nso||eJ +:o |e So+ore Cener.
Instant Messaging
Windows Windows Live Messengei, AlM, Yahoo' Messengei, Google
Mac OS Windows Live Messengei, AlM, Yahoo' Messengei, Adium,
Linux Empathy, Pidgin, Kopete, aMSN
None of the othei platfoim lM clients have Linux veisions. Howevei,
you can use Pidgin, Empathy oi Kopete to communicate ovei most pioto-
cols including AlM, MSN, Google Talk (Jabbei/XMPP), lacebook, Yahoo',
and lCQ. Tis means you need only one client to communicate with all of
youi fiiends. Te diawback is that some of these clients have limited video
suppoit. lf you aie using MSN exclusively, aMSN may be woith a tiy.
VoIP Applications
Windows Skype, Google Video Chat
Mac OS Skype, Google Video Chat
Linux Ekiga, Skype, Google Video Chat
VolP technologies allow you to talk to people ovei the lnteinet. Te
most populai such application is Skype, which is available foi Linux. An
open-souice alteinative Ekiga suppoits voice communication using the SlP
piotocol. Note that Ekigka isnt compatible with the Skype.
BitTorrent Clients
Windows uToiient, Azuieus
Mac OS Tiansmission, Azuieus
Linux Tiansmission, Deluge, Azuieus, KToiient
Teie aie a numbei of BitToiient clients foi Ubuntu Tiansmission,
Ubuntus default client, is simple and light-weight, Deluge, Azuieus and
KToiient oei many featuies and can satisfy the most demanding of useis.
Getting online
lf you aie in a location with lnteinet access, you will want to make suie
you aie connected in oidei to get the most out of youi Ubuntu opeiating
system. Tis section of the manual will help you check youi connection and
8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
conguie it wheie necessaiy. Ubuntu can connect to the lnteinet using a
wiied, wiieless, oi dialup connection. lt also suppoits some moie advanced
connection methods, which we will biiey discuss at the end of this section.
A wiied connection iefeis to when youi computei is physically con-
nected to a ioutei oi an Etheinet poit with a cable. Tis is the most com-
mon connection foi desktop computeis.
A wiieless connection is when youi computei is connected to the lntei-
net via a wiieless iadio netwoik, also known as Wi-li. Laptop computeis
commonly use Wi-li due to poitability, making it easy to access the lntei-
net fiom dieient iooms in the house oi when tiaveling.
ln oidei to connect wiielessly, you must be in a location with a woiking
wiieless netwoik. To have youi own, you will need to puichase and install
a +:re|ess rover oi occess o:n. Some locations may alieady have a publicly
accessible wiieless netwoik available.
A dialup connection is when youi computei uses a oJe to connect to
an lnteinet seivice piovidei thiough youi telephone line.
ln oidei to connect to the lnteinet in Ubuntu, you need to use the Netwoik- If you are unsure whether your computer has a
wireless card, check with your manufacturer.
Managei utility. NetwoikManagei allows you to tuin all netwoiking on oi
o, and helps you manage youi wiied, wiieless, and othei connections.
Figure 3.1: NetworkManager will display this
icon in the top panel when you are connected
to a wired network.
You can access all the functions of NetwoikManagei using its icon in
the top panel. Tis icon may look dieient depending on whethei you cui-
iently have a woiking connection, and whethei the connection is wiied oi
wiieless. lf you aie unsuie, tiy hoveiing youi mouse ovei the icon until a
shoit desciiption appeais neai the cuisoi. Tis will iead Wiied netwoik
connection Auto eth0 active (foi example) if you have a woiking wiied
connection, oi otheiwise something else ielated to netwoiking oi connec-
tions such as No connection oi Netwoiking disabled.
Figure 3.2: Here you can see the currently
active auto eth0 connection listed in the
NetworkManager menu.
Clicking this icon will biing up a list of netwoik connections that aie
available to you. lf you aie cuiiently connected to the lnteinet, the name of
this connection will be highlighted in bold.
Tis menu also includes options to let you enable oi disable netwoiking,
view technical details about youi cuiient connection, oi edit all connection
seuings. ln the image above, the check box next to Enable Networking is
cuiiently selected, you can deselect it to disable all netwoik connections.
Tis may be useful if you need to shut o all wiieless communication, such
as when in an aiiplane.
Establishing a wired connection
lf you have an F|erne cable iunning fiom a wall socket, a ioutei, oi some
othei device, then you will want to set up a wiied netwoik connection in
ln oidei to connect with a wiied connection, you need to know whethei Are you already online? If the NetworkManager
icon in the top panel shows a connection, then
you may have successfully connected during the
installation process. If so, you do not need to
follow the rest of this section.
youi netwoik connection suppoits uucv. Dyno:c Hos Congvro:on
Prooco|, is a way foi computeis on youi netwoik to automatically ieceive
conguiation infoimation fiom youi lnteinet seivice piovidei (isv). Tis is
usually the quickest and easiest way of establishing a connection between
youi computei and youi isv in oidei to access the lnteinet, although some
isvs may piovide what is called a so:c oJJress instead. lf you aie unsuie
whethei youi isv suppoits uucv, you may wish to contact theii customei
seivice line to check. Tey will also be able to piovide you with infoimation
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
on youi static addiess if one has been allocated to you (in many cases isvs
only allocate static addiesses to customeis upon iequest).
Automatic connections with DHCP
lf youi netwoik suppoits uucv, you may alieady be set up foi online access.
To check this, click on the NetwoikManagei icon. Teie should be a Wiied
Netwoik heading in the menu that is displayed. lf Auto eth0 appeais
diiectly undeineath, then youi computei is cuiiently connected and piob-
ably alieady set up coiiectly foi uucv. lf disconnected appeais in giay
undeineath the wiied netwoik section, look below to see if an option la-
beled Auto eth0 appeais in the list. lf so, click on it to auempt to establish
a wiied connection.
To check if you aie online, click on the NetwoikManagei icon in the top
panel and select the Connection Information option.
Figure 3.3: This window displays your IP address
and other connection information.
You should see a window showing details about youi connection. lf youi
An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical
label assigned to devices on a computer
network. It is the equivalent of phone numbers
for your house and allows your computer to
be uniquely identied so you can access the
Internet and share les with others.
iv addiess is displayed as o.o.o.o oi staits with 1,.:, then youi computei
was not successfully piovided with an addiess thiough uucv. lf it shows
anothei addiess, it is most likely that youi connection was automatically
conguied coiiectly. To test out youi lnteinet connection, you may want to
open the liiefox web biowsei to tiy loading a web page. Moie infoimation
on using liiefox can be found latei in this chaptei.
lf you aie still not online afei following these steps, you may need to tiy
To access the Connection Information
window, you will need to make sure that
networking is enabled. Otherwise this option
will be gray and you will not be able to select
it through the menu of the NetworkManager
icon. To enable networking, click on the
NetworkManager icon and select Enable
Networking from the popup menu.
seuing up youi lnteinet conguiation manually, using a static iv addiess.
Manual conguration with static addresses
lf youi netwoik does not suppoit uucv, then you need to know a few items
of infoimation befoie you can get online.
An oJJress is a unique addiess used foi identifying youi computei on
the lnteinet. When connecting thiough uucv this is likely to change at
times. Howevei, if youi isv has piovided you with a static addiess then
it will not. An iv addiess is always given in the foim of foui numbeis
sepaiated by decimal points, foi example, 1,:.18.o.:.
Te ne+or| os| tells youi computei how laige the netwoik is that
it belongs to. lt takes the same foim as an iv addiess, but is usually
something like :.:.:.o
Te goe+oy is the iv addiess at youi isvs end. lt helps youi computei
connect oi talk with theii netwoik, which acts as a gateway between
youi computei and the lnteinet.
u: ser+ers aie one oi moie iv addiesses of Domain Name System
seiveis. Tese seiveis conveit standaid web addiesses (like http//www. into iv addiesses such as ,1.18,.,.1. Tis step allows
youi computei to nd the coiiect web site when you entei the web
addiess you wish to visit. A minimum of one uNs seivei is iequiied, up
to a maximum of thiee. Te additional ones aie used in case the ist one
To manually conguie a wiied connection, click on the NetwoikManagei If you do not already have these settings, you
will need to consult your network administrator
or ISP customer support to receive them.
icon and select Edit Connections. Make suie you aie looking at the Wired
tab inside the Netwoik Connections window that is displayed.
Te list may alieady have an entiy such as Auto eth0, oi a similai
name. lf a connection is listed, select it and then click the Edit buuon. lf no
connection is listed, click the Add buuon instead.
o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
lf you aie adding a connection, you ist need to piovide a name foi the
connection so you can distinguish it fiom any otheis that aie added latei. ln
the Connection name eld, choose a name such as Wiied connection 1.
Figure 3.4: In this window you can manually edit
a connection.
To set up the connection
1. Undei the connection name, make suie that the Connect automatically
option is selected.
:. Switch to the irv Settings tab.
. Change the Method to Manual.
. Click on the Add buuon next to the empty list of addiesses.
. Entei youi iv addiess in the eld below the Address headei.
. Click to the iight of the iv addiess, diiectly below the Netmask headei,
and entei youi netwoik mask. lf you aie unsuie of youi netwoik mask,
:.:.:.o is the most common.
,. Click to the iight of the netwoik mask, diiectly below the Gateway
headei, and entei the addiess of youi gateway.
8. ln the bs servers eld below, entei the addiesses of youi uNs seivei. lf
youi netwoik has moie than one uNs seivei, entei them all, sepaiated by
spaces oi commas.
,. Click Apply to save youi changes.
A m~c oJJress :s o |orJ+ore oJJress [or yovr covers ne+or| corJ, onJ
ener:ng : :s soe:es :oron +|en vs:ng o co||e oJe connec:on or
s::|or. I[ yov |no+ |e m~c oJJress o[ yovr ne+or| corJ, |:s con |e enereJ :n
|e oror:oe e: e|J :n |e Wired o| o[ |e eJ::ng +:nJo+.
When you have ietuined to the Netwoik Connections scieen, youi
newly-added connection should now be listed. Click Close to ietuin to the
desktop. lf youi connection is conguied coiiectly, the NetwoikManagei
icon should have changed to show an active connection. To test if youi
connection is piopeily set up, iefei to the instiuctions above foi checking a
uucv connection.
lf youi computei is equipped with a wiieless (Wi-li) caid and you have a
wiieless netwoik neaiby, you should be able to set up a wiieless connection
in Ubuntu.
Connecting to a wireless network for the rst time
lf youi computei has a wiieless netwoik caid, you should be able to connect
to a wiieless netwoik. Most laptop and netbook computeis have a wiieless
netwoik caid.
Ubuntu is usually able to detect any wiieless netwoiks that aie available To improve speed and reliability of your
connection, try to move closer to your router or
access point.
within iange of youi wiieless caid. To see a list of wiieless netwoiks, click
on the NetwoikManagei icon. Undei the Wiieless Netwoiks heading, you
should see a list of available wiieless netwoiks. Each netwoik will be shown
with a name on the lef, and a signal metei on the iight. A signal metei
looks like a seiies of baisthe moie bais that aie lled in, the stiongei the
connection will be.
A wiieless netwoik may be open to anyone to connect, oi may be pio-
tected with netwoik secuiity. A small padlock will be displayed next to the
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U 1
signal metei of any wiieless netwoiks that aie piotected. You will need to
know the coiiect passwoid in oidei to connect to these.
To connect to a wiieless netwoik, select the desiied netwoiks name
fiom the list. Tis will be the name that was used when the wiieless ioutei
oi access point was installed. lf you aie in a woikplace oi a location with a
publicly accessible wiieless netwoik, the netwoik name will usually make it
easy to identify.
lf the netwoik is unpiotected (:.e., the netwoik signal metei does not
display a padlock), a connection should be established within a few seconds.
Te NetwoikManagei icon in the top panel will animate as Ubuntu auempts
to establish a connection. lf it connects successfully the icon will change
to display a signal metei. A notication message in the uppei iight of youi
scieen will also appeai, infoiming you that a connection was established.
lf the netwoik is secuied, Ubuntu will display a window called Wiieless
Netwoik Authentication Requiied once it tiies to connect. Tis means that
a passwoid is iequiied in oidei to connect.
Figure 3.5: Enter your wireless network
lf you know the passwoid, entei it in the Password eld, and then click
Connect. As you type youi passwoid, it will be obscuied to pievent otheis
fiom seeing it. lf you piefei, you can select the Show password option to
see the passwoid as you type.
Afei you click the Connect buuon, the NetwoikManagei icon in the top
panel will animate as it tiies to connect to the netwoik. lf you have enteied
the coiiect passwoid, a connection will be established and the Netwoik-
Managei icon will change to show signal metei bais. Again, Ubuntu will
display a pop up message in the uppei iight of youi scieen infoiming you
that a connection was established.
lf you enteied the wiieless netwoiks passwoid incoiiectly, Netwoik- Select the Show Password option to make sure
you havent made a mistake when entering the
Managei will auempt to establish a connection then ietuin to the Wiieless
Netwoik Authentication Requiied window. You can auempt to entei the
coiiect passwoid again, oi click Cancel to aboit youi connection. lf you do
not know the passwoid to the netwoik you have selected, you will need to
get the passwoid fiom the netwoik administiatoi.
Once you have successfully established a wiieless netwoik connection,
Ubuntu will stoie these seuings (including the netwoik passwoid) in oidei
to make it easiei to connect to the same wiieless netwoik in futuie. You
may also be piompted to select a |eyr:ng passwoid heie. Te keyiing stoies
netwoik and othei impoitant passwoids in the one place, so you can access
them all in futuie by just iemembeiing youi keyiing passwoid.
Connecting to a saved wireless network
lf you have pieviously successfully established a wiieless connection, that
connections passwoid will be saved on youi computei. Tis will allow you
to connect to the same netwoik without having to ie-entei the passwoid.
: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
ln addition, Ubuntu will automatically tiy to connect to a wiieless net-
woik within iange if it has its seuings saved. Tis will woik foi both open
and secuied wiieless netwoiks.
lf you have many saved wiieless netwoiks that aie in iange, Ubuntu
may choose to connect to one of them, while you may piefei to connect to
anothei. ln this case, click on the NetwoikManagei icon. You should see a
list of wiieless netwoiks in iange, along with theii signal meteis. Click on
youi desiied netwoik.
lf the passwoid and othei seuings have not changed, Ubuntu will con-
nect to the wiieless netwoik you chose. lf the passwoid has changed,
Ubuntu will open the Wiieless Netwoik Authentication Requiied win-
dow. ln this case, follow the instiuctions in the pievious section.
Connecting to a hidden wireless network
ln some ciicumstances, you may need to connect to a hidden wiieless net-
woik. Tese hidden netwoiks do not bioadcast theii names, which means
that they will not show up in the list of wiieless netwoiks in the Netwoik-
Managei menu. ln oidei to be able to connect to a hidden netwoik, you will
need to get its name and secuiity seuings fiom youi netwoik administiatoi.
To connect to a hidden netwoik
1. Click on the NetwoikManagei icon in the top panel.
:. Select the Connect to Hidden Wireless Network option. Ubuntu should
open the Connect to Hidden Wiieless Netwoik window.
. By default, the Connection eld should show Newyou can leave
this unchanged.
. ln the Network name eld, entei the name of the wiieless netwoik. Tis
name is also known as a ::u. Please entei the netwoik name exactly as
it was given to you.
. ln the Wireless security eld, select one of the options. lf the netwoik
is open, leave this eld as None. lf you do not know the coiiect seuing
foi the netwoik you will not be able to connect to the hidden netwoik.
. Click on the Connect buuon.
Te iest of the piocess should woik exactly as in the section on the
initial connection to wiieless netwoiks. Once set up accoiding to the in-
stiuctions above, the hidden netwoik should show up in the list of saved
Disabling and enabling your wireless network card
Wiieless access in Ubuntu is enabled by default if you have a wiieless Some computers may have a physical switch or
button to turn o Wi-Fi.
netwoik caid in youi computei. ln ceitain cases, foi example on aiiplanes,
you may need oi be iequiied to tuin youi wiieless iadio o.
To do this, click on the NetwoikManagei icon, and deselect the Enable
Wireless option. Youi wiieless netwoik will be tuined o, and youi com-
putei will no longei seaich foi available wiieless netwoiks.
To tuin wiieless netwoiking back on, click on the NetwoikManagei icon,
and click on the Enable Wireless option to ie-select it. Youi wiieless net-
woik will be tuined back on. Ubuntu will then seaich foi neaiby wiieless
netwoiks and will connect to any saved netwoiks within iange.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U
Changing an existing wireless network
At times, you may want to change the seuings foi a wiieless connection
that you have pieviously saved. lts passwoid may have changed, oi youi
system administiatoi asked you to change some netwoiking oi secuiity
To edit a saved wiieless netwoik connection
1. Click on the NetwoikManagei icon and select Edit Connections
:. A Netwoik Connections window should open. Click on the Wireless
tab to see a list of saved wiieless connections.
. By default, this list shows connections in the oidei of most iecently used
to least iecently used. lind the connection you want to edit, click on it,
and then click Edit.
. Ubuntu should open a window called Editing connec:on noe, wheie
connec:on noe is the name of the connection you aie editing. Te
window should display a numbei of tabs.
. Above the tabs, you may change the Connection name eld if you want
to give the connection a moie iecognizable name.
. lf the Connect automatically option is not selected, Ubuntu will detect
the wiieless netwoik but will not automatically connect to it without
you choosing it fiom the NetwoikManagei menu. Select oi deselect this
seuing as needed.
,. On the Wireless tab of the Editing connec:on noe window, you
may need to edit the ssib eld. A ssiu is the wiieless connections net-
woik nameif set incoiiectly, the netwoik may not be detected and
a connection may not be made. Please make suie that the ssiu is set
accoiding to youi netwoik administiatois instiuctions.
8. Below the ssiu, you should see the Mode eld. Te lnfiastiuctuie
mode means that you would be connecting to a wiieless ioutei oi access
point. Tis is the most common mode foi wiieless netwoiks. Te Ad-
hoc mode is a computei-to-computei mode and is ofen only used in
advanced cases.
,. On the Wireless Security tab of the Editing connec:on noe win-
dow, you may need to change the Security eld to the coiiect seuing.
A selection of None means that you aie using an open netwoik with
no secuiity. Othei selections may iequiie slightly dieient additional
v o/1z8|: Key is an oldei secuiity seuing still in use by some wiie-
less netwoiks. lf youi netwoik uses this secuiity mode, you will need
to entei a key in the Key eld that should appeai afei you select this
v 1z8|: Poss|rose is the same oldei secuiity seuing as the entiy
above. Howevei, instead of a key, youi netwoik administiatoi should
have piovided you with a text passphiasea passwoidto connect
to the netwoik. Once you select this secuiity mode, you will need to
entei youi passphiase in the Key eld.
v~ & v~z Persono| is the most common secuiity mode foi wiieless
netwoik connections at home and at businesses. Once you select this
mode, you will need to entei a passwoid in the Password eld.
lf youi netwoik administiatoi iequiies ir~v, Dynamic vrv, oi vv~
& vv~: Enteipiise secuiity, you will need to have the administiatoi
help you set up those secuiity modes.
1o. On the irv Settings tab, you may need to change the Method eld
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
fiom Automatic (uucv) to Manual, oi one of the othei methods. loi
seuing up manual seuings (also known as static addiesses), please see
the section above on manual set up foi wiied netwoik connections.
11. When you nish making changes to the connection, click Apply to save
youi changes and close the window. You can click Cancel to close the
window without making changes.
1:. linally, click Close on the Netwoik Connections window to ietuin to
the desktop.
Afei making changes, youi new seuings should go into eect immedi-
Other connection methods
Teie aie othei ways to get connected with Ubuntu.
With NetwoikManagei, you can also conguie Mobile Bioadband con-
nections to keep online thiough youi cellulai oi othei mobile data caiiiei.
You can also connect to usis (Digital Subsciibei Lines), which aie a
method of lnteinet connection that uses youi telephone lines and a usi
lts also possible to use NetwoikManagei to establish a vvN (Viitual A VPN is a Virtual Private Network, and is
sometimes used to help secure connections.
DSLs are Digital Subscriber Lines, a type of
broadband connection.
Piivate Netwoik) connection. Tese aie commonly used to cieate secuie
connectivity to a woikplace.
Te instiuctions foi making connections using mobile bioadband, vvNs,
oi usis, aie beyond the scope of this guide.
Browsing the web
Once you have connected to the lnteinet, you should be able to biowse the
web with Ubuntu. Mozilla liiefox is the default application foi biowsing the
web in Ubuntu.
Figure 3.6: The default Ubuntu home page for
the Firefox web browser.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U
Starting Firefox
To stait liiefox, click on the Dash (the top-most icon in the Launchei) and
eithei seaich foi iefox using the seaich box oi click on the Biowse the
Web buuon. lf youi keyboaid has a vvv buuon, you can also piess that
buuon to stait liiefox.
Navigating web pages
Viewing your homepage
When you stait liiefox, you will see youi home page. By default, you will
see the Ubuntu Stait Page.
To go to youi home page quickly, piess Alt+Home.
Navigating to another page
To navigate to a new web page, you need to entei its lnteinet addiess (also URL stands for uniform resource locator and
WWW stands for world wide web.
known as a Uvi) into the Location Bai. Uvis noimally begin with hup//
followed by one oi moie names that identify the addiess. One example is
Figure 3.7: You can enter a web address or
search the Internet by typing in the location
To navigate
1. Click on the Location Bai to select the Uvi that is alieady theie.
:. Entei the Uvi of the page you want to visit. Te Uvi you type ieplaces
any text alieady in the Location Bai.
. Piess Enter.
To quickly select the Uvi of the Location Bai, piess Ctrl+L.
lf you dont know a Uvi, tiy typing something specic to the page you
want to visit (foi example a name oi othei seaich iequest) into the Location
Bai and piess Enter. Tis will seaich youi piefeiied seaich engineGoogle
by defaultfoi that teim, and take you to the web page that is the top iesult
fiom the seaich.
Clicking a link
Most web pages contain links you can click to move to othei pages.
To click a link
1. Move the mouse pointei until it changes to a pointing ngei. Tis hap-
pens whenevei the pointei is ovei a link. Most links aie undeilined text,
but buuons and pictuies on a web page can also be links.
:. Click on the link once. While liiefox locates the links page, status
messages will appeai at the bouom of the window.
Retracing your steps
lf you want to visit a page you have seen befoie, theie aie seveial ways to To go backwards and forwards you can also use
Alt+Left to go backwards or Alt+Right to go
do so.
To go back oi foiwaid one page, click on the BaH oi Forward buuon, at
the lef side of the Location Bai.
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
To go back oi foiwaid moie than one page, click on the small tiian-
gle next to the Forward buuon. You should see a list of pages youve
iecently visited. To ietuin to a page, select it fiom the list.
To see a list of any Uvis youve enteied into the Location Bai, click on
the down aiiow at the iight end of the Location Bai. To view a page,
select it fiom the list.
To choose fiom pages youve visited duiing the cuiient session, open
the History menu and choose fiom the list in the bouom section of the
To choose fiom pages youve visited duiing the past seveial sessions,
open the History menu and select Show All History. liiefox should
open a Libiaiy window, which shows a list of foldeis. Click on the
foldeis to displays sub-foldeis, oi titles of web pages youve visited in the
past. Click on a pages title to view that page.
Stopping and reloading
lf a page is loading too slowly oi you no longei wish to view a page, click Stop and Reload buttons are at the right end of
the Location Bar.
on the Stop buuon oi piess Esc.
To ieload the cuiient page oi to get the most up-to-date veision, click on
the Reload buuon oi piess Ctrl+R.
Opening new windows
At times, you may want to have moie than one biowsing window. Tis may
help you oiganize youi biowsing session beuei, oi sepaiate web pages that
you aie viewing foi dieient ieasons.
Teie aie thiee ways to cieate a new window
On the top bai, open the File menu, then select New Window.
Right-click on the liiefoxs icon on the Launchei, and then select Open
New Windows
Piess Ctrl+N.
Once a new window has opened, you can use it just like the ist window
including navigation and opening tabs.
Opening a link in a new window
Sometimes, you may want to click on a link to navigate to anothei web
page, but do not want the oiiginal page to close. To do this, you can open
the link youd like to click in its own window.
Teie aie two ways to open a link in its own window
Right-click on a link to open its popup menu. Select the Open Iink in
New Window option. A new window will open, containing the web
page foi the link you clicked.
Piess-and-hold the Shift key while clicking a link. Tis will also open
the web page in a new window.
Tabbed browsing
lf you would like to visit moie than one web page at a time, you can use
To||eJ Bro+s:ng to navigate the web.
Tabbed biowsing lets you open seveial web pages within a single liiefox
window, each displaying in its own tab. Tis fiees up space on youi desktop
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
since you dont have to have a window open foi eveiy web page youie
cuiiently visiting. You can open, close, and ieload web pages in one place
without having to switch to anothei window.
You can alteinate quickly between dieient tabs by using the keyboaid
shoitcut Ctrl+Tab.
Opening a new blank tab
Teie aie thiee ways to cieate a new blank tab
Click on the Open new tab buuon on the iight side of the last tab.
On the top bai, open the File menu, and then select New Tab.
Piess Ctrl+T.
When you cieate a new tab, it will contain a blank page with the Loca-
tion Bai focused. Stait typing a web addiess (Uvi) oi othei seaich teim to
open a website in the new tab.
Opening a link in its own tab
Sometimes, you may want to click on a link to navigate to anothei web
page, but do not want the oiiginal page to close. To do this, you can open
the link youd like to click in its own tab.
Teie aie many ways to open a link in its own tab
Right-click on a link to open its popup menu. Select the Open Iink in
New Tab option. A new tab will open, containing the web page foi the
link you clicked.
lf youi mouse has a middle buuon, oi a wheel, click on the link with the
middle mouse buuon oi wheel. A new tab should open, containing the
web page foi the link you clicked.
Piess-and-hold the Ctrl key while clicking the lef mouse buuon on the
link. A new tab should open, containing the web page foi the link you
Click on a link, holding both lef and iight mouse buuons.
Click on the link with the lef mouse buuon, and keep holding down
the mouse buuon. Diag the link up to a blank space on the tab bai, and
ielease the mouse buuon. A new tab should open, containing the web
page foi the link you diagged.
Closing a tab
Once you have nished viewing a web page in a tab, you can close that tab.
Teie aie vaiious ways to close a tab
Click on the Close buuon on the iight side of the tab you want to close.
Open the File menu, and then select Close Tab.
Click on the tab you want to close with the middle mouse buuon, oi the
mouse wheel, if you have one.
Piess Ctrl+W.
Click on the tab with both mouse buuons.
Restoring a closed tab
Sometimes, you may close the wiong tab by accident, oi want to biing back
a tab that youve iecently closed.
To biing back a tab youve closed, do one of the following
8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Open the History menu, select Recently Closed Tabs, and then choose
the name of the tab you want to iestoie.
Piess Ctrl+Shift+T to ie-open the most iecently closed tab.
Changing the tab order
To move a tab to a dieient location on the tab bai, diag it theie using youi
mouse. Click-and-hold on the tab and diag the tab to a new place on the tab
bai. While you aie diagging the tab, liiefox will display a small indicatoi to
show wheie the tab will be moved. When moving a tab to a new window it may
reload the page. Remember to save your work
before doing this.
Moving a tab between windows
lf you have moie than one liiefox window open, you can move an open
tab to a dieient window. You can also split a tab o to become its own
To move a tab fiom one liiefox window to anothei alieady open win-
dow, click-and-hold on the tab and diag it to the tab bai on the othei liie-
fox window. When you ielease the mouse buuon, the tab will be auached
to the new window.
To move a tab fiom one window into its own window, click-and-hold
on the tab and diag the tab below the tab bai. When you ielease the mouse
buuon, the tab will become a new window.
You can seaich the web, oi othei collections, fiom within liiefox without
ist visiting the home page of the seaich engine.
By default, liiefox will seaich the web using the Google seaich engine.
Searching the web
To seaich the web in liiefox, type a few woids into the liiefox seaich Bai.
loi example, if you want to nd infoimation about the U|vnv
1. Click on the SearH Bar.
:. Type the phiase Ubuntu. Youi typing ieplaces any text cuiiently in the
Seaich Bai.
. Piess Enter to seaich.
Seaich iesults fiom Google foi Ubuntu should appeai in the liiefox
Selecting search engines
Figure 3.8: These are the other search engines
you can useby defaultfrom the Firefox
search bar.
lf you do not want to use Google as youi seaich engine in the Seaich Bai,
you can change the seaich engine that liiefox uses.
To change the seaich engine, click on the icon on the lef side of the
The Ubuntu home pages search bar uses
Google by default, but will automatically use
Yahoo if Yahoo is selected in the Search Bar.
Seaich Bai. Choose one of the othei seaich engines in the list. Some seaich
engines, like Google, Yahoo, Bing seaich the whole web, otheis, like Ama-, Wikipedia only seaich specic sites.
Searching the web for words selected in a web page
Sometimes, you may want to seaich foi a phiase that appeais on a dieient
web page. lnstead of copying and pasting the phiase into the Seaich Bai,
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
liiefox allows you to seaich the web foi woids you select within a web
1. Highlight any woids in a web page using youi lef mouse buuon.
:. Right-click on the text youve highlighted to open a popup menu. Select
the option SearH |SearH Engine] for |your selected words].
liiefox should open a new tab containing seaich iesults foi youi high-
lighted woids, found using the cuiiently selected seaich engine.
Searching within a page
Figure 3.9: You can search within web pages
using the Find Toolbar.
You may want to look foi specic text within the web page you aie
viewing. To nd text within the cuiient page in liiefox
1. Piess Ctrl+F oi choose Edit Find to open the Find Toolbar at the bot-
tom of liiefox.
:. Entei the text you want to nd into the Find eld in the lind Toolbai.
Te seaich automatically begins as soon as you type something into the
. Once some text has been matched on the web page, you can
Click Next to nd text in the page that is below the cuiient cuisoi
Click Previous to nd text that is above the cuiient cuisoi position.
Click on the Highlight all buuon to highlight occuiiences of youi
seaich woids in the cuiient page.
Select the MatH case option to limit the seaich to text that has the
same capitalization as youi seaich woids.
To nd the same woid oi phiase again, piess F3 oi click on the Edit
menu and select Find Again.
Viewing web pages full screen
To display moie web content on the scieen, you can use Fv|| Screen oJe.
lull Scieen mode condenses the liiefoxs toolbais into one small toolbai. To
enable lull Scieen mode, simply choose View Full Screen oi piess F11.
Copying and saving pages
With liiefox, you can copy pait of a page so that you can paste it elsewheie,
oi save the page oi pait of a page as a le on youi computei.
Copying part of a page
To copy text fiom a page
1. Highlight the text and/oi images with youi mouse.
:. Right click on highlighted text and select Copy oi piess Ctrl+C.
o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
You can paste the text into othei applications.
To copy a text oi image link (Uvi) fiom a page
1. Position the pointei ovei the link oi image.
:. Right-click on the link oi image to open a popup menu.
. Select Copy Iink Iocation. Note that if the image woiks as a link you
can copy you would have to select Copy Image Iocation
You can paste the link into othei applications oi into liiefoxs Location Bai.
Saving all or part of a page
To save an entiie page in liiefox
1. Choose File Save Page As fiom the top bai. liiefox should open the
Save As window.
:. Choose a location foi the saved page.
. Type a le name foi the page, and click Save.
To save an image fiom a page
1. Position the mouse pointei ovei the image.
:. Right-click on the image to display a popup menu.
. Select Save Image As. liiefox should open the Save lmage window.
. Choose a location foi the saved image.
. Entei a le name foi the image and click Save.
Changing your homepage
By default, liiefox will show the Ubuntu Stait Page when you stait liiefox.
lf you piefei to view anothei page when you stait liiefox, you will need to
change youi homepage piefeience.
Figure 3.10: You can change Firefox settings in
this window.
To change youi homepage
1. Navigate to the page that you would like to become youi new homepage.
:. Choose Edit Preferences fiom the top bai.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U 1
. ln the Staitup section on the General tab, which is shown by default,
click on the Use Current Page buuon. lf you had moie than one tab
open then all the tabs will be opened when liiefox staits. lf you piefei to
have one page open, close the othei tabs and iepeat steps :. The homepage can also be set by entering the
addresses that should be open in the Home
Page, with a pipe|separating pages to be
opened in a new tab
. Click Close.
Download settings
ln Edit Preferences you can change how liiefox behaves with downloads. The Downloads window shows the progress
of currently downloading les, and lists les
downloaded in the past. It can be used to open
or re-download les.
You can tell liiefox wheie to place downloaded les, oi to ask wheie each
time. You can also set the behavioi of liiefoxs Downloads window. Te
Downloads window can be hidden entiiely, oi set to hide when downloads
When biowsing the web you may want to come back to ceitain web pages
again without having to iemembei the Uvi.
ln liiefox, you can cieate |oo|or|s, which aie saved in the web biowsei
and which you can use to navigate back to youi picked web pages.
Bookmarking a page
Afei navigating to a web page you can save its location by bookmaiking it.
Teie aie two ways to bookmaik a page
liom the top bai, choose Bookmarks Bookmark Tis Page. A window
will open. Piovide a desciiptive name foi the bookmaik, and click on the
Done buuon.
Piess Ctrl+D. A pop-up will appeai. Piovide a desciiptive name foi the
bookmaik, and click on the Done buuon.
Navigating to a bookmarked page
To navigate to a bookmaiked page, open the Bookmarks menu fiom the
top bai , and then choose youi bookmaiks name. liiefox should open the
bookmaik in the cuiient tab.
Yov con o|so ress Ctrl+B o J:s|oy |oo|or|s :n o s:Je|or on |e |e s:Je o[
|e |ro+ser +:nJo+. Press Ctrl+B ogo:n o |:Je |e s:Je|or.
Deleting a bookmark
lf you would like to delete a bookmaik that you have pieviously made,
open the Bookmarks menu fiom the top bai, and then iight-click on youi
bookmaiks name. liiefox should open a popup menu foi youi bookmaik.
Select the Delete option fiom the menu. Youi bookmaik should then be
Whenevei you aie biowsing the web, liiefox is saving youi biowsing his-
toiy. Tis allows you to come back to a web page that you have iecently
visited, without needing to iemembei the pages Uvi, oi even bookmaiking
: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
To see youi most iecent histoiy, open the History menu fiom the top
bai. Te menu should then display seveial of the most iecent web pages
that you weie viewing. Choose one of the pages to ietuin to it.
To see the web pages you have visited iecently, piess Ctrl+H. liiefox will
open a sidebai on the lef side of the biowsei window, that contains youi
biowsing histoiy, categoiized as Today, Yesteiday, Last , days, Tis
month, the past months (listed month by month), and nally Oldei than
months. lf histoiy foi a categoiy does not exist, that categoiy will not be
Click on one of the date categoiies in the sidebai to expand it. Ten it
will ieveal the pages you visited duiing that peiiod. Ten, once you nd the
page you need, click on its title to ietuin to it.
You can also seaich foi a page by its title. Entei a few leueis, oi a woid,
in the SearH eld at the top of the histoiy sidebai. Te sidebai should then
display a list of web pages whose titles match youi seaich woids. Click on
the title of the page you need to ietuin to it.
lf you would like to hide the histoiy sidebai again, piess Ctrl+H again.
Clearing private data
At times, you may want to delete all piivate data that liiefox stoies about
youi biowsing histoiy. While this data is stoied only on youi computei, you
may want to iemove it if you shaie access to youi computei.
To delete youi piivate data, open the Tools menu fiom the top bai, and
select Clear Recent History. ln the diop down list foi the Time range to
clear, choose how fai back you would like liiefox to delete.
lf you would like moie contiol ovei what you cleai, click on the Details
text to display a list of options.
When done, click on the Clear Now buuon.
Using a dierent web browser
Figure 3.11: You can change the default
browser with the System Info utility. To use it,
open System Info from System Settings -click
on Session Indicator, on the top right corner of
your screen-.
lf you install a dieient web biowsei on youi computei, you may want
to use it as the default biowsei when you click on links fiom emails, instant
messages, and othei places.
To change youi piefeiied web biowsei, open click on the Session In-
dicator and then seaich foi System lnfo, and open it. Ten click on De-
fault Applications fiom the sidebai, and choose youi new piefeiied web
biowsei fiom the Web diopdown list.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U
Reading and composing email
Introduction to Thunderbird
Tundeibiid is an easy to setup and use email client developed by Mozilla.
lt is fiee, fast and comes packed full of useful featuies. Even if you aie
new to Ubuntu and Tundeibiid, you will be up and iunning in no time,
checking youi email and staying in touch with fiiends and family.
Setting up Thunderbird
ln the top iight coinei of the Ubuntu desktop you will see an envelope icon
in the notication aiea. Tis is the essog:ng env, fiom heie you can
launch Tundeibiid by clicking set up mail. Alteinatively you can click the
Ubuntu buuon in the top lef coinei of the scieen at the top of the launchei
to biing up the Dash and type Thunderbird into the seaich box. Once
Tundeibiid opens you will be gieeted by a pop-up box that will piompt
you to setup youi email account.
Figure 3.12: setting up Thunderbird
Entei youi name in the ist text box, youi email addiess in the second
text box, foi example useiname( and youi email passwoid in
the thiid text box.
Once you have done this click the continue buuon. Tundeibiid will au-
tomatically set up youi email account foi you. When Tundeibiid nishes
detecting youi email seuings click cieate account and Tundeibiid will do
the iest. You can also set Tundeibiid as youi default news and vss ieadei
by checking the boxes in the pop-up box that appeais afei you click cieate
account. lf you dont want to see this message box eveiy time you stait
Tundeibiid simply deselect Always perform this HeH when starting
Tunderbird. You aie now ieady to stait using Tundeibiid.
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Around the Thunderbird workspace
Now that you have youi email account set up lets get to know the Tundei-
biid woikspace. Tundeibiid is designed to be veiy usei fiiendly and easy
to navigate. When you open it you will see the main woikspace with youi
email foldeis (all foldeis window) on the lef. On the iight of the scieen you
will see two windows. Te top iight window displays a list of youi email
and the bouom iight window displays the cuiient email you aie viewing.
Te size of these windows can be easily ie-sized to suit youi own needs.
To do this simply lef click and hold the dividing bai that sepaiates the two
windows and diag the bai up oi down to youi desiied position. Te all
foldeis windows is wheie you can see all youi mail foldeis. You will see
Youi iemote foldeis foi youi account aie listed heie and can include
inbox Wheie youi email is stoied and accessed
email addiess foldei You will see one of these foldeis foi each of the
accounts you have setup
diafs Wheie youi diaf mails aie stoied
sent mail Wheie the emails you have sent aie stoied
spam Tis is wheie suspected spam email is stoied so you can check
them to make suie you havent lost any impoitant emails
tiash Tis is wheie messages youve deleted aie stoied so you can dou-
ble check to make suie you havent accidentally deleted an impoitant
email (also one of the local foldeis)
impoitant Tis is wheie emails you have maiked as impoitant aie stoied
staiied Tis is wheie emails you have maiked with a stai aie stoied
peisonal Tis is wheie emails you have maiked as peisonal aie stoied
ieceipts You can move impoitant ieceipts to this foldei. Recoids of youi
on line puichases foi example
tiavel You can use this foldei to stoie tiavel emails such as ight times
and bookings
woik You can stoie woik emails in this foldei to keep them sepaiate
fiom youi peisonal email
outbox Wheie the emails you aie in the piocess of sending aie stoied
(also one of the local foldeis)
Acioss the top of the Tundeibiid woikspace you will see foui contiol
buuons, get mail, write, address book and tag. Tese aie used to get youi
mail, wiite youi mail, access youi addiess book and tag youi email mes-
At the top and to the iight of the all foldeis window you will see a set of
quick ltei buuons, unread, starred, contact, tags andattaHment. You can
use these buuons to ltei youi email messages so that you only see youi
uniead mail, youi favoiite mail (staiied), mail fiom people in youi addiess
book, mail you have tagged and mail that includes auachments.
lf you aie used to a moie tiaditional desktop and you have Tundeibiid
maximized to full scieen you might be wondeiing wheie the menus aie,
they aie still theie and if you want to access them, move youi mouse to the
top of the scieen and you will see the familiai menus, le, edit, view, go,
message, tools and help.
At the top of the window that displays youi email you can see ve action
buuons, reply, forward, arHive, junk, and delete. You will nd these veiy
useful foi quickly ieplying to email, foiwaiding youi email to anothei
peison, aichiving (backing up) youi email, maiking an email as junk mail
and quickly deleting an email. To the lef of these quick action buuons you
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U
will see infoimation about the email you aie viewing that includes who the
email is fiom, the subject of the email, the addiess to ieply to and who the
email was sent to.
Using your address book
At the top of the main woikspace you will see the addiess book buuon,
click this buuon to access youi addiess book. Once the addiess book opens
you will see the addiess book window, fiom heie you can oiganize youi
contacts veiy easily. At the top of the addiess book window you will see
ve buuons, new contact, new list, properties, write and delete.
new contact Tis buuon allows you to add a new contact and add as
much detail as you like including, name, nickname, addiess, email, addi-
tional email, scieen name, woik numbei, home numbei, fax, pagei and
mobile/cell numbei.
new list Tis buuon allows you to add lists foi youi contacts such as
family, fiiends, acquaintances, etc.
piopeities Tis buuon allows you to iename youi addiess book name.
Te default name is peisonal addiess book but using this buuon you
can change the name to what suits you best.
wiite Tis buuon allows you to quickly send an email to a selected con-
tacted without needing to go back to the main Tundeibiid woikspace.
Simply select a contact fiom youi contacts list and click this buuon to
send them an email.
delete Tis buuon allows you to quickly delete a contact fiom youi
addiess book. Just select the contact you want to delete and piess this
buuon to iemove the contact fiom youi addiess book.
Checking and reading messages
Tundeibiid will automatically check youi email account foi new messages
eveiy ten minutes oi so but if you need to manually check foi new mes-
sages lef click the get mail buuon in the top lef coinei of the woikspace.
Tundeibiid will then check youi email account foi new messages and
download them. As they aie downloaded you will see youi email appeai in
the message window on the iight side of the woikspace. When you click
on one of youi emails it will appeai in the window below youi email list.
lf you want to view youi email in a full window double lef click youi cho-
sen email and Tundeibiid will display the email in a full window in its
own tab. At the top of the open email you will see infoimation about the
email and the ve quick action buuons, reply, forward, arHive, junk and
delete, as pieviously discussed. lf an email has iemote content you will see
a message asking if you want to display the email oi not.
You may want to ltei youi emails fiom time to time, this is easily done
with Tundeibiid. When you have an email selected and you want to tag
the email simply click the tag buuon and a diop down list will be displayed.
ln the list you have the options to Remove All Tags oi Mark as, Impor-
tant, Work, Personal, To Do, Iater oi create a new tag that is moie suited
to youi own peisonal iequiiements.
Composing and Replying to Messages
To compose a new email message click the wiite buuon in the top lef of
the woikspace. Tis will biing up a new window wheie you will compose
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
youi new email. ln the To eld, entei the email addiess of the destination
the contact to whom you aie sending this email. lf theie is moie than one
contact to whom you aie wiiting, sepaiate multiple iecipients with commas.
lf a contact that you aie addiessing is in youi addiess book, you can addiess
them by name. Stait typing the name of the contact, Tundeibiid will dis-
play the list of mailing contacts below youi text. Once you see the contact
you intend to addiess, click on theii email addiess oi use the down aiiow
key and then Entei to select the addiess. lf you would like to caibon-copy
(Cc) some contacts, click the To eld and select Cc Contacts on the To
and Cc lines will ieceive the email, and will see the iest of the contacts to
whom an email was sent. lf you would like to send an email to some con-
tacts without disclosing to whom youi email was sent, you can send a blind
caibon-copy, oi Bcc. To enable Bcc, select Bcc by clicking the To eld and
selecting Bcc Any contacts enteied in the Bcc eld will ieceive the mes-
sage, but none of the iecipients will see the names oi emails of contacts on
the Bcc line.
lnstead of typing the email addiesses, oi names, of the contacts you
aie addiessing in the message, you can also select the contacts fiom youi
addiess book. Stait typing a few leueis fiom youi contacts ist oi last
name in the To eld to ltei the list to only show mailing contacts. Once
you identify the contact you would like to addiess, click on theii name in
the list. lf youve added the contact in eiioi, delete theii addiess and entei
the coiiect addiess.
You may entei a subject foi youi email in the Subject eld. Messages
should have a subject to help the iecipient to identify the email while glanc-
ing at theii message list, if you do not include a subject, Tundeibiid will
wain you about this. Entei the contents of youi message in the big text eld
below the subject. Teie is no piactical limit on the amount of text you can
include in youi message. By default Tundeibiid will auto-detect the coi-
iect foimat foi youi email but you can change this by clicking Options then
mouse ovei loimat and select youi piefeiied option fiom the list.
You have a choice of Auto-Detect, Plain Text Only, Rich Text (HTML)
Only and Plain and Rich (HTML) Text. When you have nished composing
youi email, click on the Send buuon on the windows toolbai. Youi message
will be placed in the Outbox, and will be sent to youi desiied iecipient.
Attaching les
At times, you may want to send les to youi contacts. To send les, you
will need to auach them to youi email message. To auach a le to an email
you aie composing, click on the Auach buuon and when the new window
opens select the le you want to send and click open. Tat le will then be
auached to the email when you click send.
Replying to Messages
ln addition to composing new messages, you may want to ieply to messages
that you ieceive. Teie aie thiee types of email ieplies
Reply (oi Reply to Sendei)sends youi ieply only to the sendei of the
message to whom you aie ieplying.
Reply to Allsends youi ieply to the sendei of the message, as well as
anyone else on the To oi Cc lines.
loiwaidallows you to send the message, with any additional comments
you may add, to some othei contacts.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
To use any of these methods, click on the message to which you want
to ieply and then click the Reply, Reply to All, oi loiwaid buuon on the
message toolbai. Tundeibiid will open the ieply window. Tis window
should look much like the window foi composing new messages, but the
To, Cc, Subject, and main message content elds should be lled in fiom the
message to which you aie ieplying. Edit the To, Cc, Bcc, Subject oi main
body as you see t. When youi ieply is nished, click on the Send buuon
on the toolbai. Youi message will be placed in the Outbox, and will be sent.
Using instant messaging
lnstant messaging allows you to communicate with people you know in ieal
time. Ubuntu includes the Empathy application that lets you use instant
messaging featuies to keep in touch with youi contacts. To stait Empathy,
open the Messaging Menu (the envelope icon on the menubai), then select
Empathy lets you connect to many instant messaging netwoiks. You
can connect to lacebook Chat, Google Talk, Jabbei, People Neaiby, ~ix,
Gadu-Gadu, Gioupwise, ic, ivc, xsN, mxit, myspace, , sametime, silc,
siv, xxvv, Yahoo', and Zephyi.
Running Empathy for the rst time
When you open Empathy foi the ist time you will need to conguie it
with the details of youi instant messaging accounts.
When Empathy staits you will see the Welcome to Empathy window.
Choose the option coiiesponding to youi situation.
You have a previous account
lf you have an account that you have used pieviously with anothei instant
messaging piogiam, then select the Yes, Ill enter my account details now
option. Ten, click Forward to continue.
On the next scieen, choose youi account type fiom the diop-down list
below What kind of Hat account do you have'. Ten, entei youi account
details in the eld below.
Depending on the account type that you choose, Empathy may iequest
that you entei a useiname, oi an iu foi youi account, followed by a pass-
Figure 3.13: Creating a new instant messenger
account in Empathy.
lf you do not iemembei youi account infoimation, you will need to visit
the website of the instant messaging seivice to ietiieve that infoimation. (lt
is suggested that you visit the web sites wheie you have instant messengei
8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
accounts, befoie you stait Empathy, so you can gathei all of the ciedentials
foi each account.)
lf you have anothei account to add then select the Yes option, and click
Forward to iepeat the above piocess. When you have enteied all of youi
accounts leave the No, thats all for now option selected, and click Apply to
nish the setup piocess.
Next, Empathy should display the Please entei peisonal details scieen.
lf you choose to ll in this infoimation, you will be able to communicate
with people who aie on youi local netwoik eithei at home oi fiom the
Entei youi ist name in the First name eld, and youi last name in
the Iast name eld. Entei a nickname that you want to use on youi lo-
cal netwoik in the NiHname eld. When you have completed all of the
infoimation, click Apply.
lf you dont want to communicate with people on youi local netwoik,
select the I dont want to enable this feature for now option, and click
You do not have a previous account
lf you dont have an account that you can use, then you can cieate one by
selecting the No, I want a new account option. Click Forward to display
the next set of options.
Choose the account type that you would like to cieate fiom the diop-
down list below What kind of Hat account do you want to create' You
can cieate eithei a Jabbei oi a Google Talk account. Note: If you wish to create a type of account
other than one of these, then you will need
to visit the relevant website and create the
account rst. Then follow the instructions in
the You have an account section.
Next, entei the account name that you would like in the text eld, and in
the following text eld entei a passwoid of youi choice. lf you would like
to set up anothei account then select the Yes option, and iepeat the above
When you have enteied all the accounts leave the No, thats all for now
option selected, and click Forward.
Empathy should display the Please entei peisonal details window.
Pioviding this infoimation allows you to communicate with people who aie
on youi local netwoik eithei at home oi in the woikplace.
Entei youi First name in the text eld, and entei youi Iast name in the
next eld. ln the NiHname eld entei a nickname by which you would like
to be identied. When you have lled all of the text elds click Apply to
save youi seuings.
lf you dont want to talk to people on youi local netwoik then select the
I dont want to enable this feature for now option and click Apply.
You want to talk to people nearby
lf you would only like to communicate with people on youi local netwoik
eithei at home oi in the woikplace, then you should select the No, I just
want to see people online nearby for now option.
Click Forward to display the next set of options. Ten entei youi First
name in the text eld, and entei youi Iast name in the next eld. ln the
NiHname eld entei a nickname by which you would like to be identied.
When you have lled all of the text elds, click Forward.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
Figure 3.14: You can talk to people nearby by
entering your information.
Changing account settings
lf you need to add moie accounts afei the ist launch, open the Edit menu,
then select Accounts. Empathy will then display the Accounts window.
Adding an account
To add an account click on the + buuon on the bouom lef of the Accounts
window. Empathy should display some options on the iight-hand side
of the window. Choose youi account type fiom the Protocol diop-down
list. Next, entei youi account name in the ist text eld. Ten entei youi
passwoid in the Password text eld. linally click on the Iog in buuon to
save and veiify youi seuings.
Editing an account
You might need to edit an account if you change the passwoid oi get the
passwoid wiong. loitunately, this is veiy easy to do. Select the account you
want to change on the lef side of the Accounts window. Empathy should
show the cuiient infoimation foi the account. Once you have made youi
changes, click Save.
Removing an account
To iemove an account select the account on the lef hand side of the win-
dow and click on the - buuon. Empathy should open the Do you want to
iemove window. Click on the Remove buuon to conim that you want to
iemove the account, oi click Cancel to keep the account.
Editing contacts
Adding a contact
To add a contact open the Chat menu, then select Add contact. Empathy
should open the New Contact window.
ln the Account diop-down list, choose the account that you want to add
the contact to. When cieating a contact you must select the seivice that
matches the seivice youi contact is using.
loi example if youi contacts addiess ends in ( then
you will need to add it to an account that ends in (
Likewise if the contacts email ends in ( then you will need
to add it to an account ending in (
Afei choosing the account you wish to add the contact to, entei theii
login iu, theii useiname, theii scieen name oi theii email addiess in the
o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Identier text eld. Next, in the Alias text eld, entei the name you want to
see in youi contact list. Click Add to add the contact to youi list of contacts.
Removing a contact
Click on the contact that you want to iemove, then on the Unity bai at the
top of the scieen, open the Edit menu, select Contact, then Remove. Tis
will open the Remove contact window.
Click on the Remove buuon to conim that you want to iemove this
contact, oi click Cancel to keep the contact.
Communicating with contacts
To communicate with a contact, select the contact in Empathys main win-
dow and double-click theii name. Empathy should open a new window
wheie you can type messages to youi contact, and see a iecoid of pievi-
ously exchanged messages.
To send a message to the contact, entei youi message in the text eld be-
low the conveisation histoiy. When you have typed youi message piess the
Enter key to send the message to youi contact. lf you aie communicating
with moie than one peison then all of the conveisations will be shown in
tabs in youi Empathy window.
lf youi contact has audio capabilities then theie will be a miciophone icon
next to theii name. Click on the miciophone icon to open the popup menu.
Select the Audio call option fiom the menu. Empathy should then open the
Call window.
Tis window shows youi pictuie on the iight and youi contacts pictuie
on the lef. Ensuie that youi miciophone and speakeis aie connected, and
pioceed with the audio conveisation. You can nish the conveisation by
clicking on the Hang up buuon.
lf youi contact has video chat capabilities then theie will be a webcam icon
next to theii name. Click on the icon to open a popup menu. Select the
Video call option fiom the menu. Empathy should then open the Call
window. Tis window shows youi webcam view in the top iight and youi
contacts webcam will be in the middle. lf you dont have a webcam then
youi pictuie will be shown instead. You can nish the call by clicking on
the Hang up buuon.
Sending and receiving les
Sending a le
When you aie in a conveisation with a contact and you would like to send
them a le, open the Contact menu, then select Send le. Empathy should
open the Select le window. lind the le you wish to send, and click on
the Send buuon. A lile Tiansfeis window will open showing the le and
its tiansfei piogiess. When the le tiansfei is complete, you can close the
lile Tiansfeis window.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U 1
Receiving a le
When a contact wants to send you a le, the status icon to the lef of the
contacts name will ash with an icon of a papei plane. To ieceive the le,
double-click the contacts name. Empathy will open the Select a destina-
tion window. Choose the location wheie you would like Empathy to save
the le, and click Save. Empathy should open the lile Tiansfeis window.
Te lile Tiansfeis window shows you the piogiess of cuiient le tiansfei.
You can stop the le tiansfei by clicking on the Stop buuon, open tians-
feiied les by clicking on the Open buuon, and cleai the list of completed
tiansfeis by clicking on the Clear buuon.
Changing your status
You can use youi status to show youi contacts how busy you aie oi what
you aie doing. You can use the standaid statuses, which aie
Tese can be changed in one of two ways. Te ist method is in the
main Empathy window fiom the diop-down list at the top of the window.
Te same diop-down list lets you set a custom status by choosing Cus-
tom Message next to the icon that matches youi status. Entei what you
would like youi status to say, and click on the gieen check maik.
Te second method is to click the Messaging Icon on the top Unity Bai.
liom this menu, you will see all of the same options that Empathy piesents,
but accessible without having to open the application window.
Changing your picture
Youi pictuie is what youi contacts will see next to youi name in theii con-
tact list. Te default pictuie is the outline of a peison. You can change youi
pictuie by opening the Edit menu, then choosing Personal Information.
Empathy should open the Peisonal lnfoimation window. liom the Ac-
count diop-down list choose the account that you want to change, then
click on the pictuie on the iight-hand side of the window. Empathy should
open the Select Youi Avatai lmage window. lind the le containing youi
pictuie, and click Open. lf you would like to ietuin it to the default avatai,
click on the No Image buuon, instead.
Desktop Sharing
Desktop shaiing is a veiy nify featuie available with Ubuntu. lt can be used
foi a lot of puiposes like tioubleshooting, online meetings oi just showing
o youi cool desktop to youi fiiend. lt is veiy easy to get iemote desktop
shaiing woiking between two Ubuntu machines.
1. Click on System Preferences Remote Desktop and select Allow re-
mote desktop. lt is stiongly iecommended you add a passwoid, foi secuiity
:. Open Empathy and login using youi Google/Jabbei client iu
. Double click on the usei with whom you want to shaie youi desktop
. liom the new window, click on Contact Share your desktop.
: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
lt should be noted that the othei usei will obviously be able to see the
infoimation displayed on youi scieen. Please be suie to keep this in mind
if you have documents oi les that aie of a piivate natuie open on youi
Figure 3.15: Gwibber Social Client
Gwibbei is the default micioblogging application that connects seveial
micioblogging accounts in one window without loading a biowsei. Gwib-
bei can be used to access and post on Twiuei, lacebook,,,
llicki, Digg,, Qaiku and liiendleed. Suppoit foi Google will be
available once the APl is ieleased.
Upgrades and add-ons
lf you intend to access, llicki, Digg,, Qaiku oi liiend-
leed, you will need add-ons. Go to Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei and seaich foi
Gwibbei. Make suie the appiopiiate add-ons aie selected and installed.
You also may like to install an add-on to seaich Gwibbei feeds using
Unity Lens.
Gwibber feeds can be searched and accessed
from Unity Lens.
Setting up Gwibber Accounts
Access Gwibbei fiom the Message menu on the top panel bai. Click Broad-
cast to stait Gwibbei.
To add a new account, click Edit and select Accounts. Tis will open a
new window foi the Accounts Managei. Click the + buuon to add a new
account. Afei you entei youi login and passwoid, choose an account coloi
and then click Add. You will have to authoiize Gwibbei to use Twiuei oi
lacebook, and enable the ~vi foi Qaiku, if you aie using Qaiku.
Removing accounts is easiei. Go to the Accounts Managei window and
select the account to be iemoved. Click the buuon to iemove the account.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U
Figure 3.16: Gwibber Lens Add-on
Figure 3.17: Accessing Gwibber from the
Message Menu
Figure 3.18: Gwibber Accounts Window. You
can add more than one account from a service
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Figure 3.19: Clicking on the image would open
the Facebook page on a browser.
Using Gwibber to follow streams
Gwibbei displays feeds fiom each seivice piovidei as stieams. You can
select foi them to be listed in eithei ascending oi descending oidei by
selecting the Soit option undei View menu. You can sepaiate the feeds as
messages, ieplies, and piivate messages.
ln addition, the auachments fiom the feed aie soited as images, links,
and videos. Clicking the image, link, oi the video would take you to the
actual website by opening a new tab in youi default biowsei.
leeds can be displayed in the notication bubble by selection foi the op-
tion in the Piefeiences window. You can also choose the iate at which
Gwibbei seaiches foi new feeds.
Figure 3.20: Notications from Gwibber can be
customized from the Preferences window.
Replying, liking, and retweeting
Each tweet can be liked, ietweeted, oi ieplied fiom within Gwibbeis win-
dow by selecting the Twiuei icon on the top iight of each post.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U
Figure 3.21: Facebook updates can similarly
liked and commented from within Gwibber
Status updates
Select the Message menu fiom the top panel and click Update Status. Tis You can deselect an account from posting using
would open a new window. Entei youi status message and post it to all
youi accounts in one click.
Advanced options
Gwibbei can be customized to have individual colois foi each account.
You can also shoiten Uvis as you post fiom Gwibbei using a list of Uvi
shoitening seivices. Play with Gwibbei and discovei othei cool things it
can do. Visit http//
netwoikingwithgwibbei.pdf foi moie infoimation.
Viewing and editing photos
Shotwell Photo Managei is the default photo application in Ubuntu allow-
ing you to view, tag, edit, and shaie youi photos. To stait Shotwell, click
on the Ubuntu icon neai the top lef of the scieen, then select the Shotwell
icon labeled View Photos.
When you launch Shotwell foi the ist time, you will be gieeted by the
lmpoit window. Afei the ist launch, you can impoit moie photos by
diagging the photos into the Shotwell window. You can also impoit photos
by connecting youi cameia oi exteinal stoiage device to the computei.
Fro o J:g:o| coero Connect youi cameia to the computei using the
data cable and powei it on. lf youi cameia is piopeily detected, you will
see a new window piompting you to launch an application. Select Shotwell
in the diop-down menu then click OK. Youi cameia will be listed in the
Shotwell sidebai. Select youi cameia in the sidebai. You will see a pieview
of the cameias contents. Select individual photos by piessing and holding
cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Figure 3.22: Manage your collection, enhance
your photos while keeping the original, and
share your memories online using Shotwell
Photo Manager.
Ctrl and clicking on each photo you want to impoit, and then clicking
Import Selected on the bouom bai of the window. Oi, you can choose to
impoit all photos by clicking Import All.
Fro yovr cover You can impoit photos into Shotwell by diagging
photos fiom youi le biowsei into the Shotwell window. Alteinatively, you
can click File Import From Folder, select the foldei containing the photos
you want to impoit.
Fro e:erno| |orJ Jr:+e, u: os| Jr:+e, or cu/uvu lmpoiting photos fiom
exteinal stoiage is similai to impoiting fiom youi computei. Youi exteinal
stoiage device may also appeai undei the Camera label on the Shotwell
sidebai. lollow the instiuctions foi impoiting fiom a cameia oi computei.
Choosing where Shotwell saves photos
Te default location foi the Shotwell Libiaiy is youi Pictures foldei. When
impoiting pictuies in the lmpoit window, you will be given the option to
copy the les to youi Libiaiy, oi keep the les in place.
lf you have youi photos stoied on youi computei, the option Import
in Place will be suitable so photos aient duplicated. lf you aie impoiting
photos fiom an exteinal souice, such as a poitable haid diive, Usn ash
diive, oi cu/uvu, you should select Copy into Iibrary so the photos aie
copied to youi computeiotheiwise they wont appeai when you iemove
the exteinal souice.
Viewing photos
Choose Iibrary oi any collection in the sidebai to display photos fiom
youi selection. Use the slidei on the bouom bai to adjust the size of the
thumbnails. To view a full-window image, double-click an individual photo.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
ln the full-window view, you can navigate thiough the collection using
the back and foiwaid aiiows, zoom on the image using the slidei, pan by
clicking and diagging the image, and exit the full-window view by double-
clicking the image.
To view the collection in full-scieen mode, piess F11 oi go to View
Fullscreen. You can navigate thiough the collection using the toolbai that
is available by moving youi mouse to the bouom of the scieen. To view a
slideshow piesentation of the collection, piess F5 oi go to View Slideshow.
Piess the Esc key to exit the lullscieen oi Slideshow views.
Organizing photos
Shotwell makes nding photos of the same type easiei by using tags. You
can apply as many tags to a photo as you like. To apply tags to photos,
ist select the photos. Ten iight-click on the photos and select Add Tags.
Entei the tags you want into the text eld, sepaiated by commas. lf you aie
adding new tags, these will appeai in the side bai on the iight undei the
Tags label.
Editing images
You may want to edit some of the photos you impoit into Shotwell. loi
example, you may want to iemove something at the edge, adjust the coloi,
ieduce the ied-eye eect, oi stiaighten the image. To edit a photo, double-
click on the photo that you want to edit and then click on one of the follow-
ing buuons
Click Rotate to iotate the image ,o clockwise. You can click the buuon
moie than once and it will iotate the image clockwise in ,o inteivals.
Click Crop to change the fiaming of the photo. Te image will daiken and a
selection will appeai. Adjust the selection to youi desiied ciop by diagging
a coinei oi side. lf you want to choose a specic aspect iatio, use the diop-
down menu to select one of the pieset iatios oi entei youi own custom
iatio. A pivot buuon is piovided to change youi selection fiom landscape to
poitiait and vice veisa. Once you aie happy with the selection, click OK to
apply the ciop oi Cancel to discaid it.
Red-eye reduction
lf you have taken a photo and the ash has caused the subject to have ied
eyes, you can x this pioblem in Shotwell.
Click the Red-eye buuon. A ciicle will appeai.
Diag this ciicle ovei one of the subjects eyes and then use the slidei to
adjust the ciicle size.
When the ciicle is ovei the eye, click Apply to x the ied eye. You will
need to iepeat this foi each individual eye. Use caution when adjusting
the size of the ciicle. A ciicle too laige and coveiing the skin may cause
discoloiation when applying the ied-eye ieduction.
8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Clicking Adjust will biing up a window that lets you edit a few things
Levels Similai to contiast
Exposuie How biight the image is
Satuiation How coloiful the image is
Tint Te oveiall coloi
Tempeiatuie Whethei the image is waim (moie yellow) oi cool (moie
Shadows How daik the shadows aie
To change these values, diag the slideis until you aie satised with the
image. Click OK to apply the changes, Reset to undo the changes and stait
ovei, oi Cancel to discaid the changes.
Click Enhance to let Shotwell automatically adjust the coloi, levels, expo-
suie, contiast and tempeiatuie to make a moie pleasing image.
Reverting an edited photo to the original
When you edit a photo in Shotwell, youi oiiginal image iemains untouched.
You can undo all of the changes and ieveit to the oiiginal veision by iight-
clicking on the photo, then selecting Revert to Original. Tis option is only
available foi photos you have edited.
Sharing your photos
You can easily shaie youi photos on the web using Shotwells Publish
featuie. Select the photos you want to shaie, then click the Publish buuon
located on the bouom bai. Choose lacebook, llicki, oi Picasa Web Albums
in the diop-down menu and log-in with youi ciedentials. Some seivices
may iequiie you to authoiize Shotwell befoie allowing the application to
publish photos. lollow the instiuctions on the window, select youi desiied
options, and click Publish to upload youi images to the web.
Further information
Weve only just touched on the featuies of Shotwell. To get moie help,
select Help Contents. Te Usei Manual option will take you to http//tiac.
yoiba.oig/wiki/UsingShotwello., which gives moie detailed instiuctions on
how to use Shotwell eectively.
Watching videos and movies
To watch videos oi uvus in Ubuntu, you can use the Movie Playei appli-
cation. To stait the Movie Playei, click on Dash, then seaich foi Movie
Playei and select it. Tis will open the Movie Playei window.
Watching uvus may iequiie Ubuntu to install a codec, which is a piece of
sofwaie that allows youi computei to undeistand the contents of the uvu,
and display the video.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
Figure 3.23: Movie player (Totem) plays music
and videos.
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covnry yov ore :n. P|eose o|o:n |ego| oJ+:ce :[ yov ore vnsvre +|e|er o or
:cv|or oen or resr:c:on o|:es o o eJ:o [oro yov +:s| o vse :n yovr
So that you can play all videos and uvus, you will need to install some
codecs. Tese aie located within the Multiveise iepositoiy. Tis is now
enabled by default.
To install the codecs, open the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei, eithei thiough
Dash oi the Launchei. When the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei window opens,
use the seaich box in the top iight and seaich foi the following
When you nd each one, select it with a double-click and then click the
Install buuon. Tis may open an Authenticate window. lf so, entei youi
passwoid then click Authenticate to stait the installation piocess.
Playing videos from le
Open the Movie menu, then select Open. Tis will open the Select
Movies oi Playlists window. lind the le oi les that you want to play
and click on the Add buuon. Te video oi videos will stait playing.
Playing a DVD
When you inseit a uvu in the computei, Ubuntu should open the You have
just inseited a Video uvu. Choose what application to launch window.
Make suie that Open Movie Player is chosen in the diop-down list and
then click OK. Te Movie Playei window will open and the movie will
lf the Movie Playei window is alieady open, open Movie menu, then
select Play Disc and the movie will stait.
,o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Listening to audio and music
Ubuntu comes with the Banshee Music Playei foi listening to youi music,
stieaming lnteinet iadio and managing playlists and podcasts. Banshee also
comes bundled with multiple ways to nd and puichase music, TV shows,
Movies and even ways to subsciibe to youi favoiite vss feeds.
Figure 3.24: Banshee Music Player
Starting Banshee
To stait Banshee, open the Dash, then click on Iisten to Music with the
Banshee logo above it. You can also type Bons|ee then click on the Banshee
lcon, oi biowse the list of applications manually. Ubuntu 11.1o comes with
an indicatoi menu foi sound-ielated devices. Tis menu includes a link to
stait Banshee as well as basic playback and volume contiols. To quit Ban-
shee, move youi mouse into the uppei iight coinei and window contiols
will appeai. Ten, click the oiange x. You can also click Ctrl+Q on youi
keyboaid. Banshee will continue to iun in the backgiound, but you can still
contiol youi music fiom the Sound indicatoi.
Playing music
To play music, you must ist impoit music into youi libiaiy. Choose Mu-
sic Import Folder oi piess Ctrl+O on youi keyboaid to impoit a foldei
of media, a single le, an Amazon Mp puichase oi media fiom an iPod,
iPhone oi iPad. Te Banshee toolbai contains most of the contiols that you
will use foi biowsing and playing youi music. lf you want to play a song,
double-click a tiack oi click it and piess the Play buuon on the toolbai (you
can also choose PlaybaH Play fiom the menubai oi piess Space). When a
song is playing, the Play buuon will become a Pause buuon. Clicking on it
will pause the song. Next and Previous buuons aie next to the Play/Pause
buuon. You can click on these buuons to play the next and pievious songs
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,1
in youi libiaiy oi playlist. Banshee also has options to toggle Shue oi Re-
peat modes. Banshee oeis ve dieient types of shuing, all of which can
be accessed by clicking on the diop-down menu next to Next buuon oi by
using the global menubai (PlaybaH Shue). Repeat contiols aie located
in bouom iight hand coinei and thiough the global menubai (/menuPlay-
back Repeat).
Playing Audio CDs
To play youi CD, inseit it into youi diive. lt will automatically appeai
within Banshee in the S:Je Pone beneath youi Music Libiaiy and Video
Libiaiy. You can click the CD (named Audio CD, oi the name of the album)
and Jov||ec|:c| a tiack in it to play the tiacks on the CD.
Importing/Ripping Audio CDs
Begin by inseiting a CD. Banshee will automatically detect it and add it to
the side menu. Click the CD. Uncheck any tiacks you dont want impoited.
Piess the Import CD buuon, located neai the verr:g| coinei of Banshee.
Banshee will begin impoiting the CD. As it nishes each tiack, they will
appeai in youi Music Libiaiy.
Listening to Streaming Radio
Banshee is pie-conguied to enable you to stieam iadio fiom vaiious Streaming radio are radio stations that are
broadcast over the Internet.
souices. Tese include lnteinet bioadcast stations (Radio fiom the Side
Pane) as well as Stieaming iadio is a teim that iefeis to iadio sta-
tions that aie bioadcast ovei the lnteinet. To listen to an lnteinet iadio
station, iight-click Radio in the S:Je Pone and entei all ielevant infoimation
into the coiiesponding eld and click save. Te station is now saved in Ban-
shee and you can play it by double-clicking it oi by selecting it and clicking
the Play buuon. To listen to music fiom, conguie youi Accovn
Connect digital audio players
Banshee can connect with many populai digital media playeis. Connected
playeis will appeai in the De+:ces |:s. leatuies will vaiy depending on the
playei (and ofen the playeis populaiity), but common tasks like tiansfei-
iing songs and playlists should be suppoited.
Listen to shared music
lf you aie on the same netwoik as othei Banshee useis (oi most othei music DAAP stands for Digital Audio Access Proto-
col, and is a method designed by Apple Inc. to
let software share media across a network.
playei sofwaie), you can shaie youi music and listen to theii shaied music.
Undei the On|:ne MeJ:o categoiy in the sidepane, theie is a subcategoiy
titled Shared Music. Media shaies should be listed automatically, but you
may be iequiied to add the lP manually. To do this click Media Add Re-
mote DAAP Server. Ten entei the lP addiess and the poit numbei. Ten
click OK. Clicking a shaied libiaiy will enable you to biowse and play songs
fiom othei computeis. You can also impoit music fiom shaied libiaiies by
clicking Media Import Media (Ctrl+I) then sciolling down to the desiied
media shaie.
,: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Figure 3.25: Banshee connected to an iPhone
Manage podcasts
Banshee can manage all of youi favoiite podcasts. Select PoJcoss fiom the
Side Pane to view all added podcasts. Te toolbai will display additional op-
tions to Sv|scr:|e o o Ne+ PoJcos (the icon with the gieen cioss) and C|ec|
o|| PoJcoss [or Ne+ F:soJes. Choose Media Add Podcast, Ctrl+Shift+F,
oi oi piess the Subscribe buuon in the toolbai to impoit a podcast. Podcasts
will be automatically downloaded at iegulai inteivals oi you can manually
update feeds. Select an episode and click buuonPlay. You can also delete
Banshee comes with the option of a [v||screen mode. To entei fullscieen
mode piess F on youi keyboaid oi use the global menubai (View Fullscreen),
to exit fiom fullscieen mode piess F. Banshee also has a biowsei bai that is
enabled by default (this aiea is the top half of the piogiam window). lt gives
you the option to seaich youi music by aitist (uppei-iight) oi album (uppei-
lef). Tis biowsei can be disabled thiough the menubai (View Browser)
oi with youi keyboaid (Ctrl+B).
Banshee preferences
Te default conguiation of Banshee may not be exactly what you want.
Choose Edit Preferences to altei the application seuings. Te Piefeiences
tool is bioken into thiee main aieas Genero|, Sovrce Sec:c and F:ens:ons.
Genero| O:ons include how you want Banshee to inteiact with the actual
media les as well as usability and bug iepoiting options.
Sovrce Sec:c options allow you to choose the souice of youi music, youi
music foldei, and le oiganization, as well as how to soit albums by the
same aitist and automatically detecting the BPM (Beats pei Minute)
of youi songs. [Extensions] options give you the oppoitunity to add
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
functionality to Banshee. Tey include Context Pane extensions, Coie
extensions, Device Suppoit extensions, Online Souice extensions and
Utilities extensions.
Managing your music
Banshee suppoits cieating playlists. P|oy|:ss aie eithei static lists of songs
that aie played in oidei oi can be smait playlists based on ltei ciiteiia.
Playlists contain iefeiences to songs in youi libiaiy. Tey do not contain
the actual song le, oi even the song in you libiaiy. lf you iemove a song
fiom a playlist (right-cliH on the song Remove from Playlist), it will
iemain in youi libiaiy and on youi haid diive. To cieate a playlist, choose
Media New Playlist, Ctrl+N oi iight-click Music in the side pane and click
New Playlist. Ten give the new playlist a name. You can then eithei diag
songs fiom you libiaiy to the new playlist in the side pane oi iight-click on
songs and select Add to Playlist and pick the playlist. Sor P|oy|:ss aie
cieated almost the same way as static playlists. Choose Media New Smart
Playlist. Next, dene the ltei ciiteiia. You can add multiple ltei iules
and select a name. linally, click Save. Smait Playlists will appeai in youi
side pane with a dieient icon than any static playlists. You can update
any playlist by iight-clicking on the name and choosing Edit. Banshee
suppoits song iatings. Select a song in youi libiaiy and choose Edit Rating
oi right-cliH on the song and click on the appiopiiate amount of stais.
Othei song infoimation such as Title, Aitist, and Album can be aiianged
fiom iight-clicking a song, clicking Edit TraH Information, then looking
undei the Basic Details tab. To delete a song, click delete oi right-cliH it
and select Remove from Iibrary. To delete a song fiom youi haid diive
entiiely, right-cliH it and select Delete from Drive. lf you evei want to
move a song, highlight the song (oi gioup of songs) fiom youi libiaiy and
diag it to a foldei oi to youi desktop. Tis will make a copy of the audio le
in the new location.
Banshee Extensions
Banshee comes with a vaiiety of extensions. Tese aie tools that you can
enable and disable that add moie featuies to Banshee. Examples include
Yovv|e seaiching, V:|:eJ:o lntegiation, and vaiious music stoies. Some
extensions aie enabled by default. To view the list of available extensions,
Choose Edit Preferences Extensions.
Music stores
Banshee has two music stoies which give you access to an extiemely laige
catalog of music with a vaiiety of licensing options. Te U|vnv One Mv
s:c Sore (see guie below) sells music fiom global majoi and minoi music
labels. Te stoie oeis DRM[ree (no copy piotection) songs encoded in
high-quality MP foimat. You can biowse the catalog, play pieviews, and
buy songs with the Ubuntu One Music Stoie. Te Ubuntu One Music Stoie
also integiates with the Ubuntu One seivice as the name suggests. All
puichases aie tiansfeiied to youi peisonal cloud stoiage and then auto-
matically copied to all of youi computeis. loi that ieason, an Ubuntu One
account is iequiied (it is fiee of chaige and quick to iegistei). Te catalog of
music available foi puichase will vaiy depending on wheie you live in the
woild. Moie infoimation about the Ubuntu One Music Stoie can be found
, cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
at hups// Te Amazon Music Stoie is the othei
music stoie included with Banshee. lt oeis a laige vaiiety of music fiom
vaiious souices. Both stoies have veiy competitive piices.
Figure 3.26: Amazon MP3 Store
Audio codecs
Dieient audio les (xv, v~v, ~~c) iequiie unique tools to decode them
and play the contents. Tese tools aie called codecs. Rhythmbox will at-
tempt to detect any missing codecs on youi system so you can play all of
youi audio les. lf a codec is missing, it will tiy to nd the codec in online
iesouices and guide you thiough installation.
Banshee support
Banshee is used by many useis thioughout the woild. Teie aie a vaiiety of
suppoit iesouices available in many languages.
Click the Help buuon foi a vaiiety of suppoit options and infoimation
about iepoiting Banshee bugs.
Te Banshee website http//
Te Multimedia & Video categoiy of Ubuntu loiums http//ubuntufoiums.
Burning CDs and DVDs
To cieate a cu oi uvu open the Dash and seaich foi Brasero Disc Burner,
then open Biaseio. Tis opens Biaseio, which gives you ve options to
choose fiom. Each one of these is explained below.
Getting Started
Befoie you can get staited with Biaseio, you need to Create a new project.
Teie aie thiee types of piojects that aie available to you Audio Pioject,
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,
Figure 3.27: Brasero burns music, video, and
data DVDs and CDs.
Data Pioject, and Video Pioject. Make youi selection based on which you
iequiie. Please note that at the moment Biaseio does not suppoit Blu-Ray.
Tese following options apply foi all piojects except Disc copy and Burn
Adding les to a project
To add les to the list, click the Green + buuon, which opens the Select
liles window. Ten navigate youi way to the le you want to add, click
it, and then click the Add buuon. Repeat this piocess foi each le that you
want to add.
Removing les
lf you want to iemove a le fiom the pioject, click the le in the list and Icons of a broom are often used in Ubuntu to
represent clearing a text eld or returning
something to its default state.
click on the Red - buuon. To iemove all the les in the list click on the
Broom shaped buuon.
Saving a project
To save a pioject so that you can nish it latei, choose Project Save. Te
Save Cuiient Pioject window will be opened. Choose wheie you would
like to save the pioject. Ten, in the Name text eld, entei a name foi the
pioject so that you will iemembei it. Now click the Save buuon.
Burning the disc
When you click the Burn buuon you will see the Piopeities of win-
You can specify the buining speed in the Burning speed diop down. lt is
best to choose the highest speed.
To buin youi pioject diiectly to the disc, select the Burn the image
directly without saving it to disc option. With this option selected, no
image le is cieated and no les aie saved to the haid disk.
Te Simulate before burning option is useful if you encountei pioblems Temporary les are saved in the /tmp folder
by default. Should you wish to save these les
in another location, you will need to change
the setting in the Temporary les drop down
menu. Under normal conditions, you should not
need to change this setting.
buining discs. Selecting this option allows you to simulate the disc buining
piocess without actually wiiting data to a disca wasteful piocess if youi
computei isnt wiiting data coiiectly. lf the simulation is successful, Biaseio
will buin the disc afei a ten second pause. Duiing that ten second pause,
you have the option to cancel the buining piocess.
, cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Blanking a disk
lf you aie using a disc that has vv wiiuen on it and you have used it befoie, RW stands for Re-Writable which means that
disc can be used more than once.
then you can blank it so that you can use it again. Doing this will cause you
to lose all of the data cuiiently on the disc. To blank a disc, open the Tools
menu, then select Blank. Te Disc Blanking window will be open. ln the
Select a disc diop down choose the disc that you would like to blank.
You can enable the Fast blank option if you would like to shoiten the
amount of time to peifoim the blanking piocess. Howevei, selecting this
option will not fully iemove the les, if you have any sensitive data on youi
disc, it would be best not to enable the Fast blank option.
Once the disc is blank the you will see Te J:sc +os svccess[v||y ||on|eJ.
Click the Close buuon to nish.
Audio project
lf you iecoid youi own music, then you may want to tiansfei this music
onto an audio cu so youi fiiends and family can listen. You can stait an
audio pioject by clicking Project New Project New Audio Project.
So that each le does not play stiaight afei each othei you can add a
two second pause afei a le. Tis can be done by clicking the le and then
clicking the pause buuon.
You can slice les into paits by clicking the Knife buuon. Tis opens a
Split Tiack window. Te Method diop down gives you foui options each
one of these lets you split the tiack in a dieient way. Once you have split
the tiack click OK.
ln the diop down at the bouom of the main Biaseio window make suie
that you have selected the disc that you want to buin the les to. Ten click
the Burn buuon.
Data project
lf you want to make a back up of youi documents oi photos it would be best
to make a data pioject. You can stait a data pioject by clicking Project then
clicking New Project and then New Data Project.
lf you want to add a foldei you can click the Folder pictuie, then entei
the name of the foldei.
ln the diop down at the bouom of the main Biaseio window make suie
that you have selected the disc that you want to buin the les to. Ten click
the Burn buuon.
Video project
lf you want to make a uvu of youi family videos it would be best to make
a video pioject. You can stait a video pioject by clicking Project, then New
Project and then New Video Project.
ln the diop down at the bouom of the main Biaseio window make suie
that you have selected the disc that you want to buin the les to. Ten click
the Burn buuon.
Disc copy
You can copy a disc clicking Project, then New Project and then Disc copy.
Tis opens the Copy cu/uvu window.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,,
lf you have two cu/uvu diives you can copy a disc fiom one to the othei,
the disc that you want to copy to must be in the cuvv/uvuvv diive. lf
you have only one diive you will need to make an image and then buin it to
a disc. ln the Select disc to copy diop-down choose the disc to copy. ln the
Select a disc to write to diop-down eithei choose image le oi the disc that
you want to copy to.
Image le
You can change wheie the image le is saved by clicking Properties, this
shows the Location foi lmage lile. You can edit the name of the le in the
Name text eld.
Te default save location is youi home foldei, you can change this by
clicking the next to Browse for other folders. Once you have chosen
wheie you want to save it click Close.
Back in the Copy cu/uvu window click Create Image. Biaseio will
open the Cieating lmage and will display the job piogiess. When the
piocess is complete click Close.
Burn image
To buin an image, open the Project New Project, and then Burn Image.
Biaseio will open the lmage Buining Setup window. Click on the CliH
here to select a disc image diop-down and the Select Disc lmage window
will appeai. Navigate youi way to the image you wish to buin, click on it,
and then click Open.
ln the Select a disc to write to diop-down menu, click on the disc to
which youd like to wiite, then click Create Image.
Working with documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
LibieOce suite is the default oce suite when woiking with woid docu-
ments, spieadsheets, and slide piesentations.
Working with documents
lf you need to woik with documents, you can use the LibieOce Woid Pio- The LibreOce Word Processor is also known
as the LibreOce Writer. Spreadsheet is also
known as Calc, and Presentation is known as
cessoi. To stait the woid piocessoi, open the Dash home of the Launchei,
seaich foi LibreOffice Writer and select it. Ubuntu should then open the
main window foi the woid piocessoi.
Working with spreadsheets
lf you need to woik with spieadsheets, you can use the LibieOce Spiead-
sheet. To stait the spieadsheet application, click on the Dash home, type
LibreOffice Calc and select IibreOce Calc.
Working with presentations
lf you need to woik with slides foi a piesentation, you can use the Libie-
Oce lmpiess. To stait the piesentation application, open the Dash home
menu, type LibreOffice Impress, and then click on it.
,8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Getting more help
Each of these applications comes with a compiehensive set of help scieens.
lf you aie looking foi moie assistance with these applications, piess the F1
key afei staiting the application.
Ubuntu One
What is Ubuntu One?
Ubuntu One is an optional, online stoiage seivice that allows you to save
and access youi data ovei the lnteinet and to shaie and synchionize infoi-
mation with othei people and devices. Ubuntu One is iun by Canonical, the
people who develop Ubuntu.
Although the name implies that it is an Ubuntu-specic featuie, at its Internet-based services such as Ubuntu One
are often referred to as cloud services. The
word cloud is often used to denote a remote
network such as the Internet, which would
often be drawn as a cloud shape on diagrams.
simplest, Ubuntu One can be used with any device that has a web biowsei
and lnteinet access, iegaidless of opeiating system. You dont need to be
an Ubuntu usei at all' Howevei, to make best use of all the Ubuntu One
featuies, you will need to install some special Ubuntu One sofwaie on
youi device. Teie aie cuiiently veisions available foi Windows, Andioid
and iPhone/iPad. (Of couise, theie is also an Ubuntu veision, which is
automatically installed as pait of the standaid Ubuntu set up).
You may see this software referred to as the
Ubuntu One client (because it runs on a users
(i. e., client) machine, rather than a server. There
are also non-ocial Ubuntu One client versions
available for other operating systems, such as
Uses for Ubuntu One
Heie aie some situations wheie you may nd Ubuntu One useful
You have multiple devices and want to share les between them
lf you ofen woik at seveial dieient machines, it can be fiustiating to ie-
alize that a le you want to use is stoied on anothei machine. One solution
is to caiiy a Usn memoiy stick aiound and save les onto this. But theie
aie some pioblems with this you may not have the stick with you when
you need it, the device you aie using (a smaitphone, say) may not have a
Usn socket, oi the devices Usn sockets may have been disabled (as they
ofen aie, :.e., in lnteinet cafs). Plus, theie is always the iisk of losing the
stickUbuntu One piovides a neat alteinative to this pioblem. Stoiing youi
les online means they can be accessed fiom any device that has lnteinet
You want to share les with family and friends
Ubuntu One allows you to shaie some of youi online les with othei peo-
ple. Teie aie seveial ieasons you might want to do this. You dont have
to send the les to them diiectlyfoi example, as email auachments. Tis
is paiticulaily useful if the les aie laige laige auachments can be annoy-
ing foi the iecipients because they aie slow to download and can clog up
inboxes. lnstead of sending the les themselves, you include a link to them
instead. A typical example might be a couple away on holiday uploading
photogiaphs fiom theii smaitphone to Ubuntu One foi the iest of the fam-
ily back home to see. Shaiing les online also makes it easiei to collaboiate.
Having a single copy of documents accessible by eveiybody makes it easiei
to cooidinate changes and avoids inadveitently cieating multiple veisions,
which might happen if documents aie ciiculated aiound by email. A small
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U ,,
club oi society might nd this useful, foi example, to collaboiate on doc-
uments such as agendas, publicity mateiial, meeting minutes and so on.
Note that Ubuntu One is not a revision control
system. If you need revision and version control
features, have a look at Bazaar http://bazaar.
Which les you shaie and who you shaie them with is up to you. liles
can be visible just to you, to a dened gioup, oi to eveiybody.
You want a simple way to backup les online
Teie aie many ways to lose data, foi example
accidentally deleting a le (although you may be able to iecovei it fiom
the tiash bin),
inadveitently ie-foimauing a disk oi paitition,
losing a Usn stick,
device failuie, such as a haid diive bieaking,
damage to media, such as sciatching a cu oi uvu,
ie, thef etc.
lt is always piudent to make backups of valuable les and Ubuntu One
piovides a good solution because, whatevei may befall youi own media oi
devices, youi les will iemain safe and secuie on Ubuntu One seiveis.
You are a music fan and like to listen to music on dierent devices
Ubuntu One piovides a neat solution foi people who like to listen to music
on multiple devices. You can use youi Ubuntu One account as an online
jukebox and have youi music stieamed to whatevei device you aie cui-
iently using. Youi music collection is available at any time on any device.
You can also puichase music quickly and easily in the Ubuntu One Music
Stoie and have it deliveied diiectly in to youi account, ieady foi stieaming.
U|vnv One Mvs:c Sreo:ng reqv:res oyen o[ o sv|scr::on.
How safe is Ubuntu One?
Befoie using Ubuntu One, you should beai the following points in mind Ubuntu One uses the same encryption tech-
niques used to secure online banking.
Uploading, downloading and synchionizing youi infoimation with
Ubuntu One is done ovei an enciypted connection, which pievents
anybody eavesdiopping on youi infoimation as it is being tiansfeiied.
lnfoimation uploaded to Ubuntu One can potentially be accessed by
Canonical, so as with othei online seivices and websites, you aie implic-
itly tiusting them to iespect youi piivacy. lf you dont feel you can tiust
them with ceitain infoimation, dont upload it to Ubuntu One.
lf you violate the Ubuntu One teims and conditions and stoie illegal
mateiial, Canonical may be iequiied to hand the infoimation ovei to law
enfoicement agencies without youi consent.
Youi online infoimation can be accessed by anybody who knows (oi can
guess) youi account name and passwoid. loi this ieason, you should
choose a good passwoid and keep it secuie.
Getting started with Ubuntu One
To use Ubuntu One, you will need to cieate an online account and subsciibe 5GB is enough to store about 1,500 music les
or 5,000 photographs (depending on size).
8o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
to the Ubuntu One seivice. Subsciibing is fiee and will give you GB of
online stoiage. lf you nd this is not enough, you can puichase additional
stoiage in :oGB blocks foi eithei a monthly oi annual subsciiption.
Noe yov +:|| neeJ on eo:| oJJress :n orJer o se v U|vnv One. I[ necessory,
rs creoe on eo:| occovn. Yov +:|| o|so neeJ o |e conneceJ o |e Inerne.
Teie aie two ways to cieate an Ubuntu One account. You can sign up
online by going to the Ubuntu One website https// and
clicking the Sign Up link. Alteinatively, you can sign up using the Ubuntu
One Contiol Panel.
Creating an Ubuntu One account using the Ubuntu One Control Panel
ln the launchei, click the Ubuntu One buuon.
Figure 3.28: Launcher Icon
Tis will open the Ubuntu One Contiol Panel.
Figure 3.29: Control Panel Initial View
Click the Join now buuon. Te Cieate Ubuntu One account dialog will
Figure 3.30: Control Panel Create Account
lill in the details iequested. Make suie you use a valid email addiess that
only you have access to. Te squiggly text below youi details is a coc|o.
You need to ie-type the captcha text back into the text box below. Because
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U 81
captchas aie automatically geneiated, they can sometimes be dicult to
iead. lf you get one that is indecipheiable, just click the circular blue arrow
to geneiate anothei.
You should ieview the teims and conditions befoie signing up. When The captcha acts as a check that it really is a
person lling in the form and not a computer
(because a computer wont be able to read the
captcha text).
youie happy, click Forward.
Figure 3.31: Control Panel Create Account
You will be sent an email containing the veiication code (this may take
a few minutes to aiiive, so be patient'). Entei the veiication code into the
box and click OK. lf all goes well, you will get a congiatulatoiy message
and then see the main Ubuntu One Contiol Panel. You will also get anothei
email welcoming you to Ubuntu One. Congiatulations, youie now signed
Using Ubuntu One
Now youie signed up, theie aie vaiious things you can do using youi
Ubuntu One account
Manage youi cloud data via the Ubuntu One website
Manage youi account via the Ubuntu One Contiol Panel
Set up contact synchionization with Tundeibiid
Synchionize youi cloud and local les using Nautilus
Te following sections covei each of these.
Using the Ubuntu One website
You can access youi cloud data thiough the Ubuntu One website at https// Sign in using the same email addiess and passwoid you
used in the sign up piocess. Once signed in, you should see youi account
Te dashboaid summaiizes youi account use and piovides a cential
point of access. Tiough the dashboaid, you can
Cieate post it style iemindei notes
Manage youi contacts
Managing your cloud les and folders
On the dashboaid scieen, click the Files link. Te liles page appeais.
8: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Figure 3.32: Ubuntu One Web Dashboard
Uploading a le to Ubuntu One
Click Upload le. A small pop-up window appeais.
Click Browse to open the le selectoi and select a le to upload.
Ten click Upload to upload the le.
Te le will then appeai in youi online stoiage.
You can only upload one le at a time. If
you have a lot of les, it is easier to use le
synchronization, described later.
Once a le has been uploaded, you have seveial options
De|ee F:|e lf you no longei need the le, you can delete it fiom youi ac-
count. You will be asked to conim this action.
Do+n|ooJ |e Tis allows you to ietiieve a le fiom online stoiage. De-
pending on the type of le and youi biowseis conguiation, you may
see eithei a download piompt oi the le may be displayed in a new
biowsei tab. You may need to click More on the right hand
side of the page to see these options. You can
also download a le by clicking its name.
Pv||:s| F:|e Publishing a le makes it publicly available foi othei people to
view (but not change). When you publish a le, Ubuntu One will assign
it a unique URL thiough which the le can be viewed diiectly. You can
give this URL to anybody who would like to view the le. When a le is
published, its icon becomes embellished with a globe and its public URL
will be shown. To stop publishing the le, click Stop publishing. Te le
will no longei be available at the URL and anybody tiying to view it will
ieceive an eiioi message. Be careful not to publish les unintentionally!
Bear in mind that published les can potentially
be viewed by anybody, not just people you
give the URL to: there is always a chance that
other people may stumble across the les URL
accidentallyfor example, by mistyping the
URL of another le published by somebody
else. If the le is condential, you should
probably not publish it! You can publish the le
again later if you wish. Its public URL will be the
same as before.
Using Folders
Ubuntu One allows you to gioup youi les into foldeis to make them easiei
to manage, just as you would with local les.
Creating a new folder
Click New folder, entei a name in the pop-up window then click Create.
Te new foldei will be cieated and will appeai in youi stoiage.
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U 8
Adding and deleting les from a folder
ln oidei to manage the les in a foldei, you ist need to navigate into it so
that it becomes the cuiient foldei. You do this by clicking the foldei name.
Once in the foldei, adding and deleting les is done exactly as befoie. lt
is also possible to cieate sub-foldeis (and sub-sub-foldeis if you wish). To
ietuin to youi main foldei, click My Storage in the location path.
Deleting a folder
Deleting a foldei is similai to deleting a le. Just click Delete folder and
conim that this is what you want to do. Deleting a foldei will also delete
all the les and foldeis inside it.
Sharing a folder
Shaiing a foldei allows you to give one oi moie people access to the foldei
and its contents. You can also specify whethei each peison can modify
the les in the foldei oi just view them. Anybody you would like to shaie
a foldei with will eithei need to have an existing Ubuntu One account oi
be piepaied to sign up foi one. To shaie a foldei with someone else, click
Share folder. A pop-up box will appeai. Entei the email addiess of the
peison you would like to shaie with. Tis peison will be sent an email
containing instiuctions foi viewing the shaied foldei and foi signing up
to Ubuntu One if necessaiy. Te shaie name is the name of the foldei as
the othei peison will see it. loi example, you might have a foldei called
Pix_2011_06_Small, but want to shaie it as the moie fiiendly Our Holiday
Photos. Te Allow modication check box species whethei the shaiei will
be able to modify the contents of the foldei (that is, to add, edit, oi delete
les and sub-foldeis). lf the box is not ticked, they will be iestiicted to iead-
only access. Click Share this folder to begin shaiing. You can shaie a foldei
with seveial people by iepeating these steps foi each peison in tuin. You
can stop shaiing a foldei with someone by clicking Stop sharing.
Sharing is not the same as publishing. Sharing
is more secure because there is no public URL
for the folder and the people you share with
have to be authenticated by signing in to their
Ubuntu One account.
Accepting a share invitation from someone else
lf you aie invited to shaie a foldei by someone else, you will ieceive an
email containing a link. Clicking the link will take you to the Ubuntu One
website wheie you can log in and accept the shaie. Afei you have done so,
the shaied foldei will appeai in youi list of les.
Figure 3.33: Web Files Shared Folder
lf you have been allowed to modify the foldei by the shaiei, you will be
able to add, edit and delete les and sub-foldeis as if the foldei was one of
youi own. lf you dont have modify peimissions, you wont be able to make
any changes.
Files in folders shared by other people do not
count towards your 5GB storage allowance,
because the les are not actually stored in your
8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Using the Ubuntu One Control Panel
Te Ubuntu One Contiol Panel gives you a quick and easy way to manage
youi Ubuntu One account. Te contiol panel is opened by clicking the
Ubuntu One buuon in the launchei.
Figure 3.34: Control Panel Account
Te contiol panel has foui tabs
Account lets you amend youi account details
Cloud loldeis lets you contiol le and foldei synchionization between
youi cuiient device and youi Ubuntu One account
Devices lets you manage the devices auached to youi Ubuntu One
Seivices lets you set up and manage additional synchionization options,
such as synchionizing youi contacts.
When you rst open the Ubuntu One Control
Panel, you may see the Introductory page (with
the Join Now option) shown in the Creating
an Ubuntu One subscription section. At this
point, the Control Panel is connecting to your
Ubuntu One account. Once this has been done,
the page will change to the Welcome to Ubuntu
One page shown here.
The Cloud Folders tab
Te Cloud loldeis tab lets you contiol which foldeis aie being synchio-
You can also control folder synchronization
through Nautilus (see later).
nized. You can specify whethei a cloud foldei is synchionized with a local
foldei by ticking oi cleaiing the Sync locally' check box.
This controls the synchronization with your cur-
rent device only. You can choose to synchronize
dierent cloud folders with dierent devices.
For example, if someone is sharing a folder
with you, you may only want to synchronize
it with your desktop computer and not with
your laptop or smartphone. (Of course, you can
always access any cloud folder via the Ubuntu
One website whether or not it is synchronized).
The Devices tab
Te Devices tab lists the devices that have been set up to synchionize with
youi Ubuntu One account, with the cuiient device highlighted. Teie aie
two uses foi this tab. liistly, you can iemove a device so that it no longei
synchionizes. Secondly, you can conguie |onJ+:J| |rou|:ng to limit
the amount of youi connections capacity that Ubuntu One will use duiing
synchionization. By default, theie is no thiouling, but you may wish to
change this if you nd that synchionization is aecting youi othei online
activities, such as web-biowsing. Obviously, the moie the bandwidth is
thiouled, the longei it will take to synchionize les.
The Services tab
Te seivices tab allows you to conguie additional synchionization fea-
tuies. By default, synchionization of les is always enabled. Howevei, it
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U 8
is possible to synchionize othei infoimation as well:.e., youi contacts,
Tomboy notes and sofwaie selection. lf you intend to use these extia fea-
tuies, you should install the ubuntuone-desktopcouch package, by clicking
the Install now buuon on this page.
Synchronizing Contacts with Thunderbird
Youi Ubuntu One account can synchionize contacts between the following
Youi lacebook account
Youi mobile phone
Youi Tundeibiid addiess book
Thunderbird synchronization
Synchionization is handled by a Tundeibiid plug-in, which can be in- Thunderbird contact synchronization is
currently only available for Ubuntu. For other
operating systems, you will need to access
contacts through the Ubuntu One website.
stalled fiom the Seivices tab of the Ubuntu One Contiol Panel.
Click the Install now buuon in the Contacts section to install the plug-
You need to have installed the ubuntuone-
desktopcouch package rst.
in. Once installed, the Enable Contacts Sync check-box will be ticked.
Afei a synchionization cycle, you will see youi online contacts appeai
You may need to restart Thunderbird to
activate the plug-in.
in the Ubuntu One foldei in youi Tundeibiid addiess book. Synchioniza-
tion is bi-diiectional if you add a contact to youi Ubuntu One addiess book,
it will appeai in youi Ubuntu One account and +:ce +erso.
Using Ubuntu One with Nautilus
Basic le and folder synchronization using Nautilus
lf you cieated youi Ubuntu One account using the Ubuntu One Contiol
Panel and have uploaded some les, you may be suipiised to see that copies
of these les have appeaied in the Ubuntu One foldei in youi home foldei.
Tis is Ubuntu Ones le synchionization featuie at woik. Synchioniza-
tion is the piocess of ieplicating les and foldeis between devices and youi
Ubuntu One account. Te synchionization occuis continuously in the back-
giound (as long as you aie connected to the lnteinet) and is bi-diiectional,
so that changes to eithei the local oi cloud copy of a le will be ieplicated
to the othei. By default, the Ubuntu One foldei is automatically synchio-
nized. Howevei, it is possible to synchionize othei foldeis as well.
ln Nautilus, synchionized foldeis aie indicated with a tick maik. You can only synchronize folders in your home
Figure 3.35: Ubuntu One Folder Icon
Because the Ubuntu One foldei is automatically synchionized, it pio-
vides quick and easy access to youi cloud stoiage any les oi foldeis you
cieate in this foldei will automatically be synchionized to youi Ubuntu
One account with no fuithei eoit on youi pait. Tis is much easiei than
manually uploading and downloading les via the Ubuntu One website. lf
you make a lot of changes to synchionized les and foldeis in a shoit time,
the synchionization piocess may not be able to keep up with them all im-
mediately. Tis is especially likely to happen if you have a slow lnteinet
connection oi you have iestiicted the bandwidth that synchionization is al-
lowed to use. Howevei, the pending changes will all eventually get wiiuen.
Te synchionization state of each le oi foldei is indicated by a badge
on its icon a gieen tick means the le is synchionized, whilst a ciicle of
gieen and blue aiiows means synchionization is pending oi undeiway. ln
the scieenshot below, quote.txt is up to date, but Laigelile.txt is still being
You can also get an overview of the synchro-
nization state from the Ubuntu One Control
Panel, which will show either File Sync in
progress or File Sync is up-to-date. However,
the Control Panel does not show the state of
individual les.
8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Figure 3.36: Ubuntu Nautilus Badges
You can make any changes you like to the local copy of the le and they
will automatically be synchionized to Ubuntu One. Tis table summaiises
how changes to the local le aie synchionized
Ubuntu One lile Actions
Action Eect in Cloud Notes
Move le into
Ubuntu One
Remote le
Any new le that appeais in the Ubuntu
One foldei will automatically begin to be
Update le edit
and save
Remote le up-
dated to new
Rename le Remote le
Delete le Remote le
Move le to
anothei (un-
Remote le
Because the le has been iemoved fiom
the Ubuntu One foldei, this is tieated as
a deletion. Te le is no longei undei
Synchronizing additional folders
You can specify additional foldeis that should be synchionized, as long as
they aie in youi home foldei. loi instance, you may wish to synchionize
youi Documents foldei so that youi documents aie available on all youi
devices. To synchionize anothei foldei, navigate to the foldei in Nautilus,
then tick the Sync|ron::e |:s [o|Jer.
Alteinatively, iight-click a foldei icon to display its shoitcut menu, then
select Ubuntu One Synchionize Tis loldei.
Encrypting les for security
You can give youiself an extia layei of secuiity by enciypting sensitive This is not a very robust encryption method. If
you need greater protection, consider using an
application such as GPG (GNU Privacy Guard)
that uses cryptographic keys rather than
les befoie puuing them on Ubuntu One. Tis will help piotect you if youi
Ubuntu One account is compiomised. Heie is a simple way to do this
ln Nautilus, iight-click on the le you want to enciypt and select Com-
vovxiNc vi1u UnUN1U 8,
Figure 3.37: Nautilus Sync
Te Compiess dialog will appeai with youi lename selected.
loi the letype, choose .zip.
Click the aiiow next to Othei Options to expand the section and see the
Password box.
Entei a passwoid, then click Create.
A new le will be cieated with a .zip extension in the same foldei as youi
oiiginal document. Tis le contains an enciypted veision of the oiiginal
le, which you can then safely upload to Ubuntu One.
Mo|e svre yov on|y v|ooJ |e encryeJ +ers:on o[ |e |e o U|vnv One onJ
no |e or:g:no|! Don vse yovr occovn oss+orJ o roec yovr Jocven. I[
soe|oJy |no+s yovr occovn oss+orJ, |ey +:|| ro|o||y ry |:s rs.
Some applications, such as LibieOce, can alieady cieate passwoid-
piotected documents. lf a document is alieady enciypted, theie is no need
to ie-enciypt it.
Te .zip foimat will also tiy to compiess youi le, so you may nd that
the enciypted le is smallei than the oiiginal. Dont woiiy about this none
of youi infoimation has been lost and when you deciypt the le, it will be
exactly the same as befoie.
Decrypting an encrypted le
To iecovei the oiiginal document, double-click the .zip le. Tis will open
the Aichive Managei application. Click the Extract buuon on the toolbai,
specify a location foi the deciypted le, then click Extract. At this point,
you will be piompted to entei the oiiginal passwoid so that the le can be
The Shared With Me folder
Shared With Me is a special foldei wheie foldeis that othei people aie
shaiing with you can be synchionized. By default, shaied foldeis aie not
synchionized. To enable synchionization, use the Cloud loldeis tab of the
Ubuntu One Contiol Panel and ensuie the Sync locally' box is ticked foi
the shaied foldei you want to synchionize. Te foldei will then appeai in
the Shared With Me foldei and begin to synchionize. Once the synchio-
nization is complete, the foldei emblem will change fiom ciiculai blue and
gieen aiiows to a gieen tick.
4 Hardware
Using your devices
Ubuntu suppoits a wide iange of haidwaie, and suppoit foi new haidwaie
impioves with eveiy ielease.
Hardware identication
To identify youi haidwaie you can install the following application Click
Ubuntu Sonware Center fiom the Unity launchei. When the Ubuntu
Sofwaie Centei window opens, use the seaich box in the top iight and
seaich foi the following sysinfo. Now select the Application, click Install
and entei youi passwoid to install the application.
To iun the application, seaich foi Sysinfo at the Dash seaich bai. Click
on the piogiam once you nd it. Te Sysinfo piogiam will then open a
window with infoimation about the haidwaie that is pait of youi system.
Hardware drivers
A diivei consists of code that is packaged in a le, which tells youi com-
putei how to communicate with a piece of haidwaie. Eveiy component in a
computei iequiies a diivei to function, whethei its the piintei, uvu playei,
haid disk, oi giaphics caid.
A majoiity of giaphics caids aie manufactuied by thiee well-known Your graphics card is the component in your
computer that outputs to the display. When
youre watching videos on YouTube, viewing
DVDs, or simply enjoying the smooth transition
eects when you maximize/minimize your
windows, your graphics device is doing the hard
work behind the scenes.
companies lntel, ~xu/~1i, and Nviui~ Coip. You can nd youi video caid
manufactuiei by iefeiiing to youi computeis manual, looking foi the
specications of youi paiticulai model on the lnteinet, oi by using the com-
mand lspci in a teiminal. Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei houses a numbei
of applications that can tell you detailed system infoimation. Syslnfo is one
such piogiam that you can use to nd ielevant infoimation about youi Sys-
tem devices. Ubuntu comes with suppoit foi giaphics devices manufactuied
by the above companies, and many otheis, out of the box. Tat means you
dont have to nd and install any diiveis youiself, Ubuntu takes caie of it
Keeping in line with Ubuntus philosophy, the diiveis that aie used by
default foi poweiing giaphics devices aie open souice. Tis means that
the diiveis can be modied by the Ubuntu developeis and pioblems with
them can be xed. Howevei, in some cases a piopiietaiy diivei (iestiicted
diivei) piovided by the company may piovide beuei peifoimance oi fea-
tuies that aie not piesent in the open souice diivei. ln othei cases, youi
paiticulai device may not be suppoited by any open souice diiveis yet. ln
those scenaiios, you may want to install the iestiicted diivei piovided by
the manufactuiei.
loi both philosophical and piactical ieasons, Ubuntu does not install
iestiicted diiveis by default but allows the usei to make an infoimed choice.
Remembei that iestiicted diiveis, unlike the open souice diiveis foi youi
device, aie not maintained by Ubuntu. Pioblems caused by those diiveis
will be iesolved only when the manufactuiei wishes to addiess them.
,o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
To see if iestiicted diiveis aie available foi youi system, piess the Su-
per/Windows key on youi keyboaid to show the dash oi click the Ubuntu
icon on the Unity launchei, and seaich foi Additional Drivers. lf a diivei
is piovided by the company foi youi paiticulai device, it will be listed theie.
You can simply click Activate to enable the diivei. Tis piocess iequiies an
active lnteinet connection and it will ask foi youi passwoid. Once installa-
tion is complete you may have to ieboot youi computei to nish activating
the diivei.
Te Ubuntu developeis piefei open souice diiveis because they allow
any pioblem to be identied and xed by anyone with knowledge within
the community. Ubuntu development is extiemely fast and it is likely that
youi device will be suppoited by open souice diiveis. You can use the
Ubuntu Live cu to check youi devices compatibility with Ubuntu befoie
installing, oi go online to the Ubuntu foiums oi to http//www.askubuntu.
com to ask about youi paiticulai device.
Another useful resource is the ocial online
documentation (, which
contains detailed information about various
graphics drivers and known problems. This
same documentation can be found by searching
for Yelp in the Dash search bar or by pressing
F1 on your keyboard.
Setting up your screen resolution
One of the most common display ielated tasks is seuing youi scieen iesolu-
Ubuntu coiiectly identies youi native scieen iesolution by itself and Displays are made up of thousands of tiny
pixels. Each pixel displays a dierent color,
and when combined they all display the image
that you see. The native screen resolution is a
measure of the amount of actual pixels on your
sets it foi you. Howevei, due to a wide vaiiety of devices available, some-
times it cant piopeily identify youi iesolution.
To set oi check youi scieen iesolution, go to System Settings Displays.
Te Displays window shows you youi monitois name, size, scieen ies-
olution, and iefiesh iate. liom the Resolution diop-down menu you can
select the iesolution of youi choice.
Adding an extra display
Sometimes, you may want to add moie than one display device to youi
desktop, oi may want to add an exteinal monitoi to youi laptop. Doing
this is quite simple. Whethei its an extia monitoi, LCD TV, oi a piojectoi,
Ubuntu can handle it all. Ubuntu suppoits the addition of multiple displays
by default, which is as easy as plug and play. Ubuntu iecognizes almost
all the latest monitois, TVs and piojectois by default. Sometimes it may
happen that youi additional display is not detected when you connect it to
the machine. To iesolve this, go to System Settings Displays and click on
Detect Displays. Tis will detect the monitois connected to the machine.
Tis menu can also be found fiom the Power O menu on the top panel.
You can also seaich foi Displays at the Dash seaich bai. Now, theie aie two
modes which you can enable foi youi displays. One option is to spiead youi
desktop acioss two oi moie monitois. Tis is paiticulaily useful if you aie
woiking on multiple piojects and need to keep an eye on each of them at
the same time. Te second option is to miiioi the desktop onto each of the
displays. Tis is paiticulaily useful when you aie using a laptop to display
something on a laigei scieen oi a piojectoi. To enable this option just check
the box beside Mirror displays and click Apply to save the seuings. You
will get a pop-up notication asking if you want to keep the cuiient seuing
oi ieveit to the pievious seuing. Click to keep the cuiient seuing.
u~vuv~vr ,1
Connecting and using your printer
Ubuntu suppoits most new piinteis. You can add, iemove, and change
piintei piopeities by navigating to System Settings Printing. You can also
seaich foi Piinting fiom the Dash seaich bai. Opening Piinting will display
the Piinting-localhost window.
When you want to add a piintei, you will need to make suie that it is
switched on, and plugged into youi computei with a Usn cable oi connected
to youi netwoik.
Adding a local printer
lf you have a piintei that is connected to youi computei with a Usn cable
then this is teimed a |oco| r:ner. You can add a piintei by clicking on the
Add Printer buuon.
ln the lef hand pane of the New Piintei window any piinteis that you
can install will be listed. Select the piintei that you would like to install and
click Forward.
You can now specify the piintei name, desciiption and location. Each of If your printer can automatically do double
sided printing, it will probably have a duplexer.
Please refer to the instructions that came with
the printer if you are unsure. If you do have a
duplexer, make sure the Duplexer Installed
option is checked and then click the Forward
these should iemind you of that paiticulai piintei so that you can choose
the iight one to use when piinting. linally, click Apply.
Adding a network printer
Make suie that youi piintei is connected to youi netwoik eithei with an
Etheinet cable oi via wiieless and is tuined on. You can add a piintei by
clicking Add Printer. Te New Piintei window will open. Click the
sign next to Ne+or| Pr:ner.
lf youi piintei is found automatically it will appeai undei Ne+or|
Pr:ner. Click the piintei name and then click Forward. ln the text elds
you can now specify the piintei name, desciiption and location. Each of
these should iemind you of that paiticulai piintei so that you can choose
the iight one to use when piinting. linally click Apply.
You can also add youi netwoik piintei by enteiing the iv addiess of the
piintei. Select lind Netwoik Piintei, entei the iv addiess of the piintei
in the box that ieads Host and piess the Find buuon. Ubuntu will nd the
piintei and add it. Most piinteis aie detected by Ubuntu automatically. lf
Ubuntu cannot detect the piintei automatically, it will ask you to entei the
make and model numbei of the piintei.
The default printer is the one that is automat-
ically selected when you print a le. To set a
printer as default, right-click the printer that
you want to set as default and then click Set As
Changing printer options
Piintei options allow you to change the piinting quality, papei size and
media type. Tey can be changed by iight-clicking a piintei and choosing
Properties. Te Piintei Piopeities window will show, in the lef pane,
select Pr:ner O:ons.
You can now specify seuings by changing the diop-down entiies. Some
of the options that you might see aie explained.
Media Size
Tis is the size of the papei that you put into youi piintei tiay.
,: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Media source
Tis is the tiay that the papei comes fiom.
Color Model
Tis is veiy useful if you want to piint in Grayscale to save on ink, oi to
piint in Color, oi Inverted Grayscale.
Media type
Depending on the piintei you can change between
Plain Papei
Photo Papei
Tianspaiency lilm
cu oi uvu Media
Print quality
Tis species how much ink is used when piinting, Fast Dran using the
least ink and High-Resolution Photo using the most ink.
Ubuntu usually detects the audio haidwaie of the system automatically
duiing installation. Te audio in Ubuntu is piovided by a sound seivei
named PulseAudio. Te audio piefeiences aie easily conguiable with the
help of a veiy easy to use cUi which comes pieinstalled with Ubuntu.
Volume icon and Sound Preferences
A volume icon, siuing on the top iight coinei of the scieen, piovides quick
access to a numbei of audio ielated functions. When you lef-click on the
volume icon you aie gieeted with foui options A mute option at the veiy
top, a slidei buuon which you can move hoiizontally to inciease/deciease
volume, a shoitcut to the default music playei Banshee and an option foi
accessing the Sound Piefeiences. Selecting SovnJ Pre[erences opens up
anothei window which piovides access to sound themes, haidwaie, input
and output piefeiences. Sound Piefeiences can also be found if you go to
System Settings Sound.
SovnJ Fecs Te ist tab which shows up by default is SovnJ Fecs. You can add new sound themes by installing
them from Software Center (e. g., Ubuntu
Studios GNOME audio theme.) You will get the
installed sound themes from the drop down
menu. You can also enable window and button
You can disable the existing sound theme oi conguie it with the options
HorJ+ore Te HorJ+ore tab will have a list of all the sound caids available
A microphone is used for making audio/video
calls which are supported by applications like
Skype or Empathy. It can also be used for sound
in youi system. Usually theie is only one listed, howevei, if you have a
giaphics caid which suppoits uuxi audio, it will also show up in the list.
Inv Te thiid tab is foi conguiing audio Inv.You will be able to use You should note that by default in any Ubuntu
installation, the input sound is muted. You
will have to manually unmute to enable your
microphone to record sound or use it during
audio/video calls.
this section when you have an in-built miciophone in youi system oi if
youve pluged in an exteinal miciophone. You can also add a bluetooth
headset to youi input devices which can seive as a miciophone. You can
u~vuv~vr ,
inciease/deciease and mute/unmute input volume fiom this tab. lf theie is
moie than one input device, you will see them listed in the white box which
ieads C|oose o Je+:ce [or sovnJ :nv.
By default, the volume in Ubuntu is set to
maximum during installation.
Ovv Te Ovv tab is used foi conguiing the output of audio. You If you change your sound output device, it will
remain as default.
can inciease/deciease and mute/unmute output volume and select youi
piefeiied output device. lf you have moie than one output device, it will be
listed in the section which ieads Choose a device foi sound output. Te
default output haidwaie, which is automatically detected by Ubuntu duiing
installation will be selected.
A|:co:ons Te A|:co:ons tab is foi changing the volume foi iunning The Ubuntu Design Team have made a few
changes to the volume icon in this release of
Ubuntu 11.10.
applications. Tis comes in handy if you have multiple audio applications
iunning, foi example, if you have Rhythmbox, Totem Movie Playei and a
web-based video playing at the same time. ln this situation, you will be able
to inciease/deciease, mute/unmute volume foi each application fiom this
More functionality
Te icon can contiol vaiious aspects of the system, application volume and
music playeis like Banshee. Te volume indicatoi icon can now be easily
iefeiied to as the sound menu, given the diveise functionality of the icon.
Media contiols available include play/pause, pievious tiack, and next tiack. You can start and control the default music
player, Banshee, by simply left clicking on the
sound menu and selecting Banshee from the
list. Clicking the play button also starts the
You can also switch between dieient playlists fiom the C|oose P|oy|:s
option. Teie is also a seek bai which you can manually diag to skip some
poitions of any song. lf the cuiient playing song has album ait, it will
show up beside the name of the cuiient tiack, otheiwise you will see only
the details of the song. lt displays the tiack name, the aitist name and the
album name of the cuiient tiack.
Using a webcam
Webcams ofen come built into laptops and netbooks. Some computeis,
such as Apple desktops, have a webcam built into theii display. lf you
puichase a webcam because youi computei doesnt have its own, it will
most likely have a Usn connection. To use a Usn webcam, plug it into an
empty Usn poit on youi computei.
Almost all new webcams aie detected by Ubuntu automatically. You can There are several applications which are useful
if you have a webcam. Cheese can capture
pictures with your webcam and VLC media
player can capture video from your webcam.
You can install these from the Ubuntu Software
conguie webcams foi individual applications such as Skype and Empathy
fiom the applications setup menu. loi webcams which do not woik iight
away with Ubuntu, visit https// foi help.
Scanning text and images
Scanning a document oi an image is veiy simple in Ubuntu. Scanning is
handled by the application Simple Scan. Most of the time, Ubuntu will
simply detect youi scannei and you should just be able to use it. To scan a
document, follow these steps
1. Place what you want to scan on the scannei.
:. Click to open the Dash and entei scan.
. Click on Simple Scan.
, cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
. Click to choose between Text oi Photo fiom Document Scan Text.
. Click Scan.
. Click the Paper Icon to add anothei page.
,. Click Save to save.
You can save the scanned documents and pictuies in jpeg. You can also
save in pdf foimat to enable opening in Aciobat Readei. To do that, add the
extension .pdf at the end of the lename.
Help! Ubuntu cant nd my scanner!
lf youi scannei is not detected, Ubuntu may give you a No devices avail-
able message when tiying to scan. Teie may be a ieason why Ubuntu
cannot nd youi scannei.
Simply unplug the scannei and plug it back in. lf it is a newei Usn scan-
nei, it is likely that it will just woik.
Te diivei foi youi scannei is not being automatically loaded. Restait
youi system. lt might help'
Youi scannei is not suppoited in Ubuntu. Te most common type
of scannei not suppoited is old paiallel poit oi Lexmaik All-in-One
s~Nr pioject listing of suppoited scanneis. Te s~Nr (Scannei Access
Now Easy) pioject piovides most of the back-ends to the scanning sof-
waie on Ubuntu.
Check https//
to nd out which scanneis woik with Ubuntu.
Other devices
USB poits aie available as standaid on almost all computeis available now.
Tey aie used to connect a multitude of devices to youi computei. Tese
could include poitable haid diives, ash diives, iemovable cu/uvu/Blu-iay
diives, piinteis, scanneis and mobile phones. When connected, ash diives
and poitable haid diives aie automatically detectedthe le managei will
open and display the contents of the diive. You can then use the diives
foi copying data to and fiom the computei. All new cameias, camcoideis
and mobile phone su caids aie automatically detected by Ubuntu. Tese
SD caids have dieient types of data, so a window will appeai with a diop
down menu to choose between video, audio impoit and the le managei
you can choose youi desiied action fiom this menu.
liiewiie is a connection on some computeis that allows you to tiansfei data Firewire is ocially known as IEEE 1394. It
is also known as the Sony i.LINK and Texas
Instruments Lynx.
fiom devices. Tis poit is geneially used by camcoideis and digital cameias.
lf you want to impoit video fiom youi camcoidei you can do so by
connecting youi camcoidei to the liiewiie poit. You will need to install a
piogiam called Kino which is available in the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. To nd out more about Kino, visit http://www.
Bluetooth is a wiieless technology that is widely used by dieient types of
devices to connect to each othei. lt is common to see a mouse oi a keyboaid
u~vuv~vr ,
that suppoits Bluetooth. You can also nd cvs devices, mobile phones,
headsets, music playeis and many othei devices that can connect to youi
desktops oi laptop and let you tiansfei data, listen to music, oi play games
as an example.
lf youi computei has Bluetooth suppoit then you should see a Bluetooth
icon in the top panel, usually neai the volume icon. Click on the Bluetooth
icon to open a popup menu with seveial choices, such as an option to Turn
o Bluetooth.
Figure 4.1: The Bluetooth applet menu.
Te Bluetooth piefeiences can also be accessed fiom System Settings
Bluetooth. lf you want to connect a new devicefoi example, to have a
mobile phone send pictuies oi videos to youi computeiselect Setup new
Ubuntu will open a window foi new device setup. When you click For-
ward, Ubuntu will show you how many Bluetooth devices aie piesent neai
youi computei. Te list of available devices might take a minute oi so to
appeai on the scieen as youi system scans foi these devices. Each device
will be displayed as soon as it is found by Ubuntu. Once a device youd like
to connect with appeais in the list, click on it. Ten, choose a viN numbei
by selecting PIN options.
Tiee piedened viN numbeis aie available, but you can also cieate a When you pair two Bluetooth devices, you are
letting each device trust the other one. After
you pair two devices, they will automatically
connect to each other in the future without
requiring a PIN.
custom viN. You will need to entei this viN on the device you will be paiiing
with Ubuntu.
Once the device has been paiied, Ubuntu will open the Setup com-
pleted window. ln Ubuntu, youi computei is hidden by default foi secuiity
ieasons. Tis means that youi Ubuntu system can seaich othei Bluetooth
devices, but otheis cannot nd youi Ubuntu system when they peifoim a
seaich on theii own computei. lf you would like to let anothei device nd
youi computei, you will have to explicitly allow youi computei to be found.
To allow youi computei to be found, select Make computei discoveiable
in Bluetooth piefeiences. You can also click on the Bluetooth icon and
select Visible to make youi computei discoveiable.
You can also add a fancy name foi youi Bluetooth-enabled Ubuntu sys-
tem by changing the text undei Friendly Name.
Anothei featuie piesent in the Bluetooth icon menu is Send les to
device. Use this option to send a le to a mobile phone without paiiing
with the computei. Android devices need to be paired at all times,
even while transferring les.
5 Software Management
Software management in Ubuntu
As discussed in Chaptei Woiking with Ubuntu, Ubuntu oeis you a
wide iange of applications foi youi daily woik. Ubuntu comes with a basic
set of applications foi common tasks like suing the lnteinet, checking
youi email, listening to music, and oiganizing youi photos and videos.
Sometimes you may need an extia level of specialization foi example you
may want to ietouch youi photos, iun some sofwaie foi youi business,
oi play some new games. ln each of these cases you can seaich foi an
application, install it and use itusually, with no extia cost.
Figure 5.1: Software Center icon
Sofwaie in Ubuntu is deliveied as oc|oges, simplifying the installa-
We recommend Ubuntu Software Center for
searching, installing and removing applications,
although you still have the possibility to use the
command-line application apt-get, or install
and use the advanced application Synaptic
Package Manager.
tion to one click. A package is a compiessed le aichive containing eveiy-
thing needed to iun the application. Packages can also contain infoimation
desciibing which othei applications, called JeenJenc:es oi |:|ror:es, aie
needed. Linux is designed in a way that any |:|rory can be updated without
having to ieinstall the complete application, minimizing haid diive usage by
leuing othei applications use the same |:|rory.
Most othei opeiating systems iequiie a usei to puichase commeicial
sofwaie (online oi thiough a physical stoie), oi seaich the lnteinet foi a
fiee alteinative (if one is available). Te coiiect installation le must then
be veiied foi integiity, downloaded and located on the computei, followed
by the usei pioceeding thiough a numbei of installation piompts and op-
tions. By default Ubuntu gives you a centialized point with two dieient
ways to biowse the reos:or:es foi seaiching, installing and iemoving sof-
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei
Command line apt-get
Seaiching, installing and/oi iemoving applications with Ubuntu Sofwaie
Centei is the easiest and most comfoitable way. lt is iecommended foi all
kinds of useis, staiting fiom beginneis to the most expeiienced.
Using the Ubuntu Software Center
Teie aie numeious ways to install sofwaie on an opeiating system. ln
Ubuntu, the quickest and easiest way to nd and install new applications is
thiough the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
To stait the application, click on the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei icon in the
launchei, oi click on the Dash and seaich foi Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei can be used to install applications that aie
available in the ocial Ubuntu iepositoiies. Te Sofwaie Centei window
has two paitsa list of categoiies on the lef, a bannei at the top, and two
featuied aieas on the iight. Clicking on a categoiy will take you to a list
of ielated applications. loi example, the lnteinet categoiy contains liiefox
Web Biowsei. Te featuied aieas highlight Whats New and Top Rated
sofwaie. Each aiea shows dieient application icons. Just click an icon to
get moie infoimation on the application oi to install it. To see all sofwaie
the aiea contains, click Moie.
,8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Figure 5.2: You can install and remove applica-
tions from your computer using the Software
Tiee sections at the top iepiesent youi cuiient view of the Sofwaie
Centeis catalog. Click the All Sofwaie buuon to see sofwaie that is avail-
able to install, click lnstalled to see a list of sofwaie that is alieady installed
on youi computei, oi click Histoiy to see pievious installations and dele-
tions oiganized by date.
Find your application
Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei displays dieient souices in the Get Sofwaie
section. Clicking the aiiow next to All Sofwaie will show a list of in-
dividual sections. Selecting Piovided by Ubuntu will show fiee ocial
sofwaie, loi Puichase will show sofwaie foi puichasing, and Canonical
Paitneis will show sofwaie fiom paitneis of Canonical, such as Adobe.
lf you aie looking foi an application, you may alieady know a specic
name (foi example, VLC Media Playei), oi you may just have a geneial
categoiy in mind (foi example, the Sound and Video categoiy includes a
numbei of dieient sofwaie applications such as video conveiteis, audio
editois, and music playeis).
To help you nd the iight application, you can biowse the Sofwaie
Centei catalog by clicking on the categoiy that ieects the type of sofwaie
you aie looking foi, oi use the Seaich eld at the top iight of the window to
look foi specic names oi keywoids.
When you select a categoiy, you will be shown a list of applications.
Some categoiies have sub-categoiiesfoi example, the Games categoiy has
subcategoiies foi Simulation and Caid Games. To move thiough categoiies
you can use the back and foiwaid buuons at the top of the window.
Installing software
Once you have found an application you would like to tiy, installing it is
just one click away.
To install sofwaie
soi1v~vr x~N~crxrN1 ,,
1. Click the Install buuon to the iight of the selected package to install it. lf
you would like to iead moie about the sofwaie package befoie installing
it, ist click on Moie lnfo. Tis will take you to a shoit desciiption of
the application, as well as a scieenshot and a Web link when available.
Related add-ons will be listed below the applications desciiption. You
can click Install fiom this scieen as well. ln addition, if you use the You must have administrative privileges, and
you will need to be connected to the Internet
for the Software Center to work. To learn how
to set up your Internet connection, see Getting
Gwibbei micio-blogging application, you can hit the Shaie link below
the desciiption of an application to tell youi fiiends about it.
:. Afei clicking Install, entei youi passwoid into the authentication win-
dow that appeais. Tis is the same passwoid you use to log in to youi
account. You aie iequiied to entei it whenevei installing oi iemoving
sofwaie in oidei to pievent someone without administiatoi access
fiom making unauthoiized changes to youi computei. lf you ieceive an
Authentication lailuie message afei typing in youi passwoid, check
that you typed it coiiectly by tiying again. lf the eiioi continues, this
may mean that youi account is not authoiized to install sofwaie on the
. Wait until the package is nished installing. Duiing the installation
(oi iemoval) of piogiams, you will see an animated icon of iotating
aiiows to the lef of the ln Piogiess buuon in the sidebai. lf you like, you
can now go back to the main biowsing window and choose additional
sofwaie packages to be installed by following the steps above. At any
time, clicking the Piogiess buuon on the top will take you to a summaiy
of all opeiations that aie cuiiently piocessing. Heie you can also click
the X icon to cancel any opeiation.
Once the Sofwaie Centei has nished installing an application, it is ieady
to be used. You can stait the newly installed application by going to the
Dash and typing the name of the application in the seaich bai. You may
want to add the application to the Launchei.
Removing software
Removing applications is veiy similai to installing them. liist nd the in-
stalled sofwaie in Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. You can click on the Installed
buuon which will show all the installed sofwaie listed in dieient cate-
goiies. Scioll down to the application you wish to iemove. lf you click on
the aiiow next to Installed buuon, you will nd a list of sofwaie piovideis,
which can help you to naiiow youi seaich. You also can entei keywoids in
the Seaich eld to quickly nd installed sofwaie, oi you can seaich by date
in the Histoiy tab (moie on Histoiy below).
To iemove sofwaie
1. Click the Remove buuon to the iight of the selected application.
:. Entei youi passwoid into the authentication window that appeais. Re-
moving Sofwaie also iequiies that you entei youi passwoid to help
piotect youi computei against unauthoiized changes. Te package will
then be queued foi iemoval, and will appeai undei the piogiess section
in the top.
Removing a package will also update youi menus accoidingly.
1oo cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Software history
Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei keeps tiack of past sofwaie management
in the Histoiy section. Tis is useful if you wish to ieveit installations oi
iemovals and do not iemembei the applications name.
Teie aie foui buuons in the histoiy sectionAll Changes, Installations,
Updates and Removals. Clicking one will show a list of days that action
occuiied. lf you click the aiiow next to a day, a list of individual packages
will be shown, along with what was done with them and at what time. Te
Histoiy section shows all sofwaie installation histoiy, not just changes
made within the Sofwaie Centei. loi example, packages updated thiough
the Update Managei will also be listed.
Managing additional software
Although the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei piovides a laige libiaiy of appli-
cations to choose fiom, initially only those packages available within the
ocial Ubuntu iepositoiies aie listed. At times, you may be inteiested in a
paiticulai application that is not available in these iepositoiies. lf this hap-
pens, it is impoitant to undeistand some alteinative methods foi accessing
and installing sofwaie in Ubuntu, such as downloading an installation le
manually fiom the lnteinet, oi adding extia iepositoiies. liist, we will look
at how to manage youi iepositoiies thiough Sofwaie Souices.
Software Sources
Te Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei lists only those applications that aie available
in youi enabled iepositoiies. Repositoiies can be added oi iemoved thiough
the Sofwaie Souices application. To open this, click on the Dash and entei You can also open Software Sources from the
Ubuntu Software Center. Simply go to Edit
Software Sources.
Software Sources. Ten open the application fiom the iesults shown.
Managing the ocial repositories
When you open Sofwaie Souices, it shows you the Ubuntu Sonware tab
wheie the ist foui options aie enabled by default. The Ubuntu Software tab lists the ocial
Ubuntu repositories, each containing dierent
types of packages.
Conon:co|svoreJ oen sovrce so+ore (o:n) Tis iepositoiy contains
all the open-souice packages that aie maintained by Canonical.
Covn:yo:no:neJ oen sovrce so+ore (vn:+erse) Tis iepositoiy
contains all the open-souice packages that aie developed and maintained
by the Ubuntu community.
Pror:eory Jr:+ers [or Je+:ces (resr:ceJ) Tis iepositoiy contains piopii-
etaiy diiveis, which may be iequiied to utilize the full capabilities of
some of youi devices oi haidwaie.
Closed-source packages are sometimes
referred to as non-free. This is a reference to
freedom of speech, rather than monetary cost.
Payment is not required to use these packages.
So+ore resr:ceJ |y coyr:g| or |ego| :ssves (v|:+erse) Tis iepositoiy
contains sofwaie that may be piotected fiom use in some states oi
countiies by copyiight oi licensing laws. By using this iepositoiy you
assume iesponsibility foi the usage of any packages that you install.
Sovrce coJe Tis iepositoiy contains the souice code that is used to build
the sofwaie packages fiom some of the othei iepositoiies. Te Source Building applications from source is an ad-
vanced process for creating packages, and
usually only concerns developers. You may
also require source les when using a custom
kernel, or if trying to use the latest version of
an application before it is released for Ubuntu.
As this is a more advanced area, it will not be
covered in this manual.
code option should not be selected unless you have expeiience with
building applications fiom souice.
soi1v~vr x~N~crxrN1 1o1
Selecting the best software server
Ubuntu piovides and allows many seiveis aiound the woild to miiioi the
packages fiom the souices listed undei Managing the ocial iepositoiies. Ubuntu grants permission to many servers all
across the world to act as mirrors. That is, they
host an exact copy of all the les contained in
the ocial Ubuntu repositories.
When selecting a seivei, you may want to considei the following
D:sonce o ser+er. Tis will aect the speed you can achieve with the le
Inerne Ser+:ce Pro+:Jer. Some lnteinet seivice piovideis oei cheapei, oi
even unlimited fiee downloads fiom theii own seiveis.
Qo|:y o[ ser+er. Some seiveis may only oei downloads at a capped
speed, limiting the iate at which you can install and update sofwaie on
youi computei.
Ubuntu will automatically choose an appiopiiate seivei while installing,
and as such these seuings should not be changed unless youi physical
location changes diastically oi if you feel a highei speed should be achieved
by youi lnteinet connection. Te guide below will help in choosing an
optimal seivei.
Ubuntu piovides a tool foi selecting the seivei that piovides the fastest
connection with youi computei.
1. Click the diopdown box next to Download fiom in the Sofwaie
Souices window.
:. Select Othei fiom the list.
. ln the Seivei Selection window that appeais. Click the Select Best
Server buuon in the uppei iight. Youi computei will now auempt a
connection with all the available seiveis, then select the one with the
fastest speed.
lf you aie happy with the automatic selection, click Choose Server to
ietuin to the Sofwaie Souices window.
lf you aie not happy with the automatic selection oi piefei not to use
the tool, the fastest seivei is ofen the closest seivei to you geogiaphically.
ln this case simply choose Othei then nd the neaiest location to youi
computei. When you aie happy with the seuings chosen click Choose
Server to ietuin to the Sofwaie Souices window.
lf you do not have a woiking lnteinet connection, updates and piogiams
can be installed fiom the installation media itself by inseiting youi media
and clicking the box undei lnstallable fiom cuvox/uvu. Once this box is
checked the media within thecuvox/uvu diive will function as an online
iepositoiy and as such the sofwaie on the media will be installable fiom
the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Adding more software repositories
Ubuntu makes it easy to add additional, thiid-paity iepositoiies to youi A PPA is a Personal Package Archive. These
are online repositories used to host the latest
versions of software packages, digital projects,
and other applications.
list of sofwaie souices. Te most common iepositoiies added to Ubuntu
aie called vv~s. Tese allow you to install sofwaie packages that aie not
available in the ocial iepositoiies, and automatically be notied whenevei
updates foi these packages aie available.
lf you know the web addiess of a vv~s Launchpad site, adding it to youi
list of sofwaie souices is ielatively simple. To do so, you will need to use
the Other Sonware tab in the Sofwaie Souices window.
On the Launchpad site foi a vv~, you will see a heading to the lef called
Adding this PPA to youi system. Undeineath will be a shoit paiagiaph
1o: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
containing a unique Uvi in the foim of ppatest-ppa/example. Highlight this
Uvi by selecting it with youi mouse, then iight-click and select Copy.
Figure 5.3: This is an example of the Launchpad
page for the Lifesaver PPA. Lifesaver is an
application that is not available in the ocial
Ubuntu repositories. However, by adding
this PPA to your list of software sources, it
would then be easy to install and update this
application through the Software Center.
Retuin to the Sofwaie Souices window, and in the Other Sonware tab
click Add at the bouom. A new window will appeai, and you will see the
woids Apt line followed by a text eld. Right-click on the empty space in
this text eld and select Paste, and you should see the Uvi appeai that you
copied fiom the vv~s Launchpad site eailiei. Click Add Source to ietuin to
the Sofwaie Souices window. You will see a new entiy has been added
to the list of souices in this window, with a selected check box in fiont
meaning it is enabled.
lf you click Close in the bouom iight coinei of this window, a message
will appeai infoiming you that Te infoimation about available sofwaie
is out-of-date. Tis is because you have just added a new iepositoiy to
Ubuntu, and it now needs to connect to that iepositoiy and download a
list of the packages that it piovides. Click Reload, and wait while Ubuntu
iefieshes all of youi enabled iepositoiies (including this new one you just
added). When it has nished, the window will close automatically.
Congiatulations, you have just added a vv~ to youi list of sofwaie
souices. You can now open the Sofwaie Centei and install applications
fiom this vv~, in the same way you pieviously installed applications fiom
the default Ubuntu iepositoiies.
Manual software installation
Although Ubuntu has extensive sofwaie available, on some occasions you
may want to manually install sofwaie packages that aie not available in the
iepositoiies. lf theie is not a vv~ foi the sofwaie, you will need to install it
manually. Befoie you choose to do so, make suie you tiust the package and
its maintainei.
Packages in Ubuntu have a .deb extension. Double-clicking a package
soi1v~vr x~N~crxrN1 1o
will open an oveiview page in the Sofwaie Centei, which will give you
moie infoimation about that package.
Te oveiview gives some technical infoimation about that package, a
website link (if applicable) and the option to install. Clicking Install will
install the package just like any othei installation in the Sofwaie Centei.
Updates and upgrades
Ubuntu also allows you to decide how to manage package updates thiough
the Updates tab in the Sofwaie Souices window.
Ubuntu updates
ln this section, you aie able to specify the kinds of updates you wish to
install on youi system, and usually depends on youi piefeiences aiound
stability, veisus having access to the latest developments.
Ioron secvr:y vJoes Tese updates aie highly iecommended to
ensuie youi system iemains as secuie as possible. Tese aie enabled by
RecoenJeJ vJoes Tese updates aie not as impoitant foi keeping youi
system secuie, but will mean youi packages always have the most iecent
bug xes oi minoi updates that have been tested and appioved. Tis
option is also enabled by default.
Prere|eoseJ vJoes Tis option is foi those who would iathei iemain
up-to-date with the veiy latest ieleases of applications, at the iisk of in-
stalling an update that has uniesolved bugs oi conicts. Note that it is
possible that you will encountei pioblems with these updated applica-
tions, theiefoie this option is not enabled by default.
UnsvoreJ vJoes Tese aie updates that have not yet been fully tested
and ieviewed by Canonical. Some bugs may occui when using these
updates, and so this option is also not enabled by default.
Automatic updates
Te middle section of this window allows you to customize how youi sys-
tem manages updates, such as the fiequency with which it checks foi new
packages, as well as whethei it should install impoitant updates iight away
(without asking foi youi peimission), download them only, oi just notify
you about them.
Release upgrade
Heie you can decide which system upgiades you would like to be notied Every 6 months, Canonical will release a new
version of the Ubuntu operating system. These
are called normal releases. Every four normal
releasesor 24 monthsCanonical releases
a long-term support (LTS) release. Long-term
support releases are intended to be the most
stable releases available, and are supported for
a longer period of time.
Ne+er Choose this if you would iathei not be notied about any new
Ubuntu ieleases.
Noro| re|eoses Choose this if you always want to have the latest Ubuntu
ielease, iegaidless of whethei it is a Long Teim Suppoit ielease oi not.
Tis option is iecommended foi noimal home useis.
Long Ter Svor re|eoses on|y Choose this option if you need a ielease
that will be moie stable and have suppoit foi a longei time. lf you use
Ubuntu foi business puiposes, you may want to considei selecting this
6 Advanced Topics
Ubuntu for advanced users
By now, we hope you undeistand how using Ubuntu can make youi com-
puting expeiience easiei, safei, and moie ecient. So fai, weve piovided
detailed instiuctions on geuing the most fiom Ubuntus basic featuies. ln
this chaptei, well detail some of Ubuntus moie advanced featuieslike
the teiminal, a poweiful utility that can help you accomplish tasks without
the need foi a giaphical usei inteiface (cUi). Well also discuss some ad-
vanced secuiity measuies you can implement to make youi computei even
safei. Weve wiiuen this chaptei with advanced useis in mind. lf youie
new to Ubuntu, dont feel as though youll need to mastei these topics to
get the most out of youi new sofwaie (you can quite easily skip to the next
chaptei without consequence). Howevei, if youie looking to expand youi
knowledge of Ubuntu, we encouiage you to keep ieading.
Introduction to the terminal
Tioughout this manual, we have focused piimaiily on the giaphical desk-
top usei inteiface. Howevei, in oidei to fully iealize the powei of Ubuntu,
you may want to leain how to use the teiminal.
What is the terminal?
Most opeiating systems, including Ubuntu, have two types of usei in-
teifaces. Te ist is a giaphical usei inteiface (cUi). Tis is the desktop,
windows, menus, and toolbais that you click to get things done. Te second,
and much oldei, type of inteiface is the command-line inteiface (cii).
Te er:no| is Ubuntus command-line inteiface. lt is a method of
contiolling some aspects of Ubuntu using only commands that you type on
the keyboaid.
Why would I want to use the terminal?
You can peifoim most day-to-day activities without evei needing to open
the teiminal. Howevei, the teiminal is a poweiful and invaluable tool that
can be used to peifoim many useful tasks you might not be able to accom-
plish with a cUi. loi example
Tioubleshooting any diculties that may aiise when using Ubuntu
sometimes iequiies you to use the teiminal.
A command-line inteiface is sometimes a fastei way to accomplish a
task. loi example, it is ofen easiei to peifoim opeiations on many les
at once using the teiminal.
Leaining the command-line inteiface is the ist step towaids moie
advanced tioubleshooting, system administiation, and sofwaie develop-
ment skills. lf you aie inteiested in becoming a developei oi an advanced
Ubuntu usei, knowledge of the command-line will be essential.
1o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Opening the Terminal
You can open the teiminal by clicking Dash Applications Terminal. The terminal gives you access to what is called a
shell. When you type a command in the terminal
the shell interprets this command, resulting
in the desired action. Dierent types of shells
accept slightly dierent commands. The most
popular is called bash, and is the default shell
in Ubuntu.
When the teiminal window opens, it will be laigely blank apait fiom
some text at the top lef of the scieen, followed by a blinking block. Tis
text is youi piomptit displays youi login name and youi computeis
name, followed by the cuiient diiectoiy. Te tilde (-) means that the cuiient
In GUI environments the term folder is
commonly used to describe a place where
les are stored. In CLI environments the
term directory is used to describe the same
thing and this metaphor is exposed in many
commands (i. e., cd or pwd) throughout this
diiectoiy is youi home diiectoiy. linally, the blinking block is the cuisoi
this maiks wheie text will be enteied as you type.
To test a teiminal command, type pwd and piess Enter. Te teiminal
should display /home/yourusername. Tis text is called the output. You
have just used the pwd (piint woiking diiectoiy) command, which outputs
(displays) the cuiient diiectoiy.
Figure 6.1: The default terminal window allows
you to run hundreds of useful commands.
All commands in the teiminal follow the same appioach Type a com-
mand, possibly followed by some paiameteis, and piess Enter to peifoim
the specied action. Ofen some output will be displayed that conims the Parameters are extra segments of text,
usually added at the end of a command, that
change how the command itself is interpreted.
These usually take the form of -h or --
help, for example. In fact, --help can be
added to most commands to display a short
description of the command, as well as a list
of any other parameters that can be used with
that command.
action was completed successfully, although this depends on the command.
loi example, using the cd command to change youi cuiient diiectoiy (see
below) will change the piompt, but will not display any output.
Te iest of this chaptei coveis some veiy common uses of the teiminal.
Howevei, it cannot addiess the neaily innite possibilities available to
you when using the command-line inteiface in Ubuntu. Tioughout the
second pait of this manual, we will continue to iefei to the command line,
paiticulaily when discussing steps involved in tioubleshooting and the
moie advanced management of youi computei.
Ubuntu le system structure
Ubuntu uses the Linux le system, which is based on a seiies of foldeis in
the ioot diiectoiy. Each of these foldeis contains impoitant system les that
cannot be modied unless you aie iunning as the ioot usei oi use svJo. Tis
iestiiction exists foi both secuiity and safety ieasons computei viiuses will
not be able to change the coie system les, and oidinaiy useis should not be
able to accidentally damage anything vital.
Below aie some of the most impoitant diiectoiies.
Te ioot diiectoiydenoted by /contains all othei diiectoiies and les.
Heie aie the contents of some essential system diiectoiies
/bin & /sbin Many essential system applications (equivalent to C:\Windows)
/etc System-wide conguiation les
/home Each usei will have a subdiiectoiy to stoie peisonal les (foi exam-
ple /home/your-username, equivalent to C:\Users oi C:\Documents and
~uv~Ncru 1ovics 1o,
Figure 6.2: Some of the most important
directories in the root le system.
/lib Libiaiy les, similai to .dll les on Windows
/media Removable media (cuvoxs and Usn diives) will be mounted in this
/root Tis contains the ioot useis les (not to be confused with the ioot
/usr Pionounced usei, it contains most piogiam les (not to be confused
with each useis home diiectoiy, equivalent to C:\Program Files)
/var/log Contains log les wiiuen by many applications
Eveiy diiectoiy has a o|. Te path is a diiectoiys full nameit de-
sciibes a way to navigate the diiectoiy fiom anywheie in the system.
loi example, the diiectoiy /home/your-username/Desktop contains
all the les that aie on youi Ubuntu desktop. Te path, /home/youi-
useiname/Desktop, can be bioken down into a few pieces
1. /indicates that the path staits at the ioot diiectoiy
:. home/fiom the ioot diiectoiy, the path goes into the home diiectoiy
. youi-useiname/fiom the home diiectoiy, the path goes into the youi-
useiname diiectoiy
. Desktopfiom the youi-useiname diiectoiy, the path ends up in the
Desktop diiectoiy
Eveiy diiectoiy in Ubuntu has a complete path that staits with the / (the
ioot diiectoiy) and ends in the diiectoiys own name.
Diiectoiies and les that begin with a peiiod aie hidden diiectoiies.
Tese aie usually only visible with a special command oi by selecting a
specic option. ln the Nautilus you can show hidden les and diiectoiies by
selecting View Show Hidden Files, oi by piessing Ctrl+H. Teie aie many
hidden diiectoiies in youi home foldei used to stoie piogiam piefeiences.
loi example, /home/your-username/.evolution stoies piefeiences used by
the Evolution mail application.
Mounting and unmounting removable devices
Any time you add stoiage media to youi computeian inteinal oi exteinal
haid diive, a Usn ash diive, a cuvoxit needs to be ovneJ befoie it is
1o8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
accessible. Mounting a device means to associate a diiectoiy name with the
device, allowing you to navigate to the diiectoiy to access the devices les.
When a device such as a Usn ash diive oi a media playei is mounted in
Ubuntu, a foldei is automatically cieated foi it in the eJ:o diiectoiy and
you aie given the appiopiiate peimissions to be able to iead and wiite to
the device.
Most le manageis will automatically add a shoitcut to the mounted
device in the side bai of youi home foldei, so the device is easy foi you to
access. You shouldnt have to physically navigate to the eJ:o diiectoiy in
Ubuntu, unless you choose to do so fiom the command line.
When youve nished using a device, you can vnovn it. Unmounting a
device disassociates the device fiom its diiectoiy, allowing you to eject it.
Securing Ubuntu
Now that you know a bit moie about using the command line, we can use it
to make youi computei moie secuie. Te following sections discuss vaiious
secuiity concepts, along with pioceduies foi keeping youi Ubuntu iunning
smoothly, safely, and secuiely.
Why Ubuntu is safe
Ubuntu is secuie by default foi a numbei of ieasons
Ubuntu cleaily distinguishes between noimal useis and administiative
Sofwaie foi Ubuntu is kept in a secuie online iepositoiy, which contains
no false oi malicious sofwaie.
Open-souice sofwaie like Ubuntu allows secuiity aws to be easily
Secuiity patches foi open-souice sofwaie like Ubuntu aie ofen ieleased
Many viiuses designed to piimaiily taiget Windows-based systems do
not aect Ubuntu systems.
Basic security concepts
Te following sections discuss basic secuiity conceptslike le peimissions,
passwoids, and usei accounts. Undeistanding these concepts will help you
follow the iemaining pioceduies foi secuiing youi computei.
ln Ubuntu, les and foldeis can be set up so that only specic useis can
view, modify, oi iun them. loi instance, you might wish to shaie an impoi-
tant le with othei useis, but do not want those useis to be able to edit the
le. Ubuntu contiols access to les on youi computei thiough a system of
peimissions. Peimissions aie seuings that you can conguie to contiol
exactly how les on youi computei aie accessed and used.
To leain moie about modifying peimissions, visit https//help.ubuntu.
~uv~Ncru 1ovics 1o,
You should use a stiong passwoid to inciease the secuiity of youi com-
putei. Youi passwoid should not contain names, common woids oi com-
mon phiases. By default, the minimum length of a passwoid in Ubuntu is
foui chaiacteis. We iecommend a passwoid with moie than the minimum
numbei of chaiacteis. A passwoid with a minimum of eight chaiacteis
which includes both uppei and lowei case leueis, numbeis and symbols is
consideied stiong.
Locking the screen
When you leave youi computei unauended, you may want to lock the
scieen. Locking youi scieen pievents anyone fiom using youi computei
until youi passwoid is enteied. To lock the scieen
Click the session menu icon in the iight coinei of the top panel, then
select IoH Screen, oi
piess Ctrl+Alt+L to lock the scieen. Tis keyboaid shoitcut can be
changed in Dash Applications Keyboard Shortcuts
User accounts
Users and groups
When Ubuntu is installed, it is automatically conguied foi a single peison
to use. lf moie than one peison will use the computei with Ubuntu, each
peison should have hei oi his own usei account. Tis way, each usei can
have sepaiate seuings, documents, and othei les. lf necessaiy, you can also
piotect les fiom being viewed oi modied by useis without administiative
Like most opeiating systems, Ubuntu allows you to cieate sepaiate usei
accounts foi each peison that uses the computei. Ubuntu also suppoits usei
gioups, which allow you to administei peimissions foi multiple useis at the
same time.
Eveiy usei in Ubuntu is a membei of at least one gioupthe gioups
name is the same as the name of the usei. A usei can also be a membei of
additional gioups. You can conguie some les and foldeis to be accessible
only by a usei and a gioup. By default, a useis les aie only accessible by
that usei, system les aie only accessible by the ioot usei.
Figure 6.3: Add, remove and change the user
11o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Managing users
You can manage useis and gioups using the Useis and Gioups administia-
tion application. To nd this application, click Session Indicator Systems
and Settings User Accounts.
To adjust the usei and gioup seuings, ist select the usei that you want
to modify fiom the list. Ten click Change next to the element that you
want to make changes to. You will need to input youi passwoid in oidei to
make changes to usei and gioup seuings.
AJJ:ng o vser Click the Add buuon which appeais undeineath a list of
the cuiient usei accounts that have alieady been cieated. A window will
appeai that has two elds. Te Name eld eld is foi a fiiendly display
name. Te Username eld is foi the actual useiname. lill in the iequested
infoimation, then click OK. A new dialog box will appeai asking you to
entei a passwoid foi the usei you have just cieated. lill out the elds, then
click OK. Piivileges you giant to the new usei can be alteied in Useis
MoJ:[y:ng o vser Click on the name of a usei in the list of useis, then click
on the Change buuon, which appeais next to each of following options
Account type
loi moie advanced usei options click on the Advanced Settings buuon.
Change the details as iequiied in the dialog that appeais. Click OK to save
the changes.
De|e:ng o vser Select a usei fiom the list and click Delete. Ubuntu will
deactivate the useis account, and you can choose whethei iemove the
useis home foldei oi leave it.
Managing groups
Click on the Manage Groups buuon to open the gioup management dialog.
AJJ:ng o grov To add a gioup, click Add. ln the dialog that appeais,
entei the gioup name and select the names of useis you would like to add to
the gioup.
MoJ:[y:ng o grov To altei the useis in an existing gioup, select a gioup
and click on the Properties buuon. Select and deselect the useis as iequiied,
then click OK to apply the changes.
De|e:ng o grov To delete a gioup, select a gioup and click Delete.
Applying groups to les and folders
To change the gioup associated with a le oi foldei, open the Nautilus le
biowsei and navigate to the appiopiiate le oi foldei. Ten, eithei select
the foldei and choose File Properties fiom the menubai, oi iight-click on
the le oi foldei and select Properties. ln the Piopeities dialog that appeais,
click on the Permissions tab and select the desiied gioup fiom the Groups
diop-down list. Ten close the window.
~uv~Ncru 1ovics 111
Using the command line
You can also modify usei and gioup seuings via the command line. We
iecommend that you use the giaphical method above unless you have a
good ieason to use the command line. loi moie infoimation on using the
command line to modify useis and gioups, see the Ubuntu Seivei Guide at
System updates
Good secuiity depends on an up-to-date system. Ubuntu piovides fiee
sofwaie and secuiity updates. You should apply these updates iegulaily.
See Updates and upgiades to leain how to update youi Ubuntu computei
with the latest secuiity updates and patches.
Trusting third party sources
Noimally, you will add applications to youi computei via the Sofwaie Cen-
tei, which downloads sofwaie fiom the Ubuntu iepositoiies as desciibed
in Chaptei Sofwaie Management. Howevei, it is occasionally necessaiy
to add sofwaie fiom othei souices. loi example, you may need to do this
when an application is not available in the Ubuntu iepositoiies, oi when
you need a newei veision of the one available in the Ubuntu iepositoiies.
Additional iepositoiies aie available fiom sites such as and
Launchpad vv~s, which can be added as desciibed in Sofwaie Souices. You
can download the urn packages foi some applications fiom theii iespective
pioject sites on the lnteinet. Alteinately, you can build applications fiom
theii souice code (an advanced method of installing and using applications).
Using only iecognized souices such as a piojects site, vv~, oi vaiious
community iepositoiies (such as is moie secuie than down-
loading applications fiom an aibitiaiy (and peihaps less ieputable) souice.
When using a thiid paity souice, considei its tiustwoithiness, and be suie
you know exactly what youie installing on youi computei.
A iewall is an application that piotects youi computei against unautho-
iized access by people on the lnteinet oi youi local netwoik. liiewalls
block connections to youi computei fiom unknown souices. Tis helps
pievent secuiity bieaches.
Uncomplicated liiewall (Uiv) is the standaid iewall conguiation
piogiam in Ubuntu. lt is a piogiam that iuns fiom the command line, but
a piogiam called Gufw allows you to use it with a giaphical inteiface. See
Chaptei Sofwaie Management to leain moie about installing the Gufw
Once its installed, stait Gufw by clicking Dash Applications Firewall
conguration. To enable the iewall, select the Enable option. By default,
all incoming connections aie denied. Tis seuing should be suitable foi
most useis.
lf you aie iunning seivei sofwaie on youi Ubuntu system (such as a
web seivei, oi an i1v seivei), then you will need to open the poits these
seivices use. lf you aie not familiai with seiveis, you will likely not need to
open any additional poits.
11: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
To open a poit click on the Add buuon. loi most puiposes, the Precon-
gured tab is sucient. Select Allow fiom the ist box and then select the
piogiam oi seivice iequiied.
Te simple tab can be used to allow access on a single poit, and the
Advanced tab can be used to allow access on a iange of poits.
You may wish to piotect youi sensitive peisonal datafoi instance, nan-
cial iecoidsby enciypting it. Enciypting a le oi foldei essentially locks
that le oi foldei by encoding it with an algoiithm that keeps it sciambled
until it is piopeily decoded with a passwoid. Enciypting youi peisonal data
ensuies that no one can open youi peisonal foldeis oi iead youi piivate
data without youi piivate key.
Ubuntu includes a numbei of tools to enciypt les and foldeis. Tis
chaptei will discuss two of these. loi fuithei infoimation on using en-
ciyption with eithei single les oi email, see Ubuntu Community Help
documents at hups//
Home folder
When installing Ubuntu, it is possible to enciypt a useis home foldei. See
Chaptei 1 lnstallation foi moie on enciypting the home foldei.
Private folder
lf you have not chosen to enciypt a useis entiie home foldei, it is possible
to enciypt a single foldeicalled Privatein a useis home foldei. To do
this, follow these steps
1. lnstall the ecryptfs-utils sofwaie package fiom the Ubuntu Sofwaie
Centei. (loi moie infoimation about the Sofwaie Centei, ieview Using
the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.)
:. Use the teiminal to iun ecryptfs-setup-private to set up the piivate
. Entei youi accounts passwoid when piompted.
. Eithei choose a mount passphiase oi geneiate one.
. Recoid both passphiases in a safe location. Tese ore reqv:reJ :[ yov e+er
|o+e o reco+er yovr Joo onvo||y.
. Log out and log back in to mount the enciypted foldei.
Afei the Private foldei has been set up, any les oi foldeis in it will
automatically be enciypted.
lf you need to iecovei youi enciypted les manually see https//help.
7 Troubleshooting
Resolving problems
Sometimes, things may not woik as they should. Luckily, pioblems that
aie encounteied while woiking with Ubuntu aie ofen easily xed. Below,
we oei a guide foi iesolving the basic pioblems that useis may encountei
while using Ubuntu. lf you need any additional help beyond what this
chaptei piovides, take a look at othei suppoit options that aie discussed in
linding additional help and suppoit latei in this book.
Troubleshooting guide
Te key to an eective tioubleshooting is to woik slowly, complete all
of tioubleshooting steps, and to document the changes that you make to
Ubuntu. Tis way, you will be able to undo youi woik, oi give fellow useis
the infoimation about youi pievious auempts in cases when you need to
tuin to the community foi suppoit.
Ubuntu fails to start after Ive installed Windows
Occasionally you may install Ubuntu and then decide to install Miciosof
Windows as a second opeiating system iunning side-by-side with Ubuntu.
Tis is suppoited by Ubuntu, but you might also nd that afei installing
Windows you will no longei be able to stait Ubuntu.
When you ist tuin on youi computei, a bootloadei must stait Ubuntu
oi anothei opeiating system. When you installed Ubuntu, you installed an A bootloader is the initial software that loads
the operating system when you switch on the
advanced bootloadei called cuu which allows you to choose between the
vaiious opeiating systems on youi computei, such as Ubuntu, Windows,
Solaiis oi Mac OS X. Howevei, when you installed Windows, it ieplaced the
cvUn with its own bootloadei, thus iemoving the ability to choose which
opeiating system youd like to use. You can iestoie cvUn and iegain the
ability to choose youi opeiating system by using the same cu you used to
install Ubuntu.
liist, inseit youi Ubuntu cu into youi computei and then iestait it,
making suie to have youi computei stait fiom the cu (see Chaptei 1 lnstal-
lation). Next, choose youi language (e.g., English) and select Try Ubuntu.
Once Ubuntu staits, click on the top-most icon in the launchei (the Dash
icon). Ten, seaich foi Terminal using the seaich box and then select Tei-
minal in the seaich iesults. A window should open with a blinking piompt
line. Entei the following, and piess Entei
$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/hda: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 1 1224 64228+ 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 * 1225 2440 9767520 a5 Windows
/dev/sda3 2441 14593 97618972+ 5 Extended
/dev/sda4 14532 14593 498015 82 Linux swap
11 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Partition table entries are not in disk order
The device (/dev/sda1, /dev/sda2, etc) we are
looking for is identied by the word Linux in
the System column. Modify the instructions
below if necessary, replacing /dev/sda1 with
the name of your Linux device.
Tis output shows that youi system (Linux, on which Ubuntu is based)
is installed on device /dev/sda1, but youi computei is booting to /dev/sda:
(wheie Windows is located). We need to x this by telling the computei to
boot to the Linux device instead.
To do this, ist cieate a place to connect youi existing existing Ubuntu
installation with youi tempoiaiy tioubleshooting session
$ sudo mkdir /media/root
Next, link youi Ubuntu installation and this new foldei
$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/root
lf youve done this coiiectly, then you should see the following
$ ls /media/root
bin dev home lib mnt root srv usr
boot etc initrd lib64 opt sbin sys var
cdrom initrd.img media proc selinux tmp vmlinuz
Now, you can ieinstall cvUn
$ sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/root /dev/sda
Installation finished. No error reported.
This is the contents of the device map /boot/grub/
Check if this is correct or not. If any of the lines is incorrect,
fix it and re-run the script grub-install.
(hd0) /dev/sda
linally, iemove the Ubuntu disc fiom youi cuvox diive, ieboot youi
computei, and then stait enjoying youi Ubuntu opeiating system once
Tis guide may not woik foi all Ubuntu useis due to dieiences in the
vaiious system conguiation. Still, this is the iecommended and most
successful method foi iestoiing the cvUn bootloadei. lf you aie following
this guide and if it does not iestoie cvUn on youi computei, then tiy the
othei tioubleshooting methods at https//
Ubuntu doesnt present the login screen when my computer boots
Te simplest and easiest way to coiiect this issue is to ieset the giaphics
conguiation. Piess and hold Ctrl+Alt+F1. You should now see a black and
white scieen with a piompt foi youi useiname and passwoid.
(Characters will not appear on the screen as you
enter your password. This behavior is normal
and was implemented for security purposes).
Entei youi useiname, and piess Enter. Ten, entei youi passwoid and
piess Enter. Next, entei the following commands, piessing Enter afei each
line. You will be asked foi youi passwoid again.
$ sudo cd /etc/X11
$ sudo mv ./xorg.conf ./xorg.conf_old
$ sudo service gdm stop
$ sudo X -configure
$ sudo mv ./ ./xorg.conf
$ sudo reboot now
Now Ubuntu will ieboot, and youi login scieen should be iestoied.
1voUnirsuoo1iNc 11
I forgot my password
lf you foiget youi passwoid in Ubuntu, you will need to ieset it using the
Recoveiy mode.
To stait the Recoveiy mode, shut down youi computei and then stait
again. As the computei staits up, piess Shift. Select the Recovery mode
option using the aiiow keys on youi keyboaid. Recoveiy mode should be
the second item in the list.
Figure 7.1: This is the grub screen in which you
can choose recovery mode.
Wait until Ubuntu staits upthis may take a few minutes. Once booted,
you +:|| no be able to see a noimal login scieen. lnstead, you will be pie-
sented with the Recovery Menu. Select root using the aiiow keys and piess
You will now be at a teiminal piompt
To ieset youi passwoid, entei
# passwd username
Replace useiname above with youi useiname, afei which Ubuntu will
piompt you foi a new passwoid. Entei youi desiied passwoid and piess the
Entei key and then ie-type youi passwoid again, and piess Entei. (Ubuntu
asks foi youi passwoid twice to make suie you did not make a mistake
while typing). Once you have iestoied youi passwoid, ietuin to the noimal
system enviionment by enteiing
# init 2
Login as usual and continue enjoying Ubuntu.
I accidentally deleted some les that I need
lf youve deleted a le by accident, you may be able to iecovei it fiom
Ubuntus tiash foldei. Tis is a special foldei wheie Ubuntu stoies deleted
les befoie they aie peimanently iemoved fiom youi computei.
To access the tiash foldei click on the Tiash icon at the bouom of the
Unity Launchei.
lf you want to iestoie deleted items fiom the tiash
1. Open Tiash
:. Click on each item you want to iestoie to select it. Piess and hold Ctrl
to select multiple items.
. Click Restore Selected Items to move the deleted items back to theii
oiiginal locations.
How do I clean Ubuntu?
Ovei time, Ubuntus sofwaie packaging system can accumulate unused
packages and tempoiaiy les. Tese tempoiaiy les, also called caches,
11 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
contain les fiom all of the packages that you have installed. Ovei time this
cache can giow quite laige. Cleaning out the cache allows you to ieclaim
space on youi computeis haid diive foi stoiing youi documents, music,
photogiaphs, oi othei les.
To cleai the cache, you can eithei use the clean, oi the autoclean option
foi the command-line piogiam apt-get.
The clean command will remove every
single cached item, while the autoclean
command only removes cached items that can
no longer be downloaded (these items are
often unnecessary).
To iun clean, open Teiminal and entei
$ sudo apt-get clean
Packages can also become unused ovei time. lf a package was installed to
assist with iunning anothei piogiamand that piogiam was subsequently
iemoved you no longei need the suppoiting package. You can iemove it
with apt-get autoremove.
Load Teiminal and entei
$ sudo apt-get autoremove
I cant play certain audio or video les
Many of the foimats used to delivei iich media content aie ror:eory,
meaning they aie not fiee to use, modify, oi distiibute with an open-souice
opeiating system like Ubuntu. Teiefoie, Ubuntu does not include the ca-
pability to use these foimats by default, howevei, useis can easily conguie
Ubuntu to use these piopiietaiy foimats. loi moie infoimation about the
dieiences between open souice and piopiietaiy sofwaie, see Chaptei 8
Leaining Moie.
lf you nd youiself in need of a piopiietaiy foimat, you may install
the les necessaiy foi using this foimat fiom the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei.
Ensuie that you have Univeise and Multiveise iepositoiies enabled befoie
continuing. See the Sofwaie Souices section to leain how to do this. When
you aie ieady to continue, install the necessaiy sofwaie as follows
1. Open the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei by seaiching foi it fiom the Dash (the
top-most buuon on the Launchei).
:. Seaich foi ubuntu-restricted-extras by typing Ubuntu iestiicted
extias in the seaich box on the iight-hand side of the Ubuntu Sofwaie
Centei main window. When the Sofwaie Centei nds the appiopiiate
sofwaie, click the aiiow next to its title.
. Click Install, then wait while Ubuntu installs the sofwaie.
One piogiam that can play many of these foimats is VLC media playei.
lt can be installed fiom the Ubuntu Sofwaie Centei. Once Ubuntu has
successfully installed this sofwaie, youi iich media content should woik
How can I change my screen resolution?
Te image on eveiy monitoi is composed of millions of liule coloied dots
called pixels. Changing the numbei of pixels displayed on youi monitoi is
called changing the iesolution. lncieasing the iesolution will make the
displayed images shaipei, but will also tend to make them smallei. Te
opposite is tiue when scieen iesolution is decieased. Most monitois have
a native iesolution, which is a iesolution that most closely matches the
numbei of pixels in the monitoi. Youi display will usually be shaipest when
1voUnirsuoo1iNc 11,
youi opeiating system uses a iesolution that matches youi displays native
Te Ubuntu conguiation utility Displays allows useis to change the
iesolution. Open it by clicking on the session indicator and then on Dis-
plays. Te iesolution can be changed using the diop-down list within
the piogiam. Picking options highei up on the list (foi example, those with
laigei numbeis) will inciease the iesolution.
Figure 7.2: You can change your display
You can expeiiment with vaiious iesolutions by clicking Apply at the
bouom of the window until you nd one that is comfoitable foi you. Typ-
ically the highest iesolution will be the native iesolution. Selecting a ies-
olution and clicking Apply will tempoiaiily change the scieen iesolution
to the selected value and a dialog box will also be displayed. lt allows you
to ieveit to the pievious iesolution seuing oi keep the new iesolution. Te
dialog box will disappeai in o seconds, iestoiing the old iesolution.
Figure 7.3: You can revert back to your old
settings if you need to.
Tis featuie was implemented to pievent someone fiom being locked
out of the computei by a iesolution that distoits the monitoi and makes it
unusable. When you have nished seuing the scieen iesolution, click Close.
Ubuntu is not working properly on my Apple MacBook or MacBook Pro
When installed on notebook computeis fiom Applesuch as the MacBook
oi MacBook PioUbuntu does not always enable all of the computeis
built-in components, including the iSight cameia and the Aiipoit wiieless
lnteinet adaptei. Luckily, the Ubuntu community oeis documentation
on xing these and othei pioblems. lf you aie having tiouble installing oi
using Ubuntu on youi Apple notebook computei, please follow the instiuc-
tions at https// You can select the
appiopiiate guide afei identifying youi computeis model numbei. loi
instiuctions on doing this, visit the web page above.
Ubuntu is not working properly on my Asus EeePC
When installed on netbook computeis fiom Asussuch as the EeePC
Ubuntu does not always enable all of the computeis built-in components,
118 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
including the keyboaid shoitcut keys and the wiieless lnteinet adaptei.
Te Ubuntu community oeis documentation on enabling these com-
ponents and xing othei pioblems. lf you aie having tiouble installing
oi using Ubuntu on youi Asus EeePC, please follow the instiuctions at
https// Tis documentation page con-
tains infoimation peitaining specically to EeePC netbooks.
To enable many of the featuies and lunction Keys, a quick x is to add
acpiosiLinux to youi giub conguiation. liom the Teiminal
$ gksudo gedit /etc/default/grub
and veiy caiefully change the line
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash acpi_osi=Linux"
Save and close the le. Ten, fiom the teiminal
sudo update-grub
Afei the command nishes, and you iestait the computei, you will be able
to use the ln Keys noimally.
My hardware is not working properly
Ubuntu occasionally has diculties iunning on ceitain computeis, gen-
eially when haidwaie manufactuieis use non-standaid oi piopiietaiy
components. Te Ubuntu community oeis documentation to help you
tioubleshoot many common issues that may aiise fiom this situation, in-
cluding pioblems with wiieless caids, scanneis, mouse and piinteis. You
can nd the complete haidwaie tioubleshooting guide on Ubuntus sup-
poit wiki, accessible at https// lf youi
haidwaie pioblems peisist, please see Geuing moie help foi moie tiou-
bleshooting options oi infoimation on obtaining suppoit oi assistance fiom
an Ubuntu usei.
Getting more help
Tis guide does not covei eveiy possible woikow, task oi issue in Ubuntu.
lf you iequiie assistance beyond the infoimation in the manual, you can
nd a vaiiety of suppoit oppoitunities online.
Moie details about many suppoit options available to you can be found
at linding additional help and suppoit latei in this book.
8 Learning More
What else can I do with Ubuntu?
By now, you should be able to use Ubuntu foi most of youi daily activities
such as biowsing the web, sending email, and cieating documents. But
you may be inteiested in leaining about othei veisions of Ubuntu you
can integiate into youi digital lifestyle. ln this chaptei, well intioduce
you to additional veisions of Ubuntu specialized foi ceitain tasks. Well
also piovide you with iesouices foi answeiing any iemaining questions
you may have, and tell you how you can get involved in the woildwide
community of Ubuntu useis. But ist, well discuss the technologies that
make Ubuntu a poweiful collection of sofwaie.
Open source software
Ubuntu is open souice sofwaie. Open souice sofwaie dieis fiom pio-
piietaiy sofwaiesofwaie whose souice code is not fieely available foi
modication oi distiibution by anyone but the iightsholdei. Miciosof The source code of a program is the collection
of les that have been written in a computer
language to make the program.
Windows and Adobe Photoshop aie examples of piopiietaiy sofwaie.
Proprietary software is software that cannot be
copied, modied, or distributed freely.
Unlike piopiietaiy sofwaie applications, the sofwaie included with
Ubuntu is specically licensed to piomote shaiing and collaboiation. Te
legal iules goveining Ubuntus pioduction and distiibution ensuie that
anyone can obtain, iun, oi shaie it foi any puipose she oi he wishes.
Computei useis can modify open souice sofwaie like Ubuntu to suit
theii individual needs, to shaie it, to impiove it, oi to tianslate it into
othei languagespiovided they ielease the souice code foi these mod-
ications so otheis can do the same. ln fact, the teims of many open
souice licensing agieements actually make it illegal not to do so. loi
moie infoimation iegaiding Ubuntus sofwaie licensing standaids, see
Because open souice sofwaie is developed by laige communities of
piogiammeis distiibuted thioughout the globe, it benets fiom iapid de-
velopment cycles and speedy secuiity ieleases (in the event that someone
discoveis bugs in the sofwaie). ln othei woids, open souice sofwaie is
updated, enhanced, and made moie secuie eveiy day as piogiammeis all
ovei the woild continue to impiove it.
Aside fiom these technical advantages, open souice sofwaie also has
economic benets. While useis must adheie to the teims of an open souice
licensing agieement when installing and using Ubuntu, they neednt pay
to obtain this license. And while not all open souice sofwaie is fiee of
monetaiy costs, much is.
To leain moie about open souice sofwaie, see the Open Souice lnitia-
tives open souice denition, available at http//www.opensouice.oig/docs/
Distribution families
Ubuntu is one of seveial populai opeiating systems based on Linux (an
open souice opeiating system). Tese Linux-based opeiating systems
1:o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
called Linux distiibutions,may look dieient fiom Ubuntu at ist glance,
but they shaie similai chaiacteiistics because of theii common ioots. A distribution, or distro, is an operating
system made from open source applications,
which are bundled together to make them
easier to install and use.
Linux distiibutions can be divided into two bioad families the Debian
family and the Red Hat family. Each family is named foi a distiibution on
which subsequent distiibutions aie based. loi example, Debian iefeis
to both the name of a Linux distiibution as well as the family of distiibu-
tions deiived fiom Debian. Ubuntu is pait of this family. When desciibing
ielationships between vaiious open souice piojects, sofwaie developeis
ofen use the metaphoi of tiibutaiies connecting to a common body of
watei. loi this ieason, you may heai someone say that Ubuntu is located
downstieam fiom Debian, because alteiations to Debian ow into new
veisions of Ubuntu. Additionally, impiovements to Ubuntu usually tiickle
upstieamback to Debian and its family membeis. Othei distiibutions
in the Debian family include Linux Mint, Xandios, and CiunchBang Linux.
Distiibutions in the Red Hat family include ledoia, openSUSE, and Man-
Te most signicant dieience between Debian-based and Red Hat-
based distiibutions is the system each uses foi installing and updating
sofwaie. Tese systems aie called package management systems. Debian Package management systems are the means by
which users can install, remove, and organize
software installed on computers with open
source operating systems like Ubuntu.
sofwaie packages aie urn les, while Red Hat sofwaie packages aie vvx
les. Te two systems aie geneially incompatible. loi moie infoimation
about package management, see Chaptei Sofwaie Management.
You will also nd Linux distiibutions that have been specialized foi
ceitain tasks. Next, well desciibe these veisions of Ubuntu and explain the
uses foi which each has been developed.
Choosing amongst Ubuntu and its derivatives
Just as Ubuntu is based on Debian, seveial distiibutions aie subsequently
based on Ubuntu. Each dieis with iespect to the sofwaie included as pait
of the distiibution. Some aie developed foi geneial use, while otheis aie
designed foi accomplishing a moie naiiow set of tasks.
Alternative interfaces
Ubuntu featuies a giaphical usei inteiface (cUi) based on the open souice
cNoxr desktop. As we explained in Chaptei : Te Ubuntu Desktop, a
usei inteiface is a collection of sofwaie elementsicons, colois, windows,
themes, and menusthat deteimines how someone may inteiact with a
computei. Some useis piefei using alteinatives to cNoxr, so they have
cieated Ubuntu distiibutions featuiing dieient usei inteifaces. Tese
Kubuntu, which uses the xur giaphical enviionment instead of the
cNoxr enviionment found in Ubuntu,
Lubuntu, which uses the ixur giaphical enviionment instead of the
cNoxr enviionment found in Ubuntu, and
Xubuntu, which uses the xicr giaphical enviionment instead of the
cNoxr enviionment found in Ubuntu.
Additionally, each of these distiibutions may contain default applications
dieient fiom those featuied in Ubuntu. loi instance, the default music
playei in Ubuntu is Banshee, but in Lubuntu the default music playei is
Aqualung, and in Kubuntu the default is Amaiok. Be suie to investigate
ir~vNiNc xovr 1:1
these dieiences if you aie consideiing installing an Ubuntu distiibution
with an alteinative desktop enviionment.
loi moie infoimation about these and othei deiivative distiibutions, see
Task-specic distributions
Othei Ubuntu distiibutions have been cieated to accomplish specic tasks
oi iun in specialized seuings.
Ubuntu Server Edition
Te Ubuntu Seivei Edition is an opeiating system optimized to peifoim
multi-usei tasks when installed on seiveis. Such tasks include le shai- A server is a computer thats been congured to
manage, or serve, les many people wish to
ing and website oi email hosting. lf you aie planning to use a computei
to peifoim tasks like these, you may wish to use this specialized seivei
distiibution in conjunction with seivei haidwaie.
Tis manual does not explain the piocess of iunning a secuie web seivei
oi peifoiming othei tasks possible with Ubuntu Seivei Edition. loi details
on using Ubuntu Seivei Edition, iefei to the manual at http//www.ubuntu.
Edubuntu is an Ubuntu deiivative customized foi use in schools and othei
educational institutions. lt contains sofwaie similai to that oeied in
Ubuntu, but also featuies additional applicationslike a collaboiative text
editoi and educational games.
loi additional infoimation iegaiding Edubuntu, visit http//www.
Ubuntu Studio
Tis deiivative of Ubuntu is designed specically foi people who use com-
puteis to cieate and edit multimedia piojects. lt featuies applications to
help useis manipulate images, compose music, and edit video. While useis
can install these applications on computeis iunning the desktop veision of
Ubuntu, Ubuntu Studio makes them all available immediately upon installa-
lf you would like to leain moie about Ubuntu Studio (oi obtain a copy
foi youiself), visit http//ubuntustudio.oig/home.
Mythbuntu allows useis to tuin theii computeis into enteitainment sys-
tems. lt helps useis oiganize and view vaiious types of multimedia content
such as movies, television shows, and video podcasts. Useis with 1v tuneis
in theii computeis can also use Mythbuntu to iecoid live video and televi-
sion shows.
To leain moie about Mythbuntu, visit http//www.mythbuntu.oig/.
Finding additional help and support
Tis guide cannot possibly contain eveiything youll evei need to know
about Ubuntu. Because Geu:ng SoreJ +:| U|vnv 11.1o could nevei an-
1:: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
swei all youi questions, we encouiage you to take advantage of Ubuntus
vast community when seeking fuithei infoimation, tioubleshooting tech-
nical issues, oi asking questions about youi computei. Next, well discuss a
few of these iesouices so you can leain moie about Ubuntu oi othei Linux
Live chat
lf you aie familiai with lnteinet ielay chat (ivc), you can use chat clients
such as XChat oi Pidgin to join the channel -ubuntu on
Heie, hundieds of volunteei useis can answei youi questions oi oei sup-
poit in ieal time.
LoCo teams
Within the Ubuntu community aie dozens of local usei gioups called LoCo
teams. Spiead thioughout the woild, these teams oei suppoit and advice,
answei questions and piomote Ubuntu in theii communities by hosting
iegulai events. To locate and contact the LoCo team neaiest you, visit
Ocial Ubuntu Documentation
Te Ubuntu Documentation team maintains a seiies of ocial wiki pages In addition to ocial Ubuntu and community
help, you will often nd third-party help avail-
able on the Internet. While these documents
can often seem like great resources, some
could be misleading or outdated. Its always
best to verify information from third-party
sources before taking their advice. When possi-
ble, rely on ocial Ubuntu documentation for
assistance with Ubuntu.
designed to assist both new and expeiienced useis wishing to leain moie
about Ubuntu. Te Ubuntu community endoises these documents, which
seive as a ieliable ist point of iefeience foi useis seeking help online. You
can access these at http// To get to the built-in Ubuntu
Desktop Guide, piess F1 on youi desktop, oi type yelp in the Dash.
The Ubuntu Forums
Te Ubuntu loiums aie the ocial foiums of the Ubuntu community. Mil-
lions of Ubuntu useis use them daily to seek help and suppoit fiom one
anothei. You can cieate an Ubuntu loiums account in minutes. To cieate
an account and leain moie about Ubuntu fiom community membeis, visit
Launchpad Answers
Launchpad, an open souice code iepositoiy and usei community, piovides a
question and answei seivice that allows anyone to ask questions about any
Ubuntu-ielated topic. Signing up foi a Launchpad account iequiies only
a few minutes. Ask a question by visiting Launchpad at https//answeis.
Ask Ubuntu
Ask Ubuntu is a fiee community diiven Qestion and Answei website foi
Ubuntu useis and developeis. lt is pait of the Stack Exchange netwoik of
websites. Tis is one of the best Ubuntu suppoit iesouices available foi fiee.
Visit http// to get staited.
ir~vNiNc xovr 1:
Search Engines
Because Ubuntu is a populai open souice opeiating system, many useis
have wiiuen about it online. Teiefoie, using seaich engines to locate
answeis to youi questions about Ubuntu is ofen an eective means of
acquiiing help. When using seaich engines to answei questions about
Ubuntu, ensuie that youi seaich queiies aie as specic as possible. ln othei
woids, a seaich foi Unity inteiface will ietuin iesults that aie less useful
than those associated with the queiy how to use Ubuntu Unity inteiface
oi how to customize Ubuntu Unity inteiface.
Community support
lf youve exhausted all these iesouices and still cant nd answeis to youi
questions, visit Community Suppoit at http//
The Ubuntu community
Suiiounding Ubuntu is a global community of passionate useis who want to
help otheis adopt, use, undeistand, and even modify oi enhance Ubuntu. By
choosing to install and iun Ubuntu, youve become pait of this community.
As you leain moie about Ubuntu, you may wish to collaboiate with otheis
to make it beueito discuss the futuie of Ubuntu, to iepoit sofwaie bugs
you discovei, to piomote Ubuntu to new useis, to shaie Ubuntu advice,
oi to answei othei useis questions. ln this section, well discuss a few
community piojects that can connect you to othei Ubuntu useis.
Full Circle Magazine
lull Ciicle Magazine is the independent magazine foi the Ubuntu Linux
community. Released eveiy month, lull Ciicle Magazine contains ieviews
of new sofwaie (including games) foi Ubuntu, step-by-step tutoiials foi
piojects you can undeitake with Ubuntu, editoiials discussing impoitant
issues in the Ubuntu community, and Ubuntu tips fiom othei useis. You can
download issues of lull Ciicle Magazine at http//fullciiclemagazine.oig/.
The Ubuntu UK Podcast
Pioduced by membeis of the UKs Ubuntu LoCo team, this bi-weekly online
audio bioadcast (oi podcast) featuies lively discussion about Ubuntu, and
ofen includes inteiviews with Ubuntu community membeis who woik to
impiove Ubuntu. Episodes aie available at http//podcast.ubuntu-uk.oig/. A podcast is a radio-style broadcast available as
an audio le for download to computers and
portable media players.
OMG! Ubuntu!
OMG' Ubuntu' is a weblog that aims to infoim the Ubuntu community
about Ubuntu news, events, announcements, and updates in a timely fash-
ion. lt also allows Ubuntu useis to discuss ways they can piomote oi shaie
Ubuntu. You can iead this blog oi subsciibe to it at http//www.omgubuntu.
1: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Contributing to this manual
You can also paiticipate in the Ubuntu community by contiibuting to this
manual. You might choose to wiite new content foi it, edit its chapteis
so they aie easiei foi new Ubuntu useis to undeistand and use, oi tians-
late it in youi own language. You may also piovide the scieenshots found
thioughout the manual. To get involved in the Ubuntu Manual Pioject, visit
A License
Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike 3.0 Legal Code
1ur vovx (~s uriiNru nriov) is vvoviuru UNurv 1ur 1rvxs oi 1uis
cvr~1ivr coxxoNs vUniic iicrNsr (ccvi ov iicrNsr). 1ur vovx is
vvo1rc1ru nv covvvicu1 ~Nu/ov o1urv ~vviic~nir i~v. ~Nv Usr oi 1ur
vovx o1urv 1u~N ~s ~U1uovizru UNurv 1uis iicrNsr ov covvvicu1 i~v
is vvouini1ru.
nv rxrvcisiNc ~Nv vicu1s 1o 1ur vovx vvoviuru urvr, voU ~ccrv1
~Nu ~cvrr 1o nr noUNu nv 1ur 1rvxs oi 1uis iicrNsr. 1o 1ur rx1rN1
1uis iicrNsr x~v nr coNsiurvru 1o nr ~ coN1v~c1, 1ur iicrNsov cv~N1s
voU 1ur vicu1s coN1~iNru urvr iN coNsiurv~1ioN oi voUv ~ccrv1~Ncr
oi sUcu 1rvxs ~Nu coNui1ioNs.
1. Denitions
(a) Adaptation means a woik based upon the Woik, oi upon the Woik
and othei pie-existing woiks, such as a tianslation, adaptation,
deiivative woik, aiiangement of music oi othei alteiations of a lit-
eiaiy oi aitistic woik, oi phonogiam oi peifoimance and includes
cinematogiaphic adaptations oi any othei foim in which the Woik
may be iecast, tiansfoimed, oi adapted including in any foim iecog-
nizably deiived fiom the oiiginal, except that a woik that constitutes
a Collection will not be consideied an Adaptation foi the puipose of
this License. loi the avoidance of doubt, wheie the Woik is a musical
woik, peifoimance oi phonogiam, the synchionization of the Woik in
timed-ielation with a moving image (synching) will be consideied
an Adaptation foi the puipose of this License.
(b) Collection means a collection of liteiaiy oi aitistic woiks, such
as encyclopedias and anthologies, oi peifoimances, phonogiams
oi bioadcasts, oi othei woiks oi subject mauei othei than woiks
listed in Section 1(f) below, which, by ieason of the selection and
aiiangement of theii contents, constitute intellectual cieations, in
which the Woik is included in its entiiety in unmodied foim along
with one oi moie othei contiibutions, each constituting sepaiate and
independent woiks in themselves, which togethei aie assembled into
a collective whole. A woik that constitutes a Collection will not be
consideied an Adaptation (as dened below) foi the puiposes of this
(c) Cieative Commons Compatible License means a license that is
listed at http//cieativecommons.oig/compatiblelicenses that has been
appioved by Cieative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this
License, including, at a minimum, because that license (i) contains
teims that have the same puipose, meaning and eect as the License
Elements of this License, and, (ii) explicitly peimits the ielicensing
of adaptations of woiks made available undei that license undei this
License oi a Cieative Commons juiisdiction license with the same
License Elements as this License.
(d) Distiibute means to make available to the public the oiiginal and
copies of the Woik oi Adaptation, as appiopiiate, thiough sale oi
othei tiansfei of owneiship.
1: cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
(e) License Elements means the following high-level license auiibutes
as selected by Licensoi and indicated in the title of this License Auii-
bution, ShaieAlike.
(f) Licensoi means the individual, individuals, entity oi entities that
oei(s) the Woik undei the teims of this License.
(g) Oiiginal Authoi means, in the case of a liteiaiy oi aitistic woik, the
individual, individuals, entity oi entities who cieated the Woik oi if
no individual oi entity can be identied, the publishei, and in addition
(i) in the case of a peifoimance the actois, singeis, musicians, danceis,
and othei peisons who act, sing, delivei, declaim, play in, inteipiet oi
otheiwise peifoim liteiaiy oi aitistic woiks oi expiessions of folkloie,
(ii) in the case of a phonogiam the pioducei being the peison oi legal
entity who ist xes the sounds of a peifoimance oi othei sounds,
and, (iii) in the case of bioadcasts, the oiganization that tiansmits the
(h) Woik means the liteiaiy and/oi aitistic woik oeied undei the
teims of this License including without limitation any pioduction
in the liteiaiy, scientic and aitistic domain, whatevei may be the
mode oi foim of its expiession including digital foim, such as a book,
pamphlet and othei wiiting, a lectuie, addiess, seimon oi othei woik
of the same natuie, a diamatic oi diamatico-musical woik, a choieo-
giaphic woik oi enteitainment in dumb show, a musical composition
with oi without woids, a cinematogiaphic woik to which aie assim-
ilated woiks expiessed by a piocess analogous to cinematogiaphy,
a woik of diawing, painting, aichitectuie, sculptuie, engiaving oi
lithogiaphy, a photogiaphic woik to which aie assimilated woiks ex-
piessed by a piocess analogous to photogiaphy, a woik of applied ait,
an illustiation, map, plan, sketch oi thiee-dimensional woik ielative
to geogiaphy, topogiaphy, aichitectuie oi science, a peifoimance, a
bioadcast, a phonogiam, a compilation of data to the extent it is pio-
tected as a copyiightable woik, oi a woik peifoimed by a vaiiety oi
ciicus peifoimei to the extent it is not otheiwise consideied a liteiaiy
oi aitistic woik.
(i) You means an individual oi entity exeicising iights undei this Li-
cense who has not pieviously violated the teims of this License with
iespect to the Woik, oi who has ieceived expiess peimission fiom
the Licensoi to exeicise iights undei this License despite a pievious
(j) Publicly Peifoim means to peifoim public iecitations of the Woik
and to communicate to the public those public iecitations, by any
means oi piocess, including by wiie oi wiieless means oi public
digital peifoimances, to make available to the public Woiks in such a
way that membeis of the public may access these Woiks fiom a place
and at a place individually chosen by them, to peifoim the Woik to
the public by any means oi piocess and the communication to the
public of the peifoimances of the Woik, including by public digital
peifoimance, to bioadcast and iebioadcast the Woik by any means
including signs, sounds oi images.
(k) Repioduce means to make copies of the Woik by any means includ-
ing without limitation by sound oi visual iecoidings and the iight
of xation and iepioducing xations of the Woik, including stoiage
of a piotected peifoimance oi phonogiam in digital foim oi othei
electionic medium.
iicrNsr 1:,
:. laii Dealing Rights. Nothing in this License is intended to ieduce, limit,
oi iestiict any uses fiee fiom copyiight oi iights aiising fiom limitations
oi exceptions that aie piovided foi in connection with the copyiight
piotection undei copyiight law oi othei applicable laws.
. License Giant. Subject to the teims and conditions of this License, Licen-
soi heieby giants You a woildwide, ioyalty-fiee, non-exclusive, peipet-
ual (foi the duiation of the applicable copyiight) license to exeicise the
iights in the Woik as stated below
(a) to Repioduce the Woik, to incoipoiate the Woik into one oi moie
Collections, and to Repioduce the Woik as incoipoiated in the Collec-
(b) to cieate and Repioduce Adaptations piovided that any such Adap-
tation, including any tianslation in any medium, takes ieasonable
steps to cleaily label, demaicate oi otheiwise identify that changes
weie made to the oiiginal Woik. loi example, a tianslation could be
maiked Te oiiginal woik was tianslated fiom English to Spanish,
oi a modication could indicate Te oiiginal woik has been modi-
(c) to Distiibute and Publicly Peifoim the Woik including as incoipo-
iated in Collections, and,
(d) to Distiibute and Publicly Peifoim Adaptations.
(e) loi the avoidance of doubt
i. Non-waivable Compulsoiy License Schemes. ln those juiisdictions
in which the iight to collect ioyalties thiough any statutoiy oi
compulsoiy licensing scheme cannot be waived, the Licensoi ie-
seives the exclusive iight to collect such ioyalties foi any exeicise
by You of the iights gianted undei this License,
ii. Waivable Compulsoiy License Schemes. ln those juiisdictions
in which the iight to collect ioyalties thiough any statutoiy oi
compulsoiy licensing scheme can be waived, the Licensoi waives
the exclusive iight to collect such ioyalties foi any exeicise by You
of the iights gianted undei this License, and,
iii. Voluntaiy License Schemes. Te Licensoi waives the iight to col-
lect ioyalties, whethei individually oi, in the event that the Licen-
soi is a membei of a collecting society that administeis voluntaiy
licensing schemes, via that society, fiom any exeicise by You of the
iights gianted undei this License.
Te above iights may be exeicised in all media and foimats whethei
now known oi heieafei devised. Te above iights include the iight to
make such modications as aie technically necessaiy to exeicise the
iights in othei media and foimats. Subject to Section 8(f), all iights
not expiessly gianted by Licensoi aie heieby ieseived.
. Restiictions. Te license gianted in Section above is expiessly made
subject to and limited by the following iestiictions
(a) You may Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim the Woik only undei the
teims of this License. You must include a copy of, oi the Unifoim Re-
souice ldentiei (URl) foi, this License with eveiy copy of the Woik
You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim. You may not oei oi impose any
teims on the Woik that iestiict the teims of this License oi the abil-
ity of the iecipient of the Woik to exeicise the iights gianted to that
iecipient undei the teims of the License. You may not sublicense the
Woik. You must keep intact all notices that iefei to this License and
to the disclaimei of waiianties with eveiy copy of the Woik You Dis-
1:8 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
tiibute oi Publicly Peifoim. When You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim
the Woik, You may not impose any eective technological measuies
on the Woik that iestiict the ability of a iecipient of the Woik fiom
You to exeicise the iights gianted to that iecipient undei the teims
of the License. Tis Section (a) applies to the Woik as incoipoiated
in a Collection, but this does not iequiie the Collection apait fiom
the Woik itself to be made subject to the teims of this License. lf You
cieate a Collection, upon notice fiom any Licensoi You must, to the
extent piacticable, iemove fiom the Collection any ciedit as iequiied
by Section (c), as iequested. lf You cieate an Adaptation, upon notice
fiom any Licensoi You must, to the extent piacticable, iemove fiom
the Adaptation any ciedit as iequiied by Section (c), as iequested.
(b) You may Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim an Adaptation only undei the
teims of (i) this License, (ii) a latei veision of this License with the
same License Elements as this License, (iii) a Cieative Commons juiis-
diction license (eithei this oi a latei license veision) that contains the
same License Elements as this License (e.g., Auiibution-ShaieAlike
.o US)), (iv) a Cieative Commons Compatible License. lf you license
the Adaptation undei one of the licenses mentioned in (iv), you must
comply with the teims of that license. lf you license the Adaptation
undei the teims of any of the licenses mentioned in (i), (ii) oi (iii) (the
Applicable License), you must comply with the teims of the Ap-
plicable License geneially and the following piovisions (l) You must
include a copy of, oi the URl foi, the Applicable License with eveiy
copy of each Adaptation You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim, (ll) You
may not oei oi impose any teims on the Adaptation that iestiict
the teims of the Applicable License oi the ability of the iecipient of
the Adaptation to exeicise the iights gianted to that iecipient undei
the teims of the Applicable License, (lll) You must keep intact all
notices that iefei to the Applicable License and to the disclaimei of
waiianties with eveiy copy of the Woik as included in the Adapta-
tion You Distiibute oi Publicly Peifoim, (lV) when You Distiibute oi
Publicly Peifoim the Adaptation, You may not impose any eective
technological measuies on the Adaptation that iestiict the ability of a
iecipient of the Adaptation fiom You to exeicise the iights gianted to
that iecipient undei the teims of the Applicable License. Tis Section
(b) applies to the Adaptation as incoipoiated in a Collection, but this
does not iequiie the Collection apait fiom the Adaptation itself to be
made subject to the teims of the Applicable License.
(c) lf You Distiibute, oi Publicly Peifoim the Woik oi any Adaptations
oi Collections, You must, unless a iequest has been made puisuant
to Section (a), keep intact all copyiight notices foi the Woik and
piovide, ieasonable to the medium oi means You aie utilizing (i) the
name of the Oiiginal Authoi (oi pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied,
and/oi if the Oiiginal Authoi and/oi Licensoi designate anothei paity
oi paities (e.g., a sponsoi institute, publishing entity, jouinal) foi auii-
bution (Auiibution Paities) in Licensois copyiight notice, teims of
seivice oi by othei ieasonable means, the name of such paity oi pai-
ties, (ii) the title of the Woik if supplied, (iii) to the extent ieasonably
piacticable, the URl, if any, that Licensoi species to be associated
with the Woik, unless such URl does not iefei to the copyiight no-
tice oi licensing infoimation foi the Woik, and (iv) , consistent with
Ssection (b), in the case of an Adaptation, a ciedit identifying the
use of the Woik in the Adaptation (e.g., liench tianslation of the
iicrNsr 1:,
Woik by Oiiginal Authoi, oi Scieenplay based on oiiginal Woik
by Oiiginal Authoi). Te ciedit iequiied by this Section (c) may be
implemented in any ieasonable mannei, piovided, howevei, that in
the case of a Adaptation oi Collection, at a minimum such ciedit will
appeai, if a ciedit foi all contiibuting authois of the Adaptation oi
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that in those juiisdictions (e.g. Japan), in which any exeicise of the
iight gianted in Section (b) of this License (the iight to make Adap-
tations) would be deemed to be a distoition, mutilation, modication
oi othei deiogatoiy action piejudicial to the Oiiginal Authois honoi
and ieputation, the Licensoi will waive oi not asseit, as appiopiiate,
this Section, to the fullest extent peimiued by the applicable national
law, to enable You to ieasonably exeicise Youi iight undei Section
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. Repiesentations, Waiianties and Disclaimei
UNirss o1urvvisr xU1U~iiv ~cvrru 1o nv 1ur v~v1irs iN vvi1iNc,
iicrNsov oiirvs 1ur vovx ~sis ~Nu x~xrs No vrvvrsrN1~1ioNs ov
v~vv~N1irs oi ~Nv xiNu coNcrvNiNc 1ur vovx, rxvvrss, ixviiru,
s1~1U1ovv ov o1urvvisr, iNciUuiNc, vi1uoU1 iixi1~1ioN, v~v
v~N1irs oi 1i1ir, xrvcu~N1iniii1v, ii1Nrss iov ~ v~v1icUi~v vUvvosr,
NoNiNiviNcrxrN1, ov 1ur ~nsrNcr oi i~1rN1 ov o1urv urirc1s, ~c
cUv~cv, ov 1ur vvrsrNcr oi ~nsrNcr oi rvvovs, vur1urv ov No1
uiscovrv~nir. soxr JUvisuic1ioNs uo No1 ~iiov 1ur rxciUsioN oi
ixviiru v~vv~N1irs, so sUcu rxciUsioN x~v No1 ~vviv 1o voU.
. Limitation on Liability. rxcrv1 1o 1ur rx1rN1 vrivru nv ~vviic~
nir i~v, iN No rvrN1 viii iicrNsov nr ii~nir 1o voU oN ~Nv irc~i
1urovv iov ~Nv svrci~i, iNciurN1~i, coNsrrN1i~i, vUNi1ivr ov
rxrxvi~vv u~x~crs ~visiNc oU1 oi 1uis iicrNsr ov 1ur Usr oi 1ur
vovx, rvrN ii iicrNsov u~s nrrN ~uvisru oi 1ur vossiniii1v oi sUcu
,. Teimination
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oi entities who have ieceived Adaptations oi Collections fiom You
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piovided such individuals oi entities iemain in full compliance with
those licenses. Sections 1, :, , , ,, and 8 will suivive any teimination
of this License.
1o cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
(b) Subject to the above teims and conditions, the license gianted heie is
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Notwithstanding the above, Licensoi ieseives the iight to ielease
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iicrNsr 11
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Cieative Commons may be contacted at http//cieativecommons.oig/.
Conon:co| Canonical, the nancial backei of Ubuntu, piovides suppoit foi
the coie Ubuntu system. lt has ovei 1o paid sta membeis woildwide
who ensuie that the foundation of the opeiating system is stable, as well
as checking all the woik submiued by volunteei contiibutois. To leain
moie about Canonical, go to http//
cvrsor Te (usually) blinking squaie oi veitical line used to show you
wheie text will appeai when you stait typing. You can move it aiound
with the aiiow keys on youi keyboaid piompt in a teiminal oi othei
text-input application.
JecryeJ When you deciypt an enciypted le it becomes deciypted, and
viewable. Enciypted les on Ubuntu aie not iecognizable in any lan-
guage, they aie just a stiing of iandom numbeis and leueis until they aie
deciypted using a passwoid.
Jes|o en+:ronen A geneiic teim to desciibe a cUi inteiface foi humans
to inteiact with computeis. Teie aie many desktop enviionments such
as cNoxr, xur, xicr and ixur just to name a few.
unc uucv stands foi Dyno:c Hos Congvro:on Prooco|, it is used by a
uucv seivei to assign computeis on a netwoik an iv addiess automati-
J:o|v connec:on A dialup connection is when youi computei uses a mo-
dem to connect to an isv thiough youi telephone line.
J:sr:|v:on A distiibution is a collection of sofwaie that is alieady com-
piled and conguied ieady to be installed. Ubuntu is an example of a
Jvo||oo:ng dual-booting is the piocess of being able to choose one of two
dieient opeiating systems cuiiently installed on a computei fiom the
boot menu. Once selected youi computei will then boot into whichevei
opeiating system you chose at the boot menu. Dual booting is ofen used
geneiically, and may iefei to booting among moie than two opeiating
F|erne or An Etheinet poit is what an Etheinet cable is plugged into
when you aie using a wiied connection.
com cNoxr (which once stood foi cNU Netwoik Object Model Enviion-
ment) is the default desktop enviionment used in Ubuntu.
cu Te cUi (which stands foi Giaphical Usei lnteiface) is a type of usei in-
teiface that allows humans to inteiact with the computei using giaphics
and images iathei than just text.
: isv stands foi Inerne Ser+:ce Pro+:Jer, an isv is a company that piovides
you with youi lnteinet connection.
|erne| A keinel is the cential poition of a Unix-based opeiating system,
iesponsible foi iunning applications, piocesses, and pioviding secuiity
foi the coie components.
1 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
maximize When you maximize an application in Ubuntu it will ll the
whole desktop, excluding the panels.
MeMenv Te MeMenu in Ubuntu 11.1o allows you to manage youi pies-
ence on social netwoiking seivices. lt also allows you to publish status
messages to all of youi accounts by enteiing updates into a text eld.
ovv Te output of a command is any text it displays on the next line
afei typing a command and piessing entei, e.g., if you type pwd into a
teiminal and piess Enter, the diiectoiy name it displays on the next line
is the output.
oc|oge Packages contain sofwaie in a ieady-to-install foimat. Most of
the time you can use the Sofwaie Centei instead of manually installing
packages. Packages have a .deb extension in Ubuntu.
oroeer Paiameteis aie special options that you can use with othei
commands in the teiminal to make that command behave dieiently, this
can make a lot of commands fai moie useful.
or::on A paitition is an aiea of allocated space on a haid diive wheie
you can put data.
or::on:ng paititioning is the piocess of cieating a paitition.
ro Te piompt displays some useful infoimation about youi computei,
it can be customized to display in dieient colois as well as being able to
display the time, date and cuiient diiectoiy as well as almost anything
else you like.
ror:eory Sofwaie made by companies that dont ielease theii souice
code undei an open souice license.
rover A ioutei is a specially designed computei that using its sofwaie and
haidwaie, ioutes infoimation fiom the lnteinet to a netwoik. lt is also
sometimes called a gateway.
ser+er A seivei is a computei that iuns a specialized opeiating system and
piovides seivices to computeis that connect to it and make a iequest.
s|e|| Te teiminal gives access to the shell, when you type a command into
the teiminal and piess entei the shell takes that command and peifoims
the ielevant action.
So+ore Cener Te Sofwaie Centei is wheie you can easily manage sof-
waie installation and iemoval as well as the ability to manage sofwaie
installed via Peisonal Package Aichives.
er:no| Te teiminal is Ubuntus text only inteiface, it is a method of
contiolling some aspects of the opeiating system using only commands
enteied via the keyboaid.
USB Univeisal Seiial Bus is a standaid inteiface specication foi connect-
ing peiipheial haidwaie devices to computeis. USB devices iange fiom
exteinal haid diives to scanneis and piinteis.
+:reJ connec:on A wiied connection is when youi computei is physically
connected to a ioutei oi Etheinet poit with a cable, this is the most
common connection foi desktop computeis.
+:re|ess connec:on A netwoik connection that uses a wiieless signal to
communicate with eithei a ioutei, access point, oi computei.
Tis manual wouldnt have been possible without the eoits and contiibu-
tions fiom the following people
Team leads
Benjamin HumphieyPioject Cieatoi
Kevin GodbyLead T
Rick losbuighEditoi in Chief (Maveiick, Oneiiic)
John XygonakisAuthois Cooidinatoi c Tianslation Maintainei
Hannie DumoleynTianslation Maintainei
Toisten WilmsDesign
Adnane BelmadiafWeb development
Heiat Gandhi Amiish
Biyan Behienshausen
Senthil Velan Bhooplan
Maiio Buigos
Sayantan Das
Patiick Dickey
Che Dean
Hannie Dumoleyn
Will Kiomei
Simon Lewis
Ryan Macnish
Mez Pahlan
Biian Peiedo
Kaitik Sulakhe
Tom Swaitz
Ryan Waid
David Wales
John Xygonakis
Alan Beebe
Biyan Behienshausen
Bob Bolin
Maiio H. Buigos
Saia de la Ciuz
Sayantan Das
Hannie Dumoleyn
Rick losbuigh
Kevin Godby
llya Haykinson
Linda Hoine
lsabell Long
Ryan Macnish
Sam Meiciei
Paco Patag
James Romines
Anthony Venable
Chiis Woollaid
Toisten Wilms
Adnane Belmadiaf Kevin Godby
1 cr11iNc s1~v1ru vi1u UnUN1U 11.1o
Translation editors
lian Diguez (Galician)
Hannie Dumoleyn (Dutch)
Shazedui Rahim Joaidai (Bengali)
Xuacu Satuiio (Astuiian)
Daniel Schuiy (Geiman)
Shiinivasan (Tamil)
Chiis Woollaid (Biitish English)
John Xygonakis (Gieek)
Special thanks
Te Ubuntu Documentation Team
Te Ubuntu Community Leaining Pioject
Past contributors
Jason Cook (Editoi)
Jamin Day (Editoi)
Joe Buigess (Authoi)
Tomas Cantaia (Authoi)
Kelvin Gaidinei (Authoi)
Mau Giin (Authoi)
Woltei Hellmund (Authoi)
Josh Holland (Authoi, Tianslation Maintenance)
Benjamin Humphiey (Authoi, Pioject Leadei)
Luke Jennings (Authoi, Editoi, Developei)
Elan Kugelmass (Authoi)
Alexandei Lancey (Authoi)
Neil Tallim (Developei)
David Nel (Designei)
K. Vishnoo Chaian Reddy (Designei)
Woltei Hellmund (Designei)
Apple, see MacBook
audio, see sound
Bluetooth, ,
cannot choose Ubuntu, 11
Canonical, 8
command line, see teiminal
Debian, 8, see o|so Linux
adding secondaiy display, ,o
changing iesolution, ,o
iesolution, tioubleshooting, 11
help, tioubleshooting, 11,
addiess book,
Tundeibiid setup,
enciyption, see secuiity
biowsing foi, :
deleting and iecoveiing, 11
seaich, o
seaiching foi, :
installing, 111
using, 111
liieWiie, see lEEE 1,
seaiching foi, :
gioups, see o|so useis
adding, 11o
deleting, 11o
modifying, 11o
tioubleshooting, 118
chat, live, 1:1
documentation, 1::
foiums, 1::
lEEE 1,, ,
install, Ubuntu, 1
Windows installei, :o
keinel, 8
Linux, 8,
Linux distiibutions, 11,
login scieen
missing, 11
help, tioubleshooting, 11,
MacOS X, see MacBook
monitoi, see display
passwoid, see secuiity
add via USB, ,1
adding via netwoik, ,1
using, ,1
tioubleshooting, ,
using, ,
scieen, see display
basic concepts, 1o8
enciypting peisonal foldeis, 11:
passwoids, 1o,
passwoids, ieseuing, 11
peimissions, 1o8
Shuulewoith, Maik, 8
iemoving, ,,
adding iepositoiy, 1o1
installing, ,8
open souice, 11,
iepositoiies, about, 1oo
Sofwaie Centei, Ubuntu, ,,
will not play, 11
volume, piefeiences, ,:
Ubuntu, see boot
system iequiiements, 11
about, 1o
using, 1o
iemoving tempoiaiy les, 11
denition of, ,
deiivatives, 1:o
downloading, 11
histoiy of, 8
philosophy of, ,
seivei, 1:1
Ubuntu Piomise, 8
oveiview, ::
Unix, 8, ,
USB, ,
useis, see o|so gioups
adding, 11o
deleting, 11o
modifying, 11o
will not play, 11
volume, see sound
webcam, ,
Tis book was typeset with X

Te book design is based on the Tufe-L
X document classes available at http//
Te text face is Linux Libeitine, designed by Philipp H. Poll. lt is an open font available at http//
Te captions and maigin notes aie set in Ubuntu, a font commissioned by Canonical and designed by Dalton Maag. lt is fieely
available foi download at http//
Te teiminal text and keystiokes aie set in Beia Mono, oiiginally developed by Bitstieam, lnc. as Bitstieam Veia.
Te scieenshots weie captuied using Qickshot, available at http//ubuntu-manual.oig/quickshot.
Te covei and title page pictogiams contain shapes taken fiom the Humanity icon set, available at https//
Te title page and covei weie designed using lnkscape, available at http//inkscape.oig/.