A Study on Wheel Creep Characteristic for Electric Railway Vehicles

Gildong Kim*, Hanmin Lee*, Changmu Lee*
which is proportional to slip velocity[6][7]. Re-adhesion is the technology to improve performance by detecting accurately slip and controlling torque according to slip. There are two method: (1) Separate re-adhesion after detecting slip (2) Continuous velocity detection in the creep area and torque control according to it. There are many studies under way, and it is to reduce motor torque when slip is detected.[8][9][10][11] In this paper, vector control was introduced to the control of induction motors which have a wide range of velocity control like traction motors, and equivalent test equipment was used to test adhesion control. PWM modulation which is used by power semiconductor from low modulation rate to 180° was used for inverters. Low switching frequency was used for compensation for a dead time which has an influence on torque pulsation and current waveform in the low velocity area. And good results were acquired with a loop to control instantaneous current. In the motor operation tests, we found out regenerative braking is possible before a stop and checked the effective results of vector control. As for re-adhesion control, a generally used torque reduction method by 1st delay of slip velocity was applied with a velocity control loop which reduce torque in proportion to slip velocity. Compared to the torque reduction method, when the velocity control loop was added, slip velocity dropped, and acceleration rose under the same condition. And test results confirmed that adhesion characteristics could be improved by this method. II. OPERATION OF A TRACTION MOTOR As for vector control, a slip frequency indirect vector method was used. Inverters for vehicles should be used under over 180° conducting overmodulation too. In this case, only a voltage phase and frequency can be changed, voltage control was used rather than generally used current control. A traction motor was operated by method shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Fig. 1, after setting current and slip by torque and flux, voltage vectors were calculated with detected motor velocity. Calculated voltage in coordinates were transformed into vectors for PWM modulation, and there was a current feedback loop to prevent current vibration and waveform compensation. Also, voltage vectors were transformed into vectors by coordinates to undergo PWM overmodulation.

Abstract-- Vector control was introduced to the control of induction motors which have a wide range of velocity control like traction motors, and equivalent test equipment was used to test adhesion control. PWM modulation which is used by power semiconductor from low modulation rate to 180° was used for inverters. Low switching frequency was used for compensation for a dead time which has an influence on torque pulsation and current waveform in the low velocity area. And good results were acquired with a loop to control instantaneous current. In the motor operation tests, we found out regenerative braking is possible before a stop and checked the effective results of vector control. As for re-adhesion control, a generally used torque reduction method by 1st delay of slip velocity was applied with a velocity control loop which reduce torque in proportion to slip velocity. Compared to the torque reduction method, when the velocity control loop was added, slip velocity dropped, and acceleration rose under the same condition. And test results confirmed that adhesion characteristics could be improved by this method. Index Terms--Vector control, rolling stock, traction motor, adhesion control

I. INTRODUCTION Invertor application is broadening with vector control characterized by its strong control over torque and the development of devices with magnetic blow-out [1][2][3], and followings can be acquired when vector control is introduced into electric railway vehicle control.[5] (1) Improvement of torque accuracy transferred from axes to rails. (2) Improvement of re-adhesion control when axes are revolving and gliding by fast torque response. (3) Regenerative brake application until a car stops Since the accuracy of torque decides car's acceleration/deceleration, slip, and re-adhesion, the effect of vector control is huge for railway vehicles. The re-adhesion of railway vehicles is important to evaluate car performance. Re-adhesion is known to be acquired by reducing motor torque with the 1st delay filter
Gildong Kim is with Advanced EMU Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Korea.(e-mail:gdkim@krri.re.kr) Hanmin Lee is with Advanced EMU Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Korea.(e-mail:hanmin@krri.re.kr) Changmu Lee is with Advanced EMU Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Korea.(e-mail:cmlee@krri.re.kr)

At this time. Since inverter modulation should be used to control a wide range of velocity within the range of overmodulation. the 1st voltage was calculated. τ e . the inverter was "off. flux control and feedback described in Fig. it is known that re-adhesion cannot be achieved by controlling in proportion to slip velocity vs to reduce torque. ( µ v ) ․ Drops after slip. Response characteristics were changed by 1st delay adhesion. This case is r=1." And the inverter ran backwards and stopped repeatedly. Vector control for traction motors As for vectors. (1) µ s = µv − ∆µ − ρ ⋅ vs Fig. 1. In order to get re-adhesion. r=1. Since PWM modulators cannot control voltage vectors when it should flow 180° continuously. vs : slip velocity[m/s] (relative velocity of axes and rails) J : Compound inertia moment in the axis[Nm·s2/rad] τ m : ( J / r 2 gρW ) mechanical coefficient of the axis r : radius of a wheel[m] T : axis circumference torque[Nm] T0 : (rguvW ) torque before slip B. 1 in which a modulation rate was limited by flux controller. III. which in turn made current drop proportional to voltage. in the domain r<1. regarding the voltage vector of a motor. Induction motor torque is in proportion to terminal voltage square under constant slip frequency. they were transformed into voltage vectors in polar coordinates which slip at equivalent velocity. a modulator was designed of which output voltage is proportional to r. ( ∆µ ) ․ Drops in proportion to slip rates. ( − ρ ⋅ vs ) Based on this." and if the contraction motor ran forwards. following assumptions were used. Fig. the size was decided. And this was acquired by demodulation rate change. the motion equation for slip velocity and torque can be expressed in equation(2). torque current. soft driving is necessary. ․ Highest before slip. When a modulation rate is r<1. When the contraction motor ran backwards.Flux was decided by the size of vector. 2 were applied. Therefore. slip control was applied to compensate errors by slip. following equation(1) and Fig. And this was realized as shown in Fig. frequency should be controlled to match the phases of calculated voltage vectors and inverters. ADHESION SYSTEM Document [6] was referred for the adhesion system. A. power semiconductors should be modulated to the range where current flows continuously at 180°. the inverter was "on. This condition was set with modulation rate. As for vector calculation. Theoretical backgrouns are as follows. 1 was designed to be rating flux and be saturated in the linear operation domain of a inverter. Re-adhesion characteristics The adhesion of the axis can be acquired by applying vs = 0 into the axis motion equation. This principal was applied to realize soft driving by demodulation rate. adhesion characteristics for the system to make vs = 0 . dvs 1 ∆µ r = vs + + (T − T0 ) dt τ m ρτ m J (2) Here. Adhesion constant Also. dropping terminal voltage during operation led torque square to drop at square rate. by controlling main motor torque into torque with delay τ e for slip velocity vs . 2. A proportional integral controller which uses the minimum voltage vector as a standard was used as a flux controller. Adhesion Constant For adhesion constants in slip. there should be the minimum vector in which power semiconductors continuously flow current around 180°. carrier waves and modulation waves are synchro-modulated. Under this condition. Based on the existence of re- . and slip by error which were necessary for vector calculation were set with motor torque and flux. the amount of torque reduction was matched to electronic coefficient. Assuming slip velocity could be detected. Since the size of voltage vectors transformed into polar coordinates is related to modulation rates. Also. When torque in equation(2) is controlled by slip velocity in order for readhesion. based on a flux vector axis. phase control should be applied. τe for vs and feedback gain. and flux current.

and slide. 10:1 reduction gears were used between wheel inertia and a clutch. Fig. velocity control loop gain Ks also are involved in the response of the adhesion system with the 1st delay. 4. To acquire adhesion. a velocity feedback loop can be said to have re-adhesion. Since when Ks = 0. and mechanical time constant for the equivalent equipment give equation (12). torque control with the 1st delay in equation (3) was used. When adhesion control is carried out by proposed method. T a torque transducer. 3 shows controlling traction motor torque by slip velocity control and the 1st delay. The proper selection of proportion constant K and time constant τ e guarantee re-adhesion characteristics. (+) has smaller re-adhesion (11) . Torque control Control methods in this study controlled torque according to equation (3) and (4) and feedbacked to equation (2) by equation (5). Compared to (-). Since the re-adhesion system was designed to control torque based on velocity feedback gain as well as the lst delay of slip velocity. The test equipment equivalent to an actual vehicle should have wheel inertia between vehicle inertia body and axes. two kinds of torque control were used. This is a generally method for re-adhesion. For the test equipment. 3. but we can say whether adhesion takes place or not by checking whether there was a point where slip velocity becomes 0 after slip occurred. The test equipment has the structure shown in Fig. Considering deceleration and reduction ratio. C a clutch. However. Torque transferred right before slip to an inertia body. Wheel inertia was set 30:1 to vehicle inertia. the second term in the right side of equation (9) becomes the torque transfer for inertia load with proportional coefficient KW . ωsl dt W v sl is clutch slip velocity transformed into τ m −τ e + Ksr τ mτ e J (8) an axis. M is a motor. Since an electronic clutch was available within 500[rpm]. T1 + τ e dT1 = − Kvs dt (3) (4) (5) T2 = − K s vs T − T0 = T1 + T2 Following control would give improvement in re-adhesion characteristics by adding a loop shown in equation(4) to control slip velocity. the transfer torque of the clutch is controlled to be like Fig. only the 1st delay was used to achieve re-adhesion. and wheels slides on rails. In this study. and its axis wheel is 860[mm].(3).IV. the selection of τe in equation (8) decides re-adhesion performance. 4. dωsl (9) J = T − K ( µ − ∆µ − ρω ) In equation (9). V. but the relations between mechanical coefficients and electronic coefficients can have a great impact on re-adhesion performance. domain. Wheels and rails had wheels' own inertia. Equivalent equipment (7) Above condition does not have re-adhesion chances and means the bigger feedback gain can give more chances for readhesion. 2. ADHESION CONTROL Torque control with the 1st delay for slip velocity in equation (2) can have various responses according to delay amount. 4. WW an equivalent wheel inertia body. (4). Fig. the adhesion system will be equation (6) by equation(2). (-) and 0. TEST EQUIPMENT If a vehicle is 5M5T and weighs 540[ton] when it is fully loaded. In Fig. Since when Ks = 0. Basically torque reduction proportional to slip velocity controls slip velocity. and adhesion control is done by this velocity. d 2v Kr dv τ mτ e 2 s + (τ m − τ e + s τ mτ e ) s J dt dt ∆µ ( K + K s )r (6) +( τ m − 1)vs = ρ J For a response to equation (6) ( K + K s )r τ m −1 ≤ 0 J Fig. the same type equation (2). the equivalent body for a vehicle was designed to have 70[Nm․ s2/rad]. The equivalent body was designed at before presented reduction ratio. it is very important to select the lst delay of torque. there can be improved re-adhesion. and (5). the motion equation of an inertia body transformed into an axis and slip velocity are equation (9) when equation (1) is applied. inertia per traction motor is around 100[Nm ․ s2/rad][12]. (10) T0 = KW µ v τm = J KW ρ This shows that re-adhesion can be acquired under (+). An industrial induction motor was used for a motor. feedback gain and adhesion system conditions. The test equipment was designed to be 150:1 equivalent model of a traction motor(200kW). and delay time constants. When slip velocity is detected by inertia body and motor velocity. and WJ is an equivalent vehicle inertia body.

Delay filter's time constant. A. 6. Breaking τm of the test equipment was B. and by controlling filter gain. wire wound resistance. In this study. to lower slip velocity.3 In this study. Fig. 7 conditions. then relationship between current and slip and torque were decided. Motor Tests The electronic clutch was set to deliver the maximum torque. and ∆u was 0. slip velocity declined and torque reduction rated rose. voltage drop ratio was calculated based on voltage. 5 shows the test results of powerrunning and coasting frequently used in driving a motor vehicle.143. 7 were acquired. 8 had the most outstanding response with the highest acceleration.3. 7. Power and coasting driving . tests were conducted. ratio for motor coefficients were decided. the clutch was controlled to have adhesion constant effects shown in Fig. Fig. In the test for the decision of coefficients. Fig. the proposed slip feedback loop was added. Ks=0. Vector control can be applied to use regenerative braking until complete stop as well as effective torque control. At low velocity. Fig. operating torque should be lowered for tests. Fig. Fig. current. mechanical time constants can be calculated from equation (10) and (11) by deciding the adhesion constant equivalent to the test equipment. Fig. And flux. Adhesion Control Tests were carried out with 1st delay filters to observe slip velocity feedback effects. In this study. Fig. This was used as the base of the test. Feedback gains are respectively 0. When the adhesion constant was expressed in percentage( µv = 1 [pu]). electronic breaking had to stop around 8[Hz] because regenerative braking was not possible at low velocity. In the test. TESTS Vector control in Fig.02 and 0. And Fig. 2. the arbitrary coefficient was decided. torque generated by slide at a clutch was estimated 8[Nm]. Since the transfer torque of the electronic clutch was operated near its limits.2.dωsl 1 ∆µ 1 (12) = ωsl + + (T − T0 ) dt τm τm J As for the test equipment. K . ratio between flux and induced electromotive force were decided to be as large as required voltage. However. motor torque dropped to almost 0 and torque vibration took place. Low amount of feedback reduced slip velocity and improved drastically torque reduction. Fig. Fig. 1 should decide coefficients for the motor.2[sec]. by setting slip velocity as slip velocity [rad/sec] in Fig. The control program was allowed to change these values. With regard to adhesion control slip velocity is also one of important factors to access control performance. 5. considering the reduction ratio and the mechanical time constant. 8. and 9 show results when slip velocity was feedbacked under Fig. At this time.03. but torque reduction was proved to be influential on acceleration performance. slip. VI. By observing current. and responses shown in Fig. and current feedback ratio were decided by tests.02 Fig. calculated 0. induced electromotive force. wave and torque. K=0. As for slip control. As the filter gain increased. 5 shows results when powerrunning and coasting were repeated. 6 describes motor current and breaking torque in breaking. 6 shows the results of breaking. resistance drop rate and current feedback gain were decided. 7 shows results when K was 0. 8. 6 shows vector control can be used for complete stop. τ e was set to be 2[sec]. Since the test equipment was expressed by slip velocity as in equation(12). 2. when ρ was 0.

453-459. By increasing the asynchronous domain. pp. 1987. Hanmin Lee received the M.”.03 Adhesion control with feedback slip has improved characteristics. pp. Ind. pp. BIOGRAPHIES Gildong Kim received the M. pp.264-276. Sugimoto. 日本電氣 學會全國大會. since vector control factors are only frequency and phases. Currently. “Power Electronics and AC Drives”. IA-23. in 2006. al.”. but feedback gain tests showed there should be modification. Hariyama et. degree from Myongji University. 1992.based Vector Control System for Induction Motor Drives with Rotor Time Constant Identification Function. It is proven that control factors to control torque proportional to slip velocity increase acceleration by reducing slip velocity and improving adhesion. No. He is presently a senior researcher of the Advanced Electric Multiple Units Research Team at Korea Railroad Research Institute. al. [11] 四方進 外 2 人 “ ファジィ制御を用いた滑走再粘着制御”.833-838. 1992. Fig. and a clutch-inertia body. used was PWM modulation which compensates phase to make calculated voltage vector have always the same phase as inverter output voltage.. Re-adhesion control used for improving adhesion characteristics is very important technology. [8] 中澤英樹 外 1 人. Korea. Currently.8-204∼8-205. “A High Performance Induction Motor Drive System. . Sugimoto. degree from Korea University. Koyama.. but in the synchronous domain. PWM modulation was not difficult. In order to compensate impacts by dead time. Vol. [6] 交通․ 電氣鐵道技術委員會. K. Korea. And there should further studies on improving adhesion characteristics. 9.. He was a researcher of Shinkansen Inverter lab. equivalent wheels. it is important how much these test results match with real vehicle's condition.REFERENCES [1] M.3-51. His research interests include VVVF propulsion system. “ Wheel Slip and Re-adhesion Control by Induction Motor Vector Control for High velocity Shinkansen ”. In the overmodulation domain where power semiconductors pass current around 180°. JIASC'97. et.33-40. pp. The adhesion system was made up of a motor. “Secondrary Resistance Identification of an Induction Motor Applied Model Reference Adaptive System and Its Characteristics. prentice-Hall. pp. in 2003.2. Vol. Seoul. “Microprocessor . CONCLUSIONS Vector control was applied to a traction motor. 日本電氣學會全國大會.8210∼8-211. vector control was difficult. [7] 渡邊朝杞 外 1 人 “ 電氣車の再粘着特性の改善 ( トルク制御に再粘着性 付加) ”. Ks=0. 1998.. 8-187∼8-188. He was part of the Electric Power Research Team with the Korea Railroad Research Institute from 2000 to 2003. pp. al. further study with actual vehicle's traction system is very urgent. pp.. 269-272. “ 新方式空轉再粘着制御 ”. Korea. For this. [4] B. 1991. [2] H. The current feedback loop to suppress current vibration successfully compensated dead time influences in the low velocity domain.4852. Ind..8-212∼8-213. Japan.日本 電氣學會技術報告. Appl. 1986. pp. [5] T. he is with the Advanced Electric Multiple Units Research Team with Korea Railroad Research Institute. Vol. the current feedback loop was used not to generate unstability in the controller. “ 鐵道車輛における粘着制御技術 ”.S. IEEE Trans..D. and Ph. et. [3] H. And the proposed control method was proved to be able to apply vector control. 第 673 号. His research interests include power quality and power system control of electric railway.3.D. In the asynchronous domain. 1986. In this study. pp. 1997. 日本電氣學會全國大會 pp. 1992.”. Korea. IEEE Trans. and Ph.8-206∼8-207. Bose. In Toshiba. pp. advanced electric train design and energy storage system. changes in current according to changes in carrier frequency was observed. 日本電氣學會全國大會. VIII. 日本電氣學會 全國大會.140-143.2. Changmu Lee is coursing for a doctorate at Korea University from 2003. al. IA-22. Modulation waves and carrier waves were used in both synchronous and asynchronous domains. Since the characteristics of the electronic clutch were not stated. No. [9] 渡邊朝杞 外 1 人 “ 電氣車の再粘着特性に關する基礎的考察”. Gyeonggi-do. [10] 渡邊朝杞 外 3 人 “ 滑走制御の一改善法”. et. since the controlled phase creates pulse waves. energy storage system and Harmonics. VII. IECON'84 Proc.296-303. he is a head of team and with the Advanced Electric Multiple Units Research Team of Korea Railroad Research Institute.S. His research interests include power quality. 1984. The general method to reduce torque with the 1st delay filter and the method to control slip velocity with a control loop were used at the same time. Appl. Gyeonggi-do. pp. Seoul. PWM method was used by transforming it into polar coordinates. 1992. pp.

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