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European cooperation in the field of scientific and technical research
COST Action E12 Forests and forestry products
Urban forests and trees
Proceedings No 2
C. C. Konijnendijk, J. Schipperijn, K. Nilsson
EUR 21524 EN
41BL17_Pages_lim 07-07-2005 10:20 Pagina 2
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COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) is a framework for the co-ordination of national research at European Level. The COST Action E12 ‘Urban Forests and Trees’ was started in June 1997 and ended in June 2002. The aim of the action was to coordinate and promote research on urban forests and urban trees in Europe. More than 100 experts in urban trees, parks and woodlands, representing 22 European countries and 70 institutions, have evaluated the built-up areas of Europe and they also have developed innovative approaches for maintaining and developing sustainable and multi-functional benefits of urban forests and trees. The main results of the action include the first comparative overviews of research and educational capacities in European urban forestry, and the development of a strong European network. The COST support was crucial in the development of the network, which has already let to various spin-offs, e.g. a new scientific journal (Urban Forestry & Urban Greening1), the launch of the European Urban Forestry Research and Information Centre (EUFORIC2) and various international projects. These proceedings are the 2nd of two, the first were issued in 2002. In these proceedings selected papers presented at the COST E12 seminars in Florence, Ljubljana, Thessalonki and Bruges, as well as the research conference ‘The Changing Role of Forestry in Europe, between Urbanization and rural Development’, are included. This conference was organised jointly with the EU-FAIR Multifor.RD project and Wageningen University and Research Centre. Detailed programmes of the meetings can be found in the appendix. The papers illustrate the broad range of topics within urban forestry that has been covered throughout the existence of the Action. The first chapter deals with policymaking, planning and design for urban forests and trees. Urban afforestation is one of main challenges in forest-poor, highly urbanised north-western Europe, as studies in Belgium and the Netherlands show. Chapter 2 focuses on functions and benefits of urban forests. Multi-functionality seems to be crucial when managing limited urban forest resources for a demanding urban society. It also seems crucial to have a better
assessment of benefits and costs. Chapter 3 continues with some of the threats to urban forest sustainability. Pests and diseases are problematic across Europe, e.g. the wild fires as primary challenge for Mediterranean urban foresters. Management of urban forests to maintain a healthy and multifunctional resource is the topic of chapter 4. And finally, chapter 5 describes urban forestry as a challenging field. Urban forest resources in high-pressure urban environments require extensive partnerships to be successful. Not only different professionals and political support, but also the involvement of the private sector, interest groups and the public at large. Some successful examples of how to generate partnerships for urban forestry are given. The COST Action E12 succeeded in establishing a good basis for co-ordinated European research in the field of urban forests and trees. The challenge for the coming years will be to continue along the set path and to further expand both the European co-operation and the research within the field. Finally we would like to thank all authors for their contributions, Nelli Leth and Jette Alsing Larsen at Forest & Landscape Denmark for the layout and all national experts that participated in COST E12 activities. Cecil C. Konijnendijk, Jasper Schipperijn and Kjell Nilsson, Editors Forest & Landscape Denmark
Preface Chapter 1 — Cost Action E12 „Urban Forests and Trees“ Linking together research on urban forests and trees in Europe
Kjell Nilsson and Cecil Konijnendijk COST E12 Final Declaration Werner Pillmann and other experts of COST Action E12
Chapter 2 — Policy-making, planning and design for urban forests and trees
Urban forestry and open space in the urbanised context of western Europe: a policy point of view Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Bruges, June 13th, 2002 Peter Janssens Realising urban forests in Flanders: a policy perspective Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Bruges, June 13th, 2002 Jeroen Nachtergaele, Rik De Vreese, Raoul Vanhaeren & Jos Van Slycken Planning new forests in The Netherlands Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Ljubljana, June 28 , 2001 Rien van den Berg The design of urban woodlands in the Netherlands: development of a ‘polder forest’ Presented at the Symposium ‘The changing role of forestry in Europe; between urbanization and rural development’ in Wageningen, November 13th, 2001 Dominique Blom A historical case of peri-urban forestry: the ‘Sotos Historicos’ of Aranjuez, Spain Presented at the Symposium ‘The changing role of forestry in Europe; between urbanization and rural development’ in Wageningen, November 13th, 2001 José Luis Garcia-Valdecantos & Maria-Luisa Tello
Chapter 3 — Functions and benefits of urban forests and trees
Multifunctionality in urban forestry Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Ljubljana, June 28 , 2001 Janes Pirnat
Results of changing social demands in Istanbul Bahcekoy Forest Enterprise: a case study Presented at the Symposium ‘The changing role of forestry in Europe; between urbanization and rural development’ in Wageningen, November 13th, 2001 Ömer Eker & Kenan Ok Cost-benefit analysis of urban forests from a research point of view Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Bruges, June 13 , 2002 Ellen Moons
Chapter 4 — Threats to urban forests and trees
Analysis of the wildland-urban interface fire problem of Greece Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Thessaloniki, April 11 , 2002 Alexandros Dimitrakopoulos Pests and diseases of urban forests in Greece Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Thessaloniki, April 11th, 2002 Helen Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos Threats to urban green areas - case study: Mexico City Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Thessaloniki, April 11 , 2002 Alicia Chacalo, Jaime Grabinsky, Hector Javier Vazquez & Alejandro Aldama
Chapter 5 — Management of urban forests and trees
Weed control in the urban environment in Denmark Presented at the Symposium ‘The changing role of forestry in Europe; between urbanization and rural development’ in Wageningen, November 13th, 2001 Palle Kristoffersen & Camilla Lophaven Urban forests of Thessaloniki: Post-fire (1997) restoration perspectives Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Thessaloniki, April 11 , 2002 Christos Tourlakidis Arboricultural research of trees in City of Ljubljana and instructions for their care Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Ljubljana, June 28th, 2001 Primoz Oven Managing forest fires near urban areas in Mediterranean countries Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Thessaloniki, April 11 , 2002 Ramon Vallejo, Susana Bautista, Jaime Baeza & J.Antonio Alloza
November 13th. 2001 Alan Simson Challenges of neighbourhood participation in city-scale urban green-space planning Presented at the Symposium ‘The changing role of forestry in Europe. Wageningen. 2002 Klaus Seeland Informing the public about the ecological impact of different methods for road and pavement winter maintenance in Vienna Presented at the Symposium ‘The changing role of forestry in Europe.Chapter 6 — Partnerships for urban forestry The White Rose Forest . Ljubljana. 2001 Monika Sieghardt & Martin Wresowar 235 237 249 261 269 Appendix Programmes of meetings in Florence. between urbanization and rural development’ in Wageningen. 2001 Ann Van Herzele Urban forestry in India and Nepal Presented at the COST E12 Plenary Session in Thessaloniki.A catalyst for the regeneration of a region Presented at the Symposium ‘The changing role of forestry in Europe. Thessaloniki & Bruges List of participants in the 5 meetings 281 283 291 7 . between urbanization and rural development’ in Wageningen. April 11th. November 13th. November 13th. between urbanization and rural development’ in Wageningen.
Chapter 1 COST Action E12 Urban Forests & Trees Linking together research on urban forests and trees in Europe together 9 .
making forests an invaluable resource for economic development. The goal of COST is to ensure that Europe holds a strong position in the field of scientific and technical research for peaceful purposes. establishment and management of urban forests and urban 11 . by increasing European co-operation and interaction in this field. involving some 10 million forest owners. One of the 19 domains within the COST organisation is that of Forests and Forestry Products (FFP). They are essential contributors to a high quality of urban life and environment. and sustainability for future generations. which are networks of co-ordinated national research projects in fields that are of interest to a minimum number of participants (at least 5) from different member states. Planning and management of urban forests and trees are essential to encourage production. DK 1958 Frederiksberg. with soon 75 % of its population residing in urban areas. The need to advance research and development activities on urban forests and trees in Europe by means of international cooperation led to the establishment of COST Action E12 ‘Urban Forests and Trees’ within the COST FFP domain. Europe is a highly urban continent.COST Action E12 Urban Forests & Trees Linking together research on urban forests and trees in Europe Kjell Nilsson (Chairman COST E12) & Cecil Konijnendijk (Coordinator COST E12) Forest & Landscape Denmark Rolighedsvej 23. The Actions are defined by a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by the Governments of the COST states wishing to participate in the Action. Objectives COST Action E12’s main objective was to improve the knowledge base needed for better planning. Forestry represents the greatest single land use within Europe. In the urban landscape. Forest product manufacturing employs an estimated two million people. design. trees and woodlands are probably the most important biological elements. Denmark Introduction COST was set up in 1971 as an intergovernmental framework for European cooperation in science and technology. leisure. It is based on so-called ‘Actions’.
Additionally.Improve the methods of management for urban forests and trees. arboriculture and landscape architecture are all dealing with urban forests and urban trees. multi-disciplinary research network on urban forests and trees and identification and promotion of interactions with relevant other international networks would be made. geography.Improve the methods of valuation of the benefits and costs of urban forests and trees. urban planning. It aimed to create a lasting European. and. new research tasks were formulated and national pilot studies were initiated. the Action aimed to establish interactions with other COST Actions and international organisations as the topics of urban forests and trees are related to many aspects of the environment and to human behaviour. the Action aimed to highlight the European dimension of research issues with regards to urban forests and urban trees. all at the European level. horticulture. by doing this. as well as of plant selection methods. Technical description and implementation The scientists and professionals working under this Action originated from many different backgrounds as researchers within forestry. In the Working Groups. This description would include available relevant European research resources and ongoing work. to establish urban forests and urban trees as a scientific domain in Europe. . with a limited exchange of experiences.Improve the methods of establishment of urban trees. sociology. much of the research in the field had taken place at a local or regional scale. Furthermore the Action would: . COST Action E12 would facilitate the transfer of research results and existing technology. The scientific programme for the Action was arranged via three Working Groups. In this way. Traditionally. . This was expected to raise awareness of the benefits of urban forests and trees and concerns in the population at large. COST Action E12 set out to establish new research tasks and make priorities for urban forests and trees and propose new research projects.trees in Europe. each of which composed a key element of the Action. biology. Moreover. Working Group coordination elucidated the variation between the participating 12 . This multidisciplinary character of the research field needed to be recognised and strengthened. The Action aimed to improve this knowledge base through the establishment of a comprehensive description of the state of the art on urban forests and trees. It wanted to lead to new approaches and management techniques of urban forests throughout Europe.
− Development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a planning and management system related to urban forests and trees. Planning and design of urban forests and trees that incorporate a stand of uneven structured and aged trees. 3. Development of models for strategic planting of street trees. provenances and cultivars: − Establishment methods of urban forests and urban trees which are superior in the harsh urban growing mediums. All pilot-study trails were or will be presented in publications containing (i) national results and (ii) a summary of the European dimension within the topic. − Development and exchange of basic knowledge of the pathogens that affect trees in order to systematise this subject. specific research tasks are mentioned. − Selection of trees with good survivability as alternatives to Elm trees (Ulmus spp. Establishment of trees for urban uses. − Selection of urban tree cultivars against new environmental constraints such as de-icing salts. Management of urban forests and urban trees: − Development of a management method which can produce a multi-functional. − − − − Objectives and functions of urban forests and urban trees: Assessment of urban forest benefits which includes people’s valuation of their living environment. The pilot studies were primarily carried out on a national basis but 13 . Scientific tasks for each of the groups were developed and pilot studies were initiated (see the next section). including identification and selection of species.countries but also facilitated the formulation of new research tasks. − Development of methods to predict weak and hazardous trees in order to determine the vitality of street trees. 1. 2.) in Southern Europe.) in Northern Europe and Plane trees (Platanus spp. infrastructure and growth rates for street trees. − Exchange of pruning and thinning techniques. for each. − Use of provenance selection for urban purposes (collection of propagation material from different geographical locations). supplemented with regional silvicultural practices throughout Europe. − Development of management methods that ensure optimal coordination between aesthetics. Design of urban tree planting with respect to the infrastructure in order to secure optimum growing conditions for the trees. The following list presents the three Working Groups. with amenity values. biodiverse and sustainable urban forest.
The book includes national reports from 20 countries and lists over 400 research projects. with 28 country reports on higher education on urban forests and trees was published in March 2002 by the European Communities’ Printing Office. and the Action’s coordinator. one of the main objectives of COST E12 – i. This core group consisted of the chairman and vice-chair of the Action.e. with E12’s coordinator as main researcher. Activities and results State of the art and pilot studies During 1998 and the first half of 1999. Within COST E12. From March 1999 onwards. the national experts prepared state-of-the-art reports on research on urban forests and urban trees in their respective countries. The final report of this work.coordinated by the Working Groups and eventually by the Management Committee. providing an overview of recent and ongoing urban forestry research in Europe – has been met. These studies had the intention to enlarge the knowledge base within a certain field. These reports were standardised. as well as a review of higher education on urban forests and trees in Europe. On the basis of the national (but highly coordinated) pilot studies. published by the European Commission at the end of 1999 (see list of publications). With the publication of this book. in some cases supplemented with a local organiser of a seminar and meeting. new international and multi-disciplinary research programs have been formulated. This study was started through the state-of-the-art inventory of research mentioned above. the three WG-leaders. It is the first overview publication of research on urban forests and urban trees in Europe. The daily coordination of COST Action E12 was in the hands of the Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute. edited and compiled into the report ‘COST Action E12 – Research and Development in Urban Forestry in Europe’. One of the other aims of COST E12 was the initiation of pilot studies. assisted by a research assistant at the Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute. the ‘review’ was granted special funding and extended to include additional countries and analysis. a review on the state-of-the-art of urban forestry research and education was carried out. and/or to act as a ‘stepping stone’ towards new research. An overview of higher education on urban forests and urban trees in Europe was compiled by means of a questionnaire. where the Action’s secretariat was located. The project was completed in spring 2001. Various pilot studies were carried out starting 14 . the Core Group. Steering of the Action was done by the Management Committee and its representative.
A scientific article was prepared and submitted to a scientific journal (Urban Forestry & Urban Greening). via national experts. to be distributed among local authorities. Study also provided input to the COST E12 reference book on urban forests and trees. Study nr. trends). • Problems. • Pilot study within WG 1 ‘Benefits and functions. National experts coordinated these studies. division over diverse types of green space. 1 Objective and activities The aim was to identify urban forest resources and their planning and management in larger European cities. Material from different countries was compiled for the COST E12 reference book on urban forestry. Below. Among the study areas were: • Resource information (e. responsibilities. research & development needs could be identified. Tests of Dutch hybrid Elms. issues and needs. By means of a questionnaire. Questionnaire. Criteria for establishment of urban trees. Study nr. Study was finalised and results were presented at the COST E12 Wageningen conference. Inventory by means of a questionnaire. • Information on use of green areas. The selection work has resulted in a new. To be included in the COST E12 urban forestry reference book. ownership. 2 3 Identifying to present location and condition of hybrid Elms. distributed via national experts. 20) were studied. • Pilot studies within WG 2 ‘Selection and establishment.g.from 1999. Coordination by national experts. • Planning and management (plans. Assessing the resistance against Dutch Elm Disease. Description An overview of urban forests and urban forestry in selected. practices. Outputs Publication submitted to scientific journal (Urban Forestry & Urban Greening) as well as national journals. two of the largest cities for each country involved (ca. larger European cities based on which e. Study was concluded and a final meeting was held in Belgium in 2001. An overview of establishment criteria as used in European cities. the studies are briefly presented for each of E12’s working groups. 2 The aim to was to provide a first overview of recent and ongoing research on public attitudes and perceptions towards urban forests and trees in Europe. The Dutch media presented some of the study’s results after the conference in Wageningen. Description An overview of selection criteria used in Europe. 1 Objective and activities Inventory of selection criteria for breeding new plant material. the study provided input to several chapters of the COST E12 reference book. 15 . green area in and near city. with the assistance of the Working Group leaders. Inventory of state-of-the-art by means of a questionnaire sent to relevant research capacities. Moreover. resistant cultivar now on the market.g. participation). bred in the Netherlands in early 1980s. Outputs The results were compiled and provide an important input to the COST E12 reference book on urban forests and trees. by means of a questionnaire.
• Pilot studies within WG 3 ‘Management,
Study nr. 1 Objective and activities To identify the most important pests and diseases on common European urban trees. By means of a questionnaire, completed by national experts. To identify the computer systems used to manage and assess urban forests and trees in Europe. By means of a questionnaire, distributed among local authorities, by national experts. Tentative overview of sustainable development of (peri)urban woodlands in Europe. Description An overview of pests and diseases relevant on common urban trees in Europe. Outputs Overview publication under preparation, while input was also provided to the chapter on biotic stresses for the COST E12 reference book. Results were submitted as a paper to a conference on information technologies in natural resource management in be held in Vienna management to Vienna 2002. during 2002.
An overview of computer systems for urban forest and tree management and assessment.
Literature review, expert knowledge compiled.
Several papers under preparation. Pilot project also provided input to the woodland management chapter of the COST E12 reference book.
COST E12 reference book on urban forestry in Europe One of the main activities within COST E12 during 2001-02 has been the preparation of the first European reference book on urban forestry. This process started in October 2000. The book will include all main, relevant aspects of urban forestry science and practice, with focus on the European dimension. Springer has agreed to publish the book in 2004. Other activities Presentations about COST E12 and its activities were given at several occasions. These included the AREA Arboriculture and Urban Forestry Symposium for researchers and educators in Chicago, USA (November 1997), IUFRO European Forum on Urban Forestry in Aarhus, Denmark (May 1999), the International Society of Arboriculture Annual Congress in Stamford, USA (August 1999), the UK Urban Forestry research meeting in Birmingham, UK (August 1998), and the 21st IUFRO World Congress (August 2000), among others. Results of the Action were also presented at various national meetings and workshops. Articles about E12 appeared in a number of magazines, journals and newsletters across Europe. Several scientific papers related to COST E12 were published in peer-reviewed, scientific journals (see list of publications). COST E12 stood at the basis of various EU applications, primarily to the Fifth Framework Programme (The Quality of Life and Living Resources, mainly). Two of these applications, URGE (City of Tomorrow and Cultural Heritage) and
NeighbourWoods (Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources) were successful under the EU’s Fifth Framework Programme; the projects were started in 2001. Through its networking function, researchers from across Europe have had the opportunity to meet each other and coordinate their research activities. At the time of concluding the Action, an Expression of Interest (NoI) for a Network of Excellence on Urban Forestry & Urban Greening had been submitted under the EU’s Sixth Framework Programme. Although the establishment of such a project seemed unlikely by the time of the first call under the programme, several opportunities for urban forestry elements in new research have emerged. New activities will be firmly based on the existing COST E12 network, but includes additional partners in the form of scientists as well as end users from e.g. local authorities.
Dissemination of results
Publications and reports
During its existence, COST Action E12 was the topic and/or initiator of a wide range of scientific and professional publications. Here, only those publications are listed that have been directly linked to the Action. Overall, it is estimated that the national experts involved in COST E12 issued at least 800-1000 scientific and popular publications on various aspects of urban forests and trees.
Conferences and workshops
Two research conferences were organised within the frame of the Action. In June 1999, the conference ‘Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture’ was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in collaboration with the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA), the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA), and local Danish organisers. 150 experts from 34 countries, both European and other, participated in the event. The research symposium ‘The changing role of forestry in Europe, between urbanization and rural development’ attracted about 130 experts from approx. 30 countries. The event was organised together with EU/FAIR-project Multifor.RD that studies the changing role of rural forests in Europe. Local organiser was Wageningen University and Research Centre. In addition to the research conferences in Copenhagen and Wageningen, COST E12 seminars were held in Vienna, Leeds, Madrid, Dublin, Reykjavik, Florence, Ljubljana, Thessaloniki, and Bruges.
A COST E12 web site based at the DFLRI’s server, has been operative since March 2000 at www.fsl.dk/cost_e12. Its main functions have been to enhance communication and the exchange of documents among the E12 experts, as well as to provide information on the Action to those not participating in it. The website was updated on a regular basis by the coordinators and will remain online in the near future. Although the Action has ended, the website will be maintained linked to the website of the European Urban Forestry Research & Information Centre (EUFORIC, www.sl.kvl.dk/ euforic).
Scientific and technical cooperation
Cooperation Throughout the year, regular contacts were maintained with relevant institutions outside the Action, such as the International Society of Arboriculture, and the International Federation of Landscape Architects. The joint organisation of the two research symposiums was a concrete example of cooperation. Regular contacts between E12 and other COST Actions (such as C3) were maintained. The coordinator of COST Action E12 was also elected as coordinator of IUFRO’s urban forestry unit (6.14.00) in August 2000, a position held by the Action’s chairman earlier. During the second part of the Action, close cooperation was also established with COST Action C11 on Green Structures and Urban Planning. Some of COST E12’s experts became active in that Action and some joint activities were undertaken. Short Term Scientific Missions 20 STSMs were approved within the framework of the Action, of which 1 had to be cancelled because of personal reasons of the applicant. The first 9 STSMs were carried out with funding under a 1997 grant; 9 have been carried out under the 1999 grant. The final mission was provisionally approved (together with 2 additional proposals). When COST informed the coordinators that no new grant could be awarded because of budget limitations, mission no. 19 was about to start. The coordinators therefore decided to finance this mission from their own means. 1. Vladimir Kusan, Croatia (April-May 1998): Mr. Kusan travelled to Germany (Munich) to study methods of photogrammetry and remote sensing to be used in urban forestry. 2. Stephan Pauleit, Germany (April-May 1998): In his own research, Stephan Pauleit aims to identify promising tree species for large urban areas. Tree health status and environmental site conditions have proven to be closely related. A comparison of tree stock in different cities and towns therefore is very useful. Mr. Pauleit visited Ljubjana, Zagreb, Budapest and Sopron to learn more about the local situation.
3. Primoz Oven, Slovenia (August-September 1998): Primoz Oven visited arboricultural institutions in Hamburg. During his visited, his knowledge on techniques and methods used for tree control (e.g. diagnosis of tree health, assessment of tree safety and decay) was enhanced. 4. Minna Komulainen, Finland (August 1998): Ms. Komulainen visited the United Kingdom and was hosted by the Forestry Commission. The aim of her mission was to compare Finnish and British community woodland policies and design. 5. Horst Stobbe, Germany (October 1998): Horst Stobbe specialises in the study and development of tree care and pruning methods. As both France and Germany are considered to be leading countries in this field, he decided to visit France and learn from French experiences. Mr. Stobbe studied the differences in aspects of tree and came to an exchange of experiences with French experts. 6. Cristina Redondo Casero, Spain (June 1999): Ms. Redondo Casero visited Padua and Florence to compare decay processes in urban trees in some species frequently used in Spain and Italy. 7. Horst Stobbe, Germany (August-September 1999): Following Mr. Oven’s visit to Hamburg, Horst Stobbe visited Slovenia to elaborate further on the exchange of information and experiences between Slovenia and Germany. He studied differences of wound response in xylem, cambium and bark, as specialisation of the researchers in Ljubljana. 8. Joanna Schönenberger, Switzerland (November-December 1999): Ms. Joanna Schönenberger visited researchers at the European Forest Institute, Finland, specialised in tools for forest and land use planning. Moreover, she interviewed a number of Finnish urban forestry researchers at a range of institutions. During her stay, she learnt more about land use planning methodologies. 9. Cecil Konijnendijk, Netherlands/Denmark (March 2000): Mr. Cecil Konijnendijk visited England to get more familiar with developments in (peri)urban woodland development. By field visits, discussion with local planners, experts and other stakeholders, and attending a seminar, he became more familiar with integrated planning, design and the financing of urban woodlands in England. 10.Zelimir Borzan, Croatia (March 2000): Mr. Zelimir Borzan, an expert of e.g. tree dendrology and arboriculture, visited Germany to study and discuss urban forestry standards in gardening, arboriculture and landscaping. 11.Massimo Pilotti, Italy (April 2000): Mr. Massimo Pilotti of the Plant Pathology Research Institute (ISPAVE) of Rome visited INRA in Montpellier. Together with French experts, Mr. Pilotti studied insects and pathogens of plane trees and ways of improving their resistance to these. 12.Carlo M. Marini, Italy (August-September 2000): Mr. Carlo Marini of the Municipality of Florence, DG Environment, visited two institutions in France to identify ways of improving tree management techniques for the urban environment, as well as to study ways of fighting canker stain disease of Platanus.
13.Art McCormack, Ireland (September 2000): Mr. McCormack visited Finland to study the planning, design and aesthetics with regards to forests in the built environment. 14.Penny Edwards, United Kingom (October 2000): Ms. Edwards, an expert working with the Central Scottish Countryside Trust, travelled to Austria, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands to study urban & community forestry, with emphasis on small-scale forestry, policies and structures, the role of the local community, markets, etc. 15.Ann Van Herzele, Belgium (November 2000): Ms. Van Herzele visited England (e.g. Community Forests) and Scotland (Central Scotland Forest) to learn from experiences with incorporating people’s perceptions into urban forest planning. 16.Marcello Biocca, Italy (January 2001): Mr. Biocca travelled to Germany (Institute of Arboriculture) to study and discuss tree assessment methods. 17.Antje Wohlers, Germany (February 2001): Study of pests and diseases; support to WG 3 pilot study on pests and diseases, both in Italy. 18.Jasbinder Gagh, United Kingdom (May 2001): Ms. Gagh, a graduate student in urban and community forestry, will visit Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands to look at forest policy and planning at the urban fringe. 19.Danko Diminic, Croatia (September-October 2001): Mr. Diminic visited Spain to study diseases on plane trees in urban areas. N.B. this STSM was not funded by COST but by the Action Coordinators.
Transfer of results
Apart from a range of scientific and popular publications, the main outputs of the Action could be considered the state-of-the-art reports on urban forestry research and higher education in Europe, issued by the European Commission. In this way, contacts between E12 and the Commission have been acknowledged. COST E12 also issued four proceedings of its seminars, as well as three special issues of scientific journals. Another major output will be the European reference book on urban forestry. By means of these publications, the Action has disseminated substantial information and knowledge on urban forests and trees to researchers, educators, policy-makers and end users in Europe. In order to safeguard a proper transfer of the Action’s findings, contacts have been established with a wide range of relevant institutions. These include networks of urban forestry scientists and practitioners, such as the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA), the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO), the European Forest Institute (EFI) and the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA). The collaboration e.g. encompassed the joint organisation of research symposiums. The 2001 event in Wageningen was a joint activity with EU/ FAIR-project Multifor.RD. The national experts, moreover, have been very active in establishing contacts with scientists, practitioners and policy-makers in their respective
countries. In Italy, the UK and Switzerland, for example, national COST E12 meetings were held. EFI recognised the importance of urban forestry and the role the Action and its Coordinator played by establishing a Regional Project Centre on urban forestry based at the Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute in 2001. This centre, named the European Urban Forestry Research and Information Centre (EUFORIC), will ensure sustainability of the Action’s network. It has also provided the bases for an Expression of Interest in establishing a Network of Excellence on urban forestry and urban greening under the EU’s Sixth Framework Programme. A recent cooperation was established with FAO’s staff involved with urban and periurban forestry. The forest resources division of FAO participated in the Florence meeting. The former and current coordinator of E12 then became involved in the preparation of a new strategy for urban and peri-urban forestry for FAO. The development of this strategy was started at the end of 2001. North-South networking was enhanced by having the theme ‘Threats to urban forests and trees: the NorthSouth dimension’ as theme for the meeting in Thessaloniki. The former and current coordinator of COST E12 were asked by Urban & Fischer Publishers to set up a new scientific journal called ‘Urban Forestry & Urban Greening’ (www.urbanfischer.de/journals/ufug). The first issue of this journal was published in August 2002.
The main framework for evaluating COST Actions is the Memorandum of Understanding prepared and signed at the outset of each Action. In the case of COST E12, the experts feel that the Action succeeded in meeting its main objective, i.e. to improve the knowledge base needed for better planning, design, establishment and management of urban forests and urban trees in Europe, and, by doing so, to establish urban forests and urban trees as a scientific domain in Europe. Through its networking and coordinating activities, and wide range of publications, COST E12 established urban forests and urban trees as a pan-European research domain with a large potential for further development. Moreover, the state-of-art and pilot studies undertaken and disseminated provide a sound basis for future research, development, education and implementation at the pan-European as well as national and local level. It is believed that a lasting network was created, and also that new research was stimulated.
The preparation of a first European reference book on urban forests and urban trees in Europe. New activities are undertaken to mend this situation within the 6th Framework Programme. institutions (79. The experts also feel that the Action could have been more successful in some matters.The success of COST E12 can be derived from. the number of STSMs was limited to 19. universities.The number of STSMs carried out. EFI.The establishment of an EFI Regional Project Centre on urban forestry during the Action. E. The Action has. for example: . .The success of the two research conferences organised by the Action.The quality and quantity of the publications issued by the Action.Due to funding restrictions. thus limiting the networking and activity of the Action. IUFRO.The success of the pilot studies as well as the review of research and knowledge on urban forests and urban trees in Europe. .The setting up of a new scientific journal specifically on urban forestry (‘Urban Forestry & Urban Greening’) by the Action Coordinators and network. some research topics could not be explored in full depth. such as other COST Actions and EU-funded initiatives. . . the COST E12 network had hoped to be more successful especially in attracting EU-funding for R&D projects. . . and other. a number of meetings within the Action could have a limited participation of experts only. pan-European research projects were set up. FAO. . . due to lack of interest at the outset of the Action and later funding restrictions. high-level local and national politicians as well as the media during COST E12 seminars. research institutes as well as end users) and individual experts (close to 100) that participated in the Action.g. . based on the COST E12 network and experience.The interest of e. . provided a sound basis for further detailed R&D during the years to come. . however. 22 .g. for example: . .The high number of countries (22).The submission of an Expression of Interest to establish a Network of Excellence on urban forestry and urban greening.Due to the wide scope and limited resources involved in a COST Action.The successful networking with other institutions involved in urban forestry and urban greening.Although some new. ISA.
20 papers presented at various COST E12 conferences and seminars.) Randrup TB.) (in prep). COST Action E12 . 1999. 2. Konijnendijk CC & Andersen F (2001). Christophersen T & Nilsson K (Eds. Hoersholm.. Papers from the COST E12 research symposium ‘Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture’. Luxembourg. 23 March. Dublin. (Includes 20 country reports prepared by the Action’s national experts. 20 papers presented at various COST E12 conferences and seminars.List of publications COST E12 books issued by COST/EU or major publishers: Forrest M.) Proceedings and reports of COST E12 seminars and conferences: Collins K & Konijnendijk CC (Eds. Proceedings of COST Action E12 ’Urban Forests and Trees’ seminar. (Includes 28 country reports on the status of higher education on urban forests and trees.Research and development in urban forestry in Europe. Schipperijn J & Nilsson K (2003). Urban forests and trees in Europe. The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. Luxembourg.) (1999). 2000.the role of education in urban forestry. (Includes approx. The Tree Council of Ireland et al. Planting the idea . Review of higher education on urban forestry in Europe.) Konijnendijk CC.Proceedings No. Copenhagen. Printing Office of the European Communities. Denmark. June 23-25. Luxembourg. Printing Office of the European Communities.) (2002).) (2001). Proceedings No. Report of COST Action E12 Urban Forests and Trees. COST Action E12 ‘Urban Forests and Trees’ . Springer Academic Publishers.) (1999). Randrup TB. COST Action E12 ‘Urban Forests and Trees’ – Proceedings No. Brussels. Proceedings from the Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture research symposium. Reference book on European urban forestry. Dublin. (Includes approx. Konijnendijk CC. Randrup TB (Ed. European Commission. Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute. Randrup TB & Konijnendijk CC (Eds. 2. edited by Randrup TB: 23 . Konijnendijk CC & Randrup TB (Eds.) Nilsson K. Printing Office of the European Communities. 1. Special issues of peer-reviewed scientific journals: Journal of Arboriculture (2000).
Reeh U & Nilsson K Green structure and sustainability . Oku H. Copenhagen. Prepared on the basis of the Research Symposium on Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture. Galvin MF. 24 . Landscape and Urban Planning (Volume 52(2-3) (2000)). Wilson B & Honeczy M Maryland’s Forest Conservation Act: a process of urban greenspace protection during the development process. Stobbe H.) Drénou C Pruning trees: the problem of forks. Denmark.developing a tool for local planning. Randrup TB & Ingerslev M Effects of road distance and protective measures on deicing NaCl deposition and soil solution chemistry in planted median strips. Redondo C & Mateo-Sagaste E Health status of Plane trees (Platanus spp. with papers presented at the research symposium ‘Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture’. Fukamachi K. edited by Randrup TB and Konijnendijk CC: Randrup TB & Konijnendijk CC Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture. Tello ML.Pedersen LB. Jensen MB.role of communication in urban forestry in Europe. June 1999.) in Spain. Guldager S. Kumagi Y & Shimomura A Changes in landscape planning and land management in Arashiyama National Forest in Kyoto. Konijnendijk CC Adapting forestry to urban demands . Florgård C Long-term changes in indigenous vegetation preserved in urban areas. Sæbø A & Johnsen J Growth and morphology differ between wind-exposed families of Sorbus aucuparia (L. Persson B. Dujesiefken D & Schröder K Tree crown stabilization with the double-belt system Osnabruck.
Other international. Coles RW & Bussey SC Urban forest landscapes in the UK . Simson AJ The post-romantic landscape of Telford New Town. Samyn J & Vos B De The assessment of mulch sheets to inhibit competitive vegetation in tree plantations in urban and natural environment. Higher education on urban forestry in Europe: An overview. Konijnendijk CC & Randrup TB (2002). Seeland K. Jönssen A & Gustavsson R Management styles and knowledge cultures. Ode Å & Fry G Visual aspects in urban woodland management.case studies from Denmark. Scheuthle H & Kaiser FG Public acceptance of restrictions imposed on recreational activities in the peri-urban nature reserve Sihlwald in Switzerland. past present and future. Selected papers from the research symposium in Wageningen were included in the new scientific journal Urban Forestry & Urban Greening (Vol. 25 . Vries S de & Goossen M Modelling recreational visits to forests and nature areas.a pilot study. Millard A The potential role of natural colonisation as a design tool for urban forestry . Moser K.Pirnat J Conservation and management of forest patches and corridors in suburban landscapes. Forestry 75(5): 501-511. related to multiple-use and urban woodlands.progressing the social agenda. issue 1). Oguz D User surveys of Ankara’s urban parks. peer-reviewed articles: Andersen F. Attwell K Urban land resources and urban planting . 1.
trend and developments. Vidal-Beaudet L. Motta E. Arboricultural Journal 22(2): 173-177. Results from a comparative European study. (In Danish. de Rogatis A. (In German. Randrup TB & Nilsson K (2000). Couenberg E (2002). Urban Forests and Trees. Tree selection and establishment practices in Europe .European Tree Pruning Guide. Journal of Arboriculture 26(3): 152161.) Collins KD & Konijnendijk CC (2000). June 2000: 45-46. In: Atti del nono seminario dell’International Association for Environmental Design ‘La città sostenible’. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 1(2).results from a European survey. Urban Forestry research in Europe: An overview. Beskæring af træer . Stedelingen maken van bos een topattractie. Arborist News. Jones N. Rivière LM. Submitted to Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. Randrup TB & Nilsson K (1998).) 26 . Garcia-Marin G. (In Dutch.) Dansk Træplejeforening (2000). KPB Nieuwsbrief 5(11): 8-9. (In Dutch. Research note: Co-ordination of European research on urban forests and trees. COST Action E12. Grønt Miljø 2001(7): 44-47. Bodson M & Randrup TB (2002). Plantning og pleje af bytræer i Europa. COST Action E12 ‘Wälder und Bäume im städtischen Raum’ (Urban Forests and Trees). Other publications: Andersen F & Randrup TB (2001). Stadt und Grün 1998(1): 10-11. Copenhagen. Roma. Garcia-Valdecantos GL. Per una rete di richerche europee sugli alberi e le foreste in città: l’azione COST E12 ‘Urban forests and trees’. (In Italian.Konijnendijk CC. Ottitsch A (in review) Urban forest policies: Objectives and functions. comes to Ireland. Mutto Accordi S & Salbitano F (1998). Pauleit S. IAED. WB 15/11/01. Symposium Wageningen 2001: interessante ontwikkelingen in het stedelijk groen. (In Danish.) Bianchi M.) Duhme F & Dujesiefken D (1998).) Bouter H (2001).
Norsk Skogbruk 2001(10): 2425. Skove som løftestang for bedre lokalområdet. Jaguarbos en Faith Wood . 27 . (In Norwegian. Verlag Thalacker Medien. D. De Boskrant 28(4): 96. 2000: 1922. Embo T (1998). Randrup TB & Nilsson K (2000). In: Montes para la sociedad del nueve milenio. Konijnendijk CC. III Congreso Forestal Español.) Konijnendijk CC & Simson A (2000). Hørsholm. Balder H. Granada. supplement to Arborist News 8(3). The urban face of forestry.) Gundersen V & Sæbø A (2001).) García-Martín G & García-Valdecantos JL (2001). Randrup TB & Nilsson K (2000).Dujesiefken D & Duhme F (1999).) Konijnendijk CC (2002). Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 72(6): 240-246. and Kockerbeck.und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem. EFI-News: 3-6. Jahrbuch der Baumpflege 1999. Forschung in Europa über Bäume in urbanen Gebieten.) International Symposium on Plant Health in Urban Horticulture. (In Dutch. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land. (eds.1-26. (In Spanish. Greener European cities: A COST review of research and knowledge on Europe’s urban forests. (In Danish. Konijnendijk CC. Stadt & Grün.).) Dujesiefken D. Sonderheft (special issue): 21-22. Park og Landskab Videnblade 3. Heft 370. Skov og Landskab. Braunschweig. COST E12: Urban Forests and Trees. In: Backhaus GF. P. In: Dujesiefken. Bynært skogbruk . Review of research and knowledge on urban forests and urban trees in Europe. Eine neue europäische Zusammenarbeit zur Pflege und zum Erhalt von Bäumen im urbanen Bereich (COST Aktion E 12). European Arborist News June 1999. from May 22 to May 25. 2000(13). Community Forest. Idczak E (Eds. Based upon a COST E12 STSM.) Dujesiefken D. Germany. 260-261. Braunschweig. 25-28 septiembre 2001: 467-474. Pp.behov for utvikling og kunnskap.) Konijnendijk CC (1999). (In German. (In Dutch. Konijnendijk CC (2000). (In German. English style.nieuwe bosbouw. El arbolado urbano en las ciudades españolas.
). (In Swedish. In: Krott. In: Forests and society: the role of research. Urban forestry: where people meet trees.) Nilsson K & Randrup TB (1997a). Proceedings of the XI World Forestry Congress. Nilsson K & Randrup TB (1998). (In Finnish. Nilsson K & Randrup TB (1997b). Metsä. Proceedings of the first European Forum on Urban Forestry. Internationell fokus på parker och parkforskning. and K. In: Community Forestry .) Nilsson K (1998).Löfström I & Tyrväinen L (1997). Kuala Lumpur.a change for the better. Konijnendijk CC & Randrup TB (2000). 7-12 August 2000: Kuala Lumpur. London. Multiple-use of town forests in international comparison. State-of-the-art of research and knowledge on urban forests and trees in Europe. Wuppertal. pp. Abstract. Konijnendijk CC & Randrup TB (2001). Conference Proceedings: 28-31. Julkaisussa: Virtanen.Euroopa perspektiiv. IUFRO. 270-271. Nilsson K. Utemiljö 1998(4): 33-38. Volume 2: abstracts of group discussions. Linnanmetsad ja linnanmetsandus Eestis. Proceedings of the XXI IUFRO World Congress. In: Forest and tree resources. & Raivo. Viherympäristö 1. Forest Research Institute of EAU. (Eds. (In Finnish. J. 17-24. Volume 1: 97-110. Konijnendijk CC & Randrup TB (2000). Helsingin Sanomat.. What is urban forestry? BUFPRA Newsletter 1(2): 2. Akadeemilise Metsaseltsi toimetised XVI: 17-24. 13-22 October 1997. Urban and periurban forestry. Nilsson K. Antalya. Kunnat tarvitsevat viheralueohjelmat (vieraskynä-artikkeli). 8. Pp. Suomi mukana COST -hankkeessa.) Löfström I & Tyrväinen L (1998). (In Finnish. Saarinen. P. Pp. Tartu. Abstract. 7-8 December 1999.) Löfström I & Tyrväinen L (1999). Pp. 28-31 Nilsson K.). Linnanmetsandus . Nilsson (eds. Harju ja Järvi: suomalainen maisematutkimus ja -suunnittelu uuden vuosituhannen kynnyksellä: 8. (In Estonian. etc. Maisemalliset ja ekologiset arvot taajamametsien vuorovaikutteisessa suunnittelussa. Presentation of COST Action E12 ‘Urban Forests and Trees’. M. Forestry Commission & Countryside Agency. May 1998: 101-105.) 28 . Antalya. E.
Randrup TB & Nilsson K (1999b). Forschungsanstalt für Wald.Holdes i København til juni som led i verdenskongres for landskabere. Die sozialintegrativen Wirkungen von Parks und Wäldern als gestaltete Naturräume. Pillmann W (2002).) Randrup TB & Nilsson K (1997b). (In German. Internationalt forskertræf om byskove og bytrær.) Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 10: 362-369. Randrup TB & Nilsson K (1997a). Results of a COST E12 pilot study. Denmark.Oven P (2000). Pp. 14-16 May 1997. August 1999. supplement to Arborist News 8(4): 43. (In Slovenian. Grønt Miljø 1999(1): 54. (In German. Research on urban trees in Europe. 1999. European Arborist News. (In Danish. EFI News 7(1): 3. Randrup TB & Nilsson K (1999a). 133-141. Fokus på bytræer i europæisk samarbejde. Study in Southeastern Central Europe identifies need for urban forestry approach. Forum für Wissen 1: 7-11. what is arboriculture. (Actually. Kaj pravzaprav je arboristika. 29 .) Seeland K (1999).14. In: ISA. (Results of Swiss COST E12 study. Seeland K (1999). Unpublished manuscript. Grønt Miljø 1997(6): 72-75. In: Eidg. Peri-urbane Natur im Spiegel zukünfstiger Nutzungsbedürfnsse. June 23-25. Proteus 63(2): 78-81.) Sander H (1999). Symposium ‘Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture Research’. (In Danish.) Pauleit S (1999). Proceedings of the III: Europäischer Baumpflege-Kongress. Erste Ergebnisse zweier Untersuchungen in der Schweiz und in Deutschland. Tree preservation legislation in European cities. Urban Greening . IUFRO 6. IUFRO News 28(3): 7. Co-ordination of European research: Urban Forests and Trees. English abstract). Merano. Schnee und Landschaft. Baltic Forestry 5(2): 75.) Randrup TB & Konijnendijk CC (1999).00.Research symposium ‘Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture’.
2000: 224230. Balder H. Siwecki R. 224-230. 140 p.und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem. (In Dutch. Groenkontakt 2001(6): 23-24. Urban Greening and Landscape Architecture . Braunschweig. Germany.) Seeland K. Szyper L & Rosiak S (2000). In: Backhaus GF.) Smith K & Oven P (2000). Idczak E (Eds. Landlines July 1999: 6. (Results of Swiss COST E12 study. (In Italian. Juni 1999 in Kopenhagen.-25.) Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Forstprofessur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomi 22. (In Norwegian. Pp. Stadt und Grün 11(1999): 742-744. Due essempi di progetti con persone disabili in Svizzera e Germania. Arborist news 9(4): 43-45.) Sæbø A & PA Pedersen (2002). from May 22 to May 25. Sociale negli spazi naturali.Seeland K & Nicolè S (1999). Chiari Ch & Nicolè S (2000). (In German.) Architettura del paessaggio 5: 4-7. The three net/works.). Arboriculture in Ljubljana.Forschungssymposium vom 23. (Results of Swiss COST E12 study. International Symposium on Plant Health in Urban Horticulture. Heft 370.) 30 . Trepleie 2002(1): 13-15.Internationale bijeenkomst van wetenschappers. Slovenia. For få treslag brukt langs gater og veier. (In Italian. Inheemse olmen behoeden voor uitsterven . Management and protection of urban forests and urban trees in Kolberg. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land. Broeck A Van den (2001). Steidle-Schwahn A (1999).) Simson A (1999). Studio sulle potentialità d’integrazione sociale offerte da spazi naturali. Gardino per tutti.
political and economic factors. These problems are heightened by the fragmentation of administrative responsibilities for planning. As more and more people live in towns and cities. and excavation for cables and supply networks. Stubenring 6. pollution). streets and gardens are the most important elements of such green areas. Brugges 2002 Green Health of Cities This text was prepared by the experts of COST E12 under the coordination of Werner Pillmann ÖBIG – Austrian Health Institute. Green areas are a vital part of any urban infrastructure. We . A-1010 Vienna. damage during building and road construction. Austria. implementation and management of green space. and also ways to involve communities in decision-making processes affecting the local environment. yet their benefits are often overlooked and their proper care neglected. We was developed innovative approaches for maintaining and developing the sustainable and multi-functional benefits of urban forests. Green space: an asset . growing space. Tasks for local governments Street trees are frequently expected to grow in inadequate rooting space and in soil lacking sufficient water. social and economic benefits. due to a wide range of reasons: political and economic dominance of land use planning. However. pests and diseases. Trees in parks and woodlands. green space is continually under threat.100 experts in urban trees. water. Technical solutions for most of these 31 . parks and woodlands and representing 22 European countries and 70 institutions . nutrients or structure. the quality of the urban living environment becomes ever more important.was evaluated the built-up areas of Europe. the most comprehensive study URBAN FORESTS AND TREES was concluded.COST E12 Final Declaration. poor growing conditions (soil. Urbanisation Urbanisation continues to take place throughout Europe. trees and open areas.not a liability There are tremendous benefits to be gained from a high quality green environment. contributing environmental. We was studied the whole spectrum of green space and how it is influenced by administrative. The group of concerned experts After five years of work.
Tasks within Europe There is a real need to strengthen legislation designed to protect urban greenery.problems was brought together by the group during the course of the COST Action2 and are highly advisable for implementation. Good practices should be introduced at all stages. The monitoring. A consistent approach to tree preservation within and between European countries would be advisable. design and management of urban greenery have to be fully integrated throughout all aspects of city administration. Spatial considerations of trees and green space should be an increasing aspect of design and landuse planning. Properly managed forests and trees are essential for underpinning the quality of urban life. funding and long-term administration of urban green areas. work. management. Action E12 „Urban Forests and Trees“ 32 . We call upon local and national politicians in all European countries to develop sound policies for the appropriate planning. recreate and play. enabling European towns and cities to develop as sustainable and enjoyable places for people to live. 2 COST: European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research.
planning and design for urban forests and trees 33 .Chapter 2 Policy-making.
trying to develop their practical answers to the issues and problems that arise (see Figure 2). The second. The CCC study estimated that 66. which is much higher than the EU average of 55.5 % of the CCCpopulation (see Figure 1). About 54 % of the CCC population lives in urban areas of more than 50. Ghent)). and more specifically urban forestry. dealt with the spatial developments in the area covering the south–east of the United Kingdom. Rhine-Main Randstad and ABG-stad (Antwerp. in the development of a spatial policy for Western Europe in general and for the Benelux countries more specifically.Urban Forestry and Open Space in the Urbanised Context of Western Europe: A policy Point of View Peter Janssens Secretariat General of the Benelux Regentschapsstraat 39.3 % of the CCC area is considered as non-urban and is populated by 33. the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg. and the western part of Germany. Paris.5 % of the CCC population lives in urban areas. This study was aimed at exploring and defining the issues relevant for a transnational spatial policy. Belgium Introduction This contribution deals with the role and the function of open spaces. The northern part of the area is characterised by population densities of more than 500 inhabitants/km² while in the southern parts 145 is the average. Brussels.000 inhabitants outside these six metropolitan systems. policy 35 .000 inhabitants. southern and eastern parts of the Netherlands. Rhine-Ruhr. In contrast to that. one of the studies in the framework of the program Europe 2000+ of the European Commission in the beginning of the 1990s.3 % is living within the six metropolitan systems (London. the western. the northern part of France. The first was a trend scenario based on the assumption that each region and estate continues to develop their own spatial policy. B-1000 Brussels.7 %. The spatial context Western Europe can be characterised as a very urbanised area in the European Spatial context. more specifically 39. 74. The study on the Central and Capital Cities and Regions (the so-called ‘CCC study’). The study had a so-called prospective character and defined a macrospatial structure as well as making a comparison between two spatial development scenarios.8% lives in urban areas of more than 50. 14.
The wood production in the CCC area was estimated to be 21. two separate but important aspects of forestry in this very urbanised context became visible. Other issues dealt with pollution of ground water and surface water reserves e. a problem which seems to be intensively related to the presence of large population numbers in the urbanised neighbouring regions. scenario. Some of them.Figure 1. relevant in relation to forestry. the Meuse and the Scheldt. Together with a wide range of issues the environmental issues demonstrated some transnational and commonly recognised problems all over the CCC area.5 million m³. dealt with the over-exploitation and the lowering of the groundwater level. The first issue was the recognition of the very important role of forests in the ‘heads’ of the river basins. however demonstrates the impact and rule of the more coherent and commonly developed transnational spatial policy (see Figure 3). The water provision to these population masses is 36 . As one can observe the most urbanised areas and the large population concentration are situated in the lower parts of the main rivers.5 million m³ while the consumption was estimated at 66. by pesticide leaching. such as the Rhine. This means that annually 45 million m³ has to be imported.g. In the development and comparison of the two spatial development scenarios. Population density in the CCC area.
. Trend scenario for the CCC area. the Eiffel. in relation to the lower situated and densely populated areas... as they are very present in for example the Ardennes. Forests. but indirectly also by feeding the groundwater reserves. In the CCC study this double role was described as the ‘Sponge’ and the ‘Filter’ function of woodlands.Demography: Urban growth Stationary or recovering Dominant patterns of decline Urbanization in progress Urban areas: Metropolitan areas Cities Inner-city decline Urban and semi-urban reconversion areas Rural areas: Intensively used by agriculture facing economic threats With limited agriculture Under urban pressure Main woodland Areas with rural tourism Coastal areas: Coastal areas with concentrations of human activity Natural and semi-natural coastal areas Infrastructure: Eurocorridors in formation Airports Seaports Congestion in air traffic Barriers to integration Environmental issues: Consentration of urban environmental problems Consentration of safety risks (nuclear. This means that upstream parts of the river basins play a role as regulator of the quantity and quality of water. and Saarland. 37 . Especially woodlands are very important in playing this role.) Main rivers Most polluted rivers Coastal pollution Trend scenario Figure 2. served directly by the rivers. Seveso.
the forests play a crucial role in what planners often call ‘spatial quality’. Saarland and the northern part of Luxembourg were considered as very important counter weights for the lack of openness and the high population densities in the urbanised metropolitan systems. More specifically. therefore have a crucial role to play in relation to the quantity and also the quality of these water reserves. the green areas of the Ardennes. 38 . in their role as a counterweight for the very urbanised areas.Metropolitan cooperation and connectivity to be improved Eurocorridors to be developed Existing metropolitan areas. Beside that. The growth of different kinds of rural tourism. This is true on two levels: on the transnational level. woodlands constitute building stones for rural areas or open spaces. need: internal restructuring quality improvement reduced congestion Potential for crossborder metropolitan development to be planned Cluster of urban areas for coordinated planning Urban areas with different development characteristics near a metropolitan system ´freestanding’ urban areas in econversion areas in coastal areas in border areas Rural areas with agriculture to be regenerated Environmental issues Improvement of urban environment recommended ‘Green Belt’ strategy Environmental sanitation in rural areas Tentative main ecological structure Increased inter-regional water management Accelerated economic restructuring necessary Development possibilities Figure 3. Policy scenario for the CCC area. Eiffel.
the Belgian regions Flanders. In the development of the different variations of these kind of greenbelt strategies. Since the beginning of the 1990s. This is necessary. The Second Outline starts from the aim to at improve spatial quality as the main principle. Second outline for the Benelux A first political fact relevant in this context is the development of the Second Structural Outline of the Benelux. not only to maintain the contrast between urban and non-urban areas but also to structure the urban development and avoid unstructured and space consuming sub urban developments. The CCC study also demonstrated the need for a common application of the so-called ‘Green Belt’ strategies for the surroundings of the large urban areas. Wallonia and Brussels and the Grand Duché Luxembourg) for transnational spatial policy. in this document called ‘urban networks’. where the concentration of financial business is (partly) explained by the presence of attractive woodlands in the neighbourhood. An attractive urban and suburban environment was even considered sometimes as a prerequisite for attracting important economic functions. Public recognition and the public symbolic value can best be demonstrated by means of urban forests. The document recognises the presence and the importance of the metropolitan systems. as demonstrated by the case of Frankfurt. forests play a very important role in structuring the developments of the urban fringes. Policy answers The CCC study was a study with a high political character that demonstrated the common aspects of spatial policies in the north-western European context. as basic building 39 . on a more regional or local level. in a harmonised balance with non-forest landscapes with a high cultural value. demonstrates this role and the tourist potential becomes a very important issue in the spatial policies of these areas. is considered as very important for the protection for these open areas. They contribute to the spatial qualities of urban areas and urban fringes. The document was accepted by the Ministers of spatial planning of the five partners in 1997 and ultimately approved in 2000. Secondly. recognised and given a high symbolic value by the urban people. several efforts have been attempted towards the development of spatial policies on a transnational level. This second structural outline is a commonly developed point of view and a basis for the Benelux partners (the Netherlands. which hampers dynamic and attractive urban development.and the increase of short holidays. the development of common spatial patrimony.
Tournai Kortrijk) are recognised. 40 . The role of open areas in the surroundings of the urban areas on the macro level as well as on the micro level is recognised and the interrelation between regions dealing with the common water issues also demonstrated. Main principles of the Second Structural Outline of the Benelux. Figure 4. Not only the known urban networks. This network of open areas is supposed to play a role as a buffer in relationship to the development of the urban areas.stones in the transnational spatial policy. Especially the concept of a ‘Network of open areas’ in the central and strongly urbanised Benelux Delta is very relevant in this context (see Figure 4). such as the ‘Central Belgian Network’ or the Dutch ‘Randstad’ (actually called the Delta metropolis) but also the cross border networks such as MHAL and the French Belgian metropolis (encompassing amongst others Lille.
The outline has also proved to be a common building block in the development of the European Spatial Development perspective and several Interreg1 development projects. The ESDP also stresses the need for a well-considered and balanced development of the urban fringes and the negative effects of an unstructured and chaotic urbanisation Grens overschrijdende (Stedelijke) Netwerken Toplocaties in stedelijke knooppunten en netwerken Pilcotproject landschapspark Kempen-Zeelan Stedelijke Knooppunten Stedelijk gebied Internationaal stedelijk netwerk Grensoverschrijdend stedelijke netwerken Rijn Scheide Delta contactzone Bestuurlijke hoofdstad Belangrijke relatie Réseaux (Urbains) Transfrontaliers Localisations préférentielles dans les noeuds et réseaux urbains Projet pilote parc paysager Kempen-Zeeland Noeuds urbains Zone urbaine Réseau urbain International Réseau urbain transfrontalier Zone de contact du Delta Rhin-Escaul Capitale administrative Relation Importante 1 2 3 4 5 GPCICOPIT Sarlorlux MHAL ANKE HEG Randstad Holland Reseau urbain central belge/ centraal Belgisch stedelijk netwerk Rhein-Ruhr Ile de France . the issues identified in the CCC study are more or less confirmed as important. Cross-border urban networks 1 A programme to strengthen collaboration between the regions of the European Union.Bassin Porssien Greater London Lille-Kortrijk Mouscron-leper Roeselare Scarland-Lorraine-Luxembourg Maastricht-Heerlen Hassellt/Genk-Aachen-Liege Arnhem/Nijmegen-Kleve-Emmerich Hengelo/Enschede-Gronau Figure 5. In this document. the result of a long term intergovernmental process (1993-1999) and basically the product of the member states together with the European Commission. The European Spatial Development Perspective Another important fact in this context is the acceptance (in Potsdam 1999) of the European ‘Spatial Development perspective (ESDP)’.The second structural outline is the common basis of the Benelux partners in common positioning of the points of view towards European spatial planning. for the development of their proper spatial policy and for the cross border co-operation. 41 .
dealt with open spaces in the urbanised context. Forestry is recognised as an important building stone in this context. such as ‘Eurbanet’ dealing with the development of the international Urban Networks.O. the importance of open areas policy in the development of the ‘new’ cross border networks in the European spatial. National and regional spatial planning Beside the development of common transnational policy documents and projects. Amongst others. Regional and/or local partners elaborate these projects and some of them deal specifically with the issues of open areas in relationship to the urbanised context. Also others projects in the Interreg IIc program. with the recently developed Fifth National Policy Document on Spatial Planning. One relevant project. Also the role of woodlands in the general policy of the transnational water management is (again) underlined. it recommends the development of partnerships and intense interrelations between urban and rural areas in order to safeguard their specific spatial development and manage the interdependencies. The Interreg IIIb program has not yet been fully developed in order to point the relevant issues and projects in relation to the issue of this paper. domain is demonstrated (Figure 5).S. Another project. Interreg IIC and IIIB A third important aspect of the Transnational Policy evolution is the development of the Interreg Program. called ‘Sustainable Open Space’ (S. as described above. but it can be expected that some projects will also deal with the issues of open areas. the alignment process (called 42 .). have partly paid attention to spatial quality and the role of nearby open areas. The Interreg IIc program (1999-2001) and the Interreg IIIb program (2002-2006) are supporting several transnational projects aimed at developing several aspects of the transnational spatial policy. The outcome of it can be basically described as the exchange of points of view and experiences. exchange of experience and a political platform for cross-border urban networks. In the Flemish region for example the ‘alignment processes’ of urban areas are an important priority. Moreover. but also a platform for strengthening the importance and the political awareness for open areas. it is remarkable that the internal spatial policy within nations and regions and the awareness of the alignment of the urban developments become very important but sensitive elements. Also in the Netherlands. called ‘Network of Cross Border Urban Networks’.process. was also a platform of commonly developed new research.
in order to demonstrate the specific role of urban forestry in the general aim for a better spatial quality and thereby the sustainable spatial development in general and in West Europe more specifically. but also crossing the borders with the Flemish and the Walloon region. urban forests are commonly considered as very important building stones for the development of an active open space policy. General conclusion In none of the issues described above. a large woodland in the southeast of the Brussels region. urban forests are considered as the only relevant issue in the spatial policy of these urban areas and urban fringes. is in the south bordered by a string of urban forests. It is within this context that spatial planning and urban forestry become objective partners in creating spatial quality. playing their role as a counterpart. Final Report. Study Report on European Spatial Planning. It can be assumed that these issues are now commonly accepted as very relevant issues in national and regional spatial policies. Nordregio. More specifically it is assumed that urban forestry has an important role to play in an integrated spatial policy and therefore spatial planners expect urban forestry to provide a real contribution to the general aim at the improvement of the spatial quality. and Luxembourg. The decreasing role of the agricultural sector creates a challenge to create new and active functions in order to exploit the specific spatial potentials of these open spaces in the urban context and to maintain and improve the general spatial qualities. such as the Walloon and the Brussels region. In the spatial policy of other Benelux partners. the urban network connecting the main urban areas in Wallonia from the west to the east. Interesting is the case of the so called ‘Zoniënwoud’. as counterbalance for the urban areas.‘Contourenbeleid’) has become very important. This forest fully plays the role of urban forest for the Brussels urban area. the urban fringes and specifically the woodlands become very important issues as well. The specific spatial condition of Northwest Europe can in this context be considered a very interesting challenge. Vanhecke E & Janssens P(2000). Literature used De Boe Ph. This observation also implies an invitation towards the urban forestry sector to take up this challenge. Spatial Integration. 43 . The so-called Walloon axe. But on the other hand. The urban fringe of Luxembourg as well is characterised by the presence of urban forests.
Area. Op weg naar een evenwichtige en duurzame ontwikkeling van het grondgebied van de EU. Benelux & Interreg: van visie naar inter-actie. Interreg IIC Community Initiative Programme 1997-1999. Polynuclear urban regions in North West Europa. Delft. European Commission (1999).D’Hondt F & De Boe Ph (2002). Die Keure. Brussels. Een discussie waard! TROS (Tijdschrift voor Ruimtelijke ordening en Stedenbouw. Commission Européenne DG16. Coopération pour l’aménagement du territoire européen. Delft Univerity of Technology. Brussels. Over het bos en de bomen. De actuele en potentiële betekenis van geïntegreerd transnationaal en Europees ruimtelijk beleid in (open) ruimten onder verstedelijkingsdruk. European Commission Directorate General 16. 44 . Joint Operational Programme for the North-Western Metropolitan(XXXX). Europese en transnationale ruimtelijke planning. Proceedings. Presentatie voor de Planologische Discusssiedagen te Eindhoven op 30 mei 1994. Janssens P (1998). Janssens P & D’hondt F (1999). Report of the Eurbanet project. OTB Research Institute for housing. Europe 2000+ (1994). In: EROP Katern: ’Er op of Er onder’. Europa 2000+. Brussels. Flemish Ministry of Environment and Agriculture. Janssens P (2001). Regio’s in Noord-West Europa: ontwikkelingen en beleid. Ipenburg D & Lambregts B (2001). Prospects for the development of het central and capital cities and regions (1996). P. A survey of key actor views. Symposium Open Ruimtefuncties onder Verstedelijkingsdruk. De relatie tussen het EROP. Janssens P (1994). Brussels. Housing and Urban policy studies. Adviesnota voor de Bijzondere Commissie voor de Ruimtelijke Ordening van de Benelux Economische Unie. Published in Stedebouw en Volkshuisvesting. Janssens. urban and moblity studies. Planologisch Nieuws 18(3). European Spatial Development Perspective. Interreg IIC en de Tweede Structuurschets voor de Benelux.).
(co-financed by Interreg IIc). Brussels. Laboratoire de cooperation Transfrontalière. Ruimte voor Samenwerking. Secretariaat-Generaal voor de Benelux. Tweede Benelux Structuurschets. Sustainable Open Spaces. Report of the Workshops (2001). Secretariat Général de Benelux et Ministère de la Région Wallonne. Ruimte voor Samenwerking. (1996). Rapport final du projet Interreg IIc “Reseau de réseaux (urbains) transfrontaliers”. Tweede Benelux Structuurschets. (1996). Beslisnota.Réseau de réseaux (Urbains) Transfrontaliers (2001). 45 . Secretariaat-Generaal voor de Benelux. Brussels. Concept .
Introduction The latest forest inventory reveals that Flanders has a forest cover of 10. Within a highly urbanised region such as Flanders.Realising Urban Forests in Flanders: A Policy Perspective Jeroen Nachtergaele1. Forest and Green Areas Division. design. Thus the Forest and Green Areas Division of Flanders has developed a three-step process in cooperation with the Spatial Planning Division. Gontrode. realisation scheme. the decision making process is spread out over three steps. which is amongst the lowest in Europe. land pressure and spatial claims in the vicinity of cities are very high. Belgium The Institute of Forestry and Game Management. 47 . Furthermore. to 20. To cope with this a forest expansion programme has been set up in order to reinforce the Flemish forest structure and to establish large-scale urban forests near cities and in low-forested areas. Key words: urban forests.3 % in the most westerly province. Belgium Abstract Flanders (Belgium) has a low and spatially unequally distributed forest cover with extremely fragmented forests both in terms of space and property. Rik De Vreese2. implementation. it guarantees an equal distribution of money and means over the respective aspects of the realisation process and allows for specific partnerships and participation schemes to be made for each of the steps. Geraardsbergen.6 % in the most easterly province (Figure 1). Brussels. Therefore the realisation of urban forests in Flanders is a complex issue. Within Flanders. localisation. requiring a well-thought-out scenario. Raoul Vanhaeren1 and Jos Van Slycken3 1 2 3 Ministry of the Flemish Community. it is more likely for politicians to accept such an idea gradually. each step answering an elementary question: 1) Localisation phase ⇒ Where should urban forest be localised? 2) Concept phase ⇒ What should urban forest look like? 3) Implementation phase ⇒ How can the desired urban forest be realised on the selected location? The strength and importance of this three-step approach has two elements. Belgium Flemish Forest Organisation. First. the forest index varies from 2. Given the often-controversial nature of the idea of realising an urban forest.8%.
provinces and municipalities have the authority to develop their own spatial policy. Besides the problem of a low and spatially unequally distributed forest cover. The SSPF contains essential options for the spatial development of Flanders and hence provides a frame for the preparation. the relatively small area of public forests in Flanders has been experiencing substantial (recreational) pressure. The law on spatial planning of July 24th of 1996 has provided the legal basis for structure planning. while 13% is owned by the Flemish government and 17% by other public owners. Evidently.3% 5. with the principle of subsidiarity as an essential framework for task separation between the three administrative levels.6% 12. In order to face the spatial challenges within Flanders the Flemish government has (since 1992) been working on a spatial policy based on a new planning methodology called structure planning. Fragmentation of property in Flemish forests was illustrated by the latest forest inventory that revealed that circa 70% of the Flemish forests are private property. Since this law the Flemish region. Structure planning is characterised by a coherent approach of the spatial claims by various economic and social activities. Forest expansion programme in Flanders The forest expansion programme in Flanders is embedded in the Spatial Structure Plan for Flanders (SSPF). 48 .16. Forest indices in Flanders per province.0% 20.8%. and to establish large-scale urban forests in the vicinity of densely populated areas and areas short of forest (Embo 2001). assessment and execution of all decisions with spatial impact for the next ten years. Therefore scientists emphasised the need to reinforce the existing Flemish forest structure. With respect to the spatial fragmentation Embo (2001) stated that more than half of the Flemish forests are smaller than 100 ha and circa 25% are even smaller than 40 ha.2% 2. The average forest index for Flanders is 10. forests in Flanders are also extremely fragmented both in terms of space and property.6% Figure 1.
the SSPF states that by the year 2007. 10. The Forest and Green Area Division of the Ministry of the Flemish Community has subdivided the 10. it is important to distinguish between PE and EE as to prevent the Flemish forest expansion programme from remaining a simple desktop exercise. and 2000. rather than 10. PE) and the creation of 10.665 ha. but it first has to reverse the existing trend of deforestation. the SSPF reference year. EE). The difference between both figures is explained by a net deforestation between 1994. The Flemish forest expansion programme comprises the creation of 10. Figures for the EE (Figure 2) show that 13. reference 1994) 3184 (-1684) 2441 (+59) 3416 (-416) 2739 (-1239) 1885 (-385) total = 13 665 ha Figure 2. In other words. Evidently.000 ha of new forest (effective expansion.000 ha of forest (expansion) areas in zoning plans (plan expansion. the start of the Flemish forest expansion programme.000 ha of new forest will be needed to meet social demand in Flanders. the Flemish government has installed a moratorium on any form of Planned Expansion 1500 2500 3000 1500 1500 total = 10 000 ha Effective expansion (situation 2000. This observation emphasises the importance of the Flemish forest expansion programme. the Flemish forest expansion programme requires the actual implementation of the spatial options taken in zoning plans. Yet.000 ha of PE for Flanders over its five provinces.With respect to forest expansion. the PE and the EE will overlap to a large extent. Planned and effective forest expansion in Flanders figures given per province. hereby aiming at compensating the actual inequality of forest distribution in Flanders (Figure 2).000 ha have to be realised. 49 . With respect to the latter. since the programme not only aim to create new forests.
and . when the most suitable locations are tested for their feasibility. land pressure and spatial claims in the vicinity of cities are very high. requiring a well-thought-out scenario. Priorities within the Flemish forest expansion programme have been defined as: . Within a highly urbanised region such as Flanders. in cooperation with the Spatial Planning Division. This leads to the selection and ranking of a limited number of ‘most suitable locations’. developed a three-step process. the methodology of Van Elegem et al. three phases are considered. Van Elegem et al. 50 . (3) Phase 2 is followed by feasibility phase. . Essentially. This last phase should guarantee the realisation of an urban forest within a relatively short term. Criteria used for this selection can be subdivided into three groups: (a) criteria related to functional elements. and (c) criteria related to ecological quality. Moreover. (2002) have developed a multicriteria analysis to select such locations.665 ha of new forest. (2002) considers three phases (Figure 3): (1) The excluding phase.creation of large multifunctional forests. Therefore the realisation of urban forests in Flanders is a complex issue.deforestation. (b) criteria related to structural strengthening of the landscape. partnerships with local authorities and private individuals should lead to the realisation of the required 13. The Flemish government aims to acquire 1000 ha of new forest per year. From idea to realization of an urban forest. each of them answering an elementary question: ⇒ Where should urban forest be localised? Localisation phase Concept phase ⇒ What should urban forest look like? Implementation phase ⇒ How can the desired urban forest be realised in the selected location? Localisation phase A first step in the creation of an urban forest consists of finding a location that is both suitable and feasible. where exclusive criteria are used to select a number of locations potentially suitable for the creation of an urban forest. when the potential locations from the excluding phase are tested for their suitability. The Forest and Green Areas Division has. Within this priority list. (2) The ordering (or ranking) phase. one of the major challenges is the realisation of urban forests within the direct neighbourhood of Flanders’ major cities. while for forest expansion the Flemish government has installed a special forest expansion unit (consisting of 8 persons in total) within its Forest and the Green Areas Division.De-fragmentation of existing (public) forests.creation of recreational forest complexes nearby urbanised areas (urban forests).
Scheme for the localisation phase of the Flemish forest expansion programme (after Van Elegem et al. in turn. a two-step approach is followed.) and (d) the actual functional and spatial organisation of the area (internal as well as external). Step 2: conceptual framework The development of a conceptual framework for the future urban forest is the result of a continuous exchange of information between the meso.A more elaborate overview of the methodology to select the best locations for new urban forests using multicriteria analysis can be found in Van Elegem et al. etc. The concept phase After having selected a suitable and feasible location for the creation of an urban woodland (localisation phase). Through such an inventory both the pull and push factors of the area can be mapped out. which is called the concept phase. which. serves as a basis for step 2: the development of the urban forest’s future design. (2002). property. 2002). (b) the current biotic and a-biotic characteristics.and micro-scale. (c) the judicial context (zoning. protected areas. Search Area Parts of the search area filter 1 Excluding phase excluding criteria Examine against the desired profile of the urban forest – Functional elements – Structural elements – Ecological elements Potential locations Most suitable locations Most suitable and feasible locations 2 Ordering phase 3 Feasibility phase Figure 3. Step 1: inventory An inventory of the area selected for the future urban forest should reveal (a) the historic and current land use. a 51 . While in a first stage the most ideal design for the urban forest is developed at the meso-scale. the next question to be addressed is What should the forest look like? The second phase. In order to reach this optimal lay out. concentrates on the optimal lay out of the urban forest to be created.
2001). this plan requires no decisions at parcel level. Yet. This plan contains all the elements. The final output of the concept phase is a plan showing the desired layout of the urban forest at the meso-scale (Figure 4). forming part of the future urban forest.Figure 4. with their relative position and dimension. 52 . the confrontation between mesoand micro-scale should lead to the optimal design. second stage with a feedback between this ideal design and the actual situation (step 1: inventory) is required at the micro-scale. Example of the output of the concept phase for the planned urban forest in Ghent (Studiegroep Omgeving et al. Eventually.
called the implementation phase. consisting of a table listing the actions to be taken to go from the actual to the desired (designed) situation for each parcel of the selected area. First. Output of the implementation phase. a scenario to transform the actual situation into the designed situation has to be worked out. The implementation phase Once the design for the urban forest to be developed is available. well-defined steps guarantees that the input of money and means is equally distributed over the respective aspects of the realisation process.parcel ID actual situation owner zone landuse maintenance owner desired situation zone landuse maintenance private agriculture forest economic public forest forest sustainble recreation actions to be taken owner zone land use maintenance buy change zone forest transformation Figure 5. This transformation process is subject of the third phase. with no chance of 53 . This implementation phase should guarantee that plans made in phase 2 would actually be executed in the field. splitting up the process ‘from idea to realisation of an urban forest’ in three separate. Conclusions In conclusion of this paper dealing with the policy perspective on realising urban forests in Flanders: the Forest and Green Areas Division wants to stress both the strength and the importance of their three-step approach.
the implementation phase. Hungary.C. Forestry 75 (1): 13-23. In: Konijnendijk.) Communicating and financing urban woodlands in Europe.neglecting or omitting any of the process steps. Furthermore. AROHM – Planning Department (ARP). Budapest. or that local amateur football club within the perimeter of the urban forest have to be made. It is much more likely for politicians to gradually accept a controversial idea such as an urban forest. 1999 & Gyarmatpuszta. 2000: 18-21. During this implementation phase (step 3) decisions such as what to do with this single farmer. C. which.) Under the authority of Ministry of the Flemish Community. 9-12 May. one can avoid that personal interests clash/interfere with general interests. Embo T. is started. When using the three-step process. Elegem B Van. not only the realisation process but also the decision making process is spread out over three steps. increases the realisation chances of the urban forest project. politicians first deal with general interests: do the inhabitants of my city or community want to have an urban forest? If yes. and by splitting up the decision making process. 4-6 May. References Embo T (2001). Denmark. A methodology to select the best locations for new urban forests using multicriteria analysis. Gewestelijk RUP voor bosontwikkeling en bedrijvigheid – ontwerp eindrapport (Regional Spatial Executive Plan for forest development and economic activity – draft final report. Finding public and political support for (new) urban forests. where should it be located and what should it look like (step 1&2)? Only after having reached a consensus amongst decision makers on the first two steps. 54 . and Flemish Forest Organisation (Eds. Through lobbying personal interests may have a strong impact on decision making. the three-step process enables specific partnerships and participation schemes to be made for each of the steps. Studiegroep Omgeving. Econnection and Bulck Consultants International (2001). Aarhus. where personal interests are involved. Proceedings of the 2nd and 3rd IUFRO European Forum on Urban Forestry. Moreover. and this is the most important. Muys B & Lust N (2002).
Although the planned hectares will not be fully realised. Planting forests is not always seen as an improvement. the metropolitan area in the western part of the Netherlands. planning. the location of new forests greatly attracted the attention of professionals in spatial-planning and land-use-planning. opposing farmers. has from the early beginning been owned by the state. Introduction The topic of this paper are the landscape planning aspects of new forests. With the growing size of new forests the problems of planning and realisation also increased. traversing roads and railways and local politics. Especially the Bentwoud in the province of Zuid-Holland (South-Holland) illustrates the actual threats and challenges. Key words: afforestation. These include booming land prices.O. Box 20021.Planning New Forests in the Netherlands Rien van den Berg Department of Innovation and Knowledge Management. It can disturb the open scenery and wide views typical for the landscape of the polders. The Netherlands. In the Randstad the ‘Randstad Green Structure’ became an important planning objective in national and regional planning schemes. P. The lack of forests is felt the most near the big cities and especially in the Randstad. Government Service for Land and Water Use. Abstract The forest area in the Netherlands is rather limited: forests cover about 8% of the total land area. Since the 1960s a national policy to plan and realise new forests has been developed. The flat country makes trees and forests strong instruments in shaping the landscape. urban areas. But a 55 . New forests emerged like mushrooms on the planners’ maps and the size of the largest forests grew from a few hundred hectares (Bieslandse Bos) to a few thousand hectares (Horsterwold and Bentwoud). In the Netherlands a long tradition exists of using forests as a tool for improving and enhancing landscape qualities. Most of the cities are situated in areas with little forest and people must drive 50 kilometres or more to reach a landscape rich of forests. The land in the new polders. The policy for new forests has been rather successful. NL-3502 LA Utrecht. where the Horsterwold lays. This has made it easier to develop a forest of this size.
with intensive land use and constant urban pressure. new spatial relations with other natural or even urban areas are another story. But without a coherent policy. The dominant influence of trees and forest in its appearance gives it the character of a forest. an integrated planning approach and the organisation of the implementation. forest landscapes. unsuitable for agriculture were used for forests. In these experimental phase timber production and recreation were important functions but structuring the landscape was the leading principle in the design. one-third water and one-third forest. The 900 ha ‘Bosplan’ was in fact based on a park concept with one-third grass. land established at the site of a former sea in the middle of the country. Little changes at the edges of a forest. One of the first examples of new forests near the cities was the forest near Amsterdam. Another example is the creation of complete new landscapes in the IJsselmeer polders. The forest-rich areas lay remote from the cities in the western. “People in the cities need more than grass between the paving stones” one of the great advocates for nature conservation and landscape planning (Cleyndert) said to politicians about sixty years ago. People from the State Forest Service took the initiative to plan new forests and give them a place on spatial planning maps. Land development plans often provided the legal framework for the mentioned forests. A forest is a mystery that people need in our technical era. These plans facilitate the availability of land on the right place. established in the 1930s. Need for policy development In the 1960s ideas came up for a systematic approach for new forests near the cities. fresh air and all kind of other experiences. like in many other countries. creates its own environment that offers people natural values. Since the 1960s many planning studies for new forests were executed and pilot projects and design competitions undertaken. Examples are the rehabilitation of beautiful landscapes (Walcheren) in the province of Zeeland which were destroyed by floods after the Second World War and in 1953. Investments in new forests are worthless if after thirty years the whole forest is cut in order to establish an airport or a settlement. belonged to the ‘poor side’ of the landscape and not to the rich front. The Amsterdamse Bos was an initiative of the city. A specific policy was needed because of the spatial dynamic environments around the cities. Only the very poor soils. This approach covers about one third of the total land area of the Netherlands.forest has an inner side. At that time no national policy existed. Research shows that 60% of the Dutch people think they do not have enough forest in their neighbourhood. a strong set of instru- 56 . budgets. Most of the forests in the Netherlands. Following the Second World War landscape planners experimented with new forests in land consolidation plans. Forests need time to develop their values and need to be protected against sudden land use changes. They often enhance the diversity of the landscape. most urbanised part of our country.
The establishment of a green Figure 1.000 ha of new forests mentioned in the long-term forestry plan of 1975.000 ha of new forests in the forestry policy report of 1992. Search-area for new strategic Green Projects in the Randstad. A green structure for the Randstad In the 1970s a structural foundation was laid for the realisation of 30. the purposes will not be achieved. 57 . It started with the objective of 30.000 ha of new forests in the governmental Report for the rural areas.ments and budgets. This paper will focus on the urban forestry part of this policy. Then the target was raised to 75.
The need to create a strong landscape structure for the expected development of urban settlements and greenhouses was the main motive.structure for the Randstad. These 25 ha were used as ‘bridgehead’ for the Balij. not just trees and forests as green curtains for recreation areas.000 ha of new forest became one of the main objectives of this policy report. with 10. a new forest east of the government town of The Hague. Later on. State forest projects and land development projects offered the main planning and organisational framework and created the confidence for professional realisation and sustainable management. the main New Town in this part of Holland. That was an important argument for politicians: ‘natural’ forests were much cheaper. In 1992. The difference with green projects especially for recreation was clearly expressed by the percentage of forest and the costs per ha. In this project experience was gained with how to use unexpected developments like the Floriade exposition. Ideas and plans for new forests emerged. One third of the area in recreation projects and 90% of the area in State forests should be forested. The creation of new state forests was an important instrument. Bieslandse Bos and Balij One of the most profound projects from that first period is the Bieslandse Bos and the Balij. the most urbanised part of the country. The main functions in the beginning were recreation. were 25 ha of new state forest was one of the exposition objects. 58 . This project involves a forest area with a total area of 1000 ha. structuring the urban landscape and timber production. which connected the Bieslandse Bos with Zoetermeer. People need real forests. The costs for the State forests were about one third of the costs for recreation projects. Provincial governments and municipalities took initiatives for location studies for new forests. six Strategic Green Projects for forests and nature were added to the Randstad Green Structure (see Figure 1). The two forest plans together made a really interesting forest area in the middle of existing and planned urban settlements (see Figure 2). nature functions became more important. including 100 ha of water and agricultural land.
000 inhabitants and a new forest (Horsterwold). During the early 1970s. Location of new forest areas north of Rotterdam.Figure 2. when the first drafts for this polder were prepared. a new city (Almere) for more than 300. Horsterwold The IJsselmeer Polders show a developing land use concept from traditional agricultural polders in the early beginning to the modern Southern Flevoland with its four functional zones. agriculture. In this last reclaimed polder . landscape planners from the State Forest Ser 59 .extensive areas are allocated for nature (the famous new nature reserve Oostvaardersplassen).the planned fifth polder Markerwaard was cancelled .
Bentwoud In 1984. A zoning plan was made with multifunctional forest. The idea of ecological core forests and optimal connections with other ecological hot spots came up.000 ha of connection zones. A bold and fascinating plan was born.000 ha. The whole forest plan is executed now.000 ha. when the Randstad green structure plan was in full implementation. Figure 3. with connections to other recreational and natural areas in the region. Over a few hundred years generations of farmers had had a good living in this area.000 ha with another 1. the question arose how the new forest plans could contribute to ecological values. like a spider in a web. i. but lost because the plan had followed a democratic procedure. the core forest will consist of 1. But the farmers resisted strongly against the forest plan. They feared the end of agriculture in the whole region because of the forest. This is a signal for the diminishing role of agriculture in urban areas in the Netherlands. 60 . Also the importance of a forest to society was a strong argument. with the silent core in the middle left.e. In the first plan the core forest was about 2. the Council of State. mixed with recreation and agriculture at the edges. Provincial politicians became enthusiastic and adopted it. i. Zoning in the Hosterwold.vice introduced the idea of a large broadleaf forest of 4. At the end of the regional planning procedure. a landscape type not existing in the Netherlands and which is rare even in Western Europe. and a silent core of natural forest in the middle (see Figure 3 and 4). the last stage being a silent ‘nature core’ in the middle of the forest. The province chose a compact model for the new forest. Utrecht and the urbanised Gooi area. A visionary idea and although the land was owned by the state it took persuasion and endurance to keep the full forest plan on the map. There is an option for another 300 ha in a second phase. The forest was to be established near the new expanding city and not far from Amsterdam. East of Zoetermeer and north of Rotterdam there remains an agricultural area with very good soils and a large-scale landscape.e. Farmers objected to the plan up to the highest court. an area with a great potential for a new forest of a few thousand hectares. On the basis of ecological research the Province of Zuid-Holland initiated a planning study.
who are assigned to the project. There is a clear zoning plan with a natural core of grazed forest in the middle (see Figure 5). think that without expropriation there will be no possibility to realise the whole forest. Farmers do not want to sell their land. Recreation mixed with forests in the Hosterwold. intensive land use and speculation. They try to prevent colleagues from selling. The future forestland must be acquired on a voluntary base. To keep faith in the forest plan the planting of the first acquired hectares has started. The Bentwoud project with its connection zones is now part of a larger integrated land development project. Main questions for forest realisation A number of questions remain for forest realisation: .How to execute parts of the plan separately and still contribute to the planned larger forest as a whole in the future? . Only one hundred ha has been acquired to date.How to hold the interest of politicians and the public when only small fragments are realised and the qualities of the whole forest are not yet visible? 61 . People from the Government Service for Land and Water Use. Land prices are raised because of urbanisation.Figure 4. And that is a weak point in the plan.
How to take advantage of the large scale of the open area while transforming it in a forest landscape? Co-operation with artists One of the new aspects in working on this forest project is the co-operation with artists.How to create an exciting forest were nature values and recreation go together? .Figure 5.How to keep the area free of all kinds of local land use and urban initiatives which are detrimental to the new forest? . four were chosen to contribute to the forest plan. Isolated ideas with a land-art character were not desirable in this stage of development of the forest. This also provided answers to some of the questions mentioned above. The artists were selected because of their ideas about the contribution of the design process to the concept of the whole forest. . From the ideas of ten artists. In design workshops the forest planners and landscape architects worked together with the artists to elaborate their ideas. Layout of first part of the Bentwound. One artist concentrated on communication and acted as the forester of the still not 62 .
Evaluation The implementation of the objectives of forest policy are monitored yearly and evaluated every fourth year. for example by using the earth-shaping function of streaming water. while another model focuses on the rural functions. The forest must first be born in the fantasy of the planners and then in the fantasy of politicians and of the people who will use it in the future. The results are not bad. The Bentwoud plan is still in a developing stage. the realisation remains behind target. We try to put facts for the people in this area. In the beginning there is often resistance because loss of existing values. a place where all kind of recreational functions have their logical place and offer a complete manmade natural park north of Rotterdam. The future size of the forest is still subject to discussion and at the edges land use conflicts often arise. He brought in the idea to see the forest as a supermarket.existing forest. Final comment For new forests in urbanised areas appealing plans are needed. Yet another artist concentrated on the function of the whole forest as a clean cell in an urban and technical environment. although the pace is decreasing the last years. In the Randstad. As soon as the forest has its own identity it can protect itself. He stressed enhancing the clean qualities. The first 50 ha was planted one year ago (in 2000). Models are made for the greater land development project. The water aspect raises troubling questions because the designed creeks will cause upward streaming brackish water from the underground. The average result is 73% realisation. One model pays more attention to blue-green elements for the inhabitants of the cities. 63 . He stimulated children of schools in the surrounding area to draw their perfect trees and forest. The fourth artist is a Frenchman. People have to adopt these plans and must protect them against all kind of interfering activities to be expected in crowded areas. People started to think about the forest and it already represents a value. Another artist challenged the planners to create a really exciting forest and to find innovative tools for the development of natural values. and to create a certain danger so that people can loose their way during long walks. The growing internal values can embrace people and convince them to protect and strengthen them.
and were meant for recreation and nature development. It shows the influence of modernism on urban woodland design and the adaptation of these designs to the Dutch polder landscape. this in contrast to most historical woodlands that were planted on sand soil. even as large as thousands of hectares. modernism. were planned further away from the city. gradually evolved into urban woodlands. The study presented here study showed that during the 20th century a new kind of landscape feature was established in the western part of the Netherlands: an urban woodland closely linked to the Dutch polder landscape. 65 . In this way a unique style developed in Dutch urban woodland design in the 20th century. Key words: urban woodland design.D. All of these new urban woodlands were situated in the lowlands. it led to a new development in urban green planning. anticipating expansion of the urban area. landscape architecture. In most countries remains of ancient forests near cities. These woodland designs were mainly based on the English landscape style. In the urbanised western part of the Netherlands. Berlageweg 1. Developing new urban woodlands was unique in Europe at that time. polder landscape. 2628 CR Delft Abstract The paper provides insight into some main findings of a Ph. Later that century larger woodlands. As most woodlands in this area had disappeared during the Middle Ages this meant a substantial transformation of the open polder landscape. In the early 20th century the first urban woodlands were projected on the cities’ outskirts. The study’s objective was to give an overview and analysis of 20th century urban woodland plans in the western part of the Netherlands. and intended for wood production and hunting.-study carried out at the Technical University of Delft from 1996-2001. like the Bois de Boulogne in Paris. Faculty of Architecture. the ‘Randstad’.The Design of Urban Woodlands in the Netherlands: Development of a ‘Polder Forest’ Dominique Blom Technical University Delft. In addition. a considerable number of new woodlands was planned and designed during the 20th century.
inspired by the English landscape style. although they were laid-out in a polder landscape. The designers and planners of the new urban woodlands in the Randstad had to meet the challenge to create attractive urban woodlands for recreation in this polder landscape. design and forest image. age structure. an open and flat landscape. or as woodland for the whole region. but also for nature and timber production. During the 20th century these issues changed significantly. while most Dutch forests are located on sandy soils with more relief. These forests also determine the traditional image most people have of forests: a closed. and so forth. It was also unique that the new woodlands were planned in polder landscape. After WWII the layout of urban woodlands became part of the national policy on physical planning. These woodlands were larger and had a more regional function. functioning as physical barrier to keep two cities separated. as most urban woodlands in Europe developed from existing.g. mysterious landscape. Visual appearance of the forest Urban woodland is built-up with open space and forested areas. depending on the planted species. pattern. Key aspects of urban woodlands in the Netherlands In the study three key aspects were used to study the urban woodlands planned and laid-out in the Randstad during the 20th century: planning. Planning Before World War II (WWII). e. Even those few left were all planted by man at some time in history. The design of the latest ones has evolved into a kind of ‘polder-style’. irregular. In the western part of the Netherlands however. between WWII and 1975 and from 1975 until today. the urbanised western part of the Netherlands. These issues will be dealt with in this paper. urban woodlands were more like large city parks with a local function. 66 . The use of a standard mixture of tree species has developed into more creative use of tree species and mixtures.Introduction In the 20th century several urban woodlands were laidout in the Randstad. historical woodlands that were adapted to an urban setting and use. Design The first urban woodlands were designed in a romantic style. This was a new and unique phenomenon. there were hardly any woodlands left around 1900. planned by local governments. using examples of urban forest plans from three periods in the 20h century: before WWII. these forested areas have their own spatial characteristics.
there was hardly any green space left. but of course these were mainly used for timber production. Meanwhile industrialisation led to urbanisation and to bad living standards in the cities. Still there was a lack of green space outside the cities. was covered in forest. The forested area decreased rapidly until at the end of the Middle Ages very little woodland was left in Holland. Even a large part of Holland. and more and more forests disappeared to make room for agricultural land. The population increased considerably however. People wanted to Figure 1. New urban woodlands as a national policy (Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting en Ruimtelijke Ordening 1960).Background In the early Middle Ages there was a lot of woodland in the Netherlands. As reaction against the bad health and environmental situation in the cities an anti-urban feeling developed in these cities at the start of the 20th century. the Western part of the Netherlands. in 1900 there remained only about 35. In the 19th century new forests were planted again to meet the demands of increasing industrialisation. Cities turned into unhealthy and unpleasant places due to pollution and crowding. 67 . This remained the same until the 19th century. of which most was located outside Holland.000 ha of forest in the Netherlands (Al & Kuiper 2000). To improve this situation parks were laid out in the cities in the 19th century.
local governments became aware that it was necessary to make a plan for the future in order to control unrestricted growth. A cutback in working hours. the first urban woodlands were laid-out near Amsterdam and Rotterdam. for day recreation and nature (see Figure 1). The two urban woodlands. the Randstad. Unfortunately only a few of the planned urban woodlands were planted so far. The city of Rotterdam was the first to develop a plan for a large green area. the Kralingse Bos1. however. The cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam did not just want to make a park. But protecting existing green was not enough. After WWII national planning developed and as part of the First National Policy Document on Spatial Planning in 1960. Most of these were planned in the urbanised part of Holland. were planned at the cities’ outskirts anticipating further growth of the city but also . These 1 The Dutch word ‘bos’ means forest or woodland. especially in the Randstad (Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting. a plan was presented for 11 new green areas near large cities. Possibilities were very limited. Even the last note. a few more are being realised right now. as there also was a need for green areas close to or in the cities. Amsterdamse Bos and Kralingse Bos. Local governments took the first initiatives to lay out large green areas or forests near cities at the start of the 20th century. but rather a green area that would be “large enough to be a pleasure resort for our entire. due to an economical crisis.to function as a future outer boundary for the city (see Figures 2 and 3). As urbanisation continued to grow. Later National Policy Documents on this subject continued this policy of planning new large green areas near cities. This was completely different from the urban parks that were laid out in the cities in the 19th century. numerous population” as the city of Rotterdam described it in 1909. Before WWII: the first urban woodlands in the Randstad Planning for the future As mentioned before. 68 .get back to nature. as uncultivated land disappeared in the rural area due to cultivation. Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieu 2001).especially in the case of the Kralingse Bos . the Fifth National Policy Document on Spatial Planning acknowledges a need for more green. To protect the few remaining uncultivated areas the first nature protection organisations were founded. soon after followed by the well-known Amsterdamse Bos. allowed people to spend leisure time outside the cities in the fresh air.
with lots of light and fresh air. Living needs and demands should be central. a stimulating factor in planning these new green areas was the economical crisis. On the one hand collective activity. Strangely enough. buildings should be functional. But influenced by the Volkspark2 movement in Germany and by developments in architecture and art that led to modernism3. Architects wanted to improve the living conditions for the not so wealthy. 1932 (Rossem 1993). It was more about what people were supposed to want than what they really wanted. just for walking. Their ideal was a healthy environment for everyone. and planting forest was seen as a good way to give these people an opportunity to work. hygienic. 2 3 In Germany a need was felt to go beyond the 19th century concept of the urban park as a place for the self-representation of the metropolitan bourgeoisie.parks were just for walking and were supposed to be ‘uplifting’ for the ordinary urban dweller who could look at ‘nature’ there. 69 . Figure 2. planners started thinking about the real needs of people. The Volkspark was to be a place for activities and feelings that would lead man back to his/her natural roots and to improve the self-esteem of the German people. General Development Plan Amsterdam (AUP). There was a lot of unemployment. on the other hand contact with nature.
Especially the ideas behind these movements were important: functionality and meeting the needs of the people. providing facilities for active recreation. In the Kralingse Bos. In the Amsterdamse Bos the influence of modernism led to the conviction that the social character related to use should determine the plan. the ongoing design discussion is visible by studying the planning process. Designing the first urban woodlands In the design of the new green areas the influence of modernism and the Volkspark movement was visible as well. 70 . After a long planning process with many designs and many designers involved the final plan ended up being a kind of compromise with both rational and romantic elements (see Figure 4). 1/3rd open space and 1/3rd forested. leading to a natural and harmonic landscape’ (Graaf 1937). e. In the end a rather rational planning principal was used to reach this goal: 1/3rd of the total area of 900 ha was water. This plan was strongly influenced by modernistic ideas that had already found foothold in city planning and architecture. A group of city planners however. The first plan was designed in the romantic landscape style.Figure 3. Planners wanted to achieve ‘a good balance between open and wooded parts in the area (Figures 6 and 7). Location of the Kralingse Bos near Rotterdam (Palmboom 1995). did not agree with this plan and came up with an alternative. more rational plan.g. still used by traditional park architects at that time.
Figure 4. Plans for the Kralingse Bos (1911. 71 . 1920. 1951) (Oldenburger-Ebbers 1998).
6 & 7) was laid out in a romantic style. Rolling meadows. Most of the trees are even-aged now. and most tree species do not regenerate spontaneously. Furthermore. In the end the woodland was designed in a way that was most familiar for park designers at that time: a romantic style referring to English landscape parks. Fortunately there is some attention for this problem now. having children’s birthday parties. as they showed ‘the rich flora and fauna of the original Dutch bog-peat’ (Graaf 1937). Even on a rainy Sunday many people spend time there with activities such as horseback riding. and although there are differences in tree species in some areas. The curved lines were not as elegant as in the English landscape style. the planners of the Amsterdamse Bos visited several more traditional woodlands in England. Visual appearance of the forest Although the designers did have different forest types in mind when they made the plan for the Amsterdamse Bos. From the start of its construction the Amsterdamse Bos was a popular area with the inhabitants of the city. clumps of trees. Belgium and Germany to serve as examples for the new green area. Some areas were left unchanged however. and it is still intensively used. most of the forest was planted with a standard mixture of trees and shrubs that was used wherever shrubbery or forest patches were planted in public areas. the visual appearance of the forest in the Amsterdamse Bos could be more interesting. At the edges of the former polder there were some remnants of old peat left the way they were. Besides that there is little variety in undergrowth. running. This design had no relation whatsoever with the polder landscape. walking. These areas with their wetlands and some fields are still very different from the rest of the Amsterdamse Bos. They were considered to have natural values. and in some of the forested areas trees are cut to create open spaces where new trees can regenerate. with even some straight lines. they were more rational. This might be due to a lack of more rational or modern examples of landscape design that could be used as reference. winding paths and water ponds referred to the English cultural landscape instead of the Dutch polder landscape. including elevations.In spite of modernistic influences the Amsterdamse Bos (see Figure 5. 72 . and so forth. namely the areas bordering the two lakes De Nieuwe Meer and De Poel (see Figure 8).
Figure 5. 73 . Amsterdamse Bos (Daalder 1999).
For this purpose. natural values were seen as important and the forest had to contribute to the national timber production. The planned urban woodlands were meant to serve more than one city and thus have a more regional function. Almere and Utrecht. This woodland was situated next to the town of Zeewolde and part of the general plan for the new Flevopolder (see Figure 9).000 ha. So although these green areas were planned near cities and for the people. One of these woodlands was Spaarnwoude. the Horsterwold could be used as a recreation area by people from Amsterdam. which meant that about 70% of the planted trees had to be poplar. since the wellbeing of the public became more important. This area was supposed to act as a buffer between these two cities. as multifunctional forests they had to serve multiple purposes. Within the region. but further away from the city than the earlier Amsterdamse and Kralingse Bos. Besides that.Figures 6 and 7. This was partly due to the influences of modernism. 74 . in order to keep them separated. This plan envisaged a robust green structure as a base for future developments in the polder. The national government started to realise that green areas were needed in the urbanised west of the Netherlands. 5 WWII-1975: the first polder forest Planning regional woodlands After WWII a national policy on spatial planning was developed. Quite a large forest was planned in the early 1970s in the new Flevopolder: the Horsterwold with a size of 4. Open spaces in the Amsterdamse Bos. an urban woodland situated between Amsterdam and Haarlem. several large green areas were planned in the Randstad. Like the first urban woodlands these new ones were also planned for recreation.
In the first place the allotment pattern of the polder. A kind of transition area was created between the open agricultural area and the closed forest. The ditches serve as the drainage system. The earlier Spaarnwoude started this development with occasionally adopting some polder features in the design. open spaces and forest patches were designed on top of this basic pattern. 75 . The peat area in the Amsterdamse bos. so this approach embodies not just being more aware of the qualities of the polder landscape but also a pragmatic choice as it is the cheapest and simplest solution. The ditches create a basic. In the Horsterwold this was done more thoroughly. Walking through the forest the drainage ditches are a constant. The second element that shows the relation with the polder landscape consists of the open spaces in the south-western corner of the area. Agricultural areas are incorporated into the forest creating large open spaces that relate to the large-scale landscape of the polder. separation of areas by drainage ditches (see Figure 12). rational pattern. was used in the forest. regular element that provide views into the forest. Paths. The long straight lines make it possible to preserve a characteristic feature of the polder landscape: that of vista. The first polder elements in urban woodland design The Horsterwold is the first urban woodland that shows a strong influence of the polder landscape in its design.Figure 8.
All have been used without their original symbolic meaning but translated or transformed to the current situation. modernism was on its return and designers started to appreciate historical styles again. and long avenues that remind of Baroque estates.Figure 9. While the plan for the Horsterwold (see Figure 10) was developed. History became a source of inspiration for designers again. e. This has become known as post-modernism. The plan of the Horsterwold (Arnoldussen 1996). The location of the Horsterwold in the southern Flevopolder (Arnoldussen 1996). 76 .Figure 10. an axis from the town of Zeewolde into the forest. geometrical elements. In the Horsterwold this is visible as well. while in modernism historical styles were denied or at least not used.g. There are several classical elements.
77 . The plan of the Horsterwold (Arnoldussen 1996).Figure 10.
next to open agricultural land. the area was divided into zones. 13. 12. In general mainly deciduous broadleaf trees were planted in the forest. the canal and the so-called edge lakes4. The design of the nature core was a long process. northern and southern edges more facilities for active recreation were situated. but also to the northern and southern sides. 78 . This zoning concept was incorporated into the spatial structure of the forest. breaking the unity of the forest as well. The area in between made a transition possible from peaceful nature in the west to increasing human activity. Among these species a large proportion consists of poplar. a core with higher nature values was planned to create a more quiet area. close to respectively Zeewolde. the forest was divided into small stands with different tree species in every stand. since the forest had to meet the productivity. The structure of small forest patches with different tree types is isually attractive.To provide possibilities for multiple use of the forest. Visual appearance of the forest Instead of planting the Horsterwold with mixed forest. involving different designers. Although the trees are quite young it already provides variation. and an outer zone with more open spaces and a park-like character. This design breaks with the basic polder pattern in the rest of the forest. which resulted in small-scale relief and some ponds with irregular shapes giving way to a more ‘romantic’ nature idea. 4 These lakes. separate the Flevopolder from the mainland. especially near Zeewolde in the east. 14 and 15). At the eastern. demand using 70% poplar. small-scaled and transparent (see Figures 11. also because there is too much chalk in most of the soil to plant coniferous trees. In the end the nature core of the Horsterwold was constructed using earthworks. with a closed and quiet core. At the western side. During this period ideas about nature changed from leaving nature develop itself to ‘constructing nature’. The rich clay soil makes the development of vital high productive deciduous broadleaf woodland possible. Especially near Zeewolde the landscape is diverse. in Dutch ‘randmeren’.
Figure 11. 79 . The nature core of the Horsterwold (Arnoldussen 1996).
Figure 13. Draining ditch in the Horsterwold. Open agricultural space.Figure 12. 80 .
81 . Axis from Zeewolde into the Horsterwolde forest. Figure 15.Figure 14. Forest stands with poplar and beech.
as landscapes get increasingly fragmented and borders between urban and rural areas fade. and another one is currently being realised. The Bentwoud was planned as woodland between Zoetermeer and Boskoop but as farmers are not obliged to sell their land to the government. Den Haag. This urban woodland is situated at the edge of the South-wing of the Randstad (see Figure 18). due to the fast growth of towns in the area and the planning of the Floriade5 near Zoetermeer. nature conservation and recreation were seen as important issues in the rural area. although these were still based on the ideas of the first two National Policy Documents on Spatial Planning. to prevent the towns from growing together (see Figures 16 and 17). People became more aware of the different interests in the rural area. During the last 25 years of the 20th century only one urban woodland was realised. the cities of Rotterdam. 5 A garden show held on different locations every 10 years. most land still has to be acquired and only a few lots were planted with trees. Delft and Zoetermeer and several small towns are rapidly growing together. Environmental problems.End of the 20th century: increasing influence of history Multifunctional planning After about 1975 attention for the environment started to increase. the Balij/Bieslandse Bos. The urbanised landscape becomes very complex. In the Balij/Bieslandse Bos at first only the Bieslandse Bos was planned as a rather small urban woodland near Delft. Especially in the Randstad with its high urban pressure it became easier to discuss other uses. while agriculture lost its self-evident priority. However. There are fast changes and many different interests. In this atmosphere more urban woodlands were planned. the planners decided to extend it all the way to Zoetermeer with the Balij. Both these woodlands are situated in the so-called south-wing of the Randstad. people became aware that agriculture could sometimes harm the environment. 82 . In this area.
1997). 83 . area of the Balij/Bielandse Bos.Figure 16. Landscape pattern around 1900. Figure 17. Plan of the Balij / Bieslandse Bos (Dienst Landelijk Gebied.
Planners and designers distinguish different landscape types and acknowledge the specific characteristics of these landscapes. like in the Horsterwold. visible in the Horsterwold. In the Bentwoud an old creek system was used as a main design feature. 84 . This creek system was found in the soil but is not visible in the landscape. While in modernism the design rules were clear. this is a time everything is possible but nothing is clear. Pressure and demands on the landscape grow. Plan of the Bentwoud (Stuurgroep Bentwoud 1996). often derived from its history. In both woodlands. Design with historic perspective The development. The woodlands were designed more or less independently of this ditch pattern.Figure 18. the use of the landscape by man and the occupation history. There is a growing awareness of the fact that the landscape reflects the natural genesis. to use elements of the original landscape in woodland design was incorporated in the new plans. However. other elements of the existing landscape were used as well. Identity of the landscape. most of the ditch pattern has been preserved as a basic allotment pattern that takes care of the drainage. as well as the many individual needs of people that need to be met. becomes a central issue and gives foothold to designers in a fast changing society.
The plan for this forest was conceived over a long design period in which many different designers were involved. The areas between the dikes. In the Bentwoud the western area close to Zoetermeer resembles an estate forest. When planning this forest the production target of 70% poplar had to be met. Some areas were planted with mixed forest. The axis at the Balij. In the Balij a monumental axis was laid out at the Zoetermeer side leading into the forest. all have a different design. 85 .In the Bieslandse Bos the existing landscape was used in yet another way. Visual appearance of the forest As the Balij/Bieslandse Bos was the only one of the two woodlands that is almost planted now this issue will be discussed only for that forest. the old polders. It was based on the landscape with its many different small polders. This was clearly based on French baroque gardens. In this way a varied woodland was created with a clear main structure that reflects the character of the polder landscape. again like in the Horsterwold. In the Balij/Bieslandse Bos. So again in these forest plans historical design styles were used and adapted to a new situation. The dike system of these polders forms the main structure of this woodland. Classical influences can also be recognised in these woodland designs. This aim was abandoned in the 1990s since it was no longer cost-effective due to the decreasing timber prices. with its long straight avenues. some have more and some have little to do with the polder landscape. Figure 19. most of the forested area was planted with one species per forest stand.
An old dike. Open space in the Bieslandse Bos. Figure 21. 86 .Figure 20.
that these green areas do not lie isolated in a large urban area. In that case it is easy to base a plan on what is already there. Furthermore the border between urban and rural area is continuously becoming less clear. If this development continues the existing urban woodlands will become surrounded by urban sprawl. 20 and 21). Three issues for the future To conclude. A coherent green structure should be developed in the Randstad that can form a strong base for future urbanisation. In the Amsterdamse Bos not much was done in the forest. However. Generally it is expected that the urban area will expand. To develop an interesting 87 . however. but use them in a creative way. designers should not copy these landscape features. and no major changes were achieved. It is important to find the right balance between conservation and creation. apart from some thinning. and the landscape of the Randstad becomes more and more a mixture of urban and rural. adding new qualities to the landscape.However. Although it is important to take care of the values of a landscape this should not evolve into an easy adoption of landscape features or other historical elements in a plan. Prof. the beech stand would be seen as closed forest in an open space (see Figures 19. Surrounded by the fast growing poplar this would in the beginning be an open space in the forest. They look at the historical design styles but also the history of the landscape. Planning After seeing the growing scale of woodland planning one might wonder what will be the future role of the urban woodland in the urban landscape. the older cases do show how important forest management is. Here the 30% non-poplar part was concentrated in a triangular shaped beech stand. design and visual appearance of the forest. After 20 to 25 years when the poplar would be cut the effect would be reversed. Visual appearance of the forest Although most areas shown as examples in this paper are not mature enough yet to see the spatial characteristics of the forest patches. a creative solution was found in the area near Zoetermeer. With the growing complexity of society it seems that designers sometimes feel a lack of foothold. It is important. Vroom: “It’s time for the Olmsted of the Randstad”. To quote the emeritus professor in landscape architecture Em. some remarks are made on the three issues of planning. Design It seems that landscape architects look more and more to the past for inspiration for their landscape plans.
Arnoldussen AH & Nip JA (1996). Stad en Groen 2(1). DLG. Vijfde Nota over de Ruimtelijke Ordening. Ontwikkelingsplan Horsterwold. Rotterdam. being involved only at the starting point. Amsterdam. Rotterdam. Oldenburger-Ebbers CS. Dienst Landelijk Gebied (1997). Stichting ProBos. Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieu (2001). Zeist. Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting. Bentwoud: Kleurbehoud voor het Groene Hart. 88 . Publieke Werken. Gids voor de Nederlandse tuin. Palmboom F (1995). Het Algemeen Uitbreidingsplan van Amsterdam: geschiedenis en ontwerp. Daalder R (1999). Rijkswaterstaat Directie IJsselmeergebied. Dutch woodlands. Backer AM & Blok E (1998). References Al E & Kuiper L (Eds) (2000). Provincie Zuid-Holland. Rotterdam verstedelijkt landschap. But also designers should be more aware of the development in time of a forest. Den Haag. Boswachterijen De Balij en Bieslandse Bos. Rotterdam. Het Amsterdamse Bos. Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening. Uitgeverij 010. Den Haag. Staatsuitgeverij. Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting en Ruimtelijke Ordening (1960). Graaf WA de (1937). The designer should not just make a plan and leave it at that. Amsterdam. Stuurgroep Bentwoud (1996). De Hef. deel West. at the start of a project but also during the following years.en landschapsarchitectuur. Rossum V van (1993). Nai Uitgevers. Eerste Nota over de Ruimtelijke Ordening. Voorburg. Possibly more contact between designers and managers could be helpful. Staatsuitgeverij. Lelystad.visual appearance it is important that future management is aware of spatial consequences of their interventions. Den Haag. Toelichting Boschplan Amsterdam.
Spain Abstract The ‘Sotos Históricos de Aranjuez’ were established under King Philip II during the 16th century. Also discussed will be problems originating from the agricultural exploitation and the different institutions concerned. This paper presents various aspects of the green network. National Heritage. European Union. At present these cover an area of 425 ha and extend over 45 km of avenues planted with trees of different species (planes. Its altitude is 490 metres. plan of recovery of lost plantations and infrastructures. 28800 Madrid. The whole area is under the influence of the rivers Tajo and Jarama. Institutions involved include city council. Geologically it is an ensemble of fluvial limestone alluviums.200. the kings of the house of Bourbon developed his idea with new plantations and buildings. Aranjuez. The zone studied has a latitude between 40O 01’ and 40O 04’N. and the area is almost completely flat. sanitary status. pattern of works undertaken in recent years. and characteristics of the use of these avenues by the inhabitants of Aranjuez and visitors. 38. development. Some of these trees are older than 200 years and up to 40 meters high. Basic data Aranjuez is situated in the Madrid region. Spain José Luis García-Valdecantos Instituto Tecnológico de Desarrollo Agrario. The resulting soil is the typical calcareous xerofluvent. Km. and so forth). oaks. Under an upper layer of sandy brown limos lays a second layer of calcareous gravel. and a longitude between 3O 33’ and 3O 38’ W. and other. peri-urban parks. poplars. This ‘network’ of vegetation. and present situation. Afterwards. Insight into the latter will be provided by means of a general map. limes. in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Aranjuez is 50 km from the city of Madrid. including its origin. According to Thornthwaite’s classification its climate is Mediterranean mesothermical semiarid. the agricultural properties and the historical buildings. Key words: urban forestry. Spain María Luisa Tello Mariscal Instituto Madrileño de Investigación Agraria y Alimentaria Carretera N-II. Regional Government of Madrid. close to the city of Aranjuez is a link between the town. 28012 Madrid. 89 .A historical case of periurban forestry: the ‘Sotos Históricos’ of Aranjuez. inventory of species. Ronda de Atocha 17.
was heir to the throne of Spain. Wilkinson Zerner 1996). there was a big difference among the ‘Sotos Históricos’ and the other gardens. such as Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo. the farms came afterwards (Figure 1). Flemish and French farmers started to cultivate the fields and gardens of Aranjuez according to their national customs (Atienza & Félix unpubl.Origin When Charles Vs son. At the same time. The idea. as well as to enjoy beautiful places for hunting and resting. This explains (Terán 1949) why such a large amount of very rich agricultural soil was devoted to landscape improvement: the main reason was the King’s personal will. was to show their power and wealth. Map of the “Sotos” of Aranjuez in the XVI century. common to the European kings of that time. the future Philip II. given that he wanted to enjoy places as pleasant as the other European princes at that time did. Andalusia and Valencia. the latter being reserved for members of the royal Court. from the beginning. But. It seems that the first structure adopted was a network of parks. Figure 1. gardens and tree-lined avenues. The most important Spanish architects.). whereas the Sotos were the way to get to the farms. his father ordered him to take charge of the Royal Sites. In 1561 a large number of trees began to be brought to Aranjuez. 5000 came from Flanders and other quantities from France. as well as walking promenades. 90 . designed the first buildings and gardens (Rivera 1984.
Italy. By this time the trees growing in the Sotos showed a twofold interest: their aesthetic value and also an industrial exploitation. since 1869 many trains have allowed people from Madrid to visit Aranjuez at reasonable prices.Development and evolution The following kings of Spain kept this original network without significant changes. Figure 2. But. poplars were planted for timber production. In 1851 the railway MadridAranjuez crossed over it. Traditional irrigation system in the “Sotos”. The Netherlands and Germany worked in Aranjuez. ordering the cultivation of more farms. and so forth. France. Belgium. completed and integrated the original idea of Philip II into an ‘illustrated’ concept of a royal land. This combined the exhibition of the latest agricultural features and trends in landscape management. Ferdinand VI had new streets established and put great emphasis on the economical profit of the whole area. So. sciences and industry. So. mulberries for feeding the silkworms ‘working’ at the local silk factory. mainly by watering them when necessary (Figure 2). By this time there was a strong relationship between farms and avenue trees: farmers were in charge of the maintenance of the trees. developed. Charles III. The development of infrastructures during the 19th century negatively affected the ‘Sotos’. remembered as one of the best kings of Spain for having been a strong sponsor of arts. 91 . on the other hand. farmers and architects from various parts of Spain. dividing five avenues.
or asphalt. The width of the avenues ranges from 13 to 34 m. Ulmus minor. holds two. Each avenue. attacks by pests and diseases. The surface of the streets consists of compacted earth. agricultural vehicles. Celtis australis and. and.g. trying to recover and improve them. In 9 of the crossings there are roundabouts that sometimes preserve architectural elements of great importance. Sophora japónica. as we will see later. the spread of new technologies induced the rise of new agriculture. to a lesser extent. Populus alba var. the ownership of the Sotos was transferred from the National Heritage to the Regional Government of Madrid. leaving a central pathway of 3 to 13 m (Figure 3). in some cases. Irrigation is by means of ditches dug directly into the surface of the soil. The ‘Glorieta de las Doce Calles’. Tilia platyphyllos. thus shortening the water supply to the trees. bearing traffic of pedestrians and bicycles. Populus x canadensis. Since these funds are selective. Consequently. though seriously damaged. Present situation The Sotos Históricos cover an area of 425 ha. Aesculus hippocastanum. all kinds of vehicles. Juglans regia. depending on its width. Photinia serrulata. etc. It is the traditional way (López 1988) and fulfils an aesthetical task: in dry countries the look and sound of water is much more appreciated than in those that do not lack rainfall. with a total length of 35 km. characterised by mechanisation and reduced manpower.(López y Malta 1988). dead trees. some estates adjacent to the avenues which were usually well watered.The 20th century In Spain as well as in the rest of Europe. horticultural crops) were neglected. The species represented are (in order of importance): Platanus hispanica. or six rows of trees at different spacing. and could add a recreational value. Morus nigra. At the same time. 92 . for example. Fraxinus angustifolia. enabling the farmers to obtain European funds. pyramidalis. In the last quarter of the century two main events affected the evolution of the Sotos. Therefore. paving. the result was the negligence of the maintenance of the trees for more than ten years. First of all. four. Spain joined the European Union in 1986. Some popular bars are scattered in the Sotos. some species (mainly poplars and limes) suffered a lot of decay: dead branches. They constitute interesting meeting points. Quercus robur. changed to dry farming. Unfortunately. was built in 1613 and still shows a large part of its former shape. Morus alba. This resulted in an increased emigration from the countryside to the big cities: fewer people were available to take care of non-intensive agricultural tasks. Paulownia tomentosa and Acer negundo. Robinia pseudoacacia. Populus nigra. Melia azederach. they are also the origin of important problems. Ulmus pumila. some traditional not funded crops (e. In 1997 the Technological Institute for Rural Development (Regional Government of Madrid) took charge of this network of avenues. but. the last century introduced sharp changes in sociological and economical circumstances. First of all.
led to the birth of this network of alleys and buildings. An avenue in the “Sotos”. They provide a large open space for tourism. not to be unworthy with the others still living” (Winthuysen 1990). Moreover. Man and trees in the ‘Sotos’: interaction Coming back to the origin and first development It was said before that the personal will of one man. People were allowed to enjoy these royal properties.Figure 3. they kept it in a fairly good state. buses and private cars constitutes a serious constraint for these uses in some streets. Philip II. in spite of being concerned with the government of the largest empire ever known. Thus there was a positive interaction among men and trees. and farmers were in charge of them more or less consciously. the farms. However. improved and enlarged it. There is a positive 93 . the economical interest of part of the trees contributed to their conservation. as tall as possible. The Sotos today The Sotos act as a link between the city. Emperor Charles V. recreation and environmental activities. the historical buildings and the industrial zone of Aranjuez. and. made such precise recommendations as “some poplars must be replaced in Aranjuez. which has allowed us to see them today. the traffic of trucks. as happened with Fernando VI and Carlos III. As his heirs were aware of the importance of their heritage.
Man-induced damages The bars and restaurants existing in the Sotos have sometimes invaded the space of the trees. Public infrastructure has affected important parts like the ‘Glorieta de las Doce Calles’. these factors can affect the vitality of the tree and Figure 4. but the effect of such decay. there exists a great number of factors of abiotic origin that cause severe damage to the Sotos of Aranjuez. The appearance of different fungi is not the cause.interaction between agricultural cultivation and trees: the avenues close to well-watered farms keep their trees in a very good condition. Pruning by vandals for firewood collection has also destroyed many trees. 94 . cycling. Occurrence of vandalism is not very important. considered an excellent stock of fuel (Figure 5). recreation. A restaurant “invading” the space of the trees. with the exception of repeated fires that constitute a serious problem. horseback riding. It is evident that public properties must be protected as carefully as private ones are (Figure 4). with partial destruction of its original design due to the construction of a busy road. This type of pruning causes a strong physiological decay. Abiotic damages As is the case of many other urban and periurban areas in the world. Apart from direct damage. affecting very valuable species such as Quercus robur. killing the trees sooner or later. Additional benefits of trees are to allow activities such as walking. and so forth.
the ornamental function of this kind of plantations. felling dead or heavily damaged trees and replanting afterwards with more tolerant genera: Celtis. and provokes decay and/or death in the majority of the planes living in Aranjuez (Tello et al. in every case. Morus. It is the most important disease affecting the trees of the ‘Sotos Historicos’. Sophora. 2000). Trunk injection with fungicides has been another control method tried. these trees have been subjected to very different management techniques. which is quite expensive (some trees are 30 or 40 meters high). which have obviously affected their health. and so forth. which is caused by the fungus Apiognomonia veneta. Drought has seriously damaged the more sensitive species such as poplars and limes. in those locations close to dry lands. Biotic damages The plane trees are highly affected by the disease called ‘anthracnose’. damaged the plantations in very particular cases due to former chemical waste dumping from small factories. but 95 . One of the possible treatments is sanitary pruning. Oak trees severely damaged by firewood collection. considering both its incidence and its intensity. which means an especially careful maintenance. but possibly effective in slowing the progress of the disease. has been kept in mind. make it more susceptible to other pathogens. for example. of course. The only solution has been.Figure 5. Throughout their long history. But. Soil pollution.
although much cheaper. only allowing the passage of agricultural and specially authorised vehicles. international and worldwide) have passed. no signs of Ceratocystis fimbriata (cancer stain) in these trees have been found. dramatic changes in the social and political situation affected the Sotos negatively. The interaction man-tree has had some different expressions in Aranjuez during the last four hundred years. mainly on Platanus. On the contrary. greatly disturbing the social scenario. the development of this idea with the contribution of farmers. man needs trees. Many wars (civil. After a careful study of the uses of the different streets it has been decided to cut down the traffic in most of them. This is the only way to achieve our goal: that trees. which were a real danger to people. One should not forget that. mainly anthropogenic. Conclusions In the last four centuries in Spain (and in Europe) the political frame has evolved from God’s right monarchy to more or less democratic monarchies. in the Spanish case.) is about 2. are less worrying and there is no need to control them. not too many millenniums ago we lived in the tops of them. A general inventory and mapping by means of a GIS has shown to be an outstanding tool to manage the whole and to store information on a daily basis. Obviously. the trees have remained. Drs. Great social and economical changes have occurred. Their incidence is low. will remain much after we disappear. previously damaged by other factors.5 million Euros. In the 20th century. Secondly. succeeding Spanish kings carried out the maintenance and improvement. But. Attacks by insects such as Corythuca ciliata. Pleurotus ostreatus. and restricted to individual decaying trees. Coriolopsis gallica. Finally. architectural elements. scientists and designers must be continuously in line with social evolution. year after year. Populus. pavements. Mateo-Sagasta and Tello carried out a comprehensive study of the health status of the trees. to a democratic monarchy. anticipating the effects of the harsh evolution we have to live with. century after century. at the moment it seems to have little effect. cyclists and horse-riders will be provided as much as possible (Figure 6). gardeners and architects from many European countries. Future development The first activities developed since 1998 have been the restoration of heavily damaged plantations. Nevertheless and luckily. A previous assessment of the total cost of the integral restoration of the Sotos (trees. 96 . several species of wood decay fungi affect many different tree species. and. etc. It is also worth mentioning Dutch elm disease that severely affects most of the elms in the Sotos. and designs made by us. however. known as Sycamore lace bug. Inonotus hispidus. Quercus and Tilia. facilities for pedestrians. A very first conception phase: the heir to the throne’s idea. to republics. showing that technicians. The most common in the ‘Sotos’ are Fomes fomentarius. In a later stage. Schizophyllum commune and Ganoderma spp.
Juan Bautista de Toledo y Felipe II. Jardines clásicos de España. Wilkinson Zerner C (1996). Madrid. Universidad Complutense. Rivera J (1984). Huertas y jardines de Aranjuez. Real Academia de la Historia.) Historia descriptiva del Real Sitio de Aranjuez.Figure 6. Madrid.) in Spain. CSIC. Aranjuez. Avenue with access restricted to non motorised traffic. Winthuysen X de (1990). Universidad de Valladolid. Doce Calles. Antiguos riegos marginales de Aranjuez. Redondo C & Mateo-Sagasta E (2000). Tello ML. arquitecto de Felipe II. Valladolid. Doce Calles/Real Jardín Botánico. López y Malta C (1988. Juan de Herrera. Terán M de (1949). Madrid. 97 . References López A (1988). Health status of plane trees (Platanus spp. Aranjuez. Journal of Arboriculture 26(5): 246-254. Akal.
Chapter 3 Functions and benefits of urban forests and trees 99 .
Kova & Golob 1993). One of the drawbacks is the private ownership of most forests and the fact that settlements are located in all suitable areas in the foothills an valleys.Multi-functionality in Urban Forestry – A Dream or a Task? Janez Pinat Biotechnical Faculty. The most important categories of open green space are agricultural land. of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources. operational strategy of management and development of co-operation between state forestry service and local municipality regarding urban forest management. from knowledge of the living and non-living environment to technological and sociological knowledge Key words: multi-functionality. SLO-1000 Ljubljana. inventories. the largest forest patch on Golovec hill was chosen. which together with sometimes steep slopes seriously compromises visitor access to Golovec urban forest. Ljubljana. nature understanding Introduction Due to economic growth and development the image of Slovenia has rapidly changed during recent years. The results show that the forests on Golovec hill are the most stable land use category. non-timber forest functions. Forests are divided into forest patches of different size and for applied research in the field of urban forestry. Together with economic development the awareness of the importance of urban forests is also growing (Golob 1993. parks and other. In the future urban forestry will have to deal with a very wide range of human activities. University of Ljubljana Vecna pot 83. Slovenia Abstract Ljubljana is the largest city (340. protection. as well as the analysis of temporal changes in land use. legislation. detailed silvicultural planning. For study purposes the evaluation of generally beneficial urban forests functions and roles was carried out. Dept. However their timber production role is decreasing and their non-timber producing functions are becoming more and more important. gardens. One of the most significant recent landscape changes is the construction of highway 101 .000) and capital of Slovenia. forests. Future work in the field of urban forestry should concentrate on the development of knowledge. urban forestry.
corridors through Slovenia. At the moment between 2/3 to 3/4 of the urban forests are privately owned. with special focus on the Golovec hill. The recently completed management plan for the Urban Forest Management Unit ‘Rast’. defines longterm and operational management planning in urban forests and operational management supervision in urban forests.either as urban forest owners or citizens. It is likely that this change will emerge especially in the Slovenian capital Ljubljana. . crossovers) the highway creates a sharp boundary for the city. as with the construction of the system of bypass highways around Ljubljana the borders of this space have been greatly changed. The municipality of Ljubljana is responsible for maintenance of public green space and public trees. and obligatory public presentations of different projects always enable various public interest groups to participate .Close-to-nature and multi-purpose management in accordance with the principles of protection of the environment and natural values of urban (and all other) forests regardless of ownership.free access to and movement in all forests regardless of ownership. Some interesting and important issues related to these documents are (Pirnat 2001): . elaborated by The Slovenian Forests Service. In spite of crossings (underpasses. after the ‘denationalisation’ this figure is expected to have increased by an additional 5 -10% (Pirnat 2001). All mentioned documents regulate management in the urban forests of Ljubljana.The Slovenian Forest Act (1993) . The urban forests of Ljubljana are regulated according to the following laws and plans: . . while the Slovenian Forests Service is responsible for the maintenance of urban forests. resulting in a defined townscape.The Forest Management Plan for the Forest Management Unit ‘Rast’ (1997-2006) These three documents have led to much better public participation. the biggest urban forest of Ljubljana.The Proclamation Act on Forests with Special Purpose in the city of Ljubljana (recently completed and to be adopted in this year) . Therefore the aim of the presented research was to provide an outlook of the forest patches in the townscape of Ljubljana. since the documents are publicly available.allocation of a category of forests with special purpose. being forests with significant ecological or social functions provides the Forests Service and municipality with a 102 . The matter of concern is in general the role of forests and trees in the urban area since the forest represents an existential quality in the life of people and animals in the urban environment.
503 ha around the city of Ljubljana should be proclaimed as urban forest. the largest city and capital of Slovenia.716 ha. northern and eastern direction and by a moor in southern direction. Since the MAB is not suitable for delineating urban forests. 103 . the border of Forest Management Unit ‘Rast’ slightly changed in the southern part due to the newly constructed highway. the present state of the forests and their actual role and significance. surrounded by hills in western. the temporal analysis of land use change has been carried out for the this area only. By means of GIS (Corson 1992. restrictions.- - - legal base for protection and specially adapted management in these forests. is situated in a basin along the river Ljubljanica. Since focus was especially on the forests of Golovec hill. extension regarding urban forests and education on urban forest functions for forest owners is a task of The Slovenian Forests Service. is stretching far into the rural surroundings especially in south-eastern direction. ArcView (ESRI 1996) and Idrisi (Eastman 1997). The management plan for the Forest Management Unit ‘Rast’ will guide management of the urban forests of Ljubljana. Also a financial compensation by the municipality to private owners due to limitations in management in urban forests is being prepared.491ha. the main constraints. A detailed survey was carried out on the 895 ha Golovec hill. In this way the border of real urban area is encircled much more logically. the municipality has accepted the decision and financial frame for systematic redemption of urban forests based on the offers of private owners. Methods Data on current land use were obtained from Ljubljana municipality sources and partly corrected by using aerial-photos. special forest management directives for adapted management are defined together with some limitations. however. an area of 1. on the basis of past development. The study area dealt with in this paper is therefore 8. deforestation in protected areas is not allowed and clear cutting as a way of normal forest management is prohibited. the forest patches within the stated circle were selected and analysed by area and spatial distribution. The municipality area border (MAB) includes an area of 27. general objectives and a strategy plan for adapted forest management were defined. This border. and is accepted as the most suitable area for urban forests in Ljubljana (Pirnat 2001). Study area Ljubljana. By means of two Geographical Information System software packages. The total residential population is about 340.000. Its elevation is 310 m above sea level.
99 1 – 2.19 1.03 Average area (ha) 655. Results Forests within study area Within the study area. No.49 110.69 46.11 % 77 % 23 % * Including scattered areas with forest trees and tree corridors. parks and other (see Table 1). 104 .33 29.38 38.14 69. i.83 0. yards.99 5 – 9.91 329.e. paved areas Agricultura l 4070 ha 70 % 2873 ha (33 %) Category and area of green space Forests * Gardens Water Playground Cemetery 1420 ha 24 % 8716 ha 117 ha 117 ha 81 ha 2% 2% 1% 5843 ha (67 %) 21 ha <1% Parks 17 ha <1% * Including scattered areas with forest trees and tree corridors All in all there are 62 forest patches larger than 1 ha.78 7.49 110. a suitable linkage in south-western direction and especially towards the north-east cannot be found (Pirnat 1997). like Golovec. The most important categories of green space are agricultural and forested land use.99 0. Non-open space Buildings. The number and area of individual forest patches*. Regretfully enough. Table 1.005 – 0.99 Total area (ha) 655. The data of recent (1997) land uses were also transferred into the Idrisi GIS environment which enabled comparison with historic data.46 12. Table 2. Roznik and the forests between the Roznik and the highway indicate certain ‘green corridor’ possibilities in NW-SE direction. thus representing a link between two neighbouring landscape sub-units. The areas of Golovec hill and Rοznik hill together account for 70% of the total (Golovec itself almost 47%) and the patches in other areas only make up 30%. The distribution of forest patches means additional trouble. the Polhov Gradec Mountains and the mountains between Ljubljana and the Litija basin. in study area (see Tables 2 and 3).41 73. Grad. water.41 67. Larger patches. 67% of the total area is green space. of patches 1 1 1 3 3 4 11 38 553 * Area class (ha) 400 – 1000 200 – 400 100 – 200 20 – 29. followed by gardens.91 329.41 22.42 4.99 3 – 4.99 10 – 19.Eastman 1997) the different historic (Franciscean cadastre from 1825) land uses were digitised. transferred into Idrisi GIS raster images and evaluated (determination of areas and spatial distribution of different land use categories). The areas of different land use categories (ha).
etc. on evaluation of needs and wishes of urban forest visitors. Present main land uses in the Golovec hill area in ha (Pirnat in press) Forests and shrubs 662. visitors. however.81 523 * 1419.00 1 L 100 – 200.64 No. Sometimes. Golovec Rožnik Grad Sava Podutik Zaj ja Scattered Total dobrava in city 32. evaluation of generally beneficial urban forest functions and roles. Golovec hill forms the largest urban forest patch in Ljubljana. what can be regarded as a serious drawback for recreational use.Table 3. Encircled by motorways and a railway on southern. Table 4.99 S 1 1 5 – 9.10 154. which beside the slopes.99 S 1 2 3 – 4. Another drawback for recreation is the presence of settlements all around the foothill and in the valleys.39 14% Settlements.005 – 0. Spatial distribution of urban forest patches and areas with tree vegetation* in Ljubljana towncape.04 2% Fields 13. western and northern side and by a highway on eastern side it can be well distinguished from the rest of Ljubljana’s urban and agricultural landscape.38 100% Golovec hill is not very high.13 334.02 52.65 10.31 8% Orchards 21.99 A 1 10 – 19.99 E 1 – 2. Current land uses are presented in Table 4.43 1% Other 2. and on spatial forest division according to the differentiated forest uses by various target groups (owners.08 < 1% Total 894. 105 .00 1 1 C 200 – 400. roads 74.99 * Including scattered areas with forest trees and tree corridors 1 2 2 8 22 489 * 5 14 Case study Golovec hill This applied research focused: on the development of guidelines for designating urban forests.00 2 20 – 29. Generally it is not very steep: nearly 2/3 of the hill has slopes with less than 35% inclination (see Table 5 for details) and long ridge on the top. seriously limits access into the forest.44 20 173. steep parts appear already in the foothill. of patches 22 15 11 14 10 400 – 1000.99 1 3 5 2 S 20 11 9 4 6 0.) who in one way or another express their need for urban forests.13 74% Meadows 121. situated between 286 and 450 m above sea level.79 615 1 1 1 3 3 4 11 38 553 Total area 662.
02 1.63 1.06 0. fields and meadows. They mostly were turned into meadows.14 0.24 0.00 Total 662.06 Field 7. Altitude class Relative frequency (%) 15 23 21 18 14 7 2 Cumulative relative frequency (%) 15 38 59 77 91 98 100 Relative Cumulative Slope relative inclination frequency frequency (%) (%) (%) 0-5 5-15 15-25 25-35 35-45 45-55 55-65 65-75 over 75 11 17 12 24 13 8 5 7 3 11 28 40 64 77 85 90 97 100 Slope aspect Relative frequency (%) 11 11 11 10 13 12 10 10 12 Cumulative relative frequency (%) 11 22 33 43 56 68 78 88 100 286-300 300-325 325-350 350-375 375-400 400-425 425-450 flat N NE E SE S SW W NW The comparison of historic land uses (Franciscean cadastre 1825) with current land uses (1997 land use survey) makes it possible to investigate the quantitative and qualitative changes in different types of land uses. Data on altitude.43 121.51 0. On the other hand some former forest also changed into other land uses.32 1.02 0.11 7.00 1825 Garden 0.11 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.31 0.23 0.92 3.22 0.18 0.60 5. some forest and also settlements.22 1.39 0.09 5.03 0.48 2.00 0.03 0.63 6.67 16. Beside stable forest areas most other forest developed from former pastures. 106 .82 1. The comparison of transition between land uses in 1825 (columns) and 1997 (rows) in the area of Golovec hill in ha (Pirnat in press). The area of fields is generally decreasing.00 0.96 0.18 0.25 0.18 12.26 0.08 2.04 13.Table 5. The spatial distribution.00 2.62 0.27 0.13 4.41 0.56 0.16 0. settlements.99 29. Table 6.21 0.55 0.00 Orchard 0.19 0.02 0.00 0.12 0.14 1. has changed. The pastures have disappeared completely.00 Settlement 0.08 4.79 0.15 0.12 0.00 0.22 Pasture 42.00 Meadow 6.00 0. however.01 0.01 0.00 0.92 52.92 4.00 0. Data for land use in year 1825 are given in columns and data for present situation (1997) are in rows.04 53.39 0.19 2.00 0. roads.73 0.07 7.02 0.94 1.51 18.41 0. mostly into meadows.86 13.00 Path 5.45 0.29 5.55 1. slope inclination and slope aspect classes (Pirnat in press).01 0. as most of them were turned into forest and some meadows and settlements.31 0.10 1.24 21.00 0. year land use forest field meadow garden orchard settlements roads paths water barren park bush Forest 600.00 0.69 0.02 2.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 23.00 0.02 0. paths and even an orchard.01 0. In the following cross-tabulationmatrix (Table 6) the comparison of transition of land use changes for Golovec hill is given.74 3.28 1 9 9 7 The total area of forests is nearly the same as it was in the beginning of the 19th century.
Thinning in the young pole stage. The most widespread tree species is European beech. which is closed to the general public (dark grey colour in Figure 1). The most important cultivation measures are: . The second unit is made up of areas which are not so interesting for recreation purposes either due to steep slopes or lack of maintained paths (middle grey colour in Figure 1). a cadastral district of the Karlovško predmestje with an area of 38. The section M2 was divided into three management units. but the level of economic utilisation is low for different reasons. the communities Vaccinio-Pinetum (20%). These forests are mainly privately owned.Of all land uses the settlement area increased with nearly 50 ha. and occasionally Alnetum glutinosae (3%) and Querco-Carpinetum (2%) also occur. Due to long-lasting human impact (gathering litter). The Sessile oak is also common. roads and paths increased. on average. mostly from former meadows. Planned silvicultural measures are adjusted to the timber production function and to other forest functions. The area of meadows also increased.young growth tending and planting. On brown soils. primarily from forests and meadows. Forest management section M2. and the Scotch pine and the Norway spruce are indicative for human impact.light grey colour in Figure 1). . merely 1m3/ha (Tavcar et al. ^ 107 . Each management unit was divided into the silvicultural units provided in Table 7.95 hectares was selected as an example of what detailed silvicultural planning could be like. the Blechno-Fagetum typicum and Blechno-Fagetum luzuletosum (75%) dominate. Other land use categories are small and their changes are relatively insignificant. The area of orchards. pastures and fields. forests. . 1997). The third unit is the zone above the rifle range in Rudnik. Multiple-purpose planning for urban forests The vegetation on Golovec hill is fairly uniform. which rest on carbonate slates and sandstone. fields and pastures.selective cutting in the pole stage. . The first unit consists of sub-sections in which the recreational function is of importance (in the vicinity of paths and roads . Therefore the anticipated annual cut is.removing of dead and dying trees. and . mostly from former forests.site preparation.
oak. Division into silvicultural units of selected forest management unit M2. Table 7.02 4.83 0.22 1.08 2.08 9.52 1. Management unit I Silvicultural Sub-units 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Description Spruce and beech pole stand with large beech trees Older beech and oak stand with a mixture of spruce Younger pole stage of oak with a mixture of beech False acacia. Sample forest section M2 with management and silvicultural units. and spruce stand Older pole stand of Scotch pine.Figure 1.92 3.44 9.79 38. hornbeam and chestnut stands Scots pine stand in a younger pole stage Older beech stand Trees around cultural heritage monument – a chapel Mixed old beech.95 II III 108 .40 1.40 0.25 3. beech and chestnut Older oak and beech stand with a mixture of spruce Black alder stand with a mixture of oak and hornbeam Closed area Non-forest Total forest area Area (ha) 1.
hydrological function. . is less important for most Ljubljana residents.to migrate from the suburban landscape to the city and back. Other forest functions can be regarded as more dynamic since our knowledge of them rapidly changes and so do our needs.with the exception of birds . for example. Examples are the biodiversity. .aesthetic function.biodiversity function.Natural and cultural heritage protection function.Protection of soils on steep and highly erodibile sites. and . . Therefore the eastern and south-eastern part of Golovec can be regarded a significant area for ensuring biodiversity in the urban forests of Ljubljana. moreover. is connected with the vicinity of towns (which is true practically of the whole area of Golovec). . recreation.health function. 109 . since they are linked to certain area conditions. except for the road leading to Orle. is linked with inclination and bedrock and the hydrological function with the vicinity of water sources. The biodiversity function Due to the construction of a motorway around Ljubljana.educational function. and the natural and cultural heritage protection function are characteristics of forests located in the direct vicinity of these objects. An analysis of the recreational use of this part of the city shows that this element of Golovec. The climatic and health function. .climatic function. a 450-meter long greenbelt above the tunnel through the hill Golovec is the sole natural connection making it possible for wild animals . Social forest functions: . Some of these functions can be defined as static. and . The protective function. aesthetic and educational functions which will be dealt with in detail.Beside timber production the following non-timber functions of the urban forest Golovec are recognised by above mentioned documents (Pirnat 2001a): Ecological forest functions: .recreation function.
.execution of silvicultural measures performed in the vicinity of habitats of rare and endangered species of wild animals should be carried out in strict adherence to the appropriate time of year. 110 .m. The recreation. to 19.m. they are dealt with together here for practical reasons and because of the similarity of measures involved.Conservation of so-called minority ecosystems or biotopes. from 8.preparation of recreation plans so that the above-mentioned areas are not included. Visitors were counted by forestry undergraduates at 24 possible entry points where paths or roads lead into the 386 293 290 Number of visitors 196 95 62 45 13 14 24 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22 1 8 9 11 0 33 33 16 14 0 0 1 8 50 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Entry point Figure 2.).00 p.00 a. The number of visitors at individual entry points per day (Osani 2001). .conservation of all sites and habitats of plants and wild animals included in the Red List of endangered species. The recreation function of the Golovec forests was evaluated by counting visitors on a (sunny) Sunday (7 May 2000. and . aesthetic and educational functions Although these functions are dealt with separately under the 1993 Forest act.Measures to ensure sustainability of the biodiversity function include: .
the forest should have a high maintenance intensity and should be well managed. 111 . . as a rule.forest. At all other entry points considerably fewer hikers were observed.steep slope. This is. and . The entry points were located along three most important roads or pathways linking the hill Golovec with Ljubljana: the road leading to Orle. erosion. mature forest. and which is intended for hikers. also an area where most conflicts arise. because these are. hidden and narrow. Difficulties and restrictions include: .it is of importance that an alternative pathway is available when major forest measures (e. In addition to motorists. and . The main group activity is cycling. so that all development stages are represented. On that day a total of 1. including natural regeneration.it is important that it is clear which part of the road is to be used by motorists and cyclists. and the pathway to the observatory on Golovec.signs and benches should be provided. less well known.g. .The recreation forest function is linked with maintenance and accessibility of pathways. The majority was recorded at four entry points (see Figure 2). and lack of natural regeneration).excessive stress ( e. The findings indicate that maintenance and accessibility of pathways are considered important by most visitors. Thus it can be concluded that western parts of the hill Golovec are the most appropriate for recreation purposes as this area has adequate pathways leading right into the heart of Ljubljana. this is not necessarily a problem). felling and regeneration) take place. however. This is particularly true of the hill Golovec. the most frequent visitors are hikers and cyclists followed by couples and families (Osani 2001). Thus we can conclude the following: . and an adequate number of trees of exceptional dimensions.private ownership (formally. young forest.g. . which is regarded as rather steep for recreational use outside pathways.608 hikers were counted. .Rather difficult and neglected access. the road which links the suburb of Rudnik with the suburb of Štepanjsko naselje via Golovec. compacted soil. damage to trunks. . and lead up the hill past backyards and individual houses.
In this way these make it possible for the citizens of Ljubljana to have one of those rare links with a life cycle which they can observe from birth to death. all existing forest patches ought to be preserved.Discussion Small areas of urban forest. This becomes/remains the task of urban forestry. selection cutting. in a close-to-nature way (site conditions with appropriate tree species should never be neglected in planning). In larger forest patches the application of appropriate tools will have to enable the implementation of a more emphasised recreational and aesthetic role of the forest and to stress their significance for local habitats. . The linkage between tree corridors along the Ljubljanica River and along streets and parks will thus remain an important link in the green chain (Ahern 1995) of the Ljubljana townscape. An urban forest must preserve features of natural ecosystems in terms of structure and functioning on account of its sustainability and stability. In the field of management of urban forests future work should concentrate on the following topics: . howeer. . It is essential that relationships between development phases are balanced as much as possible and interlinked within the whole area.Development of adapted management in urban and suburban forests on operational level with an emphasis on small forest remnant patches and rare and important biotopes (maintenance of biodiversity) in urban and suburban landscapes. and because a connection with a natural ecosystem is of vital importance for the physical. The natural tree structure should be conserved in all forest areas.Detailed silvicultural planning should focus on tending objectives that will enable urban forests to fulfil the expressed need for social and ecological functions of urban forests (small scale measures carried out in winter time. as an ecosystem rather that artificial park.Since the unsuitable ownership structure in urban forests (high number of private owners with a small forest ownership) represents a serious obstacle to long-term 112 . Silvicultural measures . chosen trees with special habitats). . This can be achieved with the development of remote sensing based inventory and management methods in urban forestry.Development of co-operation between state forestry service and local municipality regarding urban forest management (from long-term strategic plans to detailed operational plans and supervising operational management on different levels). psychological and spiritual stability of visitors. especially forest remnants in an urban landscape are under strong development pressure all the time.from stand tending to arboricultural measures .will have to be emphasised. If there is a wish for more attractive residential areas. The structure and functioning of urban forests should be maintained.
this is happening to the basic human existential cell . death take place quite often outside the family. Therefore. The same is also true for the knowledge and understanding of natural phenomena and principles which the postindustrial society tends to neglect and forget. beauty and success has been created. and. and any departure from this ideal means. . in fact. birth. An attempt is made to establish a link with individual developmental stages of man’s attitude to the (urban) forest and the development of urban forestry. power. Moreover it should provide long-term financing for pre-emption of urban forests and for adapted forest management. at the end. a different level of awareness and of relationships has been developed from that of the rural society of the recent past. which is important since public interest in participation in management of urban forests is increasing.One of the future tasks of urban foresters also is the development of unused potential of forests for recreation and education. These points are. a survey of the man’s development as a whole and of his everyday decisions and doubts. a few points are presented here which will hopefully make each of us consider the issue and search for an answer. In today’s urban society. has lost a great deal of humanity and also a link with nature. it is becoming increasingly difficult for us to understand and accept a number of principles governing man’s physical. A cult of youth. Similarly.oriented forest management it is very important that the municipality supports the decision for systematic redemption of privately-owned urban forests. The question cannot be answered unequivocally once and for all. So a question justly arises as to what (urban) forests can offer to (urban) inhabitants of the planet Earth. Private ownership of urban forests is a potential source of conflicts between private and public interests. Today. Instead. a failure. Society. psychological and spiritual development. in fact. a great part of education and work. In this way urban forestry will help to establish society sharing an interest in urban forestry (Pirnat in press).the family. which is mainly aiming at a higher production level. Human development versus (urban) forest development Developmental stages of the forest Young growth Thicket Thin pole Younger pole stage Older pole stage Old stand Forest regeneration Stages in a person’s life New-born Child Early adolescence Late adolescence Adulthood Early old age Late old age 113 .
Instead. Child: The environment experts an influence on a child.New-born baby: The environment ( . Early old age: The environment exerts an influence on an old person. who reacts to it but this is of no consequence.. Early adolescence: The environment influences a teenager who reacts strongly in return Late adolescence: The teenager has no interest at all in the environment. One can clearly compare certain stages of man’s physical development with developmental stages of the forest: 114 .. Late old age: he environment is of no importance any more. all what matters is internal wealth and the internal harvest.. ?) exerts an influence on a baby (→ ) who cannot react as yet. Adulthood: The time of life when a balance is established between the influence of the environment and an adult’s reaction to it. he is interested only in himself. who react in a certain way but this response has no effect on the environment.
A person’s motive (idea) is his or her response to the environment. Man’s psychological development Instinct Impulse Passion Motive Wish Intention Decision . . sleep).Fear: The forest is a dangerous place. . which makes ideas or impressions possible. which influences the way he or she acts.A person’s instinct is a basic and ubiquitous feeling.A person’s decision is the final act which governs actions. Old stand: early old age.- Young growth: new-born baby. Forest in regeneration: late old age. but which is not yet present at the level of impulse.A person’s wish expresses the presence of his or her will for a certain action.Survival: Despite man’s fear of the forest.Hunting: The forest is a source of food and it also provides an opportunity for asserting oneself. Older pole stage: adulthood. it provides shelter in case of great danger. although it is not physically experienced.Passion is a person’s instinct at a psychological level. .A person’s intention shows the development of his or her will. . . .g. 115 . from a wish to a decision. Man’s spiritual (in)balance Trust Greed Modesty Arrogance Courage Anger Enthusiasm Laziness Love Lust Gratitude Envy Faith Greediness Man’s rise and fall can be best illustrated with a symbolic representation of seven virtues and seven vices in terms of the polarities of good and evil. which is felt within. Thin pole: early adolescence.A person’s impulse affects the way he or she acts and it is physically experienced (e. food. Thicket: child. . The development of man’s attitude to the forest Fear Survival Hunting Timber production Other functions Multiplepurpose use Sustainability . . Younger pole stage: late adolescence.
Benefits of (urban) forests Wood Other goods Water. site and plant communities) and . prayer At different stages in a person’s life.knowledge of special features of planning and management required for urban forests with all their functions and roles.Multiple-purpose use: This is a concept of how to ensure as many functions of the same forest at the same time. which can be summed up by the following categories: Knowledge of living and non-living nature: . Fields of work of urban forestry Non-living Flora nature Fauna Forestry profession Forest owners Politicians General public Urban forestry deals with a very wide sphere of human activity. .Sustainability: This is a method for ensuring all of the above mentioned functions over a longer period of time.Timber production function: The forest provides wood. air Diversity Recreation Amenity Meditation.knowledge of geographic information systems (GIS). soil.Knowledge of fundamental natural givens of space (geology. Sociological knowledge: 116 .Other functions: The public is becoming aware that the forest is much more than a source of wood. Technological knowledge: . which is a source of comfort and safety (house. tools. . firewood).. different benefits of an urban forest are of interest. The reader may determine from her or his own experience what the main temptations are to which man’s attitude to the forest is subjected. .Knowledge of remote sensing techniques and .
or for this very reason..and of a link between these needs and nature or different needs at different stages in a person’s life and . In: Mestni in primestni gozd-naša skupna dobrina. IDRISI for Windows. Kova M & Golob S (1993).). Corson R J (1992). Eastman J R (1997). BF. politicians. User’s Guide.solid knowledge of basic principles of psychology.Solid knowledge of man’s development and of his physical. -V: Mestni in primestni gozd .. Greenways as a planning strategy. Ljubljana.. Nartovanje v gozdovih zelenega pasu Ljubljane. schoolchildren etc. Redlands. Inc. Version 2. demands of this job should pose a challenge rather than an unattainable goal. ROOTS Digitizing System . Clark University.naša skupna dobrina. psychological and spiritual needs . Skillman. owners. Urban forestry is probably beyond the creative capacity of an individual. ArcView GIS Understanding GIS. Franciscean cadastre (1825).Diplomska naloga. Decision Images. pedagogy and communications (public relations.0. Osani A (2001. IDRISI Production. Worcester.125. Zbornik republiškega posvetovanja v okviru tedna gozdov: 66-79. Hence it requires co-operation of a team of professionals.Zbornik republiškega posvetovanja v okviru tedna gozdov. Oddelek za gozdarstvo. 117 . Cadastre for the cadastral communities in the study area. Nevertheless. general public. References Ahern J (1995). V: Landscape and Urban Planning 33(1-3): 131153. ESRI (1996).User Manual.) Mnogonamensko gospodarjenje na primeru Golovca. ZDIT in IGLG. Ljubljana: 106 . Gozd in drevje v mestni krajini Ljubljane. California. Golob S (eds) (1993).
The Forest Management Plan for the Forest Management Unit ‘Rast’. Pirnat J (1997). Printing Office of the European Communities. Razpored gozdov v ljubljanski urbani krajini. The Slovenian Forest Act (1993). Slovenian input to the questionnaire on city profiles. Unpublished manuscript. In: Forrest M. Pirnat J (2001). Vidmar A & Vidmar J (1997).Oven P.Zbornik gozdarstva in lesarstva 53: 159-182. Ljubljanski mestni gozd. Ljubljana. Slovenia State-of-the-art-report.Research and development in urban forestry in Europe: 254-266. developed within the framework COST E12 Action (unpublished). Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry. Luxembourg. Pobuda za razglasitev ljubljanskih mestnih gozdov za gozd s posebnim namenom. The development of urban forestry in Slovenia – a key study of Ljubljana. Brus R & Pirnat J (1999). Konijnendijk CC & Randrup TB (Eds) COST Action E12 .. 118 . Pirnat J (in press). Tavar M. Urbanistica.
It is one of the rare enterprises where the effects of rapid urbanisation and population increase can be noticed in terms of varying demands of society. 119 . Key words: changing social demand. In this study. the balance sheet of the BFE and the demand change indicators in the management plans were analysed. In the forest. the BFE is currently focused on producing recreation and water collection services while considering timber production as a secondary use in its management plan. In the research presented here. finance of forest enterprises * This research was supported by the Research Fund of the University of Istanbul. With an increasing population. Distribution and sale of water. water production also takes place. the water production objective was not primarily included in the forest management plans.which is located nearby the Faculty of Forest.was chosen as case study. Istanbul. forest functions. Recreation management was also carried out at a small-scale level during this period. Project Number: B-1220/02082001. has moved out of the BFE. using the reservoirs and aqueducts that were constructed during the Ottoman Empire Era. however. Turkey Abstract Istanbul is one of the heavily populated major cities in Turkey. In the early establishment years of the enterprise. Faculty of Forest. Considering the importance of non-timber values. people’s demands from forests in Istanbul also changed. During the early establishment period of the enterprise. timber production was the primary objective. the Bahçeköy Forest Enterprise (BFE) . University of Istanbul and within the boundary of Belgrad Forest .Results of Changing Social Demands in Istanbul Bahçeköy Forest Enterprise: a case study* Ömer Eker & Kenan Ok University of Istanbul. Department of Forestry Economics 80895 Bahçeköy.
82 percent of Turkey’s total population. The forest enterprises in Istanbul. therefore. Many reforms have been observed firstly in Istanbul. have drawn attention for pioneering responses to the new social demands in comparison to enterprises in Anatolia. including new social demands on the forest. five different management plans were drawn up beginning from 1937. According to the results of the 1927 census. the population of Istanbul accounted for 5. ORKÖY and MP. OGM has 241 forest enterprises. . a model coppice forest management plan and plans for the management of recreation sites were made. the General Directorate of Afforestation and Erosion Control (AGM). Except for 1927-1950.The BFE is simultaneously responsible for the management of the forest functions: water. These enterprises are owned by the state and carry out their activities under market rules and related legislation.Reasons for the choice of Bahçeköy Forest Enterprise as study subject The Ministry of Forestry is responsible for forestry activities in Turkey. The reasons for the choice of the Bahçehöy Forest Enterprice as study subject can be explained as follows: . the population of Istanbul has increased faster than the population of Turkey. Although it lost capital-city status at the beginning of the Turkish Republic. The BFE is rare among forest enterprises in Turkey for having a history of responding to a variety of demands. timber raw material.The BFE is located within the boundary of the biggest city in Turkey. These general directorates also have sub-organisations at the local level called enterprises in OGM and agencies called ‘Head-Engineerings’ in AGM. social. recreation. Istanbul’s population growth rate has been higher than that for Turkey as a whole. . it continues to be the centre of economic. In addition. Forestry activities have been carried out under the General Directorate of Forest (OGM). scientific research. For the management of the forests within the boundaries of the BFE. As seen in Table 1. and wildlife. Istanbul. Istanbul has been the capital of both the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires during its history.46 percent in the 1995 census. Hunting and Wildlife (MP) of Turkey. This growth in population is closely related to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation in the Istanbul Region.The BFE is the oldest enterprise among the 241 forest enterprises in Turkey. This proportion increased to 13. 120 . and cultural activity. the General Directorate of Forest and Rural Relations (ORKÖY) and the General Directorate of National Parks.
3 25.2 12.46 Census Years Population of Turkey Population of Istanbul 1927 1950 1960 1970 1980 1985 1990 1995 13 648 000 20 947 183 27 754 820 35 605 176 44 736 957 50 664 458 56 473 035 62 526 000 794 444 1 166 477 1 882 092 3 019 032 4 741 890 5 842 985 7 309 190 8 417 000 Methodology Unfortunately.48 10. comprehensive demand analyses have not been carried out for the forest enterprises in Turkey. the city’s population grew rapidly due to migration.94 13. analysis of balance sheets are also included in this study. these decisions about land allocation and resource management can be accepted as indicators of social demand that are targeted to be satisfied in the planning process. the income of the enterprise may increase or decrease. however.6 13. Large-scale construction projects were undertaken during this period. Therefore. an attempt has been made to introduce changes in social demand in light of forest management plans prepared for the Belgrad Forest.5 28. In this study.2 25.5 32.Table 1.56 6. After the conquest of Istanbul by the Turks in 1453.8 61. in compliance with management plans. The forests are managed.1 23.1 15.7 Population Growth Rate Between Censuses in Istanbul (%) 46. which are taken according to these plans.78 8. management plans have effects on profit or loss in the balance sheet of the enterprise. Population and population growth rates in Istanbul and Turkey.59 11.53 12. In order to see the actual financial structure of the BFE. The decisions on targets and assumptions of planners and managers are substituted for actual demand analyses. Income-cost combinations of the enterprise are affected by the management plans. Therefore. Population Growth Rate Between Censuses in Turkey (%) 53. Management Plans include the fundamental decisions that affect the financial structure of an enterprise. This caused 121 .82 5. Due to the decisions. however. A brief history of the Belgrad Forest and the BFE During the Byzantine Era the Belgrad Forest was used for both timber and water sources. It was during the Ottoman Era. creating a large demand for forest products based on timber raw material.2 Proportion of Istanbul in Turkey's Population (%) 5.3 60.4 57. that the forest was utilised in an intensive way.0 10.
The Sular Idaresi was the first organisation responsible for protecting the Belgrad Forest. During the construction of Yeni Bent in 1839. the Belgrad Forest was put under protection again. fuel wood and other timber material for the army and city. in 1857 the first Forest School. which is responsible for the management of the Belgrad Forest at present. During this development process. immigrants from that region settled in the forest. the BFE. therefore. and Yeni Bent (1839) reservoirs were chronologically constructed in the 17th. Between 1554 and 1564 existing waterways were extensively repaired and new aqueducts were established in order to provide water for the increasing needs of Istanbul city. Kömürcü Bent (1620). Kirazl1 Bent (1818). Belgrad Forest was given ‘State Forest Enterprise’ status for the first time. which had been established that same year. This team carried on working under the umbrella of Istanbul Forest Head-Engineering. 18th. with the beginning of World War I heavy tree cutting occurred in order to provide railway-ties. which is attached to OGM. was established as a Model Enterprise (Eker 1997). in 1858 Land Act. and 19th centuries. The 19th century is the period when efforts to establish a forest organisation by the Ottomans began. however. Strict protection measures within the boundaries of Belgrad Forest followed this action. By an act passed on November 12th. The village founded by these immigrants got the name ‘Belgrad Village’. After the military expedition of Suleyman the Magnificent to Belgrade in 1521. Valide Sultan Bendi (1796). and in 1870 Forest Regulations. After the withdrawal of the occupying powers. but it was not possible to repair the damage done in the forest. In 1894 an act was passed to remove the inhabitants of Belgrad Village to an area outside the forest because of the damage they were causing to the hydrologic function of the forest. The level of tree cutting continued to increase during the sovereignty period of the occupying powers between 1918 and 1923. other reservoirs and aqueducts were also repaired. 1926. In 1949. In order to respond to the requirements of the city for water. became known as ‘Belgrad Forest’. Topuz Bendi (1750). 122 . In 1575. In 1914. and pools and partial responsibility for the forest was given to a water organisation called Sular Idaresi (Water Administration). the protection of the forest was taken from Sular Idaresi and given to a team consisting of a forest engineer and some supporting work forces. 1924 forest protection organisations were strengthened and the forest care operation for Belgrad Forest was given to the existing Forest High School nearby. Büyük Bent (1724). but a year later this enterprise was closed.degradation of the forest. responsibility for protecting existing waterways. aqueducts. The forest. Ayvat Bendi (1765). With a law passed on May 26th. In 1839 the General Directorate of Forestry was established.
it was stated that special care must be given not to cause negative effects on the reservoirs and aqueducts supplying water to the city. the total growing stock was calculated to be 220. 11.4 m³/year annual increment. Amount and Shares of the Areas Concerning Non-Timber Use in the 1937 Plan (OGM 1937).6 0. 1003 m³/year (45. while responding to the education and research needs of the Faculty of Forest. 1937 Management Plan Efforts to clean up the heavy damage done both at the beginning of the 20th century and before and for improving the forest can be seen in the 1937 Management Plan. Besides.35 Percentage in Total Area (%) 28. In addition. 123 . 28.15 92. which was formerly known as Forest High School. In this plan. During the preparation of the 1937 Plan. Apart from these plans a model coppice forest management plan was also prepared. Strict measures were taken to protect the forest. Approximately. According to records of the 1937 Plan.05 568.1 According to the forest inventory which was made for the preparation of 1937 Plan.5 1. production of timber raw material which would provide economic benefit was also targeted in this management plan. The total area was 4 919.20 80. Table 2.3 44. out of 2. five management plans for different periods have been drawn up to adjust utilisation from the Belgrad Forest.5 % of the forest area was allocated as „protected forest“ status due to heavy tree cuts made in recent years and this area was taken out of timber raw material production.00 2 179.5 hectares in the 1937 Plan.Utilisation of the Belgrad Forest according to management plans Until now.317 m³ and the growing stock per hectare was found to be 44. University of Istanbul.78 m³. 56 % of forest area was allocated for timber production.58 %) was decided as allowable cut. Forest Land Use Type Water Collection Protected Forest Scientific Recreational Wildlife Protection Total Area (ha) 1 424.95 14. some silvicultural interventions to repair the forest were stressed in the plan.8 1. allocations for the aimed purposes in Table 2 were made. and the rivers that joined in the Ka1thane watershed.9 11.200.9 % of the area was allocated for water collection purposes.
Amount and Shares of the Areas Concerning Non-Timber Use.30 1 985.47 While no new decision was made about scientific and wildlife functions of the forest in the 1949 Management Plan. it was estimated that total growing stock was approximately 256.1949 Management Plan The second management plan for the Belgrad Forest was prepared in 1949.5 % of the whole forest. diseased trees to improve the quality of the forest were carried out in the area. It was decided that the protection measures taken according to the 1937 Plan would also continue in the second management plan. an area of 70 hectares was allocated for the establishment of ‘Wildlife Production Area’. In 1954.5 hectares to 5. The area allocated for functions other than timber production is approximately 37. In addition.294. no decision to yield timber as timber raw material was made. Table 3. an area of 38 hectares was allocated for construction of the Atatürk Arboretum. in the 1949 Plan (OGM 1949). thoughts of allocating some protected forest areas to the water production area and narrowing the boundaries of areas for recreational purposes did draw the attention.76 37. When this is examined.00 40. However.65 Percentage in Total Area (%) 33.35 166. Although the total growing stock increased during this management period. areas nearby Valide Sultan Bendi. Yeni Bent and Neet Suyu were designated for picnicking in the Belgrad Forest. Forest Land Use Type Water Collection Protected Forest Recreational Total Area(ha) 1 779. During the application of the 1949 Management Plan. 124 .1 hectares.884 m³ according to inventory data. As seen by the comparison of Table 2 and Table 3 the amount of protected areas for water production increased in the 1949 Plan.10 0. it can derived that some areas nearby the forest were added to the boundaries of the Belgrad Forest. During the preparation of the 1949 Plan.61 3. Therefore. These allocations were realised outside the decisions of the 1949 Management Plan. the total area increased from 4. some silvicultural interventions requiring removal of weak.919.
83. The objectives of allocating an area of 205. the entire forestland is allocated to different forest functions. In the 1971-1990 Plan. it is observed that compartments in the area distribution table were not recorded in detail. it was decided that 49.43 ha. Information related to wildlife production areas was not part of the 1971-1990 Plan (OGM 1971).21 ha areas would be allocated for recreation.73 hectares for recreation and 56. the total growing stock was 604 343 m³. etc. 125 . and 84 were re-planned for the purpose of special coppice forest management. Before this period ended. The functions and the amount of areas devoted to each are given in Table 4.1955 Model Coppice Forest Management Plan In the 1937 Management Plan the compartments which were numbered as 82. 1965-1984 and 1971-1990 Management Plans The first management plan following the 1939 and 1949 Plans was prepared for the 1965-1984 time period. allowable cut in the forest increased to 1. was drawn up for the period of 1990-1999. The 1971-1990 Plan included a record allocated 36.64 ha and 56. a new management plan including the 1971-1990 period was also implemented. In the 1965-1984 Plan. According to data which was taken from the 1965-1984 Plan. 1990-1999 Management Plan The last forest management plan. In the 1965-1984 Plan. this increased to 714 558 m³.247 m³ and 18.3 hectares for coppice forest management can be explained as follows: . and . In this plan. wildlife production. which is called the ‘functional management plan’.47 % of the total growing stock. 103. beans.094 m³.. Optimal allowable cut in the 1965-1984 and 1971-1990 Management Plans were calculated as 14.To provide fuel wood and raw material for the production of charcoal for local villagers. When these two plans are compared with the former plans.to supply wooden stakes to the villagers for supporting agricultural crops such as tomatoes.to establish an experimental model coppice forest for the students of the Faculty of Forest (OGM 1955). .21 hectares for the Atatürk Arboretum. and the Atatürk Arboretum (OGM 1964a and 1964b).
781 m³.64 5 319. balance sheets of forest enterprises reflect the financial results of their activities. In 1999 the Sariyer Forest Districts which formerly was attached to the Directorate of Istanbul Forest Enterprise became part of the BFE. the balance sheets of the BFE dating back to its establishment in 1949 could not all be found. Some results of collected balance sheet data covering 1990-2000 are given in Table 5. In the past ten years while the average general administration cost was 11.10 1.69 Percentage in Total Area (%) 26. the BFE artificially started to have profits after the addition the Sariyer Forest District. in Table 5. Balance sheet data of the BFE (1990-2000) As mentioned in the Methodology section.083. Adjusted real values are shown in column 3 and 5. 1990). Therefore.16 2 248. Annual increment is 18.44 42. Unfortunately. In column 2 and 4 of Table 5 nominal values of general administration costs and profit/loss data including 1990-2000 period are shown.182 m³. base 1963=100.26 12. According to data of the forest inventory for the preparation of the 1990-1999 Plan. the level of growing stock increased to 1. 126 . Forest Land Use Type Water Collection Erosion Control Scientific Recreational Wildlife Protection Total Area(ha) 1 406. which was not the case with the former plans. 100% of the forest area is allocated for non-timber production objectives. in the 1990-1999 Plan (OGM. Between 1990-1998 the enterprise always incurred losses. Only cutting to maintain the health of the forest is allowed in the forest area and timber production for timber raw material is not accepted as a primary objective.95 100 The sum of functional use areas is equal to the total area of the Belgrad Forest.25 17.66 910.193 TL (Turkish Liras). these values in column 2 and 4 were adjusted to real values with help of Price Indices from the Istanbul Chamber of Commerce.06 103.1 m³ which is equal to 34 % of the total annual increment in the forest. Amount and Shares of the Forest Functions.Table 4. the BFE only had profit in the last two years.189. Because of the existing high inflation rate in Turkey.17 651. It was decided that the allowable cut would be 6. Therefore.
and water which can be measured in monetary terms are not recorded separately.083. Trends of growing stock and allowable cuts can be seen in Figure 1. However.781 m³ and 204. 10.0185 euros in 2000. historically.3 ha area which was allocated as coppice forest for the production of fuel wood and wooden stakes was entirely converted to ‘high forest’. can not be reflected in the balance sheets. water. General Trends of Forest Functions for the BFE When the management decisions in the records from the Belgrad Forest are examined it is understood that the forest has been managed with the possibilities of supplying production of timber raw material. The need of villagers for fuel wood decreased as they found alternative fuel sources and the demand for wooden stakes totally disappeared.317 m³ and 44. scientific research and wildlife. trends in these numbers can not be followed. The main revenues of enterprises are based on timber sales. Nonmonetary benefits such as scientific research and erosion control. General Administration Costs (TL) 174 429 640 000 140 268 302 250 75 056 398 000 54 192 184 057 21 499 505 000 11 338 638 725 7 808 626 000 3 963 079 645 2 309 775 700 1 382 782 694 1 022 378 422 Adjusted General Administration Costs (TL) 11 269 13 929 10 709 13 051 9 238 8 360 10 823 12 111 10 958 10 965 12 368 Profit or/Loss (TL) 1 072 856 250 102 361 208 250 -53 318 103 259 -44 130 320 100 -5 255 752 000 -8 352 941 790 -2 113 054 500 -4 808 701 945 -11 071 972 -353 810 134 -800 014 776 Adjusted Profit or Loss (TL) 69 10 165 -7 608 -10 628 -2 258 -6 159 -2 929 -14 695 -53 -2 805 -9 678 Years 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 In the accounting system of forest enterprises in Turkey values such as timber. Revenues which are gained from uses other than timber sales are put together under the title ‘other revenues’.64 m³/ha) since 1937. Balance Sheet Data of the BFE (1990-2000). it is understood that the 205. However. This is caused by the industrialisation and urbanisation which occurred 127 .78 m³/ha to the level of 1. recreation. recreation. In fact. the production level of timber did not increase compared with the growing stock. Therefore. it is observed that the development of each use has been realised as follows: .Levels of total and unit area growing stocks which are the indicator of production ability of the forest from the view point of timber raw material have five times increased (from 220.000 Turkish Liras (TL) equalled 0.Table 5.
However. however. especially in recent years. . 322. in Istanbul and its surroundings. Currently. but it sells the water and collects the revenues of it.The amount of land for recreational purposes within the Belgrad Forest has continuously been increased. Therefore. was taken from the BFE and has been given to the Head-Engineering of General Directorate of National Parks. Bread has a great importance in Turkish dietary custom. revenues gained from recreation are not reflected on the balance sheets of the BFE.107 persons in the year 2000. 128 . As also seen from the studies (Pehlivanolu (1986). Trends of growing stocks and allowable cut. Thus. Çalayan (1999) and Destan (2000)) which were prepared for the Belgrad Forest. The Belgrad Forest was visited by an average of 890. Hunting and Wildlife. it is not possible to say that social demand for fuel wood produced by the BFE has entirely disappeared. it is understood that a limited demand for fuel wood continues. Management of recreational areas. Therefore. the demand for recreation has continuously increased.128 in 1990. water produced by the Belgrad Forest is distributed by ISKI. .004. However. ISKI is only in charge of the distribution of water. Consumer demand has increased for bread baked in ‘wood heat’. an organisation attached to the Municipality of Metropolitan Istanbul.591 persons per year between 1990-2000.The importance of water resources in the Belgrad Forest for Istanbul has been increasing for five hundred years.6 million/ m³ of water to Istanbul (Destan 2000). At present. To ensure the water supply forests nearby the reservoirs and aqueducts were managed according to the water production function by the BFE.Growing Stock per hectare m 3/ha 1200000 250 200 150 100 50 0 1937 1949 1965 1971 1990 Growing Stock m3 20000 Allowable cut m3 1000000 15000 800000 600000 400000 5000 10000 200000 0 1937 1949 1965 1971 1990 0 1937 1949 1965 1971 1990 Figure 1. the Belgrad Forest supplies 2.5 hectares of the forest is used for recreation. While the number of visitors per year for recreational purposes was 630. it increased 63% and reached 1. no share of the income is added to the balance sheet of the BFE.
Therefore. deer have been bred in the wildlife production area.. Therefore. there is no indication of these new activities. According to data for the year 2001. these activities are carried out by ISKI. 129 . Recreation also supports commercial activities adjacent to the forest.370 members of the arboretum who pay 200 million TL per year as a membership fee. the BFE has lost an important source of revenue. Increasing recreational demand for the Belgrad Forest generates revenues in the form of entry fees for MP. New commercial activities. but it did not decrease the enterprise’s administration costs. Results and discussion The demands of society related to the BFE moved from timber raw material to nontimber functions of the forest. water and recreation serve other organisations. In order to protect water quality and quantity. the BFE sacrifices some of its revenues from timber production.Within the boundaries of the Belgrad Forest. it might be said that there is a problem in terms of arranging the transfer of the recreational areas. The collection of recreation revenues by MP may not cause any problem when the organisation’s responsibilities for management and protection of the forest are considered. In the other sections of the Belgrad Forest scientific and educational activities of the Faculty of Forest are continuing. However. management of this area was given to MP as well. there are 4. Although there is not a formal agreement between ISKI and BFE on the distribution and sale of water collected in the Belgrad Forest. By a regulation which was recently passed. Of these functions. . In addition. This shows that either the transfer of works related to recreational sites were improperly conceived or the BFE has found new activities which would cause an increase in its general administration costs. general administration costs of the BFE have not decreased and BFE has experienced continuing budget deficits. Demand for wildlife areas is rising. Concern for the Atatürk Arboretum is rising. transfer of recreational areas to MP caused a decrease in BFE’s revenues. However.The Atatürk Arboretum supplies both scientific and cultural services for both the Faculty of Forest and people living in Istanbul. such as selling food. and picnic materials appeared as recreational use of the forest increased. the management of the Atatürk Arboretum was given to the Directorate of the Forest Research Institute of 0stanbul. The transfer of Atatürk Arboretum has caused the enterprise to lose of an important source of prestige. However. The BFE can not obtain any revenue from water production activities. sports equipment. A rapidly decreasing wildlife population has increased the importance of this service.
The BFE must. but instead an organisation which makes no contribution in terms of the management and protection of the forest is responsible. The ways of reflecting non-monetary forest functions in the balance sheets of enterprises should be investigated. School of Agriculture and Forest Sciences University of Wales. (In Turkish) 130 . benefit. at least. (In Bulgarian) Eker Ö (1997). Bangor. institutional regulations to improve this situation have not been realised yet. MScthesis. Destan S (2000). urbanisation and industrialisation may cause different problems for each of the other 240 forest enterprises in Turkey in the future. Within the boundaries of the area the BFE is not responsible for revenues that could be gained from water collection. which is facing a worsening financial situation. the enterprise. Management Plan of Istanbul Belgrad State Forest. References Çalayan AY (1999). will struggle to manage the increasingly important forest. Revision Plan of Istanbul Belgrad State Forest. MSc-thesis. the enterprise would face financial problems due to its decreasing revenues. Otherwise. Unfortunately. population increase. get the opportunity costs of timber production. For this reason. the financial sources of the enterprises in Turkey should be revised to adapt themselves to the developing new situations. University Of Istanbul. OGM (1937). Istanbul. The economics of multiple use of forest with special reference to Turkey. As seen in the BFE case study. scientific and educational research are not reflected in the balance sheet of the enterprise. which is forgone in order to increase the quality and quantity of water production. organisation and responsibility of forest enterprises must be redefined in compliance with changing social demands. the definition of production.Increasing demand for forest functions such as erosion control and. As a result. Sofia. Therefore. Bulgaria. Management and functional characteristics and assessment of forest ecosystem in forest management activities. PhD-thesis. Determining the features of recreational demand in the Belgrad Forest (In Turkish). (In Turkish) OGM (1949).
Model Coppice Forest Management Plan of Istanbul Belgrad State Forest. Detailed Management Plan of Bahçeköy Model State Forest Enterprise for Bentler Series. Recreational potential of the Belgrad Forest and planning principles. (In Turkish) OGM (1964b). Management Plan of Directorate of Bahçeköy Forest Enterprise. PhD-thesis. (In Turkish) 131 . (In Turkish) OGM (1971). (In Turkish) OGM (1990). (In Turkish) OGM (1964a). (In Turkish) Pehlivanolu T (1986). Istanbul Forest Head-Engineering.OGM (1955). Detailed Management Plan of Bahçeköy Model State Forest Enterprise for Kurtkemeri Series. Istanbul Forest Head-Engineering. Istanbul. University of Istanbul. Directorate of Istanbul District. The First Detailed Revision Plan of the Head-Directorate of Bahçeköy Model Forest Enterprise for Bentler Series.
not only the project promoter) are taken into account and (ii) evaluation occurs on the basis of monetary values. Catholic University Leuven. Finally. CVM uses survey questions to elicit people’s preferences for public goods by finding out what they would be willing to pay for specified changes in them. In our case study we give an example for the Ghent region (East Flanders). On the benefit side we make a distinction between use and non-use values. We investigate the net benefits per hectare of combinations of potential forests that meet the surface restriction of 540 ha. Naamsestraat 69. starting from the multifunctional role of these new forests. and opportunity costs on the other hand. It is concluded that this substitution effect is significant in the decision on the location of new forests and leads to a wide variation in the net benefits per hectare of different combinations. such as tree planting and forest management on the one hand. we give an overview of all relevant costs and benefits of afforestation projects for the society as a whole. hunting. 133 . Key features of this evaluation technique are that (i) all .Cost-benefit analysis of urban forests from a research point of view Ellen Moons Centre for Economic Studies.impacts for all relevant parties (i. As valuation of recreation and non-use/option values is not straightforward. The importance is shown of including recreation benefits in the evaluation of afforestation projects and more specifically the role of alternative forests (substitutes) in the valuation of one specific forest. Non-use and option values capture forest benefits that are independent from the actual use of the forest area.000 ha forest expansion in Flanders. Faculty of Economics and Applied Economics. we discuss their valuation methods in more detail. Non-use values can only be valued using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The Flemish government has agreed on a 10. Belgium Abstract In this paper we show how cost-benefit analysis can be used as a decision support mechanism for the location of new (urban) forest land. We start with a simple presentation of the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) technique. Use values include timber production. On the cost side. focusing on the multifunction role of forests. we distinguish costs directly related to the afforestation project itself. we apply the CBA to a real life policy problem.both positive and negative . Next. For valuing recreation the travel cost method (TCM) is the most widely used technique.e. B-3000 Leuven. recreation and ecosystem values. TCM shows how the visit frequency responds to changes in the price of a visit.
Next. The basic rule can now be formulated as follows: do A if the benefits exceed the costs. The decision on the location of these 10. To decide on the optimal level of the investment (e. valuation. A key factor of CBA is that the evaluation is made on the basis of monetary values. cost-benefit analysis. educational.the economic. According to the Long Term Regional Forest Plan (1993).000 hectares for ecological forest expansion. To conclude an example is given of the use of cost-benefit analysis in deciding on the location of multiple new urban forests. shelter. 134 . The latter has to be aimed for in areas where five functions . Introduction The Flemish government has set aside a budget for the expansion of existing forests and the creation of new forests. forestry. In this paper we first discuss the basic idea of cost-benefit analysis. the optimal forest expansion area). We give an overview of the different costs and benefits of afforestation projects and discuss their measurement and valuation.g. to choose among several alternative investments (e. The ‘benefits of the next best alternative’ are referred to as the ‘costs’ of A. Cost-benefit analysis: an introduction Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a technique developed to evaluate investments from a social-economic point of view.000 hectares should therefore take into account all functions of these forests. land use change. Cost-benefit analysis is a technique that was developed to evaluate investments taking into account all positive and negative impacts of the investment on all parties involved.g.Key words: environmental economics. How this can be done is not straightforward. the optimal mix of urban and regional forests). If we have to decide whether to make investment A or not.can be fulfilled within one forest. the rule is: do A only if the benefits exceed those of the next best alternative. 2. the optimal location of new forests) (Loomis & Walsh 1997). ecological and social functions . The basic idea is very simple. and not otherwise (Layard & Glaister 1994). we explain how this technique can be used to evaluate land use changes such as afforestation on former agricultural land. to find the optimal mix of investments maximising efficiency (e. multi-functionality of forestry is the most important criterion for forest expansion. The Land-use Structure Plan of Flanders (Ruimtelijk Structuurplan Vlaanderen) allocates 10. It helps decision-makers: 1. and 3.g.
An aggregate present value of the project is obtained by discounting costs and benefits in future years to make them commensurate with present costs and benefits. A third question concerns distribution effects. This implies that one needs to value a poor person’s 1 euro higher than that of a rich person (Layard & Glaister 1994). hunting permits are issued. each person’s 1 euro has the same weight. Secondly. Consequently. The underlying assumption in most CBA studies is that income is optimally distributed or that – in case of non-optimal distribution – there is some form of redistribution. All these costs and benefits are financial expenditures or revenues for the forest owners. A social CBA however takes into account costs and benefits for the whole society. We will discuss this in more detail in section 3. deduce the change in social welfare from these changes in individual welfare. On the cost side. However. This implies that impacts related to the afforestation project that do not directly accrue to 135 . This impact is measured by the individual’s own valuation.The first questions that come to mind are how to measure and value these costs and benefits and which costs and benefits should be taken into account. Costs and benefits of afforestation projects The most obvious benefits of a forest relate to timber production. Next. In either case. two (more theoretical) steps can be distinguished: first. find out how the investment affects the individual’s welfare. in real situations this might not always be true. A final issue is the choice of the discount rate. costs and benefits to all members of society are included and not only the monetary expenditures and receipts of the project promoter. since all impacts are expressed in monetary values that can be added up/distracted. In some forests. All positive and negative impacts in each year of the project should be taken into account. The advantage of CBA compared to other evaluation techniques is the transparent and objective comparison between projects. Assuming that only people matter. plantation and management are the first costs that come to mind. what is the relevant society for which the change in welfare should be analysed? Either one takes on an international point of view or one limits the analysis to the population of the country undertaking the investment. A high or low discount rate has a large impact on the final result (the net present value) when costs and benefits occur at different points in time.
norms for using manure have become more and more restricted in Flanders due to environmental concerns. Measuring and valuing the costs of afforestation is rather straightforward. pruning. Costs and benefits of afforestation projects on agricultural land. inputs and outputs of agricultural production and manure processing are traded on markets. recreation Indirect use values: ecosystem values (e. market prices for all these goods are available and reflect the willingness of persons to pay for these goods. Inputs for afforestation. A full overview of all costs and benefits related to afforestation projects on agricultural land is given in Table 1. In theory. biodiversity. in practice.e. it is obvious one should take the benefits of the current use of the land. As farmers have a choice between manure deposition on agricultural land (which is free but restricted by law) or manure processing (which is costly). as mentioned 136 . In the Flemish case. These subsidies are merely transfers between different groups in society and should therefore be subtracted from the observed market prices for agricultural goods. Consequently. On the other hand one should take into account the net benefits of the land that are lost when the project is executed. The latter includes site preparation. thinning. afforestation of agricultural land implies an increase in the cost of manure processing. During the past decades. carbon fixation. For each parcel we now have a maximum amount of manure that can be used. …) Non-use values: Existence values Bequest values Costs Two main categories of costs can be distinguished. COSTS Tree planting and forest management Opportunity cost of afforestation: Loss of agricultural production Loss of manure deposition possibilities BENEFITS Use values: Direct use values: timber. the opportunity cost includes both the agricultural production lost and the manure deposition lost. On the one hand there are costs directly related to the afforestation project itself. hunting. However. One way of dealing with this problem is to use world prices to value agricultural production. this leads to a net loss instead of profit for most agricultural crops. felling. Table 1.e. i. agriculture. etc. In the Flemish case.the project promoters should be taken into account. i. Calculating the loss of agricultural production is a complex matter due to the high level of subsidisation of the agricultural sector on both European and national level.g. These include costs of tree planting and forest management. the opportunity cost of the project. these should be the benefits of the next best alternative land use.
We can formally represent travel costs (TC) to a given site ‘j’ as follows: TCij = TC ( DCij . Valuation of recreational benefits will be discussed next. The non-use values are composed of a bequest value. What is the willingness to pay of persons for these benefits? Only for direct use values such as timber and hunting. which refer to the benefits derived from the forest’s functional support (shortly named in economics as externalities) to for the example CO2 absorption. All other values. the benefit accruing to any individual from the knowledge that others might benefit from the forest in the future. are used as a proxy for price (Hanley & Spash 1993). The method is based on observed market behaviour of a cross section of users and is therefore the preferred method for outdoor recreation modelling for most economists (Loomis & Walsh 1997).e. followed by valuation of option and non-use values. As the name suggests the use benefits are the values arising from the actual use of a forest. a) The basic method: The TCM shows how the visit frequency of users responds to changes in the price of a visit. and indirect use values.. such as entry fees.before. The basic premise of the approach is that the number of visits to the site decreases with increases in the travel costs. The value assessment of such functions requires special concepts and tools. there are non-use values that capture the forest benefits that are independent from the actual use of such forest area. On the other hand. The use values are divided into direct use values. markets for trading these goods exist. such as timber production.n. are more intangible.. both direct monetary and time costs. one needs to pay attention to government interventions such as subsidies and taxes. i.e. and onsite costs. It is considered to be an empirical application of the household production approach pioneered by Becker (1965). Valuation of the benefits is more difficult. Valuation of forest recreation: the travel cost method Hotelling first mentioned the travel cost method (TCM) in 1947 but it was formally first used in literature several years later by Wood & Trice (1958) and Clawson & Knetsch (1966). to a major extent determined by distance travelled. Fi ) i = 1.. i.m 137 . hunting or sightseeing. and an existence value. In a CBA social values rather than pure market prices matter Benefits On the benefit side we make a (theoretical) distinction between use and non-use values. the benefit accruing to any individual from the knowledge of that forest area. j = 1. especially non-use benefits. TTCij . The costs of travelling to the site..
one takes the number of visits taken by a person over a year or visits per capita from a specific zone to a recreation site (Loomis & Walsh 1997)3. These travel costs are one of the independent variables that are used to explain the dependent variable. acquisition costs etc.. dependent on the distance travelled and the cost per kilometre1. TC are travel costs. family composition. 138 . Usually. gender. or the more nearby substitutes are. the lower the number of visits to the studied site.n. in the case of forest recreation.m where V are visits of individual ‘i’ to site ‘j’. FCi . TTC are time costs. other forests an individual could visit.. education and age level. F stands for on-site costs including an entrance fee that is charged for some sites2. These depend on how long it takes individual ‘i’ to get to the site and on the valuation of that individual’s time. j = 1. a demand curve or willingness to pay curve 1 2 3 4 The cost per kilometre consists of variable costs such as fuel costs as well as fixed costs such as insurance. Substitutes are.. Using the statistical coefficients from the regression. Depending on how the dependent variable is defined. the TCM is described as individual or zonal TCM. sometimes also referred to as ‘trip generating function’ (Hanley & Spash. FC are forest characteristics and S is the price of visiting other sites. Entrance fees are unusual for forests with public access. as well as variables giving information on the type of trip. Si ) i = 1. The latter include mainly forest characteristics in the case of forest recreation. This demand function. 1993) is estimated using multiple regression techniques. b) Recreation-demand function We now have all the ingredients to specify a recreation demand function4 that explains the quantity of recreation in terms of the price and other explanatory variables. From this point forward we will limit the discussion to the individual TCM. some form of quantity of recreation. SC are socio-economic characteristics. The last factor that influences visit frequency is the price and availability of substitutes.where DC are distance costs for each individual ‘i’. The more substitutes a visitor has. This can formally be stated as follows: Vij = V (TCij . Other variables that influence visit frequency are socio-economic characteristics such as income. SCij .. taxes.
V representing the relationship between the number of visits and the cost (price) of a trip can be traced out with increments in costs starting from the current cost of each individual. d) Problems with the travel cost method .Multipurpose trips vs. On the other hand.e. However. the number of visits will drop. at a positive price TC1 visits will drop to V1. This is called the ‘choke price’. the individual is willing to pay almost TC* for the first visit and any amount between TC* and TC1 for the following trips (up to V1). VT Visits.Costs. It is the surplus benefit (grey triangle) over and above the cost (dotted rectangle). the cost of a visit is higher than what the individual is willing to pay for the trip. From Figure 1 we know that at a cost TC1 an individual would make V1 visits. The key assumption behind the demand curve is that as travel costs increase the number of visits falls. single destination trips If an individual leaves home and drives directly to the recreation site and returns home 139 . TC TC* TC1 V1 Figure 1. There exists a cost TC* at which no more visits will be made. From that point onwards. At any price higher than zero. when costs are zero. Demand curve and consumer surplus. i. c) Consumer surplus The area under the demand curve measures the visitor’s net willingness to pay or consumer surplus attributed to the site (Loomis & Walsh 1997). the number of visits will be highest (VT).
at the margin. If the individual is giving up working time in order to visit a site. cannot be spent in another way like benefit creating activities such as working or alternative recreational activities. No labour income is foregone and the correct opportunity cost here is the value. as an estimate of average cost. although we are aware of the debate in the literature regarding this aspect of TCM applications. The time spent on the trip5. All relevant variables affecting visitor behaviour need to be included. Saving time in travelling to the site clearly has a positive value. most individuals are restricted by fixed working hours and will therefore make the trip in their leisure time. the wage rate is the correct opportunity cost of time travelled.directly afterwards. of the other recreation activities foregone. there are problems related to the independent variables in the regression equation. costs of making the trip can be exclusively attributed to the site visit. First. etc. . time spent travelling in itself has a negative value. However. There are basically two options to calculate a price per kilometre: (1) use fuel costs only as an estimate of marginal cost or (2) use full costs including an allowance for depreciation. or. Omission of variables will bias the coefficient estimates and therefore bias the 5 Here we assume time spent on site has no value. . This type of visitors is often referred to as ‘purposeful visitors’ (Hanley & Spash 1993). In the latter case. 140 . Those visitors for whom a visit to the site is only part of the purpose of their trip are called ‘meanderers’. The value of travel time is the opportunity cost of that time. The travel time to a site would alternatively be spent on other leisure activities. taking into account the full cost of the trip will lead to an overestimation of benefits attributable to the recreation area (Loomis & Walsh 1997). which is assumed to create no benefits.Distance costs Increases in distance are converted to the monetary amounts visitors would pay if they were required to travel the additional distance.Statistical problems Several statistical problems can occur when estimating a (recreation) demand function. Consumer surplus measures will depend on the choice. Either these observations are dropped from the analysis or the visitors are asked to subjectively attribute a proportion of trip costs to visiting each destination. insurance. There is not a theoretically correct way to allocate the trip costs among multiple destinations.Travel time costs Travel time costs are calculated by multiplying the duration of the trip (depending on distance and transport mode) by the value of travel time. .
CVM uses survey questions to elicit people’s preferences for public goods by finding out what they would be willing to pay for specified changes in them (Mitchell & Carson 1989). The dependent variable (visits) is said to be truncated at one. However. Second. this approach is called the contingent valuation method (Brookshire & Eubanks 1978. However. (1992). it is not necessary to include variables that do not vary among individuals or according to distance travelled. Valuation of non-use values: the contingent valuation method A procedure to convert changes (qualitative or quantitative) in environmental goods into monetary terms (Willingness To Pay or WTP) is the contingent valuation method (CVM). Alaska (1989). As a consequence of the disagreement on the validity of the method. and the other by the Exxon Company because the latter questioned the validity of the CV technique (Hausman 1993). the method only became widely known and used since the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound.consumer surplus estimates. as these variables will not change the slope or the area under the demand curve. Constructing a hypothetical yet detailed and realistic market in which consumers have the opportunity to buy the good circumvents the problem of missing markets for many environmental goods. Endogenous stratification occurs when the probability of being sampled is a function of the value of the dependent variable. 6 The results of this study can be found in Carson et al. 141 . Brookshire & Randall 1978. This resulted in a set of explicit guidelines that should be followed in order to perform a valid CVM study (Arrow et al. When interviewing visitors at specific checkpoints on site. This is the case for most TCM studies when observations originate from on-site surveys and all respondents make at least one visit to the site. the dependent variable is subject to both truncation and endogenous stratification (Hellerstein 1992). Truncation occurs when observations are only available greater than (or less than) some lower (or upper) bound. A good choice seems to be using count data models that are based on probability distributions that are defined for nonnegative integers only (Hellerstein 1992). The first empirical study can be traced back to 1958 and more studies were done since the 1970s. Two groups of eminent economists were asked to undertake an extensive and thorough CV assessment of the non-use damages caused by this disaster (Bateman & Willis 1999). the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) commissioned an investigation of the CVM. Schulze & d’Arge 1978). One study was commissioned by the State of Alaska6. 1993). Truncation and endogenous stratification require the functional form of the recreation demand function to be chosen with care. Because valuation is contingent upon the particular hypothetical market. people with higher visit frequencies have a higher chance of being interviewed.
a) Survey structure The CVM is solely dependent on survey data. WTA Asking maximum WTP for an increase in quality of quantity of a good is the preferred approach for determining economic benefits (Loomis & Walsh 1997). The alternative is to ask for an individual’s minimum willingness to accept (WTA) compensation for a decrease in the quality or quantity of a resource. These amounts can then be used to develop an estimate of the benefit of the good. . the range of available substitutes and the method of payment. Adding questions about the reason of their zero answer can identify whether their true valuation is zero or whether they protest against the hypothetical market or method of payment. This information is used to explain the WTP of the respondents and to determine the validity and reliability of the CVM as a measuring instrument of WTP for environmental goods. income. Bishop & Heberlein 1979) and therefore leads to an overestimation of benefits. their preferences relevant to the good being valued and their use of the good. 142 . especially when respondents report they are not willing to pay anything. The survey itself consists of three parts (Mitchell & Carson 1989): . It is often desirable to ask respondents to specify the reasons for their reported choices. An alternative would be asking the respondents’ WTP for a qualitative or quantitative change of the good.g. whether response categories are unambiguous and whether visual aids are clear and sufficient (Loomis & Walsh 1997). which is constrained by income (Loomis & Walsh 1997.The second part consists of questions intended to elicit the respondents’ WTP for the defined change of availability of the environmental good.The first part gives a precise description of the good that has to be valued and the hypothetical circumstances under which the public good is made available to the respondent. b) WTP vs. Respondents are best interviewed in person due to the complex nature of a CVM questionnaire. The answers to the valuation questions provide information on the WTP of respondents.The third part of the survey asks for the characteristics of the respondents (e. The design of the survey is therefore a key element in determining the quality of the study. It also describes the baseline level of provision. chances are WTA is greater than WTP. The survey has to be tested in small discussion groups and in a small sample of respondents. This helps to determine whether respondents are likely to correctly interpret the questions. age). Since WTA is not directly constrained by income. .
it creates incentives for strategic behaviour (i. A disadvantage is the possibility of starting point bias implying that the starting bid influences to a great extent the value for the good (Roberts et al. etc. The problem is that it is not straightforward for respondents to answer this question. Possibilities include taxes on income or property. Techniques differ in the degree of accuracy. stating a higher or lower WTP than the actual WTP) (Desvousges et al. Respondents are shown a card with alternative values and are asked to select their maximum WTP from these values. 1984). difficulty of statistical processing. degree of non-response or ‘don’t know’ answers. on the other hand. due to the iterative character of the approach a respondent has more time to carefully consider his valuation (Hoehn & Randall 1983). The last (or first) price a respondent accepts is his maximum WTP. auctions). hunting permits. This is called the open-ended question format. Respondents answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to an iteration of monetary amounts and this process goes on until the respondent changes his answer. this leads to a high degree of non-response and protest answers. The most straightforward way of asking is to ask directly what amount a person maximally would be willing to pay for the proposed change. d) Question format There are several possibilities to ask for the WTP of a person. 1986). Moreover.c) Method of payment How people are asked to pay for a change in the provision of a good determines to a great extent the degree of honesty of their answers. Advantages are that (1) the answer does not depend on the starting bid and (2) respondents only have to answer one question. The NOAA-panel recommends the use of taxes because of their compulsory character. The advantage is that this elicitation format directly gives the highest WTP (Cummings et al.e. The disadvantages of this elicitation format have lead to the development of new techniques taking into account the difficulty for respondents to answer and the possibilities for strategic behaviour without losing valuable information. They are simply not familiar with placing a value on a good that is not traded in a normal market. entrance fees for visiting a nature area. The bidding game (Davis 1964) is based on real-life situations in which individuals are asked to state a price for a specific good (cf. 1983). voluntary or compulsory donations or contributions. etc. This is the simplest way to formulate the question and answers can be analysed without further data manipulation. although the answer can be influenced by these ‘benchmarks’. Sometimes the card provides an indication of what the respondent is already spending on other public goods or services. On the one hand. 143 . 1985) Another question format frequently used is the payment card (Mitchell & Carson 1981.
the design of the bid amounts requires the greatest care. Once a forest is created. others will not answer strategically and the public good will be provided anyway. it is impossible to exclude those respondents that state a lower than their actual WTP. There are two versions currently in use. 1980). Also.g. The first is the single bounded dichotomous choice. the way information is presented and the amount and the kind of information that is given previously to the WTP question. one has to make assumptions about the parametric specification of the valuation function to obtain mean WTP. Another problem arises from the hypothetical nature of the CVM questionnaire. A first possible bias is strategic behaviour of the respondent. These problems are related to the design of the survey. by not giving information on other respondents’ WTP and by making the provision of the good dependent on the WTP of the respondents (Mitchell & Carson 1989). although he states a low WTP. The respondent will never actually have to pay his stated WTP. 1999). 144 .The final important question format is the dichotomous choice question format (Bishop & Heberlein 1979. it has been shown (Hoehn & Randall 1987) that this approach minimises strategic behaviour. A variation of the single bounded is the double bounded dichotomous choice (Carson et al. The respondent is presented one of a list of previously determined values and is asked whether or not he would be willing to pay this amount for the proposed change. Studies have shown that the estimated WTP based on this format is lower than based on the single bounded dichotomous choice (Carson et al. A very large amount of observations is needed for a correct estimate of the WTP. Moreover. e) Possible biases of the WTP estimate Due to the hypothetical nature of the CVM. Design bias also includes starting point bias (Hanley & Spash 1993). This elicitation method increases the efficiency of the single bounded dichotomous choice and is the preferred format for the NOAApanel. The primary drawback is inefficiency. Other problems are design and information biases. This means the respondent ‘lies’ about his true WTP for the public good because he assumes that. The respondent is presented with a follow up question with a bid that is dependent on his answer on the first dichotomous choice question. Strategic behaviour can be minimised by stressing the fact that everyone will have to pay. 1986). These biases should and can be avoided as much as possible by performing statistical tests during survey design (e. Finally. There is a list of several bid values and follow up values. This implies that incorrect WTP assessments by the respondent will not be punished. the method of payment used and other factors. the estimated WTP can be biased. after testing). The major advantage of this approach is its simplicity for the respondent.
Our main point of attention was the role of substitutes. we excluded zones on the spatial planning map coloured as valuable ecotopes. The province was further subdivided into four parts. one potential forest area can be included in several combinations of potential forest areas. legally protected areas (Habitats Directive 92/43/ EEC and Birds Directive 79/409/EEC).500 ha of new forestland in East Flanders. Contingent valuation method Market approach Production cost method. The travel cost and contingent valuation method were discussed in detail in this paper. in determining the recreation value of the potential forest areas. proportionally 540 ha (539 – 541 ha) are to be allocated to 145 . In order to limit the number of potential forest areas. ecological arguments like the proximity of existing forests and (non-) suitability for agricultural production reduced the total potential forest area even more. Next. Furthermore. one of which is the Ghent region in which 32 of the 113 potential forest areas are located (see Figure 2). Dose-response method. Damage method Contingent valuation method Case study: location of new (urban) forest Introduction A methodology was developed to select a combination of potential forest areas (currently agricultural land) in the Ghent region (province of East Flanders.Overview of benefits and their valuation Table 2 summarises the different use and non-use value categories and their valuation methods. As it is an objective of the Flemish Community to allocate at least 2. This lead to 14. infrastructure. the possible substitutes for its visitors will differ depending on the combination and as a consequence the recreation value of the same forest in different combinations will be different. To fulfil the surface restriction.565 ha potential forest area in the whole province of East Flanders which was divided in 113 sites with a minimal surface of 20 ha each. other valuation techniques are not extensively used in this paper and are therefore only briefly mentioned in the table. both existing and other new forests. built-on areas. BENEFIT CATEGORIES Direct use values: recreation Direct use values: hunting. Table 2. existing forests. we started from the study “Gewenste Bosstructuur voor Vlaanderen” (desired forest structure for Flanders). timber Indirect use values: ecosystem Non-use values POSSIBLE VALUATION METHODS Travel cost method. Benefits and their valuation. We assumed that all newly created forests consist of oak and ash trees and the time period is 200 years (one rotation of oak and two rotations of ash). Belgium) that maximises net social benefits taking into account restrictions on the total surface of new forest land. executed by bureau ‘Mens en Ruimte’. industry and residential areas. Therefore.
10 10 . which could be either existing or other new forests. This applies to planting and management costs. Recreation is the only benefit category that is assumed to be both dependent on the location of the forest and the location of its substitutes.20 20 . opportunity costs per hectare can differ between forests but are the same regardless of the combination of potential forest areas that particular forest belongs to.35 35 . hunting. Geographical location of forest expansion projects and population density. Most of the costs and benefits are fixed amounts per hectare of forestland and are independent both of the location of the potential forest area itself and the location of its substitutes. Costs and benefits of afforestation on agricultural land All costs and benefits listed in Table 1 were included in the analysis. An overview of values for the cost and benefit categories is given in Table 3.7 7 .000 possible combinations of four to eight forest areas out of a total of 32 potential forest areas for which the net social benefits per hectare were calculated for both the combination as a whole and for each forest in the combination. 146 .25 25 . carbon fixation and nonuse values.N Forest extensions Population density (number/ha) 0.3 3.50 50 .15 15 . Consequently. the Ghent region. This applies to the loss of agricultural production as well as the loss of manure deposition. This gave us more than 51.60 0 7 Kilometers Figure 2. Opportunity costs on the other hand differ according to the characteristics of the soil. timber. The same forest will therefore have a different recreation value depending on the combination that is studied.
we included carbon fixation. Opportunity costs per hectare differ between forests. The difference between the two analyses was that in the latter. The results are presented in Table 4 and Figure 3. recreation and non-use values as well (full analysis). The difference in net social benefits between combinations could be fully ascribed to differences in opportunity costs of the potential afforestation areas. the forest areas in the best combination of the 147 . This implies we did not take into account carbon fixation. Summing net benefits over the different forest areas in the combination gave the net benefit of the combination or of a fixed surface of forest expansion in the Ghent region. On the benefit side we see that non-tangible benefits like non-use and recreation values are far more important than the benefits that are directly perceptible and create direct income for the forest owner (sale of timber and of hunting permits). as these were the only cost or benefit categories that had no fixed value per hectare. recreation and non-use values.e. Table 4 gives the numbers of the forests areas that were in the ‘best’ and ‘worst’ combination. i.Table 3. but are all located in the Southeast to Southwest of the city of Ghent where we find the highest population density. A forest has a different recreation value in combination ‘A’ and combination ‘B’. Figure 3 shows the geographical location of all numbered potential forest areas. we only took into account the tangible cost and benefit categories (limited analysis). Next.-362 457-590 BENEFITS Timber Hunting Carbon fixation Non-use Recreation 28. Costs and benefits (ha-1year-1) of afforestation. highest number of potential visitors. This is the so-called substitution effect. but were not dependent on the combination the forest areas belong to. Looking at the best combination according to the full analysis showed that the potential forest areas are geographically spread throughout the region. COSTS Planting and management Loss of agricultural production Loss of manure deposition 38. recreation values per hectare vary between forests and more importantly they depend on the combination of all potential forest areas a forest area belongs to. First.60 -714 . for each of the 32 potential forest areas we got one net benefit estimate independent of the combination they belong to. A combination of forests that are geographically located close to the same major population centres will each attract fewer visitors than they would when they were located further apart and closer to different population centres.50 15 25 3680 Av. 1440 The figures show that forest planting and management costs are very modest compared to opportunity costs. Results and discussion We have analysed the maximisation problem in two different ways. Just looking at the map of Figure 3. Consequently. As was explained before. combinations do matter.
non-use and carbon fixation values do make a significant difference.. Although results were not clear at first sight. at first sight differences between locations for limited and full analysis seem to be small. 2001). Numbered forest expansion projects in the Ghent region (Source: Moons et al. Ranking all possible combinations from highest to lowest net benefits (full analysis) shows that the highest net benefit (best combination) is more than 100 times higher than the lowest net benefit (worst combination) per hectare. limited analysis are a bit more concentrated either on the Southwest or Southeast side of Ghent.N 32 31 1 28 21 1 2 3 29 6 7 8 13 14 12 19 18 30 4 5 20 22 23 27 24 26 10 25 15 9 11 17 16 Forest expansion proje cts Region Gent 0 5 10 K eters ilom Figure 3. according to the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test for differences. However. This is clearly shown on Figure 4. which explains their bad ranking. The forest areas in the worst combination of the full analysis are clearly located close to each other at the Southwest of Ghent. Net benefits per hectare for both best and worst combinations are significantly higher for the full analysis. This could also be expected based on the values given in Table 3. adding recreation. This implies they are close substitutes in recreation and therefore have low recreation values each. which shows net social benefits per hectare ranked 148 .
Table 4. the fewer the number of visits to one particular forest. In other words.worst) Figure 4. Concentrating on the results of the full analysis shows the importance of the substitution effect in estimating the recreational value of a potential forest area. LIMITED ANALYSIS Best combination 1 5 13 24 26 27 30 32 Worst combination 6 15 16 18 FULL ANALYSIS Best combination 1 6 14 16 18 24 25 26 Worst combination 4 8 9 29 from high to low for every tenth combination (out of the 51. geographical location of a forest in itself and in relation to other forests matters. the lower the recreational value of the forest and the 35000000 Net social benefit ( per hectare) 30000000 25000000 20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Number of combination (best . Best and worst combinations for the limited and full analysis of the Ghent region. The greater the choice of forests a person can visit. 149 .000 possible combinations). Ranking of highest to lowest net social benefit per hectare for conbinations of forest expansion proejtcs.
starting from the multifunctional role of these new forests. Belgium. the same euro spent on afforestation can create different net benefits. Apart from the straightforward costs of tree planting and forest management and the direct revenues from the sale of timber and hunting permits. Cost-benefit analysis is a technique developed to evaluate investments from a social-economic point of view. Non-use benefits are valued by the contingent valuation method that uses survey questions to elicit people’s preferences and willingness to pay for specific changes in public goods. non-use and option values. We have given an overview of the costs and benefits of afforestation projects on former agricultural land. we have shown the importance of recreation. we focused on the role of alternative forests in the (recreational) valuation of one specific forest and we have found that this substitution effect is significant in the decision on the location of new forests. we investigated the net benefits per hectare of combinations of four to eight forests to meet the surface restriction. We have shown the importance of including recreation benefits in the evaluation of afforestation projects. Recreation is valued using the travel cost method through the relationship between visit frequency and the price of a visit. the same euro spent on afforestation combinations on different locations can create a wide variation in net social benefits. This finding is of great importance for the afforestation policy of the Flemish Community. Ranking all possible combinations from highest to lowest net social benefit shows that the net benefit of the best combination is more than 100 times higher than the net benefit of the worst combination. We have demonstrated how these methods can be used in land use change decisions in a case study for the location of a specific surface of new urban forest land in the Ghent region in the province of East Flanders. Afforestation of a certain surface of agricultural land at different locations leads to high variations in the net social benefits per hectare of afforestation. We have discussed in detail the most widely used valuation techniques for these non-tangible benefits of forests. Key factors of the CBA method are that (i) all impacts for the whole relevant population are taken into account and that (ii) all evaluation occurs on the basis of monetary values. 150 . Within the valuation of recreation benefits. or. Conclusions In this paper we have shown how cost-benefit analysis can be used as a decision support mechanism for the location of new (urban) forest land. In other words. As the total surface of 540 ha cannot be realised by one forest on one single location.lower the net benefit per hectare.
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Roberts KJ. Washington. Schulze WD & d’Arge RC (1978). 153 . Resources for the Future.S. Saveyn B & Scheirlinck H (2001). On the valuation of recreational damages. Resources for the Future. Venture Publishing. 114(2): 214-219. Cambridge. Final report VLINAproject 0017. Paper presented to the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. Washington. Thompson ME & Pawlyk PW (1985). Environmental Protection Agency. A contingent valuation estimate of national freshwater benefits: technical report to the U. Wood S & Trice A (1958). Mens & Ruimte (1996). Mitchell RC & Carson RT (1989). Comparing benefits and costs (2nd edition). Using surveys to value public goods: the contingent valuation method. Measurement of recreation benefits. Mens & Ruimte. Brussels. Cambridge University Press. Kosten-batenanalyse van bosuitbreiding in Oost-Vlaanderen. Cost-benefit analysis. State College. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. Moons E. Proost S. Mitchell RC & Carson RT (1984). Loomis JB & Walsh RG (1997). December 1978. Recreation economic decisions. New York. Land Economics 34: 195-207.Layard R & Glaister S (Eds) (1994). Gulf of Mexico. Contingent valuation of recreational diving at petroleum rigs. De gewenste bosstructuur voor Vlaanderen.
Chapter 4 Threats to urban forests and trees 155 .
which has significantly augmented during the last 30 years. Key words: peri-urban forest. The following measures are proposed for alleviating the problem: a) Establishment of legislature pertaining to the regional and urban planning of wildland – urban intermix areas. encroachment on public wildlands. Greece. including all the islands. all silvicultural and management practices will set as priority the protection of the urban structures that they surround. Mediterranean. fire. Aristotle University P. Box 228. and e) special fire-safety planning and installations should be designed for cultural monuments and antiquities that are surrounded by forest vegetation constituting the natural setting of the monument and part of its scenic beauty. Urbanisation of the population. forest and rural areas have created increased fire hazard and fire suppression planning difficulties. mostly intensified around metropolitan areas and tourist locations. c) establishment of fire safety regulations for houses and residents in the wildlandurban interface. human settlements engulfed by wildlands and forestland fragmentation in a mosaic of agricultural. This area combines the typical Mediterranean climate 157 .Analysis of the Wildland–Urban Interface Fire Problem of Greece Alexandros Dimitrakopoulos Department of Forestry & Natural Environment. wildland/urban interface. Almost 80% of the total number of fires occur in the Mediterranean zone. Introduction Greece has a severe wildland fire problem. subsequent. tourist development and a large need for summer housing have created increased human pressure for land use change by applying fire and. d) assignment of a special category in forest management practices pertaining to ‘peri – urban forests’ (wildlands that surround urban settlements). Greece Abstract During the last 30 years Greece gradually acquired a serious wildland–urban interface fire problem. Thessaloniki 541 24.O. which extends from the coastal line to an elevation of approximately 800 metres. At the same time. b) strict regulations regarding the location of waste disposal sites and other public and private enterprises of human activities in forestlands.
over 70% of the total population is concentrated in these areas. All these reasons resulted in tremendous pressure for change of use of the wildlands for urban. Large parts of the population from mountainous areas migrated to the major urban centres (internal migration). urban development. There has been a substantial tourist development of Greece and. 2. 6. tourism. tourist and agricultural development in the Mediterranean areas. There has been a ‘fashion’ in most middle class urban families for building a country house near the sea for summer vacations. There has been extensive intermix of agricultural areas. We will analyse the wildland-urban interface fire problem of Greece in terms of its current status. forestlands and rural settlements over large areas in the Greek Mediterranean countryside. This has resulted in an ever-increasing human pressure on the natural environment for land use change. The country has undergone significant social changes. 3. industry). 5. creating a ‘mosaic’ of different land uses and fire hazards. Also. mild winters with most of the total rainfall) with flammable vegetation types. resulting in continuous construction of holiday resorts and hotel accommodations in the wildlands. The intermix of human settlements with natural ecosystems created a severe wildlandurban interface fire problem that has become a major issue of political debate and confrontation because of public awareness and mass media attention especially during the summer months.(pronounced hot and dry period during the summer. Activities inside the forests have multiplied due to the enhanced accessibility that resulted from an extended forest road network in combination with the everincreasing number of private cars. The latter are comprised of drought resistant and fire-adapted evergreen-broadleaved sclerophyllous shrublands (maquis) and low-elevation coniferous forests of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill. Numerous municipal waste disposal sites have been arbitrarily established on public forestlands. These have created and aggravated its wildland-urban interface fire problem: 1. Given the 158 . causes and possible mitigation measures. when most fires occur. since the 1970s.) on the islands. due to the fact that the Mediterranean zone of Greece hosts most of the country’s economic activities (agriculture. 4. which is reflected by the high frequency of arsons and ‘unknown’-cause fires occurring in the wildlands. especially on the islands. The ‘urbanisation’ of Greece resulted in half its population now residing in only two cities (Athens and Thessaloniki). Causes of the wildland-urban interface fire problem of Greece Table 1 provides a synopsis of the wildland – urban interface problem of Greece.) on the mainland and Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.
Also. have resulted in many arson and negligence fires. Thessaloniki with the Chalkidiki peninsula. the public forestlands were the first to be attacked by arsonists.Table 1. burnt approximately 100 structures causing panic to the population. Substantial touristic development of Greece since the 80’s has led to uncontrolled and illegal construction of hotel accommodations in remote Mediterranean areas (especially in the islands) of natural beauty without any fire safety infrastructure.urban interface probllem of Greece. northern Greece. the encroachment and conversion of the burned areas into urban settlements or agricultural areas. In most cases. Mismanaged municipal waste disposal sites located inside forests also constitute a major cause of wildlfires. high dispersion and water availability problems to fire suppression forces. while wildlands become more isolated. without previous urban or regional planning and provisions for fire safety. Many summer houses and hotel accommodations have been constructed in remote areas inside forests. Numerous arsons are set to wildlands surrounding urban centers to destroy natural vegetation and facilitate subsequent encroachment on the burned public wildlands. 159 . in Greece the most densely inhabited or touristically developed areas are fire-stricken (Attica peninsula with Athens metropolitan area. there has been a continuous trend since the 70’s for urban middle-class families to acquire a summer house close to nature for vacations. increased human activities to peri – urban forests. wind-driven fire on August 4 1981 occurred in the northern suburbs of Athens. mostly attributed to arson or unknown causes. and resulted in the destruction of many luxurious residences. creating pressure for land use change from wildland to urban through fire. These aimed at the destruction of the natural vegetation through fire and. They face severe fire rural/urban interface problems which coincide with a high fire frequency and areas burnt. CAUSES Urbanization (internal migration) of a large part of the rural population since the 70’s caused very high demand for peri urban land to meet the housing needs. The traditional mediterranean model of small rural villages is changing and farm houses are now constructed near agricultural fields. thus creating a severe political issue. On the contrary. Increased outdoor activities in the forests have raised the number of fires. Also. Thus.500 ha) on the Penteli mountain at the outskirts of Athens metropolitan area. law enforcement procedures for the eviction of intruders from the burned wildlands have been time-consuming and ineffective. numerous arsons destroyed the peri-urban forests that surrounded Kavala. Aegean and Ionian islands. a large fire (6. The wildland-urban fire interface problem of Greece first became apparent when a large. There has been extensive intermix of agricultural areas with forest lands and rural settlements over large areas in the Greek mediterranean countryside. FIRE INTERFACE DESCRIPTION Expanding urbanization results in the construction of an ever increasing number of illegal housing settlements inside wildlands peripheral to metropolitan centers. Agriculture has expanded on forest lands causing fragmentation of the natural landscape and increasing the various land use activities. thus creating an additional motive for arson. creating a mosaic of different land uses and fire hazards. subsequently. peri – urban wildland urban rural – urban fact that Greece still lacks a national cadastre (register) and land use classification mapping. Another fire at the same mountain in 1998 was equally destructive and received huge media attention and public awareness. This resulted in high fire risk (variety of human activities) and severe fire behavior problems (different kind of fuels and fire protection planning and priorities). Magnesia and Evia). in many cases a ‘legalisation’ followed of the encroachment on the burned public wildlands by the Greek government for ‘social reasons’. Multiple arsons burnt most of the aesthetic forest that surrounded Thessaloniki in July 1997. Consequently. creating accessibility. the number of arsons has increased. In 1995. Analysis of the wildland . This created a major fire control problem. The land value near touristically developing areas has increased dramatically. In 1985. Kavala. Crete. due to high population density and accessibility.
and arrived late (Moore 1981). onlookers who may require restraint. limited water supply. expanding urbanisation has resulted in wildlife habitat fragmentation. Also. the natural fire regime has been altered in the wildland /urban interface due to increased fire frequency. Particularities of fire suppression in the wildland – urban interface Fire suppression in the intermix context of urban and wildland is complicated and particular. Compared to wildland fires. 1996). Finally. There is also a matter of fire behaviour. and suppression proceeds within the general context of urban firefighting. and wildfires must be controlled as ancillary functions to general wildland fire control. 1985 and 1990. wildlands constitute enclaves within urban environments. Instead. and fire build-up more rapid (Fischer & Arno 1988). Control of structural fires differs from control of wildland fires in several respects (Radke 1983). significant economic losses result every year from fires that burn at the rural/urban interface and expand from forest areas to adjacent agricultural lands (mostly olive groves. No clearly articulated strategy exists (NWCG 1989). and the fire-fighting forces had poor access to the structures. in most cases. grapevines. built on steep (over 50%) slopes. In other cases. There is first the question of people. A review of past wildland-urban interface fires showed that most structures were lost or damaged when they were not separated from the surrounding flammable vegetation. residents who need evacuation. In other words. Additionally. In some instances. counter-firing is almost impossible. Ethical instincts and legal structures impose the preferential protection of houses (not to mention their residents) even if this means that the overall fire continues to propagate freely. residence time longer. Perimeter control is problematic. victims who may need medical attention. the mixture of wild. 160 . fire-fighting resources. agricultural. prescription control unthinkable. especially engines. and wheat fields). fuel loads in structures are heavier. are massed and dispatched to protect structures. Perhaps the really unresolved issue is not so much the suppression of an isolated structural fire but the protection of structures within the context of a true fire intermix (Weise & Martin 1994). fuel moisture lower. houses form small ‘islands’ within a ‘sea’ of public wildlands. resulting in the development of numerous summer cottages and villas in the burned areas without urban planning. urban.Numerous fires devastated large areas of public pine forests at the Chalkidiki peninsula in 1981. thus adversely affecting biodiversity and ecosystem processes in these areas. public and private lands prevents either urban or wildland fire strategies (Pyne et al.
but rather as ‘periurban forests’ (wildlands that surround urban settlements) and. It is likely that fire management will focus on just such issues in the coming decades (Gale & Cortner 1987). 4. the aesthetics of the landscape. choice of fire protection priorities. and secondary. the primary management objective for peri-urban forests is the protection of human lives and structures that reside in them. Assignment of a special category in forest management practices pertaining to ‘forests at the urban interface’. nature trails. 2. 5. Proposed measures for alleviation of the wildland-urban interface fire problem The wildland-urban interface fire problem of Greece can be alleviated with a combination of institutional and technological measures: 1. use of private water sources. Provisions for extra water supply and intensive urban silviculture practices (pruning. curfew of vehicle circulation).nick areas. provide extra sources of water. 161 . Special underground installations for ample water supply should be established in the wildland areas prior to urban development. etc). Jurisdiction by legislature should be granted to the fire-fighting forces regarding the selection of the appropriate fire strategy for optimal results (i. Establishment of legislature pertaining to the regional and urban planning of wildland-urban intermix areas. These objectives should be clearly described and imposed by specific and regulatory guidelines issued by the Forest Service. breaking of horizontal continuity. therefore. forced evacuation of people from residences. Residents will be obliged to apply all fire safety regulations at their own expense for their house (clearing vegetation.When a fire occurs. for adequate road network density for easy accessibility of all structures. it is often unclear to what extent suppression should emphasise the saving of property or the containment of the spreading fire. Also. destruction of fences and gardens. 3. thinning. These regulations should provide for restricted areas were construction is not allowed due to high fire risk. use appropriate building materials) with severe penalty for the violators. for maximum housing density per unit of wildland area. etc) should be applied to all peri-urban forests. Establishment of fire safety regulations for houses and residents in the wildlandurban interface. These forests should not be managed on a traditional ‘sustained yield’ basis or as purely ‘protective forests’.e. for evacuation routes and sites in case of emergency. fuel removal and isolation. In other words. pick . amusement parks.. all silvicultural and management practices will focus on the protection of the urban structures that they harbour and border. strict regulations should apply regarding the location of the waste disposal sites and other public and private enterprises of human activities (open mines.
People and fire at the wildland/urban interface: a sourcebook. Intermountain Research Station. Washington DC. Moore HE (1981). Protecting people and homes from wildfire in the interior West. Thessaloniki. Forest Service. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. References Dimitrakopoulos AP (2000). lawmakers. Wildland fire protection of cultural monuments and National Parks of Greece. Introduction to wildland fire science. Andrews PL & Laven RD (1996). constituting the natural setting of the monument and part of its scenic beauty (Ancient Olympia. Pyne SJ. Wildland/urban interface reference materials. Forest Service. Organised by EU. In such cases. Fischer WC & Arno SF (eds) (1988). National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) (1989). all fire suppression measures should aim at adequately protecting the monument without disturbing the natural beauty of the site (Dimitrakopoulos 2000). INT – 251. 1-2 June 2000: 195-200. encroachment on public wildlands. General Technical Report PSW-50. Special fire-safety planning and installations should be designed and established for cultural monuments and antiquities that are surrounded by natural vegetation of high aesthetic value. tourist sector development and need for summer housing have created increased human pressure for land use change by applying fire and. Mount Athos. etc). USDA. USDA. 2nd edition. Utah. and planners.6. subsequent. Tech. Rep. Protecting residences from wildfires: a guide for homeowners. New York. Legislative and regulatory measures regarding the function and management of ‘peri–urban forests’ need to be imposed by the State and Municipal authorities for fire hazard reduction and the protection of human settlements. Gale RD & Cortner HJ (eds) (1987). mostly intensified around metropolitan areas and tourist locations. John Wiley & Sons. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on ‘Fire Protection of Cultural Heritage’. Internal migration. 162 . Forest Service. Gen. DG XII. Conclusions During the last 30 years Greece acquired a serious fire problem at the wildland-urban interface. USDA. Ogden.
Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. General Technical Report PSW67. The Biswell Symposium: Fire issues and solutions in urban interface and wildland ecosystems. Forest Service.Radke KW (1983). Living more safely in the chaparral – urban interface. 163 . Pacific Southwest Research Station. Weise DR & Martin RE (eds) (1994). General Technical Report PSW-GTR-158. Forest Service. USDA. USDA.
pressure for land use change for housing purposes is high. P. Consequently these forests are monocultures and even aged. while Pseudotsuga menziesii is more rarely used. nigra. Trees have always played an important role in human settlements throughout history. protection against erosion and so forth. It is believed that nowadays more than half of the world’s population lives in urban areas. such as aesthetic. The value of urban forests to society is well known to everybody and is not going to be repeated here. and thus more prone to damages from all potential damaging factors. as the aim of this paper is a different one. Such a situation poses a serious threat to these forests from the forest fire point of view. these forests are mainly artificial. with the explosion of the cities’ population. Greece Abstract The rapid and in many cases uncontrolled urbanisation observed during the last fifty years has created many social and environmental problems. In the past. represented by different species. either indigenous or exotic ones. urban forestry mainly had an aesthetic role. These include Pinus brutia. Nowadays. These urban forests in Greece are mainly found at lower altitudes. and actually in Greece most of the fires take place at altitudes from 1 – 700 m (Dimitrakopoulos pers. wildlife conservation. This huge shift of populations all over the world had adversely affected the environment and demand for land for housing purposes was satisfied to the expense of surrounding forests (Unasylva 1993). Urban forestry in Greece has an important role to play from many points of view. 165 .). pinea. high summer temperatures and low rainfall) while on the other. landscape design. recreational. The genus mostly used for reforestation purposes in Greece is pine. either biotic or abiotic. however. They resulted from extending reforestation projects all over the country during the last 50 years. radiata and P. pinaster. environmental. P. touristic. halepensis. P. P. where on one the hand soil and climatic conditions are less favourable for forest development (shallow and eroded soils. 570 06 Vassilika – Thessaloniki. the environmental role of urban forestry is a main issue both in developed and developing countries (Kuchelmeister & Braatz 1993).Pests and Diseases of Urban Forests in Greece Helen Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos Forest Research Institute. At the same time.comm.
Pinus spp. Most of them. Platanus sp. Pinus spp. insects and nematodes) affecting urban forests as well as trees in alleys and parks in Greece. As seen from the Table. however. Pinus spp. Pinus spp. The genus Pinus is the most important of conifers especially in the Northern Hemisphere. alleys and parks. This list is not an exhaustive one and many more fungi have been isolated during the last 30 years. Scirrhia acicola Sclerophoma pithyophila Brunchorstia pinea Cenangium ferruginosum Diplodia pinea Wood decay fungi Seiridium cardinale Rhabdocline pseudotsugae Gnomonia platani Microsphaera platani Aglaospora profusa Cucurbitaria elongata Phomopsis oncostoma Fusarium oxysporum f. pests. Pinus spp. Pinus spp. Key words: urban forests. Pinus spp. Pinus spp. Table 1. Robinia pseudoacacia Robinia pseudoacacia Robinia pseudoacacia Albizzia julibrissin Ailanthus glandulosa Populus clones Fungus Coleosporium tussilaginis Cyclaneusma minus Cytospora pinastri Dothistroma pini Elytroderma sp. sp. Pinus spp. are of minor importance. most of the fungi have been reported on pines. perniciosum Verticillium dahliae Dothichiza populea Kind of attack Needles Needles Needles Needles Needles Needles Needles Needles Twigs and branches Twigs and branches Twigs and branches Wood decay Branches Needles Leaves Leaves Twigs and branches Twigs and branches Twigs and branches Wilt disease Wilt disease Bark necrosis 166 . The main fungi causing disease in urban and suburban forests and parks in Greece. Lophodermium spp. Pinus spp. diseases. Large areas of this part of the world are covered by natural pine forests that form a variety of ecosystems and play an important role in the carbon cycle (Hansen & Lewis 1997). Conifers & Broadleaves Cupressus sempervirens Pseudotsuga menziesii Platanus sp. Greece Diseases due to fungi Table 1 shows those fungi that cause diseases and are most commonly found in urban and sub-urban forests. Forest species Pinus spp.The present paper concentrates on the biotic factors (fungi.
Elytroderma sp. However. the latter is considered as the most dangerous one. The introduction of some exotic species has not proved very successful. when thousands of pines died during an epidemic. at least. high temperatures and low precipitation. in certain years and for reasons that have not been fully elucidated it can cause serious disease. at least all over Europe pines have been extensively used in reforestation projects and it is well known that this practice has attracted serious criticism. 167 . From the literature (Gibson 1979. taking into account the poor soil conditions. which have been repeatedly reported causing extensive damage in plantations in other parts of the world. This has been the case in Northern Greece in 1985 and 1986. on the other hand is not considered suitable for calcareous soils as is the prevalent case in Greece. pinaster were introduced as fast growing ones. Species like P. There is already serious suspicion that this year another epidemic of the fungus is about to break out. ferruginosum is generally seen as a saprophyte that contributes to the natural pruning procedure of pines. serious attacks by these fungi have not been reported in Greece. Lophodermium sp.. Among the three most important fungi that affect twigs and branches of pines. A factor that has to be taken into consideration is that last winter has been a very cold one with exceptionally low temperatures that lasted over a period of several days. Hansen & Lewis 1997) it appears that epidemics and serious damage are related to increased humidity which is not the case in Greece. almost non-existent during the summer months. Although C. Hansen & Lewis 1997). Similar epidemics are also known from other European countries (IUFRO 1963. However. it must be born in mind that repeated attacks by needle fungi and consequent needle cast negatively influence the trees’ growth by destroying partly. namely Diplodia pinea. being a demanding species with regards to soil conditions and air humidity. Scirrhia acicola. It has been repeatedly found to suffer from Rhabdocline pseudotsugae. P. The fungi on pine needles listed in Table 1 are among the most commonly found ones worldwide (Gibson 1979. and Dothistroma pini. Michalopoulos & Skarmoutsos 1998). except one by Dothistroma pini (Kailidis 1990). Pseudotsuga menziesii. their assimilating surface. Among them are some well known pathogens like Cyclaneusma minus. pinaster. Pines are good candidates for this type of conditions. radiata and P. an introduced species in Greece. radiata on one hand succeeded only on better sites. The main reason for this practice in Greece is the suitability of pines for this purpose. Nevertheless. a fungus causing premature needle cast (Skarmoutos 1986. Skarmoutsos 1994). Brunchorstia pinea and Cenangium ferruginosum.At the same time. In fact this last species proved problematic in growth capability and at the same time very susceptible to different damaging biotic factors. P. is also used in plantations and for Christmas tree purposes.
thus having increased aesthetic value. Robinia pseudoacacia is a multi-purpose species increasingly used during the last years. a highly touristic area. Poplars are susceptible to an array of fungi that cause disease. The most commonly found fungi affecting plane trees’ leaves are Gnomonia platani and Microsphaera platani. oncostoma may even cause the death of young trees of Robinia (Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos & Skarmoutsos 1999). In recent years it was found to suffer from wilt disease. it multiplies naturally and can be found forming hedgerows or alleys in the outskirts of urban areas. halepensis at Chalkidiki. The disease already had devastating effects on cypress in southern Greece. Platanus sp. Aglaospora profusa and Cucurbitaria elongata. The main reason for this infection is resin tapping. quite often at recreational areas. usually inflicted by man (Skarmoutsos 1994). Especially P. to apply spraying on fungicides at recreational sites as these are regularly used by people during the summer months (Kailidis 1990). caused by Verticillium dahliae. while fungicides may be used preventively.Finally Fomes pini is quite well spread on P. apart from an aesthetic point of view. Epidemics by this fungus have been observed in Greece and although it is generally considered as a disease of young poplars. Apart from pine. Control measures involve felling and burning of affected trees. introduced in Greece a long time ago. Fungal attack in this case is related to tree wounds. 1999). Different poplar clones have been extensively used in Greece during the last 50 years. is the bark necrosis caused by the fungus Dothichiza populea. as can easily been seen in Thessaloniki. In many cases such clones have been used in alleys. while it is rather sporadically found in the northern part of the country (Xenopoulos & Diamandis 1985). internationally. These fungi affect twigs and branches. As a consequence thousands of A. it can also affect older ages when trees suffer from other fungal infections and/or adverse environmental conditions. It has been fully acclimatised. One of the most important. is another traditional species. Ailanthus glandulosa is an exotic species too. Other wood decay fungi are also commonly found in parks and alleys. The infections are not serious. however. admired for offering shadow during the summer months. the most important ones being Phomopsis oncostoma. Efforts have also been undertaken to produce resistant planting material by breeding (Panconesi et al. The most dangerous of diseases is that caused by the fungus Seiridium cardinale (Kailidis 1990). It has been found to suffer from fungal pathogens. cypress is also a traditional tree species in Greece. as well as in other Mediterranean countries. It is difficult. Very old and enormous plane trees can be found in many parts of the country. glandulosa trees 168 .
insects cause more damage than fungi. Rhyacionia buoliana Blastophagus piniperda Buprestis cupressi Phloesinus armatus Galerucella luteola Eriophyes triradiatus Acarea and Aphids Melasoma populi Byctiscus betulae Stilpnotia salicis Pemphigus spp. buds 169 . The pathogenicity of the fungus was checked by inoculations tests (Skarmoutsos & Skarmoutos 1998). scale insects Kind of attack Needles Needles Twigs and branches Wood Wood-bark Buds-shoots Shoots-wood Bark-wood Bark-wood Leaves Leaves (galls) Leaves Leaves Leaves Leaves Leaves (galls) Wood Wood Leaves Leaves Leaves Leaves. Cupressus sempervirens Cupressus sempervirens Ulmus sp. widely used in parks and alleys in Greece. Different broadleaves Different conifers Insect Thaumetopoea pityocampa Neodiprion sertifer Marchalina hellenica Pissodes notatus Ips spp. Platanus sp. Insects commonly causing damage in urban and suburban forests. In 1992. Populus spp. Pinus spp. It is also well documented that in exceptionally dry years. Only preventive measures can be applied (Michalopoulos & Skarmoutsos 1992. sp. Pinus spp. perniciosum. Populus spp. The finding of this fungus is a first record for Europe. insect populations may explode and cause epidemics (Kailidis 1990). the disease has already been spotted in neighbouring Thessaloniki. Melanophila picta Sciapteron tabaniformis Lithocolletis platani Corythuca ciliata Lymantria dispar Aphids.S. acarea. Populus spp. Forest species Pinus spp. Pinus spp. alleys and parks in Greece. Laboratory examinations revealed the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f. twigs.died in Northern Greece. Platanus sp. An appreciated exotic species.+ broadleaves Populus spp. Populus spp. Populus spp. It is assumed that due to the climatic conditions of Greece. It is spread through the soil and although preventive measures were immediately suggested to the local authorities. Mimosa trees at Kalamaria municipality were found to suffer and die. Pinus spp. Salix babylonica Populus spp. Skarmoutsou & Skarmoutsos 1999). Pinus spp. It forms extensive alleys both in Thessaloniki and in satellite municipalities. Problems due to insects Table 2 shows the most common insect species causing problems in Greece. is Albizzia julibrissin. known to cause wilt disease in the U.A. Table 2. Pinus spp.
suffers from Eriophyes triradiatus attacks on its leaves. They can cause damage on cypress growing on poor soils.A great number of insect species have been recorded in Greece so far (Kailidis 1991). The problem is well known across the Mediterranean area and heavy even total defoliation may occur on certain years. Pissodes notatus and different Ips species are the commonest attackers. However. This insect may also provoke the death of infected trees. As a result pines do not grow well and may have a stunted appearance. Salix babylonica. The damage to poplars by the latter make trees susceptible to wind breaks. The insect affects the trees from an aesthetic point of view. 2000). while at the same time it has been found to be the vector of the nematodes Bursaphelenchus sexdentati and B. aerial control is undertaken with Bacillus thuringiensis preparations. The well-known honey dew insect Marchalina hellenica is widely spread in Greece and is considered beneficial as contributing to the production of honey from conifer forests. Lithocolletis platani causes serious defoliation of plane trees during years of epidemics. Melasoma populi. during certain years. Galerucella luteola has been found to cause serious damage to Elm trees in alleys. Among the wood and bark insects. widely used in parks and gardens. Different poplar hybrids and other broadleaved trees are used in alleys and parks. Pine trees in plantations in suburban areas are in almost all cases attacked by Thaumetopoea pityocampa. both found in wood. Byctiscus betulae and Stilpnotia salicis are well known representatives of leaf eating insects. such attacks are not considered serious. while buds and shoots are usually attacked by Rhyacionia buoliana. hellenicus (Braasch et al. where it forms galls. especially during dry years. the most dangerous of the insects attacking poplar wood are Melanophila picta and Sciapteron tabaniformis. Leaf eating insects include Acarea and Aphids. Melasoma populi and Stilpnotia salicis have both been found to cause epidemics on certain years. Corythuca ciliata on the other hand is a relatively newly introduced species in Greece that 170 . In suburban areas dedicated to aesthetic and recreational purposes. The most prevalent insects on cypress are Buprestis cupressi and Phloesinus armatus. However. A dangerous and ubiquitus insect affecting shoots and wood at different stages of its life-cycle is Blastophagus piniperda. Such wind broken trees may cause serious damage to property in urban areas. Insects of these groups also affect conifers. Neodiprion sertifer may also cause serious defoliation. scale insects and different Pemphigus species that form galls on the leaves. however this paper refers to those more often associated with problems in urban forests.
This is the observation of pine decline phenomena in many countries and especially in South European ones. Bursaphelenchus nematodes found on pines in urban and sub-urban forests in Greece. Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos 2001). different Bursaphelenchus species have been isolated from dead or dying trees (Braasch et al. tusciae B. in order to stop the insect moving to neighbouring orchards. another reality has also caused concern in recent years. Apart from the reality with regards to the potential of establishment of B. Nematode B. Pinus spp. Finally Lymantria dispar is able to attack different broadleaved species. 1999) and this constitutes a first record in Europe. Its main hosts are different Quercus species. In many such cases. thus affecting the general state of health of the trees. sexdentati B. This situation was investigated through a EU-funded research project. an indigenous species in North America. hellenicus B. Pinus spp. Although a quarantine species for the European Union.teratospicularis B. It has already been established in Portugal where it causes damage to Pinus pinaster (Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos 2001). the causes of which have not been fully clarified. Pinus spp. Pinus spp. Nematodes Table 3 shows the Bursaphelenchus nematodes isolated so far from pines in Greece. xylophilus in Europe. eggersi B. namely ‘Pest Risk Analysis of Pinewood Nematode Related Bursaphelenchus Species in View of South 171 . Korea and Taiwan. Table 3. leoni B. 2000. Pinus spp. Pinus spp. The most virulent of them is Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.causes serious damage to Platanus leaves. Forest species Pinus spp. Control of this insect is undertaken during certain years when epidemics appear on plants around residential areas. the nematode was reported in 1999 in Portugal (Mota et al. mucronatus Kind of attack Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood Wood It is well known that nematodes of the genus Bursaphelenchus are parasitic organisms that live in the above-ground part of the conifers they attack. initially transferred to Japan through timber trade and from there to the neighbouring countries China.
B. No data on the pathogenic potential of B. while the other ones are considered as nonpathogenic. In this type of environment. hellenicus. The nematodes isolated from different parts of the country.European Pine Wilting and Imports from Asia’ (Braasch et al. leoni showed a moderate pathogenicity on pine seedlings. As different Bursaphelenchus nematodes are known to be transmitted by insects. mucronatus. teratospicularis were collected. B. B. Results from Greece revealed the existence of seven species of Bursaphelenchus. 172 . In fact few epidemics due to diseases have been observed in recent years. tusciae and B. were: B. hellenicus are vectored by Blastophagus piniperda. teratospicularis. exhaustive. all isolated from different pine species. inoculation experiments on 3-yearold pine seedlings. At the same time. B. sexdentati is highly pathogenic to indigenous pine species of this age group. hellenicus is a species described for the first time in the framework of the abovementioned project. showed that B. Urban forestry. at the same time. They all constitute a first record for Greece. as this nematode could not be reared in the laboratory. The lists of organisms presented are not. but they include the commonest of such organisms found in Greece. In general reforestation projects have taken place in many cases on degraded soils coupled with difficult climatic conditions with low precipitation being a key issue. where water and nutrients are limited. such as fungal diseases. In a country with a long history of erosion. sexdentati and B. trees have to face tremendous challenges that affect their growth and survival. while B. B. sexdentati. insect attacks and pine wilt phenomena in which nematodes of the genus Bursaphelenchus are involved. B. On the contrary. xylophilus was not isolated (Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos 2001). At the same time the resulting plantations are monocultures of even age a fact that predisposes them to an easy buildup of an epidemic by any pathogenic agent. B. taking into account the fact that Greece strongly relies on tourism. only B. has an important role to play in Greece and many efforts are undertaken towards this aim. of course. MichalopoulosSkarmoutsos 2001). relevant studies during the project revealed that in Greece. in order to test the pathogenicity of the isolated Bursaphelenchus species. climatic conditions do not favour the creation of epidemics by fungal pathogens except in years when conditions are favourable. 2000. As stated previously in this paper. urban and suburban forests are of immense importance and they have a multi-purpose role to play. Of the rest of the nematodes. eggersi. Discussion A review was presented above on the situation of urban and suburban forests in Greece with regards to their state of health in relation to biotic factors. leoni.
Here. Gibson IAS (1979). Internationally dangerous forest tree diseases. 39. APS Press. Kailidis D (1990). Caroppo S.insect pests are thought to be more dangerous under the climatic conditions of Greece. Commonwealth Mycol. again. Inst. IUFRO (1963). Diseases of trees in forests and parks. Thessaloniki. Vienna. (In Greek) 173 . Lymantria dispar. the correct selection of the species to be planted is of eminent importance for the survival of the trees and the creation of the desired effect.. 1961. Compendium of conifer diseases: 1-101. and Commonwealth For. Some of the insects referred in the list almost constantly cause major problems. Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos H & Tomiczek C (2000). Diseases of forest trees widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Publ. The preventive approach involves the correct selection of species used in reforestation projects and the correct and timely manipulation of the resulting stands in their following stages. Proceedings of 13th Congress. Part II: The Genus Pinus: 134. Hansen EM & Lewis KJ (1997). References Braasch H. Nematodes are also thought to contribute to the decline phenomena of greek pine forests. Mixed stands are more resistant to attacks while at the same time more desirable from the aesthetic point of view. England. Blastophagus piniperda. Melanophila picta. fungi and nematodes in any combination. Christodoulidis Publ. Misc. USDA Forest Service. Final report of the project ‘Pest Risk Analysis of Pinewood Nematode Related Bursaphelenchus Species in View of South European Pine Wilting and Wood Imports from Asia’. No. Health problems that appear on trees in parks and alleys can be dealt with in a more individualistic approach and control measures of the chemical type are easier to apply. It is assumed that decline urban and sub-urban pine forests in Greece is a complex phenomenon. The best control in this case lies more in a preventive rather than intervening approach. which is provoked by adverse environmental conditions on the one hand and on the other by the simultaneous action of insects.Chapter 3.. Sciapteron tabaniformis. as is the case with Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Inst.
Eur. 5(2): 13 – 19. Kalamata. perniciosum (Hepting) Toole. The occurrence of Rhabdocline needle cast on Douglas fir in Greece. In: Cypress: a practical Handbook. Caetano F & Pinto-Ganhao J (1999). Necroses of Albizzia julibrissin due to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. Commission of the European Communities. Christodoulidis Publ. Infection of a plantation of Pseudotsuga at Pertouli forest by the fungus Rhabdocline pseudotsugae Syd. Nematology 1: 727 – 734. Greece 27-8 to 1-9-2001: 299-304. 5th Panhellenic Forestry Conference. 8th Panhellenic Forestry Conference. 16(4): 254 – 255. 4 – 6 March 1992: 222 – 229. Ramos P. Forest entomology and zoology. (In Greek) Michalopoulou H & Skarmoutsos G (1998). Chapter 5. Panconesi A. Supported by the Research Directorate General of the European Commission. Andréoli C. Penas AC. 6 – 8 April 1998: 303 – 387. 4th Ed. First report of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal and Europe. (In Greek) 174 . Mota M. Greece. Pathogenicity of fungi affecting Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) in Greece. Metge K & Sousa E (1999). Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos H (2001). Alexandroupolis. The main pathogenic fungi affecting pine plantations in Northern Greece. Michalopoulou H & Skarmoutsos G (1992). Raddi P. Brussels. Phytoparasitica 27(3): 239 – 240. Urban Forestry revisited. International Conference “Forest Research: A Challenge for an Integrated European Approach” Thessaloniki. Bravo MA. (In Greek) Kuchelmeister G & Braatz S (1993). Unasylva 44(173): 3-12. Geotechnic Scientific Issue. European conifer forests in regard to nematodes of the genus Bursaphelenchus. Skarmoutsos G (1986). Path. Thessaloniki.. J. A new disese in Greece. For. Brussels. Braasch H. Hellenic Forestry Society. Skarmoutsos G (1994). Hellenic Forestry Society.Kailidis D (1991). Xenopoulos S. sp. (In Greek) Michalopoulos-Skarmoutsos H & Skarmoutsos G (1999). Invited Paper. Burgermeister W. Greece.
A distribution map for Seiridium cardinale causing the cypress canker disease in Greece. Editorial. Xenopoulos S & Diamandis S (1985). J.Skarmoutsos G & Skarmoutsou H (1998). Skarmoutsou H & Skarmoutsos G (1999). 175 . For. Plant Disease 82(1): 129. Unasylva (1993). Path. 15: 223 – 226. Eur. First report of Fusarium wilt disease of Mimosa in Greece. Plant Disease 83(6): 590. Occurrence of wilt disease caused by Verticillium dahliae on Ailanthus glandulosa in Greece. Unasylva 44(173): 1.
SEMARNAP 1998). Urban conditions are difficult for the trees in any city of the world.Threats to Urban Green Areas . conditions are worsened through the following factors: a) Air pollution levels are very high all year round because the city is located 2240 m above the sea level (masl) in a Valley surrounded by high mountains. Azcapotzalco. But it is a mega-city with 17 million people. or the enormous Figure 1. Jaime Grabinsky. such as photochemical pollution. Mexico city is densely populated and densely urbanized. Even though this number includes the whole metropolitan area. Problems that do not exist in other cities. In Mexico City. 177 . Mexico Introduction Mexico City and its challenges Mexico City is neither the largest nor the most populated city of the world as is frequently believed to be. it is a fact that there is no defined limit separating the Federal District from its surroundings (INEGI . Hector Javier Vazquez and Alejandro Aldama Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana.Case study: Mexico City Alicia Chacalo.
tree transplanting as well as the specifications related to adequate equipment. electricity and drainage. Rainfall occurs mainly between May and October. only 35% of the population lived in cities and 66% resided in rural areas (Sedue 1986). the water needs to be pumped upwards for several hundred meters (Sedue 1986). However. b) The average annual rainfall is between 600 mm in the drier area of the city to 1400 mm in the most humid part (INEGI 1993). which means that the trees face a dry season lasting 6 months. It is calculated that in the year 2020. Once in the area. Besides the new housing developments. If this project is to be developed someday. services and infrastructure that will be needed. increasing to 55. In 1940. 80% of the population will be living in cities (WRI 1999). 178 . The ratio rural/urban zones is quickly changing without the planning and funding processes necessary to guarantee basic services to all the new housing developments such as drinking water. In addition. A recent official project for the City has evoked intensive arguments. has the problem of intense and frequent traffic.000 blocks by 1994: a 62% increase in 14 years (INEGI 1994). the future location and care practices of the hundreds or thousands of transplanted trees. Thousands of trees could be affected by this construction. We believe that if these transplants are going to take place within the time limitations established by the government for this project. The contractors indicated that the trees were going to be transplanted.since the local resource is not enough . just as many other megacities. no equipment. The project outlines the construction of a second floor above the two most important high-speed routes of the city: the Periferico and the Viaducto. Mexico City. Strategies used to improve vehicular traffic have included the widening of avenues. the city is densely urbanised. c) The city is densely populated (see Figure 1): 17% of the total population of Mexico lives on 1% of the territory. but at the cost of sacrificing the green areas. Human and green residents of urban areas 73. the great majority of the trees are condemned to die. green areas and medians (Ezcurra 1990). most of the times with no additional irrigation.5% of the total population of the country inhabits urban zones (INEGI 1998). It consisted of 34. the city has been growing and invading the natural areas.000 blocks in 1980. must be planned in advance. there is no experienced personnel. the new urban zones must be endowed with green areas in order to avoid pavement and concrete islands.difficulty of bringing water from sources located very far away from the city .are a daily concern. During recent years. or knowledge for the transplant of adult trees.
the aesthetic and psychological beneficial effects of trees and green areas in a densely paved city are immense. The location of Mexico City in a subtropical region means that climate and soil conditions favour tree growth all year round (Chacalo et al. Concrete. 1998). At the same time. which is not represented in the cities. it not only germinates but it easily becomes an adult tree.There is a great disparity between the quantity of green areas at different socioeconomic levels (Chacalo et al.that has sunny days almost all year round . In this city. Figure 2. and purchasing materials and tools for tree care. concrete. The country and the city (Federal District) are located in a zone of great natural biodiversity. the sidewalks are wider and there are more financial resources to hire personnel (gardeners). Mexico City is densely built and the local construction style uses great quantities of concrete. concrete. Important amounts of resources are spent every year for construction. 1998) (see Figure 2). This function is highly appreciated by local inhabitants.is the shade. One of the main environmental effects of the trees in this city . if a tree seed falls to the ground. but not even a minimal percentage of these resources is devoted to develop the infrastructure that permits a friendly place for trees to live in (the 179 . In the higher income zones infrastructure is better.
Only eight species constitute 72 % of the street trees. sampling 866 blocks that represented 1. the results turned out to be very similar. 180 . The confidence level was of 95% with a maximum error of 2.261 trees. There exists a high correlation between these two factors. which means that the attention given to the site and the appropriate match between trees and planting sites is beneficial for the Figure 3.5% of the total number of blocks in Mexico City.minimum suggested is 3%) nor to improve the quality of the existing green areas. Four professors of the Metropolitan University. The tree inventory showed that more than half the trees are in regular or bad health conditions. Utility lines are mainly external causing a constant struggle between the trees and the infrastructure. 2 research assistants and 17 students sampled 1. 1996 & 1994). A single species.25 trees per block. Threats Street tree inventory The diagnosis of the tree situation in Mexico City is the result of the development and application of street tree inventories in local conditions during a period of 10 years. The stratified sample was distributed proportionally by block between all the boroughs or neighbourhoods of the Federal District. Ten percent of the blocks were supervised (Chacalo et al. For the planting site. the ash: (Fraxinus uhdei) represents 19 % of the alignment trees.
Seventy percent of the trees are introduced and the 30% remaining are indigenous species. Very few successful and well-planned tree plantings can be seen (Figure 4). which means that the city has no culture for caring for trees (Chacalo & Fernández 1995. Tree planting and species selection. Some times the trees are a little larger but still do not have the adequate proportions between trunk diameter. The government. the distance usually maintained is max. the sidewalk is small in proportion to the container. It is important to start testing new potential species in order to diversify the population of trees. We are aware that the origin of the species is not a decisive factor for the success of the trees.although sometimes they have a poor ecological or ornamental quality because they are species that grow very fast.827 wounds on 1.6 to 2 metres. The planting of trees is just one step in a series of previous and subsequent activities that end in the newly planted trees turned into adult and healthy trees. 181 .261 trees. 671 wounds were classified as severe. however must be supported by adequate planning and training of qualified persons. which is responsible for most of tree plantings. The modal interval found during the inventory was 1.trees. the introduced species are used with great frequency . Health conditions were not differentiated according to the socio-economic level of the area. more than one wound per tree. 1994. In the best plantings. 1996 & 1998). has undertaken efforts to ‘re-green’ the streets. to change the proportion of dominant species and to prevent possible massive losses of trees due to pests (Figure 3). However. root ball and height. The inventory registered 1. Quality of the trees. In the high income zones trees are distributed among the same categories as in the low income zones. i. are easy to propagate. This effort. Planting techniques Distances. Chacalo et al. which is a very reduced space for the trees. 5 meters which in a very short period of time becomes insufficient for a healthy tree growth. Species. newly planted trees. Size of the sidewalk.e. or simply because they continue to propagate from seeds from the already existing trees in the streets. Trees are planted very closely together and their height at maturity is not taken into consideration. It is common to see very small. Even if very small trees are planted.
Trees of different species.Literature indicating that planting bellow ground level should be avoided (Watson & Himelick 1997) is completely ignored in Mexico City.immediately after they have been planted (Figure 5). A great heterogeneity is seen in the tree population. If the trees are planted close to the dry season. During the rainy season the newly planted trees will grow well. ages and diameter are planted in the same street. 182 . heights. trees are forgotten . Figure 4. Quality of the trees planted.even in terms of watering . however. Care of planted trees. more emphasis is still put on the quantity of the trees planted than in the quality of the whole process. In Mexico City. they can die due to severe stress. Unfortunately.
Pests. tree inventories are not yet used. such as the coral tree (Erythrina coralloides) or eucalyptus tree (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) are densely 183 . In the city. even when 100% of the crown has been eliminated. The species of trees affected. 5. These ‘pruning’ practices are in fact mutilations that leave the trees in very poor aesthetic and health conditions. Some pests can cause severe problems. Probably the most serious problem faced by the trees consists of inappropriate pruning practices. these methods have been primarily used in research projects or for internal tree management. Inventories. Even though some institutions have been pioneers in the use of tree inventories. the climatic and edaphic conditions of the city are so good that also when severely mutilated the trees manage to survive.Fig. Nevertheless. Maintenance Pruning. Trees that might have developed well with little care fail due to lack of attention after having been planted.
Regrettably. Very frequently they end up surrounded by pavement. Their hose has a broad opening and the water jet is so strong it causes severe soil erosion. are not common here either. In Mexico.30 years in the United States. Irrigation. with no planning. watering is not common during the dry season. In several neighbourhoods of the city there still are a few trees considered ‘remarkable’ either by their size or because they belong to an interesting species (from an ornamental. Trees are surrounded by grass or concrete but there is no open space around them in order to avoid water and nutrient competition between the roots of the tree and the grass. Dead trees and hazardous trees. Chippers are not used or known in Mexico. other plants or other trees. Trees recently planted in the city require water to grow well.planted in the city. these trees do not receive any special attention. When the trees are surrounded by concrete (37 % of the inventoried trees are affected by this problem) rainfall can not reach the roots inside the soil and root extension is very limited. This way of watering is extremely dangerous. 184 . Two boroughs inventoried presented 21 and 23 % respectively of dead trees! (Chacalo et al. Throughout the years we have witnessed how one after another of these trees have disappeared. Although this has been a common practice for 25. it is done with trucks called here water pipes. In the near future the city will greatly require advisors with expertise in arboriculture who will be able to substitute and eliminate species. Notable trees. Many accidents have happened already where the person on the roof has fallen down. A first step in the management programme for trees in a specific place is the elimination of dead and hazardous trees. In spite of the good weather of the city. When the trees are watered. which do not require sophisticated equipment. Site around the tree. Europe and Canada. Other friendly practices such as composting. The irrigation pipes move slowly along the street with a person on (the roof) managing the hose with the strong water jet. and select and plant the most adequate ones which are suitable for the local conditions. 1996). ecological or historical point of view). mulching is not yet common in Mexico. Cultural activities Mulch. watering the green areas. Actions such as watering the soil around the tree instead of the trunk of the tree in order to avoid diseases are not known or practised here (Lilly 1999). in difficult conditions which accelerate the damage and stress. If this is not done this means there is a lack of priorities for the programme or that the team of persons taking care of the trees is working just limiting themselves to solving problems as they happen. trees grow slowly without the appropriate irrigation.
Figure 6.Construction activities. Lilly 1999). In construction sites. 185 . Surprisingly. many trees remain trapped between the walls of the new buildings. this simple practice is not known or applied in Mexico City (Watson & Himelick 1997. The simplest technique to protect the main roots is to tunnel below them instead of trenching. When the excavations take place during the dry season. the roots do not receive enough water to allow them to regenerate. Trees that suddenly fall down have lost a good part of their root system during different excavations. These activities cause more damage to trees than any other (Figures 6 & 7). it is often forgotten that trees are alive and need space to allow their growth. The construction materials and resulting soil from the excavations is put all over the root system of the tree.
New species. Being Mexico. the search for new species can start locally. a highly diverse country. Two or more trees sharing the same planting site. Opportunities Training program. the situation will change. Therefore. The certification study guide of the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) has been already translated into Spanish and published. once a considerable number of arborists are certified. 186 . it would be a privilege to see the local species of the flora represented in its cities (Chacalo & Fernández 1995). Certified arborists will be able to supervise empirical gardeners responsible for the maintenance and planting activities in parks and gardens. Through the certification program more people will be trained even if they themselves are not certified. using the great natural species palette.Figur 7. We are hopeful that.
Legislation. they must leave the city and hike to the forests. How is this to happen? This is a great challenge for urban planners. 187 . or with the science and techniques developed by this discipline in several countries for the past 80 years. Journal of Arboriculture 20(4): 222-226. Los árboles nativos e introducidos utilizados en la reforestación de la Ciudad de México. Aldama A & Grabinsky J (1994). In order to avoid repeating the same mistakes that have been made for 20 years. arborists. The Asociación Mexicana de Arboricultura (Mexican Arboriculture Association). Grabinsky J & Aldama A (1996). Several institutions have implemented programmes destined to care for their green areas and their trees. we think it is important also to bring nature to the city and not to take the people away from the city and into the natural ecosystems as is currently happening. landscape architects. Which species are more appropriate for each site? How to control and prevent local pest problems? What soil type is appropriate for each species? These are some of the important topics that could start a local research program. this association is trying to promote the culture of tree care. Inventario del arbolado de alineación de la ciudad de México.Nature in the city. Street Tree Inventory in Mexico City. an association of recent creation. Great challenges await us in this 21st century. Tree culture. The few certified arborists and people devoted to arboriculture are trying to put their knowledge to good use within their own institutions. and other professionals. References Chacalo A. When the inhabitants of Mexico City wish to interact with nature. Ciencia Revista de la Academia de la Investigación Científica 46(3): 383393. Chacalo A. The tree quality at those institutions will mark the difference between the quality obtained when managing a green area with traditional empirical knowledge. Research projects on local problems. architects. The quality of the results obtained is an excellent example that should be used to educate at least some sectors of society. Chacalo A & Fernández R (1995). Although this alternative should still be an option. Ciencia Forestal en México 21(79): 101-120. Institutional tree care programs. it is of the utmost importance not only to develop legislation but also to apply it.
México. Champaign IL. 91. WRI (1998).SEMARNAP (1998). México. World Resources Institute. INEGI (1994). Manual de arboricultura: Guía de estudio para la certificación del arborista. El medio ambiente de la cuenca de México. Editores e Impresores Foc. Published on the web page of the University of Ohio State: www.hcs. Manzanas de la Ciudad de México. Governmental Institute for National and local Economic and Geographic Information.edu. Lilly Sh (1999).ohio-state.METRIA/Metria9. Comunicación Personal. México. Informe sobre el estado del medio ambiente en México. Principles and practice of planting trees and shrubs. 188 . Watson G. In: Proceedings of the 9th METRIA Conference (Metropolitan Tree Improvement Alliance). Fondo de Cultura Económica. Chacalo A (ed of Spanish edition). México. World Resources 1998-99. INEGI . De las chinampas a la megalopolis. & Himelick E (1997). Oxford University Press. ISA-UAM. Grabinsky J & Aldama A (1998). International Society of Arboriculture. Estadísticas del medio ambiente. colección la ciencia desde México no. México.. INEGI (1993). Sedue (1986). Talleres del INEGI. Anuario Estadístico del Distrito Federal. Site limitations to tree growth.html. Ezcurra E (1990). México.Chacalo A. Amalgama arte editorial.
Chapter 5 Management of urban forests and trees 189 .
The agreement states that all publicly owned areas must be managed and maintained entirely without the use of pesticides from 1 January 2003. the methods in focus are mechanical weed control. Local authorities and counties in Denmark are currently in a transitional period in which the methods used for weed control are changing. from 29 to 12 tonnes of active substance. natural selection and competition of turf grass species against weeds. pavements. A number of research projects on weed control on semi-hard and hard surfaces. A research project on weed control on non-cropland in Europe was carried out. Non-cropland is defined here as e. parks. In 1999 and 2000 the annual use of pesticides for weed control on publicly owned non-cropland was estimated to account for 0. DK-2970 Hørsholm. steaming and brushing. as well as research projects on sports fields and golf courses have been set up. mainly focusing on the biological effect from non-chemical methods such as burning. cemeteries and golf courses. In Denmark the use of pesticides for weed control on publicly owned non-cropland.g. use of alternative methods and the drawing up of action plans according to the agreement are monitored.2000.3 % of the total use in Denmark. squares. Denmark Abstract In 1998 the Danish Minister of Environment and Energy signed a voluntary agreement with The National Association of Local Authorities in Denmark. Danish Centre for Forest. The agreement is a response to research results concerning the fate of pesticides in the aquatic environment including our ground water resources upon which the Danish drinking water supply is dependent. For sports fields and the like.Weed Control in the Urban Environment in Denmark Palle Kristoffersen & Camilla Blankholm Lophaven Skov & Landskab. The main objectives of the project were to review the present national regulation on use of pesticides and alternative methods for weed control on non-cropland in Europe and also to summarise the status of Research & Development on non-chemical weed control in Europe. The Association of County Councils in Denmark and the cities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. The use was reduced by 59 % in the period 1995 . sports fields. 191 . Landscape and Planning Hørsholm Kongevej 11. roads.
Key words: Weed control. Introduction Weed control and the related use of pesticides is a still increasingly important issue in both administrative and practical management of non-cropland like paved areas. Part 1 2 3 4 5 Methodology Survey Questionnaire Questionnaire Questionnaire Survey of field studies Period 2001 1995-2000 1995-2000 2001 → 2001 192 . These five parts concern 1.From being mostly chemical the methods are changing towards being primarily thermal and mechanical. non-chemical weed control. 4. 2. Materials and methods The study has been separated in five parts. draw conclusions and offer perspectives for the consequences and needs in relation to equipment and strategies presently used as well as in future weed control. and it is the case in Denmark as it is in the rest of Europe (Lophaven & Kristoffersen in prep. Methodology of the 5 parts of this study included their duration period. to show whether it could be possible to reduce the use of pesticides. Research and Development (R&D) on non-chemical weed control in Denmark. non-chemical methods for weed control on publicly owned areas. non-cropland. To meet the new demands experiments with these methods on semi-hard and hard surfaces are being done as well as scenario studies describing construction. 3. The Danish legislation and regulation of use of pesticides for weed control in urban areas primarily on paved areas. in urban areas. The study of European perceptions is described in detail in Lophaven & Kristoffersen Table 1. current use of pesticides. regulation. The aim of the study presented here was therefore to enlighten the Danish general opinion regarding weed control on noncropland in urban areas. sports grounds. European regulations and perceptions in weed control on non-cropland areas. This is due to an emerging threat to the environment including the ground water and surface water resources upon which our drinking water supplies are based. cemeteries etc. economic and botanical consequences of various management and treatment strategies. and 5.). urban area.
This act regulates the use of chemical pesticides. Since March 1993 it has been forbidden to use chemical substances for weed control on cemeteries managed by the Church in Denmark. The agreement covers all publicly owned areas. initiatives and political declarations of intent since the mid-1990s had showed a will and a wish for the public to be proactive in regard to minimising the use of pesticides.) and will not be presented in detail in this paper.(in prep. Secondly. The first reason was the finding of pesticides in Danish ground water aquifers. Only issues concerning urban areas are considered in this paper. pesticides containing this can no longer be used on paved areas. special permits in Germany and a general tendency among Swedish local authorities to stop using pesticides on non-cropland. 193 . which are the main source of our drinking water supply. a number of reports. According to the Danish regulation and to the most recent re-evaluation of the active substance Glyphosate. Alternative regulation – a voluntary agreement In Denmark there also exists a voluntary agreement on ending the use of pesticides for weed control on publicly owned areas by 1 January 2003. the Norwegian voluntary agreement concerning publicly owned roads. Examples of the alternative regulations were the Dutch agreement of reduction of use. This will have enormous consequences for the future treatment of urban areas. A third of the European countries had some kind of alternative regulation of the pesticide use for weed control on non-cropland additional to the national regulation that followed the EU-regulation. The agreement was signed in 1998 by the Minister of Environment and Energy. There was also the Swiss total prohibition by law of use of pesticides on roads. Svend Auken. This is primarily the plant protection product regulation of which the Danish version is the departmental order on plant protection products no. the National Association of Local Authorities and the Association of County Councils as well as the cities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. pavements and so forth (Lophaven & Kristoffersen in prep. 241 of 27/04/1998. The Danish regulation is subordinate to the EU-legislation in force. both urban areas. There were two main reasons for deciding to regulate the pesticide use with this voluntary agreement. Results & Discussion The Danish regulation There is only sparse regulation of weed control on non-cropland and therefore also in urban areas. cropland and forests. The methodology of the five parts and their duration is listed in Table 1.). thus also pesticides used for weed control on non-cropland areas.
Danish pesticide use for weed control on non-cropland during the period 1995-1999. the use of pesticides for weed control on publicly owned non-cropland in Denmark was reduced by 59 percent from 1995 to 1999 (Kristoffersen & Møller 2001).The Danish voluntary agreement also included reporting and follow-up which Skov & Landskab performed for the Danish Ministry of the Environment by means of a questionnaire sent to all state institutions.351 3.370 1. counties and local authorities.The use of pesticides in counties and local authorities and on specific area types. i.e. . In total. Pesticide use in Denmark Table 2 shows the development of the use of pesticides for weed control on publicly owned non-cropland areas in Denmark in the period 1995-1999 as reported in the questionnaires.765 1999 7. Table 2. Calculations based on numbers from Kristoffersen and Møller (2001). as can be seen when comparing Table 2 with Table 3. Only plant protection products were in focus.The public authorities’ actions toward phasing out expressed as actual plans.721 28. counties and local authorities in Denmark. the elements that make or made the phasing out difficult. . Pesticide use [Tonnes of active substance] State Counties 1 Local authorities Total 1 Reduction [%] 1995 13. The state had the predominant part of the pesticide use in 1999. 194 . The column at the far right shows the reduction in percent for each of the public authorities: state.The number of counties and local authorities who have phased out the use of pesticides completely. . half was located at the Ministry of Transport and used for keeping railway areas free from weeds. Among the subjects reported were: .Critical elements in the different public authorities. The greatest reduction took place in the counties.674 13.634 11.805 1995-1999 42 79 74 59 Data for local authorities from 2001.820 0. An interesting detail concerning the specifications of the use of pesticides was that the vast majority were plant protection products containing the active substance Glyphosate. Of this use.
Approximately 50 % of the local authorities had a plan for their future use of pesticides. Local authorities Use No use Total Plan 89 28 117 No plan 91 42 133 Total 180 70 250 Figure 1 shows past and expected development of the use of pesticides for weed control on non-cropland in the period 1995 to 2003.027 5. 195 . 70 local authorities of the 250 answering the questionnaire had already ended their use of pesticides. Table 4. In 1998 the voluntary agreement came into force and in 1995 and 1999 registrations have taken place. had no plan and were still using pesticides.876 13.555 0. Use of Glyphosate in state. counties and local authorities in tonnes. 0.8 %. The main use was for agricultural purposes on cropland (Kristoffersen & Møller 2001). Table 4 shows how many of the 273 Danish local authorities that at the time of registration in 2000 used pesticides for weed control on non-cropland. Compared to the fact that approximately half the local communities had phased out pesticides in 1999 it can be expected to achieve the goal of a total stop of the use of pesticides in 2003.3 %.880 1. approximately 35 %. It should be noted that the pesticides used on non-cropland accounted for approximately 12 tonnes. 91 local authorities. The tables illustrate the fact that the vast majority of the pesticides presently being used contains Glyphosate. Calculations based on data from Kristoffersen and Møller (2001). Pesticide use for weed control on non-cropland in local authorities in Denmark in 2000numbers.154 8. The total stop of the use of pesticides in 2003 is also plotted in the diagram. moreover.Table 3. in 1999 and 29 tonnes. 1995 State Counties Local authorities Total 6. 0. This equals approximately 40 %. which in the near future might become a problem since Glyphosate has been forbidden on these types of areas since the year 2000.783 1999/2000 5. in 1995 of the total use in Denmark. Calculations based on numbers from Kristoffersen and Møller (2001).298 2.007 % reduction 19 71 63 42 Regarding Glyphosate. the counties had the largest percentage of reduction.
Mechanical weed control and soil coverage by mulches and low plants Brushing. Critical elements Initially a positive critical element which is important in understanding the future concept of non-chemical weed control is that the public authorities all recognised an increased knowledge of the various methods during the period of time that has passed since the agreement was signed. 196 . burning.30 20 tonnes of active substance 10 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 1 registration st Voluntary agreement 2 registration nd Total stop Figure 1. Neither does it exist in the rest of Europe and must therefore to a great extent be explained by the voluntary agreement (Lophaven & Kristoffersen in prep. Grass areas Planted areas Optimised grass growth by vertical cutting. Non-chemical weed control methods in Denmark The non-chemical weed control methods used in Denmark are primarily motor mechanical methods and thermal methods as well as a few manually performed methods. etc.). This cannot be explained by regulation of the choice of weed control methods in Denmark since such does not exist. The most prevalent methods in Europe were mechanical. The methods are shown in Table 5. Calculations based on numbers from Kristoffersen & Møller (2001). However there were no improvements of machinery to encourage the general application. mechanical and manually performed. Non-chemical weed control methods in use in Denmark. harrowing and steaming Paved areas Compared to other European countries the actual use of non-chemical weed control methods in practice was generally higher in Denmark. Table 5. whereas the methods in Denmark were thermal. Pesticide use in the period 1995-1999 illustrated with the most important events in the sequence.
Development of a material to be used in joints in both kerbs and pavements to keep them free from weeds.1000 kWh per hectare and approximately 80 kg propane gas per hectare (Kristoffersen et al. and treatment time. Further reduction or a total stop could mean great technical or work-related problems on certain area types like e. .g. A total of eight different machines participated in the test and were all tested on three types of vegetation representing typical weed species and with seven different energy doses.Dose-response tests regarding dose. Minimisation of weeds on grass playing fields by optimising the growth of the grass by designing different maintenance operations and maintenance strategies. Both Figure 2 and 3 show machinery from the dose-response-test. Research and Development in Denmark Several experiments regarding thermal weed control methods have been carried out during the last few years. The machinery only represented thermal methods: steaming and propane gas burning. road systems. Because of this the plant looses a lot of fluid and finally withers and dies if done properly a number of times. .The fact that there were considerable extra economical charges involved in phasing out the use of pesticides was generally a major critical element. plant cells burst and the plant withers by being exposed to strong heat and steam. In contrast to the burners there was no fire risk from using this equipment. railway areas and airfields because the equipment simply was not sufficient from a technical perspective (Kristoffersen & Møller 2001). These have included. The test should enforce the knowledge of the relationship between dose and response by input of varying amounts of energy. . The result of the test was that one gets the same good biological effect on the weeds can be achieved by treatment with either steam or gas burning with equivalent energy doses . for example: . 197 . treated area. driving speed.The most recent projects are the development of a combined burner and steamer and improvement and development of brushes also for non-chemical weed control for paved areas in urban areas. Thermal methods Figure 2 shows a propane gas burner mounted on a tractor. 2001). The principle of steaming was almost similar to the gas burner. By burning weeds with this type of equipment it was possible to reduce weed infestation since the plant cells are heated and then burst. squares.Field experiments covering biological diversity throughout the year and consequences for the weed control strategies on hard and semi-hard surfaces. Figure 3 shows a Danish weed steamer.
Steaming equipment. Picture: Camilla Blankholm Lophaven. Photo taken during dose-response test in autumn 2000.Figure 2. Propane gas burning equipment. Picture: Camilla Blankholm Lophaven. Picture taken during dose-response test in autumn 2000. 198 . Figure 3.
i. A number of strategies were tested in the experiment. The stretch had visible weeds to a height of 20-40 cm.e.Strategy development During the period 1999-2001 different weed control strategies have been tested in six local authorities in Denmark (Larsen & Larsen 2000). 199 . The test was finalised in 2001. The strategy is called the ‘normal’ strategy. Figure 5 shows pictures from the propane gas burning treatments. and the weeds had not disappeared. The F8-stretch to the right was to be treated eight times a year during the three-year period. which meant that burning eight times a year obviously had an improved effect compared to burning four times a year. the weed infestation was quite heavy. burning and brushing. The methods were applied with a varying intensity to investigate the effect of an increasing level of weed control. The amount of energy used for the purpose was equivalent to 100 kg of propane gas per hectare per treatment. Reference stretch from strategy-test. The F4-stretch shown to the left in figure 5 was to be treated four times a year during the three-year period and is defined as a ‘minimum’ strategy. summer 2001. When the picture was taken the stretch was burned three times that year. When the photograph was taken the stretch had been treated six times that year. Picture: Palle Kristoffersen. Figure 4 shows a reference stretch. but also during the year and at different times to test the seasonal effect on the final weed infestation by executing the weed control at different times of the year. Figure 4. The strategies involved weed control by steaming. The weed infestation was significantly lower than in the F4-stretch.
consequences for paved areas. number of reconstructions of the paved areas and the cost of 30 years of management including reconstruction. This is due to an impediment by the control elements of the weeds’ accelerated break down of the paved areas. Pictures taken in summer 2001. The strategies are described in detail in Table 6 (Kristoffersen & Larsen 2000). The accelerated break down of the surfaces can lead to a threefold increase of the costs related to managing and renovating paved areas over a 30-year period when comparing the ‘no weed control’ strategy with the ‘normal’ weed control strategy. The span of the costs was from a maximum of 37 EUR/m2/30 years varying down to approximately 12 EUR/m2/30 years for the ‘normal’ weed control strategy. cleaning. Strategies A number of strategies describing the economic costs related to choosing certain levels of maintenance of the paved areas with regard to weed control were drawn up. life span. The expenses related to managing and reconstructing this type of area decreases for each level of increasing weed control.Figure 5. To the right: Eight yearly treatments. The strategies qualified and helped the local park management to prioritise their means of business in choosing a weed control strategy. The weed infestation decreases moving from left to right in the description of the strategies. Stretches treated with propane gas burning. Pictures: Palle Kristoffersen. To the left: four yearly treatments. weed infestation. 200 . The strategies show that it can be expensive to be frugal when dealing with weeds on non-cropland. The strategies described the amount of weed control.
Description Application No weed control Clean-up weed Minimum weed Normal weed control control control On areas low in the list of priorities In outer areas and along kerbs In residential On normally priorineighbourhoods. Shortened from 30 to 20 years 1½ times 18. Maximum weed control On highly prioritised localities. tised areas. Approximately half of the 15 countries that participated in a European study confirmed that R&D focussed on thermal methods like burning and steaming (Lophaven & Kristoffersen in prep. Five non-chemical weed control strategies. Weeds will open joints. Sagina sp. Surface runoff is complicated. paveand along kerbs ments etc. Seen from a European perspective the Danish R&D ideas of primarily working with thermal methods are in accordance with the rest of Europe. most weeds below 5 cm high 8 thermal treatments Overgrowing can be prevented. Started weeds will be below 2 cm high. Conclusion It is possible to manage and maintain non-cropland in urban areas without the use of pesticides. and highvalue areas including areas with unhewn stone 12 thermal treatments Paved areas free from visually bothering weeds.8 Life span Relay Calculated 2 Value 2 [EUR/m /30 Years] 2 No shortening 1 time 11.9 No shortening 1 time 14. Penetration of water into the open joints Shortened from 30 to 10 years 3 times 36. by the current rate of exchange 6 November 2001.).4 Calculated from 30 years of management and renovation. No actual control of started weeds No damage on the paved areas because of weed growth Overgrowing of joints. Some penetration of water into open joints.9 Paved areas hard to brush. Joints overgrown with moss. This can be seen both experimentally and in practice in Denmark. some vegetation on paved areas Consequences Paved areas not brushable and surface runoff is prevented..2 Weeds will not bother traffic. The 201 . and dwarf like types of weeds No damage on the paved areas because of weed growth Treatment (yearly) Vegetation No treatment or cleaning Overgrowing of joints and paved areas 1 brushing 4 thermal treatments and 1 brushing Overgrowing of joints. As the empirical basis of non-chemical weed control is expanded and confirmed with both test results from the currently running R&D and real life experiences these scenarios will be validated and adjusted to fitting present needs and knowledge.Table 6. Shortened from 30 to 15 years 2 times 22. which may risk penetration of water.
References Kristoffersen P & Larsen K (2000).voluntary agreement has actually meant a reduction of the use of pesticides by approximately 60% in a period of five years .and the bottom line has not even been reached yet. These are the ones the societies rely upon for drinking water all over Europe. Kristoffersen P & Møller J (2001). Skov & Landskab.og haveneigeniøren 6-7: 6-11. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the dialogues about the drafts of this manuscript with Thomas Barfoed Randrup and Cecil Konijnendijk. It is also difficult because the empirical basis is limited. Landscape and Planning. and somehow it seems that the machinery currently available is not sufficient to meet the practitioners’ needs. Danish Centre for Forest. This will mean a higher weed infestation than traditionally accepted. Use of trade names in this paper does not imply endorsement by the Danish Centre for Forest. Undersøgelse af pesticidforbruget på offentlige arealer i 1999 og 2000. the costs are higher than when using pesticides. Even though it is no bed of roses because the non-chemical weed control methods are expensive. Perspectives There exists a still increasing need for better equipment for weed control. Hørsholm. This is the situation society has faced and is still facing in Denmark. Regarding the protection of our resources it can only be expected that even on European level there will be an increased awareness of protecting ground and surface water resources. Kemikaliefri ukrudtsbekæmpelse. All of these demands point in one direction: decrease the use of pesticides for weed control purposes. Landscape and Planning of any product or service. Therefore there is a general agreement that new methods for nonchemical weed control are needed. Stads. it means that it is necessary for the actors in society to revise ideals of what is regarded as nice and what can be accepted along roadsides and on pavements in the neighbourhood. 202 .
Larsen SU & Larsen K (2000). Forsøg 1999-2000.1. Anlægsrapport 1. Frederiksborg Amt. Fagbladet Grønt Miljø 5(1): 84-89. Lophaven CB & Kristoffersen P (in prep. Journal of Environmental Management. Test af redskaber til termisk ukrudtsbekæmpelse. Larsen K. Weed Control on non-cropland in Urban Areas in Europe. 203 .). Noyé G & Hartvig P (2001).Kristoffersen P. Skov & Landskab. Hansen P K. Hørsholm. Sørensen CB. Pesticidfri Ukrudtsbekæmpelse på befæstede arealer. In review.
Its vegetation is composed mainly of Pinus brutia. Greece Abstract The urban forest of Thessaloniki is an artificial one established over a period of 65 years. Acer sp. Celtis sp. on stream bed sides. and Populus sp.. Restoration started shortly after. bordering its residential areas. and Robinia sp. and mainly Cupressus sp. Key Words: urban forest. and some other species.Urban Forest of Thessaloniki: Post-fire (1997) Restoration Perspectives Ch. On the other hand artificial reforestation was to be applied. new recreation design. and insect pest control. some secondary species and shrub species near recreation sites. post-fire restoration. insect pests. Threats to the urban forest include land use change due to housing. Cupressus sp. Tourlakidis Division of Reforestation of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki. The Greek Forest Service completed a number of activities. Fraxinus sp. a fire watering system.. fire lanes. soil erosion. Introduction The urban forest of Thessaloniki covers the slopes of Kedrinos hills and expands North-East of the town of Thessaloniki. small timbered dams. a fire destroyed 55% of the forest.. watershed management. These included matchsticks. forest fire. In 1997. forest fires. and heavy recreational exploitation. a result of a continuous and persistent effort that has lasted 65 years. such as establishment of forest roads. floods. and Quercus coccifera on one hand. The District Forest Office cleared the burnt forest and the Division of Reforestation constructed small-scale erosion and watershed control works. 205 . Reforestation plans were aimed at natural regeneration of Pinus brutia. and Platanus sp. Quercus sp.. forest roads and lanes.. recreation sites and insect control. It is an artificial forest. Cedrus sp.. A new project designed for the urban forest as a whole aims at vegetation improvement and supplement. drought. Cupressus sp. ploughing & furrowing. and check dams. development of forest protection plans. using conifers and broadleaves. log erosion barriers..
During the 1980s. Celtis australis.The Division of Reforestation is dealing with reforestation. The final result was a Pinus brutia forest mixed in many places with Cupressus sempervirens var. the first afforestating effort was carried out in 1929 by Professor Petros Kontos and his students of the newly established Forestry School at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. and some others. the District Forest Office of Thessaloniki designed and constructed 90 kilometres of forest roads. At the beginning. protection schemes. . on the basis of an applied study conducted by the head of the Thessaloniki Forest Office and later professor at the Forestry School. arizonica. 206 . consisting of short high bushland with woody. Two forest departments manage the urban forest of Thessaloniki: . The Division of reforestation of Thessaloniki established 8 recreation sites and constructed 4 paths with total length of 7 kilometres crossing the forest. and a fire watering system consisting of 3 permanent tanks automatically filled and 41 water filling points scattered across the area.500 hectares of forestland that has been mostly artificially reforested. 83 kilometres of fire lanes. orizontalis. Field data Geografical data of the site The entire forest covers an area of 3. Dr. P. Under the given circumstances this was believed to be the best protected urban forest in the Mediterranean region. Recreation and environmental approaches in forestry emerged later. after urbanisation of the surrounding area and city development.The District Forest Office is dealing with ownership. afforestation plans aimed at watershed management through restoration of the degraded forest ecosystem.020 hectares and is in fact the central part of a wider forested region around Thessaloniki consisting of 23.One case of reforestation is known from during the Turkish occupation in 1910. recreation and watershed management plans. Other indigenous species used were Pinus pinea. C. Antonis Georgopoulos. Reforestation schemes became more intensive after 1934. The Greek Forest Service was proud of this work. A grove was established in an area of 20 hectares at a place called ‘Hilia Dendra’ (‘Thousand trees’). At the same time. and forest management. He also established a small-scale nursery near the forest to produce the necessary planting stock. afforestation was completed. hard-leafed evergreen broadleaves. halepensis. After liberation and the end of World War I.
207 . goat grazing. the area belongs to the submeditteranean vegetation zone (Quercetalia pubescentis). State. a very hardleafed. all belonging to the Thessaloniki prefecture. Sykies. This is the most peculiar transitional vegetation zone composed of hard-leafed evergreen broadleaves and deciduous broadleaves.2 hectares were allocated for purposes of education. This area in particular belongs to the community ostryo-carpinion and the vegetative association of cocciferocarpinetum. Part of it consists of private forest land (645 ha). By a High Court decision provoked by environmental groups. particularly in the case of the rural land use because of its high value for housing. Pylaia. Paylos. for example. This decision created problems to landowners and this debate is still continuing.The forest forms a protective belt. Triandria. private and rural lands are all under strict forest legislation. and so forth. and the second to compensate their land with public land of equal value outside the area of the urban forest of Thessaloniki. Ownership The urban forest of Thessaloniki is mainly state-owned (2. Hortiatis and Pefka. Phytogeography showed that during Middle ages this area was dominated by Oak forests (Q. as well as a recreation site bordering the city and an environmental filter. The first is to compensate the owners against the real value of their land. felling for obtaining fuelwood. To solve this problem. Panorama. Vegetation According to Professor Athanasiadis. this area was bushland of mainly Quercus coccifera. pubescens) in a mixture with other broadleaved species such as Acer campestris. The zone includes hilly areas with an altitude varying from 100 to 500 metres found at some distance from the sea all over the Northern part of the country. the Greek Government has two alternatives. this rural land became classified permanently as forestland. Before reforestation. as changing forestland to land for housing is against the law. sports. Administratively eight local communities share this area. a natural wall against torrential effects of the Kedrinos currents. Ag. Another part is rural land (114 ha) scattered across the area. forest fires. This creates a confrontation between land owners and government.261 ha). secondly. namely Thessaloniki. To satisfy community needs 52. water provision and religion. evergreen broadleaved species that may very easily transform from a tree to a shrub due to.
Crategus oxyacantha.2 S 22.4 J 29. Carpinus betulus. Air temperature Information about average temperature throughout the year is summarised in Tables 1.3 Av 20.8 25.4 19. Mean maximum temperatures throughout the year (warmest month so far was July 1998 with an average 34.8oC).4oC).0 12. Mean average temperature throughout the year. The 208 .1 mm per year unevenly distributed over the year as can be seen in Table 4.1 7.4 10. Pistacia terebinthus. J 9. Ulmus campestris.3 30. Climatic considerations Meteorological data presented here come from the Aristotle University Meteorological Station.9 J 23.1 14.5 kilometres of the area.Fraxinus ornus.8 mm and for the wet period (October to February) 229.8 Table 2.3 mm.5 19.4 The absolute maximum temperature measured in the area to date was 42. Maximum rainfall so far was 650. Platanus orientalis. Remnants of those forests still exist scattered over either the area itself or in its vicinity (forest of Kouri). while the minimum level was 301. Rainfall The accumulative precipitation is 448.2 F 3.5 J 25. In the 14th century.7 F 7. 2 and 3.4 mm in 1987.2 18.6 13.5 F 11.3oC on 10 January 1987.1 24. J 5.0 J 31.4 15.0 16.0 M 10. Populus alba.4 M 6.0 J 20. and so forth. Average rainfall for the growing season (March to September) is 218.1oC on 7 July 1988. while the absolute minimum was -7.5 Av 15.7 D 7. J 2. found at a distance of 1.9 in 1984. over a period of 20 years (1979-1999). historian Houmnos describes vast broadleaved stands situated above the Acropolis of Thessaloniki which inhabitants used for getting fuel.8 21.7 Table 3. Mean minimum temperatures throughout the year (coldest month so far January 1982 with 3.4 D 4.1 M 14.2 9.8 S 27.0 D 11. Table 1.8 S 17.3 Av 11.9 J 18.
driest season includes July, August and September. Temperature and rainfall are also depicted in Figure 1. Rainfall has gradually decreased. During the last 9 years (19911999), mean values reached 411.2 mm.
Table 4. Average rainfall (in mm) throughout the year.
J 24.7 F 32.7 M 42.3 37.6 41.4 J 33.5 J 24.3 23.1 S 16.6 42.6 74.5 D 54.8 Av 448.1
Aristotle University og Thessaloniki Meteorological Station Pluviothermic diagram for the period 1979-1990
40 35 30 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
20 15 10 5 0
Figure 1. Pluviothermic diagram for Aristotle University Meteorological Station.
Relative humidity As Table 5 shows, relative humidity values from 52% to 84%.
Table 5. Relative humidity throughout the year.
M 69.0 67.0 67.0
J 59.0 63.0
S 66.0 71.0 75.0
Winds The most frequently occurring winds are Northwest (Vardaris), being strong (8-40 km/ h), cold and dry. The western winds bring rain. Southern wind is hot (livas) and if blowing during summer months (July, August, September) raises fire risk. Days with snow and fog are very rare, and frost is exceptional. Climate According to Mavromatis (1980) the climate of the site is Meditteranean (pluviothermic diagram with reverse temperature and rainfall graphs, see Figure 1). It is semiarid with cold winters.
Geology - parent material From this perspective, the area belongs to the Axios river zone that covers central, northern Greece and expands up to Bulgaria. Parent material is sedimentary and metamorphic from the quartenary period. Rock types identified in the area include red argils, phyllites, gneisses, gabbros, lime schists, dunites, peridotites and serpentines. These rocks form horizontal layers along the long axis of the area. Soil As a result of the underlying rock and the interaction with climate, relief, rock withering, erosion, vegetation, time and influence by human, site soil belongs to the division of red gleys with clay loamy texture, and to yellow, non-calcareous gleys with sandy-loamy texture. Both include low levels of organic matter. What particularly matters is heavy erosion that occurred over long periods. Parent rock is very often superficial.
Fire risk and insect pests
This type of forest is very susceptible to fire risk, particularly during the summer months (dry season). Because of this, the District Forest Office of Thessaloniki, responsible for forest protection, established a fire station in the middle of the forest with easy accessibility to all parts of the forest. Besides that, a zone at the edges of forest roads and fire lanes is cleared from branches and grass every year, in late spring. In 1998, the Greek government enforced an act and transferred forest fire responsibility and control from the Greek Forest Service to the Fire Brigade Department. Since then, the Greek Forest Service plays an assisting role in this serious matter.
Another threat to the forest is the insect pest Thaumetopea pityocampa which causes severe damage to Pinus brutia foliage by foraging during the autumn and winter months. This loss weakens trees that struggle to recover their foliage every spring. Apart from a negative aesthetic impact it causes allergic skin disease to passers-by. In recent years, an approved biological product applied by air - with the active ingredient Bachillus thurigiensis - is used to control the insect. This product poses no risks to the rest of the insects in the forest.
A fire broke simultaneously at five places on the afternoon of 6 July 1997, a very hot dry day with strong hot southern winds blowing. Within 40 hours, 1,664 hectares i.e 55% of the urban forest burnt. According to Margaropoulos (1955) there have been cases in the past where floods from currents of the Kedrinos hills caused serious damage after heavy rainfall, even with human casualties. Therefore, after the fire, the possibility emerged that such a phenomenon might be repeated as it had been the case in other places in Greece (e.g. Athens, Chalkidiki, Corinth and Crete).
A special committee was set up at the Prefecture of Thessaloniki to manage this ‘crisis’. The Division of Reforestation started the task of restoration while the District Forest Office of Thessaloniki had to produce and remove useful dead timber and sell it to sawmills. Within the first month (July 1997) a plan was prepared by a team of the Division of Reforestation staff, titled : ‘Applied study for erosion and water flow control of the burned area of the urban forest of Thessaloniki’. A budget of 3,610,000 = was C allocated. During the next two months another study was completed, namely: ‘Applied study for reforestation of the burned area of the urban forest of Thessaloniki’ C). (budget: 3,610,000=
The first thing to define was the degree of environmental impact. Emphasis was placed on small-scale works leaving nature to recover, giving it the initiative and time to adjust itself to a new forest model more effectively. Under this view, two kinds of works were allocated: those on a temporary (5-10 years) and those on a permanent basis.
The District Forest Office and the Division of Reforestation rapidly made contracts with 5 forest cooperative workers and forest work constructors from the Thessaloniki area for two assignments. The first was to clear-fell and remove dead, raw timber and the terrible mess on the site. The second assignment was to construct erosion and waterflow control works. 1.Erosion control works. These have been built up on a temporary basis (5 years), aimed to stop sheet erosion caused by heavy rain. They offer first degree protection and include: a) Matchsticks. In practice these are rows made of large and small branches, thin boles, and residues of clear-fellings, stuck on the ground in horizontal lines (on the uphill side of the stumps) in areas where the slope of the ground varies between 0-30%. The distance between these rows has been calculated to optimally be 10-15 metres depending on relief. Their dimensions are: height 0.75 m, width 1.0-1.5 m and length from 1 to a thousand and more metres. These structures work like a water filter collecting sediment, sand and stones moving down the slope, stopping sheet erosion during heavy rainfall. 663,000 metres of these were constructed. b) Log erosion barriers. These are structures made of logs of dead pine and cypress trees, stuck in the ground by poles or tied to tree stumps in horizontal lines in places where the slope varies from 31- 50%. A little trench is dug upwards to stop downwards rainfall. Distance between the log lines is estimated to vary between 8-10 metres, height-width equals log diameter (20 centimetres) and length ranges from 1 to a thousand and more metres. 84,000 metres were constructed. c) Clear-fellings. At places where the slope exceeds 50%, dead trees were cut to pieces of about 1 metre in length and spread on the site. This measure was applied to a total area of 83.6 ha. d) Ploughing - furrowing. A heavy machine (bulldozer) with two ripers at the back (nails 1.0 m long at 2.0 m distance from each other) ploughed the area just once, horizontally, at a depth of 0.70-1.0 m between matchsticks where slope was 030 %, leaving a furrow. The measure aimed at three targets. First, by furrowing the ground, water, soil, and sediment are collected into furrows. Secondly, by loosening ground soil rainwater is absorbed and penetrates more easily into deeper layers without eroding the surface. Thirdly, plantation is facilitated. 2,146,000 metres were ploughed. 2.Waterflow control works. These constitute second-degree protection works affecting the city of Thessaloniki below and supplementing erosion control works. These works aim to control flooding, keeping in place water, mud, sand and stones that have
escaped erosion control works. These works are of two kinds : a) Small timbered dams. These are constructed on a temporary basis (7-10 years). They are wooden structures made with logs from dead pines and cypresses on 2nd and 3rd degree currents built at certain locations along currentbeds. The dams are stacked 1.0 metres in height. 188 were constructed. b) Check dams. These are permanent basic constructions made of concrete with a height of up to 5.0 metres placed at the lower elevations of the 1st degree current beds. 22 small dams were constructed. 3 Reforestation. The new type of ecosystem should be a stable, upgraded, and adapted to climatic and soil conditions, more resistant to fire and insect pests, with a normal resource of fauna and flora. Services offered to people are watershed management, recreation, aesthetics, sports and education. The type of forest that matches these demands is a mixture of broadleaved species and conifers from this vegetation zone. There have been two approaches to this aim: a) Natural regeneration. Design involved natural regeneration of Pinus brutia, Cup ressus sp. and Quercus coccifera, wherever these could be established. Particularly natural regeneration of P. brutia was at risk, as pine trees were weakened from drought and pests. On the other hand, cypress was expected to cover only its own restricted area. b) Artificial reforestation. This aimed first of all to fill the gaps left from natural regeneration, secondly to re-introduce species that disappeared long ago because of human activity, and thirdly to renew and improve vegetation. Regarding the latter, species selected were indigenous, with some exotic exceptions, belonging to this vegetative zone and surviving and growing well under the existing these climatic conditions. The list of species used includes conifer and broadleaved species, evergreen and deciduous. Particular site, space, altitude and exposure were taken into account. Briefly, plantation layout followed the following rules: - Conifers were introduced to poorer soils and south exposures, and included Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus arizonica, Cedrus libani, Cedrus Atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Thuja orientalis. The exception was Pinus pinea, which was used on deep and better-quality soils. - Broadleaved species were used in better environments and on better soils in the following order : ̇ Quercus aegilops and Quercus pubescens on southern exposed sites. ̇ Quercus ilex on northern exposured sites. ̇ Quercus conferta on higher and northern exposured sites.
̇ Celtis australis, Cercis siliquastrum, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Fraxinus ornus, Acer campestris, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudacacia, Tilia tomentosa on certain places all over the area. ̇ Secondary species such as Prunus insititia, Pyrus communis, Prunus avium, Cornus mas, Crataegus monogyna, Morus alba, ficus carica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Juglans regia and so forth were used at different locations among other species to modify the environment. ̇ Shrub species such as Laurus nobilis, Spartium junceum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nerium oleander, Ligustrum vulgare, Cotoneaster orizontalis etc., were established around recreation sites, fire lanes, forest roads. ̇ On current and stream sides, Platanus orientalis, Populus alba, populus nigra, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus were established. Planting material was produced at the forest nurseries belonging to the Division of Reforestation of Thessaloniki. Planting material was either containerised or barerooted. In some cases seeding was applied. One should keep in mind that the result embodies a potential situation. Nature will accept or refuse human options. The Forest Service will be there to make the necessary manipulations needed each time. All the work described above lasted 8 months, from July 1997 to the end of February 1998.
All the above interventions referred to the burnt area of the Thessaloniki urban forest. Five years after the fire, a new project (2003-2006) for the entire urban forest financed by European Union was developed with the following elements: - Vegetation improvement and complementing; - watershed management; - recreation cost analysis and facilities (new Master plan); and - forest protection, forest road improvement, watering system expansion, control of insect pests, forest cultivation. The ultimate principle is that urban forest should remain a natural forest with all natural functions operative. This is secured at present with the strict forest law being implemented.
Kotoulas D (1985). Part 1. Thessaloniki. Element electronic calculation of weight dams. (In Greek) Kotoulas D (1997). Thessaloniki. Forest phytosociology. Relations entre le climat et la vegetation naturelle. Ministry of Agriculture KTGK & Forests.3. Stefanidis P (1990). Ministry of Agriculture 142800/ 13. 215 .1984. Thessaloniki. Cartes bioclimatiques. Agricultural Chamber of Greece. Institut des recherches forestiéres d’Athenes. Sheet erosion after fire at the urban forest of Thessaloniki.P. (In Greek) Kapetanopoulos G (1984).References Athanasiadis (n. Laboratory of Watershed Management. Morphometrical and hydrographical composition of torrent types in Northern Greece. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Thessaloniki.n. Athens. The small dams. Thessaloniki. Stefanidis P. Printing House Bolid Bulgaria. Giahoudi-Diapouli. Appendix No 6 Volume LB (Dissertation). Ministry of Agriculture Y.M. Division of reforestation and Watershed Management. Forest research V(1). (In Greek) Kotoulas D (1989).E. Hydraylic calculations of watershed management works. (In Greek) Margaropoulos P (1955). Le bioclimat de la Grèce. Sapountzis M & Stathis D (2001). Bulgarian Forest Research Institute No 1.). 2001. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Applied study of watershed management of torrent Pylaeas (Kyberniou). University Press. Scientific Annals of the Department of Forestry and natural Environment. Athens. Management and control of torrents. (In Greek) Mavromatis G (1980). Thessaloniki. Margaropoulos P (1950). Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki. Management and torrent control in prefecture of Thessaloniki.
Spanos K et al. (2000).
Post fire establishment of plantings in the suburban forest park of Thessaloniki: First results two years after the great fire. Forest Research Institute (NAGREF). Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Forestry and Natural Environment. District of Central Macedonia, Reforestation Directorate of Thessaloniki. National Agricultural Research Foundation Vol. 13. Athens, Greece.
Vantellas A (1983).
Torrent basins of hydrographic network of Greece. Minisry of Agriculture, Athens. (In Greek)
Arboricultural Research of Trees in City of Ljubljana and Instructions for their Care
Primoz Oven University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood Science and Technology Rozna dolina VIII/34, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
In the City of Ljubljana 612 trees were investigated: 358 in Park Tivoli and 254 in other areas of the City (Ambrozev trg, Eipprova, Mrtvaski most-Vrazov trg, Poljanski nasip, Prule-Grudnovo nabrezje in Trnovski pristan). Species and biometrical characteristics of trees were determined. Biotic and abiotic injuries of crown, stem and roots were investigated. Growth history, wood structure and activity of the cambial zone were additionally studied for 30 horse-chestnut trees. De-icing salts seriously affected trees, growing along the streets. Early defoliation of horse-chestnut trees attacked by Cameraria ohridella was not yet detectable in the annual increment or structure of the wood. Trees were mechanically wounded by building operations, cars, vandalism, mowing and non-professional pruning. Defects were described and adequate arboricultural measurements were proposed for individual trees: 35 trees should be removed and replaced, 26 trees needed a security system in the crown, 275 should be nursed according to given instructions, and the rest of trees needed regular and professional care.
Key words: arboriculture, urban tree, health status, hazardous trees, biotic and abiotic injuries
As opposed to larger European countries, management of street trees in Slovenia lacked a systematic approach until recently. Increasing pressure of public opinion and commercial interest for tree care during the last five years generated demands for improved management. Interest for trees was mainly triggered by breakage and failure of branches and trees in storms (wind, heavy snow) in the years 1996, 1998 and 1999, as well as by an explosion of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella) population. Demands to cut down ‘sick and non-perspective’ tree species became very strong, although the majority of trees are protected as a natural heritage. In response, the City of Ljubljana initiated the research project “Arboricultural research of trees in
City of Ljubljana and instructions for their care” in 1999. Objectives of the project were among others: to assess vitality of trees and to identify factors affecting it, to evaluate hazard potential and to prepare instructions for tree care. Results of this research are reported here.
Material and methods
Research included trees along streets with a high frequency of traffic and trees in Park Tivoli. The latter served as a control trees and will be referred as to Park Tivoli trees in this article. Street trees will be the term used to refer to first group of trees. Due to the lack of data on trees in Ljubljana, we had to count the trees to obtain a traceable identification number and to determine the species. Height and DBH (at 1.3 m above ground) were measured with Suunto instruments and served as basic biometrical data. To obtain an integral assessment of vitality of the investigated trees several methods were used: visual assessment of the crown according to Rollof (1998); a study of the anatomy of cambial zone was used to reveal seasonal activity of the cambium (Oven 1999); and dendrochronology was employed to reveal history of secondary growth of trees in the last decades (Oven & Levanic 2001). An evaluation of the hazard potential of the trees involved identification of target, recording growth defects as well as the frequency and distribution of mechanical wounds. Moreover, wood destroying fungi (fruit bodies) were identified and an evaluation was made of the extent of decay using increment boring to obtain wood cores, and drilling with a 3 mm bit to asses the colour, odour, and texture of the wood particles. Methodologies described by Matheny & Clark (1994), Dujesiefken et al. (1999) and Kowol et al. (1999) were applied.
Results and discussion
Collection of basic data revealed that 612 trees were included in the arboricultural research (Figure 1). The number of tree species was relatively small. All trees from Park Tivoli were horse-chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum). This species also prevailed among the street trees: 144 trees were horse-chestnut trees, 66 maples (Acer psudoplatanus, A. platanoides, A. saccharinum) and 30 trees were willows (Salix x spulcralis). The other trees were of the following species: Betula pendula, Ailanthus altissima, Platanus x hispanica, Fraxinus excelsior „Pendula“, Sofora japonica and Tilia platyphyllos. The majority of investigated trees were adults. Among the street trees only 13 were young trees with a diameter at the breast height (DBH) smaller than 15 cm. 7 trees
(Salix x sepulcralis) had a DBH smaller than 10 cm. Due to a restoration program of tree colonnades going on in Park Tivoli, the share of young trees was much higher, 121 horse-chestnuts had a DBH smaller than 15 cm. The DBH of adult trees ranged from 55 to 98 cm and the height ranged from 15 to 28 m.
No. of investigated trees = 612
Street trees 254 / 42%
Park Tivoli 358 / 58%
Figure 1. Number of trees included in the arboricultural research in the City of Ljubljana.
Symptoms of more than one adverse factor diminishing the vitality of trees were found for all investigated trees. All horse-chestnut trees were affected with C. ohridella and Guignardia aesculi. The insect was detected in 1994 in Slovenia and is usually causing defoliation in the middle of August every year. Typical symptoms of water stress and de-icing salts were recognised on leaves of city trees, irrespective of the species. The rate of street trees affected with de-icing salts reached 36 % (out of 131 trees) in the examined city area Prule. To examine the influence of above-mentioned adverse factors, a detailed analysis of the seasonal duration of cambial activity and the history of secondary growth have been studied in selected adult horse-chestnut trees. The beginning of cambial activity did not reveal differences between affected street trees and apparently healthy trees from Park Tivoli. The first cellular divisions in the cambial zone were detected on April 21st, 1999 in both affected and healthy trees. Differences between healthy park trees and affected street trees were visible at the end of the growing period. The growing period of affected trees ended on August 4th, 2000 as assessed by the absence of cambial divisions. On the contrary, the cambial zone of healthy trees still displayed divisional activity at this date. For all investigated affected trees annual growth (increment) had already been completed by August 4th. This was not the case for healthy trees. The annual increment consisted of already differentiated wood elements and cells in the process of differentiation. It could be concluded that the growing season of healthy trees is longer than the growing period of affected trees.
The thickness of the annual growth rings in affected trees was smaller than in healthy park trees (Figure 2). Five groups of trees were selected for dendrochronology: six apparently healthy trees from Park Tivoli, five topped trees, nine trees affected by de-icing salts and five trees which were considered to be affected by C. ohridella earlier and more severe than other test trees. Growth of apparently healthy trees was found to be stable during the last 80 years, despite unfavourable site conditions. Before 1954 tree rings of the other three groups were two to three times wider than the reference trees. Thereafter the width of the tree rings decreased, accompanied by changes in wood structure up to present (Figure 2). Vessels of the trees affected with de-icing salts were numerous and smaller. On the other hand, vessels were numerous but larger in topped trees, both compared to healthy trees from Park Tivoli. It was concluded that the vitality of street trees in Ljubljana had diminished primarily due to anthropogenic factors. It is supposed that the survival chances of horse-chestnut trees drastically diminish due to a simultaneous effect of a biological factor (leaf miner) and unfavourable anthropogenic influences.
Radial increment (0,01 mm)
De-icing salts Cameraria
Healthy trees Topped trees
1920 1920 1930 1930 1940 1940 1950
1960 1960 Year
Figure 2. Radial growth of apparently healthy horse-chestnut trees from Park Tivoli and affected street trees in the City of Ljubljana during the last 80 years.
Identification of hazardous trees was based on the evaluation of target and inspection of growth defects, frequency and distribution of mechanical wounds, identification of wood destroying fungi (fruit bodies) and evaluation of extant of decay. Dead wood in the crowns was present in each of the 612 trees. The number and diameter of dead branches increased with diminishing vitality of trees. The presence of co-dominant branches with included bark was the most obvious growth defect. Surprisingly all investigated trees (612) were mechanically wounded. Improper and unnecessary pruning (toping, flush cut) and failure of branches in crowns, vandalism, traffic
accidents on stems and construction activities around the root systems were identified as main causes of damage to trees. Dieback of newly planted trees due to damage to root crowns and vandalism was found to drastically diminish success of the replanting program in Park Tivoli. Very often large pruning wounds and wounding of roots has caused extensive dieback of cambium along the stems. In such cases bark is still present on the stems, hence the defect cannot be recognized by visual inspection. Measurements of electrical resistance of the cambial zone proved to be a very useful tool for identification of such defects. Instructions for management of investigated trees were prepared according to ZTV Baumpflege (1993) and EAC (1999). Urgent felling (Figure 3) was recommended for 35 trees. For 26 trees it was recommended to use a security system in the crown (Cobra system). Moreover, for 276 trees we recommended to employ one of the following regular care pruning techniques, formative pruning, crown lifting and crown maintenance.
(No. of trees = 612)
Pruning for safety resons 45% Regular care 45%
Securty system in the crown 4%
Figure 3. Structure of recommended arboricultural measures for investigated trees in the City of Ljubljana.
For 275 trees (Figure 3) pruning for safety reasons was recommended, in addition to other case sensitive recommendations. These included, for example, mulching, supporting, removal of electrical infrastructure being attached to dead branches in crown, removal of balustrades, prevention of parking, irrigation, change of the regime of salt spreading, regular collection of affected leaves, and so forth. In conclusion, it should be stressed that the decreasing vitality of trees and the increasing rate of hazardous trees in the City of Ljubljana is due to anthropogenic factors. The condition of trees could be improved by applying contemporary arboricultural practice, which should replace the existing, experience-based approach. It is likely however, that this could be achieved if stronger co-operation between the
city administration, practitioners and research institutions could be established within an extensive continuing tree program. Preparation of guidelines in Slovenian (Oven & Zupancic 2001) could be considered as a first step in this direction.
This research was supported by the City of Ljubljana (Department of culture and research, Department of municipal services and traffic) and the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia.
Dujesiefken D, Wohlers A & Kowol T (1999).
Die Hamburger Baumkontrolle – der Leitfaden für eine fachgerechte Baumkontrolle. In: Dujesiefken D & Kockerbeck P (Eds) Jahrbuch der Baumpflege 1999: 124-138. Thalacker Medien, Braunschweig.
European Arboricultural Council (EAC) (1999).
European Tree Pruning Guide. Tree Advice Trust, Forest Research Station, Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclessham.
Kowol T, Wohlers A & Dujesiefken D (1999).
Baumkontrolle nach Baumarten differenziert typische Schadsymptome bei Linde, Eiche und Roßkastanie. Jahrbuch der Baumpflege 1999: 139-156. Thalacker Medien, Braunschweig.
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A photographic guide to the evaluation of hazard trees in urban areas. 2nd edit. International Society of Arboriculture, Savoy, Illinois.
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Arboristicna naliza drevja V MOL in navodila za njihovo nego. Biotehniska fakulteta, Ljubljana.
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Managing Forest Fires Near Urban Areas in Mediterranean Countries
Ramon Vallejo, Susana Bautista, Jaime Baeza, and J.Antonio Alloza Fundación CEAM, Parque Tecnológico Ch. Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Spain
Wildfires are increasingly affecting the wildland-urban interface all over the world. Therefore, protection measures are urgently required to prevent burning of structures and to avoid post-fire damages in urban areas. Preventive measures are concentrated on reducing the fuel load in the surroundings of settlements, to reduce flammability of housing materials, and to ensure accesses and extinction systems. The complexity of the problem of the wildland-urban interface makes it difficult to implement existing regulations. Several techniques are developed to mitigate post-fire effects downslope. Among them, emergency seeding has been widely used in the wildland-urban, interface especially in southern California. The use of native herbaceous and shrubby species together with onsite mulching material is recommended to protect only those hillsides previously recognised as prone to soil erosion, and for those sites threatening structures. In general, all restoration projects for burned lands should take into account the principles of fire prevention
Key Words: forest fires, wildland-urban interface, fire prevention.
Wildfires are becoming a major disturbance in forests and shrublands in the Mediterranean, like in other parts of the world (Pausas & Vallejo 1999), and a threat to properties and structures. In southern Europe, wildfires have greatly increased since the last quarter of the 20th century, mainly in relation to rural land abandonment and human activities (Moreno et al. 1998). A relevant part of wildfires in Mediterranean countries affects periurban areas, and in many cases densely inhabited tourist areas in summer, when wildfires mostly occur. The problem is likely to escalate in the future with the urban developments in the coastal strips, which often invade wildland areas. This generates the specific issue of fire management of the wildland/urban interface (Davis 1990). This is especially critical in the USA, where in addition to the intermixing of fuels with the settlements, in many cases the houses are made of wood and other flammable materials (Cohen 2000). Unfortunately, experiences in the past demonstrated the high danger for human beings and properties in these areas.
closer proximity of fire brigades and (relatively) good access. Progress in those fields will require legal mandates.Tourist developments often generate housing conflicts that may increase arson risk. . In this way.High value of affected land. home ignitability and fuel load of buildings are very high. therefore high human frequentation in the vicinities of settlements induces high ignition hazard. the hot spots of high fire recurrence often happen in the wildland/urban interface. According to the same authors.Fuels accumulated in vegetation.e. . and mud flows on human population. .Land abandonment is most frequent in periurban areas leading to the accumulation of highly flammable fuels in the Mediterranean (Baeza et al. such as roads. In addition. demonstrated in some of the most dramatic accidents. these programs have been difficult to implement and little effective. .High human and property risk. Therefore. therefore fast intervention is very critical.High risk of structure losses in the first few hours of an incident.Particularities of the wildland/urban interface For fire management. In southern California (Conard and Weise 1998). . taking advantage of natural or man-made barriers. managing fuels near structures (USDA 1996). in general. which complicates the intervention of forest services for fire prevention measures (such as fuel control). there is little real implementation. 1998). But. insurance rating systems. and tackling social and psychological factors (Davis 1990). . zoning regulations. higher potential investments for restoration can be envisaged than in common wildlands. especially in the wildland-urban interface because of the risk of burning structures and public opposition.Hazard of direct impact of post-fire flooding. Conard and Weise (1998) recommend to separate urban interface areas from natural fuels through intensive and rotational fire risk management in these areas.Urban development concentrates on private land. the wildland/urban interface has several characteristics (Davis 1990. mosaic burning through prescribed fire programs was implemented since the 1980s to reduce fuel and decrease the size of wildfires. fire and building codes. prescribed fire applications are restricted for safety reasons. . . 226 . Cohen 1999) that deserve a different approach than open wildland fires. i. Preventive measures Fire prevention in the wildland/urban interface is relatively old as a recognised problem (at least since the 1960’s in the USA) having old solutions as well. In view of these limitations.In general. . . Conard and Weise 1998.Human activities are a major cause for fire occurrence. though sometimes access can be a bottleneck. erosion/sedimentation.
there is autonomic legislation for some regions. 2000). Reduction of the fuel accumulator Ulex parviflorus germination by clearing and spreading slash on soil surface. in Catalonia a cleared protective belt of 25 m around urban settlements should be maintained by the owners. Tourist resorts would require a firebreak strip at least 25 m wide. but there is legislation at the local (community or municipality) level for fire prevention in the periurban zone. Control of fire-prone shrublands in Eastern Spain. Usually there is no federal or national legislation in this regard. Regulations intend to maintain a low fuel load in the home ignition zone.Fire prevention in the immediate wildland-urban interface has the twofold objective of preventing ignition from the urban areas and preventing of damage in the settlements from fires originated in wildland areas (Conard and Weise 1998). 227 . e. e. Vegetation management to reduce fire hazard should consider vegetation dynamics and ecosystem conservation. to reduce flammability of housing materials.g. and to ensure access and proper functioning of extinction systems. Experimental and modelling evidence indicates that fuel reduction may be inefficient at hundred of more meters around homes because the distance is greater than necessary for reducing ignitions from flames. Slash cover reduced seed germination with respect to bare soil. small changes in connectivity by managing the spatial arrangement of fuels may largely influence fire spread (Turner et 40 35 Ulex oarviflorus germination Slash No slash Number of seedlings (m-2) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Figure 1.g. In addition to fuel reduction. Also it is ineffective because it does not sufficiently reduce firebrand production that potentially extend for several kilometres away from structures (Cohen 1999). In these situations. Vélez 2000) or even less. a zone with a 25-60 m radius surrounding the houses (Cohen 2000. 9 m (SGSF 1998). with adjoining trees pruned to a minimum height of 4 m (Leone et al. In Spain. fire prevention is focused on the so-called “home ignition zone”.
. i. Post-fire emergency mitigation/rehabilitation treatments Burned wildlands are exposed to increased water and wind erosion. risk of being affective only late in the first and second post-fire season.e.other hillside treatments: contour trenches. We have developed some experiments on post-fire emergency seeding in Eastern Spain (Vallejo and Alloza 1998). mudflows. namely steep slopes. in fire-prone shrublands dominated by obligate seeders and fuel-accumulators. The first step was to identify those burned areas that might need emergency mitigation measures. Robichaud et al. as they are controversial nowadays. 1989). due to the temporal loss of protective plant and litter cover. . uncertain germination rates. The most common treatments are (Forrest and Harding 1994. The objective of post-fire management actions is to reduce runoff and soil erosion. and this mainly occurs in the vicinity of settlements. and competition of seeded non-native species (e. and promote ecosystem recovery at the same time. including offsite effects (flooding. Clearing techniques should be based on a deep knowledge of the biology of the target plant species (fuel accumulators) in order to optimise the treatments. .al. and low regeneration capacity for vegetation. This paper will concentrate on seeding practices. Lolium multiflorum) with native flora. 228 . clearing treatments spreading slash on soil surface allow reducing fuel load and decrease gorse germination (Figure 1). As an example. several potential shortcomings have been identified for seeding practices: Seeding may not be needed when natural regeneration is efficient. such as gorse (Ulex parviflorus) in eastern Spain.Seeding (aerial or ground) with mulching to promote a fast herbaceous cover to reduce erosion risk. blankets. siltation). gabions.silt fences. those areas dominated by resprouters showed an efficient plant cover regeneration. mostly based on the USA experience. 1996) showed that the post-fire regeneration capacity in eastern Spain was mainly controlled by the presence of resprouting species.contour-felled logs. Often. Previous research (Abad et al. and . and runoff. erodible soil.g. The selection criteria were related to erosion and runoff risk. 2000): . generating a high risk of damage to human properties and lives down slope. In a recent review (Robichaud et al.check dams. These processes can occur close to structures. 2000). fire-prone ecosystems develop after land abandonment in southern Europe.
and unlikely to be improved by seeding treatments. the technique proved to be efficient in protecting vulnerable ecosystems after fire. On the contrary. combining perennials with annuals. This poor plant regeneration was concentrated on south-facing slopes. 100 Dry-sub-humid 80 Semiarid Seeding + Mulching Control 60 Total plant cover (%) * 40 20 0 6 months 18 months 6 months 18 months Figure 2. independent of the uncertain flowering. mulching material (200 gm–2 straw) and inorganic fertiliser. which. The seed mixture included commercially available seeds of native or naturalised herbaceous species. Treated plots showed significantly lower erosion rates than the control plots (Figure 3). Annuals show fast germination ability after the first rain. The different rooting depth and pattern of grasses and legumes. Seeding + mulching treatment significantly increased plant cover in the short-term in semiarid conditions. with almost all introduced species having disappeared after 18 months. Selected erosion-prone plots were seeded right after fires. is highly dependent on post-fire rainfall. and grasses with legumes. post-fire erosion and runoff risk could be assessed from pre-fire conditions that can be obtained from available maps and/or a quick field survey just after a fire. Total plant cover 6 and 18 months after seeding in dry-sub-humid and semiarid burned areas (mean values and standard error). using a mixture of seeds. justify their mixed application. Seeded plots showed a fast recovery of plant cover within two months after application. no inhibition of regrowth of native species was observed in those plots. seed production and germination rate of introduced species. and the potential N-fixing capacity of the latter. Therefore. 229 . plant communities dominated by obligate seeders often show slow plant cover regeneration. whereas perennials allow longer persistence of plants. Therefore. especially significant under semi-arid conditions (Figure 2).quite independent of post-fire weather conditions. Therefore. Measurements taken 6 and 18 months after seeding showed a transient increase in plant cover. in addition.
Seeding + mulching treatment significantly reduced soil loss.35 30 Seeding + Mulching Control Soil loss (Mg ha-1 year-1) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Dry-subhumid Semiarid Figure 3. and also enhanced spontaneous plant growth (Bautista at al. We compared a seeding + mulching treatment with an only mulching treatment (no seeding) and control plots. The study was conducted in a periurban coastal stand moderately impacted by tourist recreation and severely affected by a large wildfire. B1. Soil erosion rates in treated (seeding + mulching) and control plots in dry-sub-humid and semiarid conditions (mean values and standard error). Seeding + Mulching Site B1 Site B2 Site B3 14 17 21 Mulching 9 11 18 Control 18 33 292 230 . B2. Total sediment yield (g m-2) for the first 18 months after treatment application in a semiarid burned pine forest. The two treatments applied showed similar results in terms of increasing plant cover and reducing runoff and erosion. especially for the most vulnerable sites within the burned stand (Table 1). 1996). and B3 sites represent increasing levels in fire severity. in our experimental sites. mulching alone was effective and feasible enough as a mitigation measure after fire. Therefore. Table 1. We performed a subsequent set of erosion-plots experiments in a pine forest under semi-arid conditions. It is interesting to note that mulching alone protected soil surface from post-fire degradation and soil loss.
Escarré A. and to design all interventions in the landscape so to reduce the hazard of fire spread (Turner 1994. Arid Soil Res. Regeneración de los montes quemados. II Int. Valdecantos A. b) Perennials for the persistence of soil protection. V. Luso. 10: 235-242. Vieira F. homes). In: La restauración de la cubierta vegetal en la Comunidad Valenciana. should take into account the principles of fire prevention (Vélez 1990). all restoration projects for burned lands in fire-prone ecosystems. Vallejo ed. Valencia. and d) Shrubs and trees to enhance secondary succession. various alternatives are proposed to the shortcomings of seeding treatments: 1) Previous assessment of natural regeneration potential: a) selection of areas with poor regeneration potential (e. on Forest Fire Research. Structural changes in relation to age in fire-prone mediterranean shrubland. Carbó E. Mulching treatment for postfire soil conservation in a semiarid ecosystem.R. Bellot J & Vallejo VR (1996). to promote more resilient and late-successional vegetation (Vallejo and Alloza 1998). and Rehab. Bautista S. Acknowledgements This research has been supported by the Regional Government of Valencia (Generalitat Valenciana) and Fundación Bancaixa. being either seeding or plantation. 231 . compact soils). Bonet A. 2) Spreading mulch (preferably onsite slash) to ensure immediate soil protection 3) Selection of seeding mixtures using native species: a) Fast growing annuals. Baeza J. Guardia R. Bladé C. Raventós J.g. to reduce fuel accumulator species. (1998). 51-148. E.. to avoid mono-culture plantations. CEAM. Raventós J & Escarré A. Forman and Collinge 1996). and c) high downstream risk of damage (infrastructures. Serrasolsas I. References Abad N. 2567-2578. b) high runoff and erosion risk (steep slope.g. Caturla RN. Protugal. low resprouters cover). c) Grasses and legumes. Confer. In general.According to Robichaud et al (2000) and our own experience described above. Baeza MJ. Bellot J & Vallejo VR (1996). Vol II. Alloza JA.
Conard SG & Weise DR (1998). Fort Collins.. and Vélez.. Springer-Verlag. In: Neleman G & Trabaud L (Eds): 335-353. Beyers JL & Neary DG (2000). JM (Ed): Large forest fires. brutia Forest Ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. The Netherlands. Moreno. Station. Saracino A. 88 (1): 26-31. Ecology. no. 342-350. Backhuys Pub. Erosion and sediment control: Preventing additional disasters after the southern California fires.L.. Pp. Tech. 232 . 3-16. Reducing the wildland fire threat to homes: Where and how much? USDA Forest Service Gen. J. Rep. Leiden. Recent history of forest fires in Spain. En: R.. DeGraaf and R. USA. and fire effects in southern California chaparral: lessons from the past and thoughts for the future. Leone V. In: T. Pruden and L.. Miller (Eds) Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes: 537-569. In: Moreno. Trabaud L & Vélez R (2000). Biogeography and Management of Pinus halepensis and P.I. Tech. Evaluating the effectiveness of postfire rehabilitation treatments. Management of fire regime. 20.A. fuels. Vázquez. Pausas JG & Vallejo VR (1999). Blackhuys Publ. The „spatial solution“ to conserving biodiversity in landscapes and regions. Brennan (Eds) Fire in ecosystem management: shifting the paradigm from suppression to prescription. Remote sensing of large wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin. Tallahassee. R. Forman RTT & Collinge SK (1996). 1998. Gen. Davis J (1990).M. Forest Service. PSW-GTR-173. USA. Rep. A. Soil and Water Conservation 49(6): 535-541. The wildland-urban interface: Paradise or battleground? J. Moreno ed.. RMRS-GTR-63. Rocky Mountain Res.M. J. J. Leiden.M. Preventing disaster: home ignitability in the wildland-urban interface. In: Chuvieco E. USDA. Forestry. 189-195 Cohen JD (2000).Cohen JD (1999). (Ed): pp. Forestry 98(3):15-21. J. Fire prevention and management policies in west Mediterranean pine forests. Station. The role of fire in European Mediterranean ecosystems. London. Tall Timbers Res. 159-185. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference Proc. Robichaud PR. Forrest CL & Harding MV (1994). Chapman & Hall.
USDA Forest Service. Otras infraestructuras preventivas. Vallejo VR & Alloza JA (1998). USA. Fuera de Serie nº 1: 561-571.SGSF (Southern Group of State Foresters) (1998). USDA (1996). Vélez R (1990).us/land/wdfire.. Vélez R (2000).86. A forester’s handbook for the wildland/ urban interface. Dale VH & O’Neill R V (1989). Atlanta.htm). Federal wildland policy. Landscape Ecology 9(1): 59-77. USDA Forest Service. Turner MG. Avaliable online at: (http:// www. Ecología. Backhuys. In: Moreno JM (Ed) Large forest fires: 91-108. In: Vélez R (Ed) La defensa contra incendios forestales: 14. Predicting the spread of disturbance across heterogeneous landscapes. The restoration of burned lands: the case of eastern Spain.82-14.fed. Oikos 55: 121–129. Turner MG. When the forest becomes a community. Landscape dynamics in crown fire ecosystems. McGraw-Hill. Algunas observaciones para una selvicultura preventiva de incendios forestales. Leiden. Holland. (1994).fs. Gardner RH. Madrid. 233 .
Chapter 6 Partnerships for urban forestry 235 .
Yorkshire Forward commissioned Leeds Metropolitan University (LMU) to research and collate a wide range of statistical indicators about the region. and be educated”. The UK Government addressed this issue in December 1997. The project initially concentrated on the five local authority metropolitan districts of West Yorkshire. including all the cities. Yorkshire Forward recognised that rapid improvement in attracting and retaining inward investment into the area could be facilitated by combining commercial success with environmental improvement. The subsequent ‘Regional Development Agencies Act’ (November 1998) set up nine Regional Development Agencies (RDA’s). To assist in developing this vision. The project aimed to increase the total 237 . villages and their rural hinterland. towns. particularly by significantly increasing the tree and woodland cover of the region and by being at the cutting edge of sustainable development. strong and globally competitive. Yorkshire Forward articulated a vision of a “world class region. This was officially launched on 1st August 2000 as the White Rose Forest (WRF). when it published a White Paper entitled ‘Building Partnerships for Prosperity’. In the preface to its new Regional Development Strategy. one of which was the Yorkshire and Humber RDA. it was decided to develop a strategy for enhancing the tree and woodland cover of the Yorkshire region. its environment and its quality of life. which set out government plans for the development of the English Regions. now known as Yorkshire Forward. its economy. work and play. Faculty of Health and Environment. After a programme of consultation with the National Urban Forestry Unit (NUFU) and numerous other agencies. Leeds Metropolitan University Brunswick Building.The White Rose Forest – A Catalyst for the Regeneration of a Region Alan Simson Landscape at Leeds Research Group. a good region within which to live. As a result of this research. United Kingdom Abstract It is generally believed that there is a ‘north – south divide’ in the UK. largely brought about by the undue centralisation of economic power on London and the southeast region. Leeds LS2 8BU.
and Northern Ireland has a measure of self-determination as well. regional development agency. there is a measure of unemployment. and those who live in the south. which would entail the planting of a minimum of 4000 ha of new woodland planting. when the government published a White Paper entitled ‘Building Partnerships for Prosperity’. historically speaking. Joking apart. Like all good urban myths. or more accurately a ‘south-east – all other regions’ divide. its core aims and priorities and the key actions involved in its delivery. as might be expected. in terms of economic performance. there is full employment. Introduction There are those who say that there is a division between the people who live in the north of the UK. In December 1997. by not recognising that each region has its own aspirations. it was the turn of the English regions. ‘one size fits all’ economic policy based on London. regional regeneration. The subsequent Regional Development Agencies Act of November 1998 set up nine 238 . The vision of the White Rose Forest was to “create a genuinely sustainable wellwooded landscape which will benefit the people. too much power – particularly economic power – has been centred on London. are leaving for richer pickings elsewhere. it is not quite as simple as that. woodland. The paper will conclude by suggesting that the White Rose Forest could be considered as a national model for promoting the positive role that trees and woodland can play in helping to deliver the wide range of policies of a Regional Development Agency. despoiled landscape. trees. then the English regions caught a bad cold. It has been suggested that. training and research. The UK government has made some progress with trying to address this issue.5 % by 2016. including its role as a forum for cross-authority working. its own set of problems. things are not so good. Key words: urban forestry. Wales and Scotland now enjoy a measure of devolution. there is a post-industrial. there is a quality environment. if London sneezed. the quality of life is compromised and people. the government were contributing to this so-called ‘northsouth divide’. catalyst. What is true is that. particularly young people. which set out plans for the development of the English regions. the economy and the wildlife of (West) Yorkshire”. The implication is that in the north.woodland cover of the region to at least 6. the implication is that the quality of life is good. what this means is that by setting a rigid. This paper considers the rationale behind this vision. there is a grain of truth in it although. and probably its own ways of trying to solve them. life has a certain ‘style’ to it. In the south however.
the region was ranked 36 out of 38 when compared against other comparable regions in the EU with regard to the percentage of 16-18 year olds who were in some kind of education or training. It covers a huge area.to achieve higher business births and survival rates. and it is predicted that over 10 % of the population under the age of 30 will have left the region by 2016. producing just over 10 % of all UK graduates. It is to be “the driving force behind the economic regeneration of Yorkshire & Humber. including environmental quality. learning and skills.Regional Development Agencies (RDA’s). There are 9 universities and over 40 colleges in the region.3 people/ha in parts of the north of the region and 10. the RDA articulated six prime objectives: . in excess of 15. As part of the preparation for their new strategy. there being an average of 0. as well as being responsible for delivering some services directly.to get the best from the region’s physical and environmental assets. and .to target community-based regeneration programmes. . The region of Yorkshire & Humber is a strange admixture of contrasts. one of which was the Yorkshire & Humber RDA. . .To grow the region’s businesses.to improve education. The region has an ageing population. This research presented a picture of Yorkshire & Humber’s regional performance across a wide range of regional issues and performance indicators. They are not evenly distributed.6 people/ha). now known as Yorkshire Forward. Yorkshire and Humber Region Regional Development Agencies have both a wide networking role and a policy development brief. and has a population of more than 5 million people – approximately the same as Scotland or slightly less than Denmark. the region was not performing well. . but their core task is to revitalise their region by developing and delivering a new.to attract and retain more inward investment. the Yorkshire & Humber RDA Project Team commissioned Leeds Metropolitan University to undertake a study of the region to produce a series of baseline studies (LMU 1998). although there were many significant success stories and new regeneration opportunities. visionary Regional Economic Strategy. and yet in 1996. The broad conclusion was that.39 people / ha in parts of the south (the UK average is 3. Yorkshire Forward’s vision is simple and straightforward.500 km2. our businesses and our environment” (Yorkshire Forward 1999a). The region’s GDP was only 87 % of 239 . delivering a programme of change that will make a positive difference to our people. To achieve this.
the Forestry Commission was being reorganised by having their regional administrative boundaries re-drawn to co-inside with the new RDA boundaries.6 % average woodland cover in England. was the fact that the region had one of the lowest percentages of woodland cover in the UK (4. It was recognised by the RDA Project Team that rapid improvement in attracting and retaining inward investment into the area could only be made by combining business success with environmental improvement. 240 . and particularly urban forestry. being at the cutting edge of sustainable development. and also to encourage the development of new urban forestry initiatives that demonstrate ‘achievement through partnership’ approaches. low investment in research and development and poor small firm formation and survival rates. and thus the concept of the White Rose Forest was born (Simson in press).3 %).Forestry for Rural Development. Worst of all. Under the English Strategy. Access & Tourism. This compares very unfavourably with the 7. and is way behind that found in many mainland European countries.Forestry for Recreation. although parts of Sheffield. let alone the average UK cover of 10. they published a new series of strategic priorities and programmes under the guise of a new English Forest Strategy (Forestry Commission 1998). and significantly increasing the tree and woodland cover of the region (Yorkshire Forward 1999b).Forestry for Economic Regeneration. regional programme of urban forestry as a catalyst for the regeneration of the region. low employment in the high technology sectors. persuaded Yorkshire Forward of the merits of using a long-term. It is interesting to note that whilst the Regional Development Agencies were beginning to find their feet. Wakefield has the lowest woodland cover of any British local authority (3. Wales and Scotland were to have their own strategies.5 %). Depressing though these statistics are. from the urban forestry point of view.Forestry for Environment & Conservation. And yet the regional capital. and . . Specifically pledged under the latter was a commitment to encourage the RDA’s to use forestry & woodland programmes to help deliver their vision. they did serve a purpose. the City of Leeds. . This new strategy represented a significant step forward for forestry. in the UK. which is gradually increasing the local woodland cover. Worst still.8 %. has the fastest-growing city economy in the whole of the UK (LMU 1998).the EU average in 1996. More significantly however. with low levels of manufacturing investment. Rotherham and Barnsley benefit from being part of the South Yorkshire Community Forest. in partnership with a number of other organisations. four Programme Actions were proposed: . An early initiative by the National Urban Forestry Unit (NUFU).
Caution was thrown to the wind in July of that year. it was deemed politically wise to limit the project to west Yorkshire. The project was officially launched on 1 August 2000 in the City of Bradford. when it was agreed to change the name of the project to the White Rose Forest (WRF). These were: . the five local authorities that make up West Yorkshire.to secure the resources to enable the partners to implement the strategy. An outline strategy was also published that endeavoured to set out the first steps that would be required in order to progress the project. economy and wildlife of (West) Yorkshire” (NUFU 2000).To establish a lead body capable of shaping and championing the strategy. . although at that time. The mission statement for the White Rose Forest states that it is to “create a genuinely sustainable well-wooded landscape which will benefit the people.The White Rose Forest Strategy Stimulated by their own beliefs in large-scale urban forestry and bolstered by a number of UK governments reports (DETR 1999). thus declaring the project’s regional aspirations by adopting the floral emblem of Yorkshire. this list of partners has remained the same. There was sufficient unanimity of purpose amongst the assembled potential partners for a Forest Strategy Consultation report to be commissioned and published by NUFU in February 2000. . although several other local authorities have expressed an interest in joining the partnership. To date.to raise public awareness of the benefits of more trees and woodland in and around towns. and . a one day seminar was held in Bradford in the September of 1999 to fully discuss the project. and following wide consultation and an appraisal of existing regional and sub-regional planning and policy initiatives. the National Urban Forestry Unit (NUFU). a sub-region of the county (Groundwork Wakefield 2000). and some 15 other institutions and organisations who had a commitment to or an interest in delivering the Forest on the ground (Simson in press).to develop demonstration projects to promote the forest concepts. . NUFU commissioned a feasibility study into this potential regional urban forestry project (NUFU 1999). the Government Office for Yorkshire & The Humber.to relate the White Rose Forest Strategy to the rest of the region’s land-use planning framework.to make an inventory of existing and potential woodland sites to identify opportunities for planting. . The partnership comprised Yorkshire Forward. This would be achieved by establishing three core aims: 241 . public access and the enhancement of bio-diversity.
planting and aftercare by: . .Creating a more attractive setting for housing. the Chairman of Yorkshire Forward. Social aims – to involve local communities in site identification. . planning. A greater investment in the planting and management of trees and woodlands will bring all kinds of benefits. The fortunes of the region are bound to improve as a consequence. . and . quantity and physical continuity of tree and woodland cover in (West) Yorkshire. This meets every other month and is supplemented by quarterly meetings of a Land Use Survey Group. . stabilise and reclaim dereliction. . chaired by the author. Environmental aims . as a means of increasing the region’s capacity to attract and retain successful businesses by: .giving priority to areas identified for future development. business and commerce. to the reclamation of wasted land and reduced storm-water flooding.to improve the environment of (West) Yorkshire.to increase the quality.Economic aims .Protecting and enhancing existing woodland areas of conservation value. and . from cleaner air and more accessible wildlife. Of vital important was the fact that this strategy was wholeheartedly politically endorsed by Graham Hall.involving the business community in planning for new woodland. plant and manage trees and woodland where appropriate.helping to market local wood products.targeting resources to the priority areas. ecological and social value. and .respecting landscape character when designing new woodlands. historical. and in particular the economic benefits that would accrue from the project.assessing sites for existing archaeological.selecting plant species which are appropriate to the local landscape. reduce the risk of flooding and enhance bio-diversity by: . . training and employment objectives in the planning and design of woodland projects.consulting with local people when planting is proposed by WRF partners. .relating the White Rose Forest to national sustainability indicators. He said: “The future economic sustainability of Yorkshire and Humber is linked directly to the quality of life of local people.Encouraging and promoting safe and easy access to woodland.helping community groups to identify sites and to plan. on a scale that will improve air quality. .” (NUFU 2000) The management of the project Responsibility for running the WRF is taken by a Steering Group and Development Team. an External Funding Group and The 242 . and the environment plays a vital role in both.including economic.
and in September of this year. .) has been agreed between the partners for the C establishment of new woodland. and he is responsible for collating the annual planting programme. However. Future developments Thus.river valleys. . significant achievements have already been made. funding was secured to appoint a White Rose Forest Partnership Manager. which include: .the old coalfield area. Community liaison is particularly important. Priority areas for planting have been identified. only 44 ha of new woodland having been planted between the 1998/99 and 2000/2001 planting seasons. initially for a period of a year. (approximately = 19.000/ ha. and although the momentum is building up. and . and drawing up a Business Plan for the Forest. primarily so that the White Rose Forest can access grant aid for tree planting or 243 . and although the cost may seem high. but with the additional remit to promote the project politically and commercially. The Foot and Mouth epidemic in the UK during the spring and early summer of 2001 was partially responsible for these low figures during the last planting season. the momentum is building up with the 2001/2 season’s programme being about 40 ha. It has also proved necessary to draw up a legal agreement between the partners.extensions to existing local initiatives. and to help with that task in the multi-ethnic communities of the industrial areas of Yorkshire. and the figures for 2002/3 and 2003/4 are provisionally 54 ha and 60 ha respectively. to take on some of this load. but what of the future? It was always envisaged that it would take a generation to achieve the White Rose Forest. in consultation with the project partners. This guarantees funding for a five-year establishment period. . because access to potential planting land was prohibited. The Development Officer has a heavy workload.675/ha.000 (= 8. . A Development Officer has been in post since January 2000. the White Rose Forest leaflets have been produced in a number of ethnic minority languages. it does include a contingency sum of £5.Transport corridors.Development Officer Management Group.areas of social and economic deprivation. liasing with appropriate grant-making organisations.potential links between significant existing woodlands. the amount of new planting achieved to date is lower than had been hoped.195) which can be claimed should poor site conditions demand additional C investment to ensure that robust woodland is quickly established. A standard price of £12.
might not consider themselves to be ‘pro-urban trees’. One such liaison has occurred between the White Rose Forest Partnership and a regional organisation known as Concourse. Part of CABE’s remit is to set up Regional Centres for the Built Environment. the spectrum of people with whom urban foresters should be involved extends far beyond what might be termed ‘urban tree people’. an organisation set up by the government to take over much of the role played by the Royal Fine Arts Commission in championing good design in the built environment. In other words. It is sometimes hard to persuade local politicians of the economic merits of a project such as the White Rose Forest. Selected objectives from the RES have been chosen to illustrate the most significant contributions that the WRF can make. which in turn assists the promotion of the project as a single entity. In order to deliver these significant contributions. but a Joint Venture Agreement has been drawn up. and a high-profile media event will be staged in the spring of 2002 to re-state the commitment of the various partners to the project and to raise the political profile of the project in the region.research purposes. The dialogue with Concourse is significant. The White Rose Forest has begun to do this. It is likely to involve liaison with political and professional colleagues who. a registered charity dedicated to the support and promotion of multi. It is also a useful cement to bind the Partnership closer together in common purpose. Finding a form of agreement that was acceptable to local authorities. including urban forestry. voluntary organisations and charitable bodies has not been easy. in conjunction with all the professional institutes associated with the 244 . in the normal run of events. and to progress urban forestry on a regional scale. in order to secure appropriate levels of resourcing. Such activity is of crucial importance to the future success of the White Rose Forest. Large or regional scale environmental improvement initiatives such as this find themselves in competition with demands for funding from other large-scale projects. A final draft will be agreed by January 2002. because Concourse has had discussions with the Council for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE). public limited companies. infrastructure or transport projects. both financially and in terms of land-use allocation.and inter-disciplinary professional working in the construction and design industries. for regional-scale environmental improvement works. and it is becoming increasingly necessary to be able to justify environmental improvement investment programmes in terms of the economic benefits which will accrue as a result of their implementation. such as new business or commercial start-up support. there must be a sound economic rationale behind the proposals. Figure 1 indicates the potential contributions that the White Rose Forest can make to Yorkshire Forward’s Regional Economic Strategy (RES).
local groups and businesses to be effective partners. community-based regeneration programmes to improve the living standards of the Region’s most deprived communities: Deliverables: A) Develop sustainable neighbourhoods: C) Increase the capacity of individuals. Directly through woodland establishment on disused and derelict land. and the acquisition of skills and experience. The establishment and management of woodland for recreational use and the sustainable harvesting of woodland for G) Promote initiatives to make better use of natural resources: Figure 1. Work with local Groundwork Trusts on community enterprises ( eg Wakefield and the proposal for a Community Forester. Promote Yorkshire as an increasingly green place to live and work. targeting key sites along the motorway network with the Highways Agency. improved air quality). contributing to highquality urban landscapes. Selected objectives of yorkshire forward’s regional economic strategy deliverable by the White Rose Forest (WRF).Objective 3: to attract and retain more investment by providing the right product for investors and more effective marketing of the Region: Deliverables: A) Market the Region more effectively: Delivery through the WRF: Woodland planting to improve the major transport corridors. Objective 6: getting the best out of the Region’s physical assets and conserving and enhancing its environmental assets: Deliverables: C) Optimise the availability of land and property for business: E) Protect and enhance the Region’s environment: Delivery through the WRF: The establishment of a wooded landscape infrastructure. and indirectly from the environmental benefits of tree cover (eg. B) Increase inward investment: Objective 5: Implement targeted. Through street tree and city centre arboretum projects. to influence decisions and to participate in Regional initiatives: D) Regenerate the region’s town and city centres: E) Encourage community enterprise: Delivery through the WRF: Working with local communities to improve their local environment Through participation in the development and delivery of schemes. eg. 245 . contributing to the supply of high-quality sites for development.
In other words. makes it entirely. but initiatives have started to develop. as well as networks of artists and other agencies. location is everything. and was endorsed by the government’s Urban White Paper (DETR 2000). if there are any in local authority ownership. The application and bid to CABE for setting up the initial phase of this centre was submitted on 31st October 2001. this was deemed to be essential. “is there an opportunity cost associated with the holding of the asset?” To date. this has been defined narrowly. and in some cases. multi-disciplinary working. Urban forestry can help to create location. or woodlands. This was one of the recommendations of Richard Rogers’ Urban Task Force. such as bridges. There are plans however to include other structures.built environment. as well as providing a catalyst for the social. together with prime areas of developable land. indeed it must if the concept of urban 246 . Research and discussion within the Partnership have agreed that the economic value of a piece of commercial real estate depends just as much on where it is. as what it is. Thus trees and urban forestry deserve to be included in every local authority’s Asset Management Plan. First. It has taken a while for this sort of activity to get off the ground. or urban green space generally. which is reviewed annually. There is cross-party political backing for the project. In assessing which assets should be included in the Plan. and to provide opportunities for cross-authority. art treasures and museum artefacts. Why not? The selection criteria that deems what can be included in an Asset Management Plan would certainly apply to trees and urban forestry. experiences and information. the White Rose Forest would act as a forum for the partners to exchange ideas. and it can be responsible for up to two thirds of the value of a commercial asset. if progress was to be made in promoting urban forestry within the region and expanding its influence. two questions are asked. Conclusion In conclusion. and urban forestry and the White Rose Forest Partnership have been in on the ground floor of these negotiations. possibly public squares. The likely location for the Yorkshire & Humber Regional Centre is Leeds. although there will be several satellite centres in other towns and cities around the region. Indeed. and stocks and shares. and it is only really the property portfolio of the local authority that features in these Asset Management Plans. All local authorities in England are required by central government to draw up an Asset Management Plan. One such initiative that will hopefully bear fruit in the future is investigating the concept of ‘green asset management’. training and research. it was always intended that. But not trees. and secondly. “is there a maintenance liability associated with the asset?”. economic and environmental regeneration of the Yorkshire Region.
Groundwork Wakefield (2000). November 2000. A report for the Yorkshire and The Humberside Regional Development Agency. Department of Environment. References DETR (1998). The state of the region. The Regional Development Agency Act. NUFU (1999). Groundwork Wakefield. DETR (1999). London. Professionals involved in urban forestry should understand the benefits of multidisciplinary working. London. Transport & the Regions. European Regional Business and Economic Development Unit. and whether they turn out to be a good example of multi-disciplinary. Leeds. London. DETR (2000). Forestry Commission (1998). or organised or monitored.forestry is to be accepted as a prime mover in the regional or local regeneration game. The West Yorkshire Forest: A strategy report. A focus for England’s woodlands . and the creativity of the shared experience.Strategic priorities and programmes: 16. Wolverhampton. Transport & the Regions. A better quality of life: A strategy for sustainable development in the UK. Forestry Commission. We sometimes need to work hard at fanning the embers of the sort of productive relationships between individuals. or legislated for. 247 . National Urban Forestry Unit. Department of Environment. groups or partners that cannot be easily defined. cross-authority working and research. If such a working relationship can be achieved within the White Rose Forest Partnership. Leeds Metropolitan University. The West Yorkshire Urban Forest : The planning context for a West Yorkshire Strategy. Our towns and cities: The future – delivering an urban renaissance. then it could well become a powerful model of an urban forestry-stimulated catalyst for regional regeneration for other regions to seriously consider. but where there is nevertheless a genuine delight in the culture of the shared experience and the resulting progress made. LMU (1998). It will be interesting to see whether progress can be made with these discussions.
248 . Yorkshire and Humber Regional Planning Guidance: 58. Paper given to IUFRO’s 4th European Forum on Urban Forestry. Yorkshire Forward. Leeds.NUFU (2000). Yorkshire Forward. Simson AJ (in press). Regional Regeneration and the White Rose Forest. Yorkshire Forward (1999b). Yorkshire Forward (1999a). The White Rose Forest: A strategy for urban and rural renewal in West Yorkshire using trees and woodland. Turning the vision into reality: A regional economic strategy for Yorkshire and Humber. UK. National Urban Forestry Unit. Wolverhampton. May 2000. Leeds. Proceedings. Durham.
The willingness of local authorities to provide space for them to take part in the planning process is often limited to the level of their direct living environment. this paper aims to summarise and discuss a vision on the approach of participatory planning for large-scaled urban greening. Although there is a trend to base planning processes on broad discussion and an interactive dialogue. and the number of groups getting involved and their powers are increasing. the 249 .Challenges of Neighbourhood Participation in City-Scale Urban Green-space Planning Ann Van Herzele Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Belgium Abstract This paper deals with an unique example of how an active strategy of internal and external negotiation together with the early involvement of public actors led to consensus for creating a new 17 ha park in a former railway yard in the city of Antwerp (northern Belgium). wellmeaning attempts and experiences have shown that involving the public in large-scale urban renewal plans is quite problematic. the long time span and the abstract level of the discussions. the diversity of stakeholders. The aims were to generate a creative input from the public and to initiate a participatory process in the long term. public participation. Introduction The participation of people in shaping their local environment plays a central role in the creation of liveable neighbourhoods. Laarbeeklaan 103. The large scale of the plans bring many obstacles to effective public involvement such as the diversity of the stakeholders. In addition. In an attempt to cope with these problems. B1090 Brussel. On the other hand. informal participatory workshops involving ‘key actors’ were organised parallel to and interactively with the formal visionary process. Consequently. individual citizens hardly get a chance to participate in this market of negotiations. Key Words: urban greenspace. greenspace planning. it is difficult to provide an overview of the large scale of this project with its somewhat unlimited possibilities and alternatives. The main obstacles are the multiple-level interests. Department of Human Ecology. Comparable experiments abroad have shown that involving the public in large-scale urban renewal plans is quite problematic. Based on these experiences. projects planned on a higher level for example where city issues are at stake .often lack public understanding because the impact on the surrounding neighbourhoods is neglected.
Van Herzele & Wiedemann in press) showed that the neighbourhoods of Antwerp North are the most problematic in the supply of green spaces on different functional levels. In April 2001 the city government established a three step planning procedure. Activities in this phase will be the clean up of the soils. The case was chosen as it demonstrates so many challenges shared much more broadly. high percentage of migrants. was finished. 250 . Study context The planning process concerns a former railway yard (24 ha) which is situated in the northern part of Antwerp.multiple levels of interest. the long time span and the abstract level of the discussions. denselybuilt neighbourhoods provide housing to over 35. In the third step the city will conduct the further project development in co-operation with other parties involved. The surrounding. the district of Antwerp North (Flanders. poor urban design etc. northern Belgium). In addition. 2000. it is difficult to provide an overview of the large scale of the project with its manifold possibilities and alternatives. as well as to answer the many questions on where and what kind of greening should be developed.000 inhabitants and are characterised by low income levels. This paper addresses possible approaches to acting and organising in the face of those obstacles related to the complex situation of a the visionary process for an urban renewal project in a former railway yard in the city of Antwerp. This study was meant to provide essential elements for the underpinning of the park idea. In the framework of this study a participatory approach was developed with the aim to generate a creative input from the public and to initiate a participatory process in the long term. the Railway Company. unemployment. between the city centre and the port of Antwerp. The largest part (17 ha) was designated to become a park and the remaining area in the western side for business development. This paper deals with the first step of the planning procedure in which the city aims to create clarity about the objectives and to “speak with one voice” during the external negotiations. In autumn 2001 a successful external negotiation with the property owner. It particularly draws on the experiences from the study ‘Groen op het Spoor’ (Van Herzele 2001) which was commissioned by the city authority to support the visionary process. In the first step an internal consensus was reached on the future role of the area and the preconditions for development. a recent study (Van Herzele et al. In addition. the draw up of the land use plan and the organisation of an architectural competition.
which is a very strategic one. Planners might be strongly influenced 251 .Critical issues and obstacles to effective involvement To develop an appropriate approach this study started to consider a range of critical issues in large-scale planning contexts. there often exists a drive to use urban development (including city parks) as a prestige object and even as a marketing promotion feature. The overview is based on the exploration of comparable experiences elsewhere and the observations made in this case. may have significance to the totality of an urban area for recreation. Empirical studies do assume that green spaces fulfil different functions at different levels (see: Van Herzele & Wiedemann in press). Many alternatives Large-sized open spaces. presenting the city as attractive for investment. while at the same time they have a strong connection with the very local popular culture and social life. In this context the creation of greening is often seen as a visually attractive adjunct or as an environmentally conscious backdrop to development rather than as a necessary element to support the quality of life. as urban development increasingly needs to act in a market-led world where productivity and financial benefits are in the centre of attention. In a participatory process dealing with large spaces. These issues make social interaction and more particularly the engagement of the wider public most difficult. Multiple-level interests Even when green space creation gets a serious chance in the development process conflicts of interest are likely to arise from the wide range of claims for attention. In addition. tourism etc. In many examples the conflicting requirements of providing space for business. Complexity in decision-making Decision-making involved on the level of large developments. housing and infrastructure and the demand of the residents for green spaces have constrained the participation process as the polarisation of those demands has deadlocked communication. which have so far remained undeveloped. planning in large-scale urban development shares many challenges. the shift in landuse policy towards a more compact city form puts first pressure on those open spaces. In addition. is inherently political rather than technical. City parks. for example. In case of large development areas the geographical area of interest is not easily recognisable to both local authorities and inhabitants. conflicts may arise between the everyday needs of the immediate community and the demands of the larger community. It seemed that even in largely different contexts. there is limited room to manoeuvre. In contrast. especially when located in densely built areas provide a somewhat unlimited array of possibilities and alternatives for development.
Many examples have shown that only when plans become tangible or conceivable participants become active. Long time span Involving people in a planning process does arouse expectations and hopes for the future. The complexity and confidentiality of negotiations and the unpredictability of outcomes are extremely difficult to manage in face of the public. negotiations operate in a multiplicity of formal and informal arenas and microprocesses within institutions and among local business interests may play a prominent role. a vision on the overall approach was developed. On the other hand lack of openness may cause uncertainty and distrust among the public and consequently block their willingness to participate. Moreover. on the short term local residents will be confronted with the inconveniences caused by works in the area. planners may feel hindered when too detailed issues are raised at this level of general strategic choices. Continuation in communication over such a long time span is difficult to organise and is often constrained by a loss of engagement among participants. realisations in the field will probably only become visible after many years. In the case of a large-scale development. Defining the area’s role as a whole It was seen as crucial to first decide on the role and main function of the area as a whole by means of describing clear alternatives from the very beginning of the process. the description of each refers to practical experiences from application in this case. In an effort to make the vision on the approach more concrete. Residents and neighbourhood groups have been requesting a park for several years. diverse development scenarios have been proposed ranging from industrial 252 . Vision on the participatory approach Following the objectives of the study and in response to the described methodological challenges. Within the city departments. Moreover. It is described using five key characteristics. In the case of Antwerp North many uncertainties have arisen about the new role of the railway yard during the past years. On the other hand. which may also be conductive to its negative image. Abstract level of discussions A common question in participatory planning is the difficulty to engage people with strategic level planning where issues are discussed at a higher level of abstraction without being made concrete in practical measures. however.by political pressures and external circumstances such as budgetary constraints rather than being driven from an articulated view of community needs.
A parallel process of formal and informal visioning The visionary process established by the city government used the format of three ‘Thinking Days’. the decision made about the park scenario in the first Thinking Day has allowed for a more open discussion in the workshops about the park qualities without arousing false hopes. The results were discussed in the first ‘Thinking Day’ of the formal visionary process (see the next paragraph). In this very early planning phase the quantitative assessment using GIS has worked as ‘strategic ammunition’ leading to quickly balancing a series of competing claims and interests by quantifying the more ‘intangible’ benefits of urban greening.g. The experience from this case was that the visualisation of the impact of the different development scenarios has helped the city officials to see how the proposed scenarios will change the deficiencies and has supported the choice for the park idea as the main function of the area.development or the construction of a road to the creation of a park. the demand for housing provision. Supported by this decision. the participating officials were given the choice between a park with importance for the surrounding neighbourhoods or a park with importance for a considerable part of the city. which was presented for discussion in the first participatory workshop. Parallel to this internal negotiation forum two participatory meetings were organised within the framework of the ‘Groen op het Spoor’ study. Based on the quantitative results. the lack of green-space) and in negotiating about the proposed planning concept for development using feasibility requirements. The latter opinion was adopted. the city’s vision on economic development. Administrators from different city departments as well as politicians and external experts were invited by the city planning team to develop a shared vision on the function of the area and to set preconditions for development. involving ‘key actors’ 253 . In contrast with the formal visionary procedure. the adequacy of transportation. In a first step the deficiencies of green spaces’ supply within the potential ‘catchment area’ of the railway yard were assessed on two functional levels (city quarter or 800 m and city district or 1600 m). It was decided to assess the main scenarios using a Geograhical Information System (GIS) tool for the detection of their impact on the supply of green spaces on different functional levels (see: Van Herzele & Wiedemann in press). The results were linked to the demographic data of the neighbourhoods located within the catchment areas. Next a simulation exercise was carried out using the different development scenarios discussed during that time. which means that it was decided that the park should have an unbroken surface of at least 10 ha and greenspace should be the dominant function of the former railway yard. these meetings operated with a creative orientation. During the meetings the city officials worked together in prioritising between often conflicting goals (e. the planners were able to develop a first planning concept. Moreover.
During the second workshop the planners presented new ideas and solutions in response to the outcome of the first one and raised issues to be explored more in detail in workshop activities. public agencies (culture. being representatives of neighbourhood groups. regeneration practitioners. At the beginning of the first workshop the city planning team presented their first conceptual ideas which were used as a starting point for discussion. About forty people collaborated. The creative workshop approach has enabled to interactively build rich ideas. The objective was to create a free and informal setting which could provide distance from pressures: no decisions to make. youth workers. improvisation and reflective reasoning both in the concept development by the planners and the organisation of interactions between the two processes. housing. However. sports. the informal forum was not always able to stay clear from strategic considerations. A constant and main concern of the ‘Groen op het Spoor’ study has been the interaction between both processes and in particular the implementation of the ideas from the workshops into the formal process.). health workers. As a formal document it was approved by the city government in September 2001 and has gone through the external negotiation process in October 2001 In this case. There the ideas from the workshops were welcomed as ‘high quality’ and it was decided to also include the workshop minutes into the Consensus Note (2001). and independent local residents as well. crime prevention. to freely exchange interests and concerns within a wide scope of possibilities and in direct contact with the professionals. the parallel construction allowed for flexibility. Mixed level involvement In the context of a large-scale development it is important to simultaneously 254 . This was particularly clear where the desirability of business development in a part of the area was discussed.implementation could not be foreseen at the outset. The outcome was successful and was taken on board by the planning team in producing their planning concept and it was decided to present the workshop results in the third Thinking Day. A main element is that such settings are more likely to provide quick and optimal results as polarisation of interests is less likely to occur.. no interests to defend etc. Furthermore. as the outcome of the Creative Workshops could not be predicted . sustainable development. the outcome could provide a creative input to the formal policy forum where more instrumental and rational considerations were dominating the discourses. etc. a priest.for discussion in ‘Creative Workshops’. and so forth.some scepticism was even apparent in the planning team . and give participants greater freedom to pursue ways of thinking. ethnic minorities. The participants felt that they had to anticipate the external negotiations with the property owner by providing the necessary feasibility conditions. local schools. business actors. which was the end product of the visionary process. However.
This should make the neighbourhoods more important within the context of the whole city. city tourism etc. safety. Therefore. It was aimed to cover the main interests and controversies (leisure. social welfare work. In the case described here. youth. participants have not only begun to see another’s point of view but also could break away from assumptions taken for granted about each other’s ways of thinking. schools. health. Considerations were simultaneously given to a variety of functional levels ranging from the surrounding neighbourhoods to the whole city and even wider. for example.g. local residents were surprised that officials working at the city level were thinking along the same lines as they do. The creative workshops were designed as a mixed level negotiation platform for people to identify with interests and considerations at different city levels (from very local to city level). as well as to bring in people with a key position in neighbourhood surveillance. From participants’ reactions after the workshops it became clear that the mixed level approach has had a learning effect in widening participants’ perspectives. Focus on the quality of discourse In a planning process where place creation is the clear purpose. that the locals were thinking in a much wider scope than they had expected and vice versa.concentrate on small areas of neighbourhoods and gain insight in the wider strategic context. However. City officials were surprised. cycling routes. Existing relations were seen in a different context and this has influenced the content of the discourse. The variety of participants was seen as a first element to bring in a diversity of knowledge and life experiences generating a rich and creative discourse. for the fact that the development of a park in this area should turn the current negative image of deprived neighbourhoods into a positive one. About sixty people were personally invited and actively encouraged to 255 . The balance between both levels needs careful attention so that the park will be both of significance in the every day life of the people who live nearby and a valued symbol of where they live. cultural heritage) with the diversity of local situations. the quality of discourse was seen a main argument for implementation. it has been the purpose from the start to encourage local actors to think beyond their own circle of neighbourhood relations and to link actors operating at higher city levels (e. people’s involvement is not only about the creation of a collectively shared vision but also about the goal of usable changes worth making and to reach acceptance towards action. High hopes were expressed. It was generally taken for granted that people from outside the surrounding neighbourhoods should be attracted to the park. an important precondition was that the wider level is not equal to large-scaled functions or events. sports. for example. involved in tourism. Moreover. The multiple level interests were clearly reflected in the discussions during the workshops. Therefore it was the aim to undertake great efforts to stimulate the creative input from the workshop participants. ethnic minorities etc). cultural events.
Careful observation and reflection have enabled the planners to be responsive to the considerations and ideas expressed. Outcomes were discussed in a plenary feedback meeting. contact with the planners during the workshops was considered an important pre-condition toward the implementation of ideas. Although the proper way is to plan before designing and to design before managing. Moreover. In addition. others expressed that those ideas stimulated their creative thinking. the planning team has welcomed the workshop discussions as very constructive. Although there was general agreement on the quality of the output. in this early planning phase practical reasoning on design or even management was not denied. In contrast. connections with the neighbourhoods were visualised by means of street plans on which the walkable area (400m) around the project was shown and participants were asked to draw attractive routes to the future park. providing them with new ideas as well as supporting them in their own ideas. Therefore. in the workshop approach it was seen as important to make room for manifold sorts of reasoning such as topic-oriented or detailed reasoning as well as reasoning on the whole picture. much attention was given to the writing of the minutes as a supporting tool for implementation. Interaction in small groups was used to encourage a wide range and form of understanding. options and ideas were left unexplored. To stimulate the brainstorm sessions. Not everyone can be expected to easily engage themselves in the abstract. 256 . Another question emerging from the experience is the extent in which the discussion needs to be framed at the outset. In addition. On the other hand it is not realistic to expect participants to engage in long procedures as they might be too costly in terms of the time and the energy the participants have to invest.participate in two workshops. In this case. to facilitate the expression of ideas. was the short time span of the process. the output from the workshops has provided a wider base from which to argue during the Third Thinking Day of the formal visionary process. A clear limitation. copies of the conceptual ideas and provocative images of park characters were also used. The workshop participants who showed a more than average interest in public policy. some critical notes were expressed on the ‘representativeness’ of the ideas. did not really represent the general public and its average concerns and preferences. conceptual and systemised reasoning of plan making. to avoid preconceptions about the plan and to involve people more actively. As a second element an informal setting was intended to stimulate a constructive debate. Processes of creative thinking need time. however. Some of the participants felt that the first conceptual ideas presented by the planners at the start of the first workshop limited their creative thinking during the workshop discussions. It seemed that during these two workshops several problems. In order to make the size and form more concrete. to illuminate different perspectives through debate within the group.
from initiation to implementation and continuation is a pre-requisite for building trust among the public. along with a request for ideas. Recently. A challenge therefore exists in bringing people into the participatory process at the very early stages of project development.Balancing openness and confidentiality Openness during the whole process. only a limited section of the public was reached. In the case described the planning team was initially hesitating to open the doors for citizens as this could possibly affect the negotiations with the railway company and arouse false hopes among the local residents about the creation of a park in that area. Wider forums. In this case. After the external negotiations more room was given to providing information more widely. This is not an easy task in a context where political and external pressures as well as uncertainty about further 257 . a ‘Planning for Real’ event was organised in which almost 200 people participated in providing their ideas about a range of design questions. is not always felt as being desirable in planning for large-scale development which is inherently strategic. a clear vision and active strategies on how to draw attention from a wider public are lacking. It was only from the moment that the park scenario got accepted by the officials participating in the first Thinking Day that they agreed upon the workshop approach in the ‘Groen op het Spoor’ study. Residents responding widely and enthusiastically to consultation does not usually happen as a result of one-off participatory events. In the long term the objective should be the infusing of ideas into the wide array of social networks. The further development of the plan has to pay careful attention to continuation of effective communication. The exhibition was concluded with a ‘talk café’. schools. Involving the wider public early in the process requires a high degree of openness which. social welfare work) and neighbourhood associations. it also appeared that residents who were already participating in the workshops or the exhibition. Finding a balance between openness and confidentiality of information has been a continuous subject of discussion in the framework of the ‘Groen op het Spoor’ study and between the city’s planning and communication departments. Since then. So far. the media are actively involved and the residents are regularly informed about the plan making by means of leaflets. After heated debate it was decided to display the entire concept. such as the organisation of the interactive exhibition create opportunities for generating new ‘members’. uncertainties and even distrust about their real impact. However. showed a range of expectations. as there was no strategy followed to establishing links with institutions (e. Later on the discussion continued when the Consensus Note was made: what information can be given to the wider public and when? Then. new ideas and feedback. the city’s communication department took on an active role and organised an exhibition for the wider public.g. opinions and further questions. an informal public meeting where representatives of the city authority and railway company were brought together in a panel and were asked to react to the issues raised during the exhibition and in the public meeting held at a local café. however.
however. In addition. skills and manpower to contribute in the further planning. no one set of interests was predominating the discourse and the ideas expressed were linked up with the realities of local situations. the richness of their ideas and the way they are articulated. Quality of discourse very much depends on the quality of the participants. so far largely untapped. Conclusions The purpose of the participatory approach in this case was not to confront interests and viewpoints with each other and to reach a compromise. a constant attention for new information and ideas that arise during the process is required. the international design competition’s rules exclude citizens from taking part in the evaluation of the design proposals. as planning inherently seeks to connect knowledge and ideas to action. for example.and a flexible process management in order to integrate participatory outcomes with policy making. design and management of the new park. However. argued and mediated. to deliver creative ideas. The reactions from participants after the workshops suggest that a common understanding was a significant outcome. but to move people toward a common understanding of the issues and to create a sense of shared goals. implementation to make them true is the real challenge. Flexibility was particularly important as objectives and targets were an output rather than an input to the process.internal co-ordination make the further process less transparent. The challenge will be to explore and develop possible linkages between the idea development in formal planning and day-to-day processes not labelled officially as planning and designing. is limited to the very initial stage of visioning.which includes sensitivity to how social interactions and settings may shape the outcomes of participatory activities . In addition. The experience from this case. concerning the long time 258 . Through this process of making sense together. however. which has gained acceptance among the decision-makers and is on its way to enter popular consciousness. The most powerful tool for implementation. has been the quality of the discourse. Also the legal context may not be favourable to participatory approaches. Most important are the exploration of the context in which approaches will be practised . The local population represents a huge potential. This case has shown that much strategic power of the visioning lies in co-ordination: the careful preparatory work and the flexible management of this intensive visionary process by a handful motivated people from the planning department as well as the elaborate workshop design in the ‘Groen op het Spoor’ study. The high quality mutual work of workshop participants and planners has resulted in a powerful strategic idea.
Spoorwegemplacement en Omgeving. it is hoped that some general lessons can be learned from this case and that its experiences will contribute to planning for urban greening that will no longer remain the exclusive domain of experts and authorities. Leuven/Apeldoorn. October 2001. Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij & Garant Uitgevers NV. Groen op het Spoor (Green on the Rail). the planning team and the regeneration department for collaboration in the activities and helpful feedback. OB/planningscel (2001). showing people that things are changing and progress is being made. Nieuwinckel (1996) notes that a stimulating image of the city is needed to enable continuation of the creative generation of solutions: giving a positive meaning to urban culture is an important part of this. In: Steertegem M Van (Ed) Milieu. Herzele A Van & Wiedemann T (in press). De Wonderjaren Voorbij? Wijkontwikkeling in Antwerpen. Herzele A Van.span of the project. Nieuwinckel S (1996). Article accepted for publication in Landscape and Urban Planning. EPO Berchem. Het grootstedenbeleid van de federale regering. Consensusnota.. but will become a playground for all those it is designed to serve. Hubeau B & Nieuwinckel S (Eds) In de ban van stad en wijk. The author would like to thank all the workshop participants. Each planning process based on consensus building will be unique in its organisation structure and will require particular mechanisms at various stages for involving local people in the development process. Supporting study in: OB/planningscel. Stedelijk Milieu (Urban Environment). Consensusnota. Wiedemann T & Overmeire M Van (2000). Het grootstedenbeleid van de federale regering. Acknowledgements The ‘Groen op het Spoor’ study was carried out within the framework of the project ‘Visieontwikkeling Spoorwegemplacement en Omgeving’ and financed by the ‘Federaal Programma Grootstedenbeleid 2001’. Nevertheless. References Herzele A Van (2001). Spoorwegemplacement en Omgeving. it is important to create a positive atmosphere around the project. 259 . A Monitoring Tool for the Provision of Accessible and Attractive Green Spaces.en Natuurrapport Vlaanderen MIRA-S 2000. In: De Decker P.
in Africa and most parts of Asia. During the 20th century there was a remarkable drain of rural poor and landless people searching for alternative sources of livelihood to the cities. has been marked by a process of demographic and cultural change and in recent decades by a rapid population growth. Major problems of urban environments in developing countries The deterioration of living conditions. Switzerland Introduction By the year 2025. Industrialisation and ambitious targets of economic growth encouraged people to move to the cities. it is expected that two thirds of the world’s population will live in developing countries and the majority of them in and around cities. It has become. Urbanisation is a phenomenon in history. a development process characterising the rise of civilisation all over the world caused by a social division of labour and the development of political and social institutions. a tremendous increase of the population contributed to an even more rapid growth of large cities. Social inequality and political domination was thus a structural characteristic of colonial urban development in the South. a legacy of European political domination and expansion in overseas areas. When the colonial period came to an end and the previous colonies became independent states. Urban development itself often was. Whereas the pre-colonial capitals of those areas were centres of state power and administration or the stronghold of tribal rulers. Along with rather stable political conditions during the period of colonial rule and the improvement of health services. urban growth still used to continue and often with a much higher speed than before. Urbanisation in non-European cultures. these were either transformed to colonial cities representing the culture of the new rulers. however. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. particularly with the advent of colonial expansion in the two Americas. Thus regional and social unbalanced development within the developing countries accelerated. Settlements that were planned for a few thousands of inhabitants grew to large agglomerations hosting millions of people living with inadequate infrastructure. or new settlements were founded that developed from fortifications and commercial towns into colonial cities. living standard and quality of the environment in urban and peri-urban areas in developing countries is not always perceived by municipal authorities as a deficient situation.Urban Forestry in India and Nepal Klaus Seeland Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics. an all-pervading 261 . and with respect to economic globalisation still is.
we will take India and Nepal as examples for steps that have been taken at the political and the implementation level. In a nutshell. health services and security. Public administration has severe difficulties to meet proper urban livelihood standards due to a lack of finances and administrational capacities. let us have a look at India and then at Nepal. Both countries in principle have a top-down-approach to the management of their nationalised forests and have recently turned to social and community forestry schemes based on participation intending to favour a decentralised and more democratic management of forests and forest resources.phenomenon they have to cope with. Both countries are located in South Asia. traffic. An inherent inertia of the administrational staff and the politically responsible decision makers who sometimes show a lack of motivation as only few believe that there is a chance for a change for the better. 262 . heat and dust) and water pollution little problem awareness among the public little or no support by politicians concerning green space and related matters solid waste disposal problems lack of hygiene and sanitation poverty creates slum and squatter areas encroachment of wastelands by in-migrating people from rural areas. However. the major problems of public green space management in urban areas in developing countries are: • • • • • • • • • increasing population rate / over-population migration from rural areas to the large agglomerations air (toxic gases. the situation aggravates silently and there is definitely an urgent need for solutions at almost any level of the problem scenario. This hampers the process of finding solutions to the manifold problems connected to the administration of large agglomerations. but vary in size and degree of urbanisation as well as in many other aspects. mostly with herds of domestic animals • lack of open free space in and around cities As the situation varies to a great extent depending on the country one looks at. partly tried to extend to the management of urban green spaces as well. Firstly. Crisis management tries to avoid the collapse of the metropolises and to provide at least the most vital and basic services to the public such as electricity and water supply. These participatory approaches have been. waste and sewage water disposal. based on the experiences that were made in joint forest management (India) and community forestry (Nepal). They have a common Hindu tradition. Taking all difficult circumstances into account one must admit that quick solutions to the vast field of problems for a public green space policy in developing countries are not at hand at the moment. mentality and culture and share similar approaches to face the challenges of urban green space management.
sanitation. political responsibility and financial resources and competence involved. conservancy and solid waste management provision of urban amenities and facilities (parks. The major types of measures that have been taken up in the green sector over the recent decades are: 263 . In 2001 more than 30 percent of the Indian population lived in cities and the official growth rate against 1991 was 41 per cent. competence and finances) with the objective of supporting local self-government through deregulation and decentralisation. According to census data. It allots particular political importance to municipal bodies (power. In this regard the 12th Schedule of the Indian Constitution enables municipal bodies to initiate among other measures for. e. 1992.: • • • • • • • urban planning regulation of land use and construction of buildings planning for economic and social development water supply public health. gardens and playgrounds) cremation grounds These initiatives are relevant sectors of planning and management as far as urban green space in the widest sense is concerned. The population of the 384 urban agglomerations increased more than ten times from approximately 30 million in 1901 to 307 million one hundred years later. the district level and finally the level of the metropolitan authorities. The administrational set-up of public environmental management in India is divided into three levels: the Ministry of Urban Development (Indian Union) at the central government level. the State level.Participatory urban green space management in India Urban demographics in India in the 20th century show a tremendous growth. as they are the most relevant centres of economic growth and generation of surplus value as well as modern development. The legal basis for environmental legislation at present is the 74th Amendment Act to the Indian Constitution. There is a lot of management capacity. Unregulated growth due to immigration from the countryside to slums and squatter settlements that are inhabited by a large number of unregistered people who are not recorded in any statistics. It is therefore important that they are not too disperse and distributed over several levels of public administration.g. The actual growth is generally suspected to be much higher. It focuses particularly on urban agglomerations. marking an empowerment of the municipal authorities.
free riders illegally appropriating green space products such as e.g. Delhi with 9 million and Chennai (Madras) with almost 6 million inhabitants. Major objectives are poverty eradication and the improvement of the environmental living conditions including air quality (by reducing the number of old and extremely air polluting vehicles). Usually they are entitled to usufruct rights for a certain time that has agreed upon in a contract. they are very much outspread. in New Delhi. These measures always link social and environmental objectives such as income generation for the urban and peri-urban poor with tree planting. in Ahmedabad. Women’s clubs. where there is no or only little space for public green areas. providing funds and managerial expertise under prevailing conditions of small administrational budgets. and so forth. Andhra Pradesh) Greenbelts around the metropolitan area or at the outskirts of the inner city. fuel wood or leaf fodder. industrial enterprises. • Greenbelts (e. in Hyderabad. squatters encroaching on public green space. • Green Partnership Projects being a co-operation of NGO. and private and public international donors Green partnership projects are the most recent developments in the green space management sector uniting institutions and voluntary agencies in their efforts to contribute to the upgrading of public green space. which is an exception due to its location on a rather small peninsular. watering. Gujarat) Urban community forestry is by and large an adaptation of the principles and practices of community forestry to urban conditions. a large green space surrounding the core built area with meadows. temple forests to enhance diversity of tree species and medicinal plants. youth clubs and religious institutions are providing opportunities for self-employment by establishing school gardens and nurseries. Anti-land speculation measures and the upgrading of waste lands suitable for urban agriculture and urban forestry.g.g. Calcutta with 11 million.• Urban Community Forestry (e. to mention only the largest ones. flowers. including forests. solid waste disposal and the supply of safe drinking water. protecting saplings. provide the agglomeration with a cordon sanitaire. The goal of urban community forestry is a joint management of the respective municipal authorities with the legitimate users (registered groups of tax paying town dwellers) who have been allotted with an area of green space in order to manage and to care for it. nursing. fruits. mainly through fencing. India’s mega-cities such as Mumbai (Bombay) with 13 million. Major objectives are the exclusion of unauthorised land users. parks. pastures and agricultural land for horticulture and 264 . are urban landscapes of their own. Government Departments. Excluding Mumbai. broad alleys and forests on public land. afforestation and enrichment planting are important objectives in urban green space policy and management. etc.
This facilitates the transfer and application of community development and community forestry programmes to urban areas.181 km2. the newly established political parties and international development donor support. It is country with a remarkable rural-urban migration and a high rate of dependence on forest products of all sections of the population. and (3) self-reliance and economic subsistence was encouraged by local NGOs. this requires green space areas to provide air circulation and free space to roam around under shady trees in a cool breeze. are big villages. Cities. perhaps apart from the capital Kathmandu. Much intensified industrial production areas and densely built service oriented housing quarters with a large informal sector absorbs lots of land and labour in urban agglomerations. democratisation and decentralisation was promoted all over the country. Urban community forestry management in Nepal Nepal is a landlocked country located at the southern slopes of the Central Himalayan Range covering an altitude between 70 m and 8. 265 . and an annual population growth rate of 2. The country ranges among the economically least developed with a per capita income of US $ 210. With the new Nepalese Constitution of 1990. To compensate for these living conditions in a hot sub-tropical country. where lawn and flowers counterbalance the monotonous townscape of mostly functional buildings. The alienation of the population from natural renewable resources through the Forest Act of 1957 by which all forests were nationalised has been counterbalanced by decentralisation and the local self-management of forests in the wake of the community forestry programme. This programme was established for the first time in 1978. being an agglomeration of several towns with an estimated population of about one million in 2001. In 1993 a strong Forest User Group Committee movement based on (1) a strong tradition of independent village communities. The socio-cultural values and ecological traditions of highly independent mountain communities have been transferred to urban livelihood conditions during the last decade. Since 1991 Nepal is a constitutional monarchy with a population of about 25 million people in 2000.livestock keeping for the production of dairy products.848 m above sea level and an area of 147. (2) strong self esteem of castes and ethnic groups. Urban forestry is yet little developed and shares many of its problems with Indian cities. Urban life in Nepal. who are predominantly Hindus. It was tried to transfer the mostly good experiences with community forestry in the mid-hills of Nepal to urban and peri-urban areas of central and southern lowland Nepal.5 per cent. as the social and cultural conditions of both countries are rather similar. has a more or less rural character. The aesthetic requirements combined with practical amenities matter a lot for the satisfaction of basic quality of life standards in a country where a substantial part of the urban population lives below the poverty line. which is still mostly an agrarian country.
neighbouring communities who care for the quarter’s green space. access to forest user groups. Another form of mismanagement in the urban forestry sector is caused by wealthy and influential people who illegally fell trees to construct buildings or cut access roads to their houses through urban forests or clear-fell plots of urban forests to convert them into building sites. However. Conclusion Urban forestry in India and Nepal. this may raise opposition. Transgressions to the protected urban forests of other users than those who are entitled to use and manage the forests in and around the cities is one major problem caused mainly by poverty and sometimes by the illegal appropriation of timber and non-wood forest products by traders. with the increasing portion of the lower and lowest urban as well as rural sections of the society. The intention of the community forestry programme in Nepal is. fencing and patrolling. Social cohesion is enhanced through co-operation of members of forest user groups. rural or urban. regional and local. a socially equal. 266 . If neglected. And not at least it heads for sustainability of forest management through re-investment of a reasonable portion of the profit drawn from the managed forests into seedling production. however. is a domain of self-management or joint management of locally appropriated resources in which social objectives in focus through and in combination with urban environmental management.Obstacles to sound urban forest management are a strong social hierarchy and inequality of status and power due to the Hindu caste system and corruption in the administration is common. planting. as well as through government institutions and non-governmental organisations. even if urban forest protection schemes work well. national. there is a danger of further degradation of non-protected forests in the vicinity or that the poorest people who rely most on irregular use of forest produce are excluded from their customary rights of small-scale exploitation. where a lack in staff capacities slows down the process of democratising the forests or urban forestry tends to become a grass-roots movement such as in more and more municipalities in India. as in many other developing countries. Furthermore. if not obstruction. is more often than not denied to the poorest and low status people. This is a commitment that is a contractual obligation and precondition for handing over a forest to a forest user group. not individual appropriation of economic benefits. Thus community forestry can be an ambiguous approach to protect forest as social equity is difficult to be achieved. like in Nepal. Administration is often by-passed. as far as the present political circumstances allow. The possibility of turning the rural poor to even more marginal people and make them living in a state of misery is something that has to be paid attention to.
but that there are other ways of a socially and environmentally sustainable use and management of these common pool resources. Decentralisation and democratisation of forest use and management focuses on a more direct access to.One aspect that gets less attention with the rise of the community forestry programme and the decline of commercial timber harvesting oriented forestry. Provided that town and country implement community forestry as a societal assignment based on broad co-operation. The examples of India and Nepal show ample hope that exclusive state administration may not be the only way to handle forests and urban green space for good. There is little or no nation-wide distribution or appropriation in the form of revenue drawn from the forest. it may serve the quality of the forest as it may benefit the society. The benefits of urban community forestry go primarily to the immediate users and to people who feel concerned and participate actively in it. but meant to be a contribution to the urban society as a whole. as was the case when forests were commercially exploited by the state. The political legitimacy of urban community forestry lies in its service to the whole urban society. 267 . It is not an exclusive appropriation of economic benefits or profits. is the aspect of national equity. however. use of and responsibility for forests and green space in a community’s surroundings.
Vienna. The study includes the following winter maintenance products: Gravel and expended clay (EC). University of Agricultural Sciences.Informing the public about the ecological impact of different methods for road and pavement winter maintenance in Vienna Monika Sieghardt and Martin Wresowar Institute of Forest Ecology. On behalf of the municipality of Vienna an environmental compatibility evaluation of road and pavement winter maintenance methods was carried out reviewing scientific and public literature and own respective research as well. tree size and soil surface area lead to the following environmental compatibility ranking for different methods of winter road and pavement maintenance: Gravel = EC >> EC+Urea = EC+K2CO3 >> ammoniumsulphate NaCl+CaCl2>NaCl Urea K2CO3 > Key words: de-icing–agents. CaCl2 and mixtures). N-containing de-icers (ammonium sulphate and urea). Austria Abstract For city administrations in northern and middle Europe a severe conflict exists between the public demand for unrestricted mobility during winter season and the demand for keeping urban vegetation alive. MgCl2. K2CO3. Model calculations based on the ecological impact of the concerned product and on different settings like type and quantity of de-icer. Users can sometimes hardly distinguish how the chemical declaration and recommended application doses correlate with actual application fields and temperatures and what is the ecological impact of the concerned product. In Vienna the use of common salt as de- 269 . halogenides (NaCl. Most de-icing products in trade are promoted as being ecologically completely harmless even when containing hazardous chemicals. eco-toxicology Introduction For city administrations in northern and middle Europe a severe conflict exists between the public demand for unrestricted mobility during the winter season and the demand for keeping urban vegetation alive.
Moreover. Our task was to review the respective scientific and public literature as well as own research in that field. Results can be seen at the homepage of the department (http:/ /www.How effective are different winter maintenance methods? . or CaCl2 and MgCl2. In the project. The output of this evaluation was extended knowledge on the environmental impact of different road winter maintenance practices. they involve high removal costs and problems in the sewage systems and because of dust emission they are not well accepted by the public.What are the fields of application for different winter maintenance products: what is used for highways. airports. but they are ineffective in terms of traffic security. who can be co-opted according to necessity. Especially on pathways. and playgrounds? .icer is restricted by order. and so-called ‘alternative’ de-icers like potassium carbonate and Ncontaining de-icers like urea and ammonium sulphate. which names are used?. roads. On behalf of the city department for environmental protection. In Vienna a municipal institution called Öko-Kauf Wien (translated as ‘ecological buying Vienna’) exists.at/ma22/pool/doc/auftaumittel_abs. In terms of eco-balance expanded clay comes off worse than gravel. Some of these alternative de-icing agents have a high nitrogen content. information is collected to make ecologicalorientated decisions when buying different equipment or rolling stock. Gravel and expanded clay are the ecologically most harmless products.Which figures provide a simple tree/soil model concerning the impact of applications of different de-icers? Traded winter maintenance products Table 1 summarises some traded products for Austria and gives information about temperature limits and application fields.wien. The review focuses on comparing ‘conservative’ de-icing agents like NaCl.gv. pathways.pdf) as well as a public abstract of the main results to be included in an information leaflet for city inhabitants. playgrounds. We tried to answer the following questions: . pedestrian zones. because of high energy input during 270 . minor roads. which is part of ‘ÖkoKauf Wien’. how is the chemical declaration of these products?. biking ways and parking areas the use of alternative de-icers is encouraged. parking areas. what are the advertisement strategies of the traders? .What is the ecological impact of different winter maintenance products? . This institution consists of a changing number of administrative departments and working groups as well as of experts for special fields. an environmental compatibility evaluation of winter road maintenance products was carried out. biking ways.Which products are applied and in trade for winter road maintenance: what is on the market?.
Murexin-Eis-Ex Plantabon Eisex 271 Production quarry clay burned at 1200 °C clay burned at 1200 °C rock. Eskimo K2CO3 Leca-Tau Sole D.149 ICE-Remover Monroe x-73.22 °C .22 °C .15-3 mm variabel variabel variabel 0. Öko-Tau Polar-Eis-Stop. potas-siumhydroxide expanded clay + brine expanded clay + brine mixture Constituents basalt.9 mm Applied as Application limits - Doses 2 g/m 250 8 Application fields pavements roads pavements pavements roads highways roads highways roads highways roads highways roads highways (roads).22 °C . 2% MgCl2. 2 % NaCl 91 % CaCl2.10 °C .3 %) Cl – (60. Arkas Eisfresser Greeny Eisschmelzer. 15 % NaCl K2CO3 EC aggregates + 15 % K2CO3 light expanded clay aggregates + (NH2)2CO (NH4)2SO4 67-80 % (NH4)2SO4 5-11 % (NH4)3PO4 12-17 % (NH2)2CO 2-5 % unsoluble + Grain Size variabel variabel variabel 0. dolomite light expanded clay aggregates clay aggregates Na (39. Properties of different traded winter maintenance products.7 °C 6-15 10 6-15 6 30 6.Table 1.5 mm 3 mm variabel variabel variabel 0.5 °C .8 °C .7 °C .5 °C .8 °C .15-5 mm 3-3. 9 % unsoluble 85 % gravel. pavements roads pavements pavements pavements pavements pavements wet salt (brine) wet salt (solution) dry dry dry dry dry dry dry dry dry .or seasalt by-product of soda mixture mixture mixture gravel + brine potash.7 %) ++ Ca (28 %) Cl – (51 %) 70 % NaCl 30 % CaCl2 96 % CaCl2. Ice-Melter.25 30 16 15 30-50 30-50 . Product Gravel Expanded Clay Anti-Gliss Salt CaCl2 DI-Mix Streumittel G. Polar-Ultra-Grip Leca-Tau. Floralis Streudas.7 °C .
runoff pavement gravel road drainage sewage groundwater. gravel co nta mi na aerosols ted sn ow gr av el melting water.production. Pathways of de-icing agents and gravel to the vegation site. pavement construction and technical equipment (Figure 1). spray and dust the vegetation site. temperatures and ecological sensitivity of the environment. depending on wind and traffic speed snow. de-icer and fertiliser in one’ even when containing ecologically hazardous chemicals. improving the environment. ecologically completely harmless. Ökotau are trademarks that persuade people to apply them with the intention to do less damage to the environment. de-icing agents. Users are hardly able to distinguish how chemical declaration and recommended application doses correlate with application fields. contaminated snow (snowploughing) melting water. 25 % of applied de-icers reach via aerosol. Plantabon. Paved areas are normally not perfectly sealed.de-icing agents. Trade names even suggest benefits to the environment: Greeny. Pathways of winter maintenance products to the vegetation site Winter maintenance products are administered to the vegetation site partly as aerosol. partly deposited as contaminated snow or as contaminated runoff depending on traffic speed. aquifer 40 % of applied de-icer reach the vegetation site depending on type of snow ploughing. biological de-icers. Some traded de-icing products are marketed with advertisement slogans such as: ‘alternative de-icers. Floralis. salt solutions penetrate through the surface or through the soil of the tree site and contaminate soil solution and groundwater or reach the sewage system. Between 20 to 60% of applied de-icers are transported by air. traffic speed and protection of tree disk Figure 1. For halogenides different mono-salts and mixtures are marketed with different grain sizes and application limits. gravel dust from gravel snow. 272 . runoff & spray.
This nutrient depletion is crucial for growth of urban vegetation and misbalances mineral nutrition (Ruge 1974. Ecological impact of chloride-containing de-icers Salt (NaCl). Sites become physiologically dry. NH4) and metals. it directly and indirectly causes dysfunction and instability of urban greening (Figure 2). Growth reduction. Impact on spectral absorption by leaves has been reported (Sieghardt 1983). MgCl2 273 . Ca. For dark coloured dusts the surface temperature increases. The increase of pH causes dissolution and loss of humus and changes of the bioavailability of heavy metals (Amrhein et al. Chloride is highly toxic to the vegetation. Ecological impact of gravel and expanded clay Traffic smashes gravel into small particles. It changes the membrane permeability of cells and increases the osmotic potential. depending on how long the material remains on the pavement. On average 25% of applied de-icers reach the vegetation site via aerosol.deposited 2-40 m from the road. Blomqvist & Johansson 1999). Gravel and expanded clay may cause mechanical problems in the sewage systems (Matsché 1996). Via cation exchange high sodium saturation in soils causes desorption of other cations (K. change permeability for water and air. Ernst & Feldermann 1975). which percolate through the soil and in the worst case are leached out. Mechanical injuries of stems of road trees may occur depending on traffic speed and particle size. the most common and cheapest de-icer is very efficient in terms of improving traffic security in winter season. Mg. 1992). free Na+-ions occur in the soil solution via re-desorption of Na against H+ and cause alkalinisation by formation of sodium hydroxide. chlorosis and necrosis of leaves and dieback of tree crowns are symptoms that occur after salt application. Neuberger 1996). Dust layers on plants change the energy balance of leaves and needles (Eller 1977). surface and soil temperature and soil quality as seedbed. The impact of these abrasive dust particles on human health is rather low (Litzka et al. but even when applied as wet salt or brine with reduced doses. After high and frequent NaCl application doses. depending on wind direction. Gravel and expanded clay enhance soil surface sealing. Loss of calcium enhances the susceptibility for soil compaction at tree sites causing shrinkage and dispersion of soil aggregates with negative impacts on soil water balance and soil aeration. spray and dust. Kreutzer 1974. The surface chemistry of vegetation and soil changes according to the chemical properties of the applied product influences the mycorrhiza distribution and quality (Turnau 1990). In some cases stomata are sealed and gas exchange is reduced. 1995. on traffic frequency and speed. wind and traffic speed (Blomqvist 1998). reflection decreases. Soil structure may benefit from their application. 90% of air-transported de-icer are deposited between 15 and 20 m from the road (Leonardi & Flückiger1987.
(NH4+) heavy metal dislocation? groundwater. carbonates destruction of soil aggregates (and humus) K+ Ca ++ Mg ++ K+. Ecological impact of sodiumchloride and potassiumcarbonate. CO3 2-. so in this respect this de-icer is ecologically indifferent as well as the anion is.and CaCl2 are less harmful because they contain basic double charged cations. 8 drinking water supply-sources were analysed. aquifer Figure 2. nitrification and denitrification in the sewage system are reduced (Dincer & Kargi 1999). One crucial effect of this alternative de-icer is its potential for direct soil alkalinisation. Mg++↓ pH ↑ Cl . 1989). 5 of them situated near highways showed extraordinary high chloride contents. Cl percolates quickly through the soil system and contaminates the groundwater or aquifer and exceeds the target values for drinking water. wells along the most frequented transit route Brenner-highway had o be closed because of Cl-contents between 200 – 500 mg/l which manifold exceeded target values (Peer & Podlesak 1991). growth ↓ m diu so ide lor ch Cl -. In Austria. but they still have the disadvantage of containing Cl as toxic anion (Bogemans et al. In urban vegetation sites the usual practice of litter removal often leads to potassium deficiency. Ca++. Ecological evaluation of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) This chemical has a four times higher price compared to NaCl and is not directly toxic for urban vegetation. 274 mc arb o pH ↑ ↑ na te growth ↑ ↓.(toxic) Na + po tas siu chloroses necroses nutritional imbalances soilcolloid K+ (nutrient) Ca ++ Mg ++ destruction of soil aggregates and humus formation of HCO3-. High K-uptake increases frost hardiness of urban plants. Mg++. stressresistance ↑ . High salt contents in the sewage water (> 2 % salt content) decrease the efficiency of nitrogen-decay. Na + ↑ K+↑ . Ca++.
element imbalances ↑ sensitivity against pathogens. Sieghardt 2000). OH NH3 toxic N2O. pH ↓ element imbalances ↑ 2 H+ denitrifi cation NO3- nitrifcation pH↓ ↓ NH4+ Norg K+. Because of high pH of solution-solution hypothetically the sewage water could be alkalinised and ammonia dissolved and evaporated. SO4-- Figure 3. N2O. N2O. aquifer NO3- K+. NO mo niu am NH3 NO3-. NH4+ ↑ NO3-. Positive effects of potassium carbonate on the biozönoses of sewage systems have been reported (Frühwirth 1990). Ca++. Deficiency symptoms. NH4+. NO at e ure a( O ) 2-C NH 2 275 .2 % N). ms u lf NH3. drought. frost ↑ NH3. because of the high dilution rates in communal sewage water systems. SO4 ↑ NH4←2 H+ + urea hydrolysis. NH4. Ecological impact of sodiumchloride and potassiumcarbonate.Potassium carbonate solution has a pH of up to 14. Ca++. soilcolloid groundwater. NO pH ↑ root growth & (NH4)2SO4 mycorrhiza ↓. Mg++. the idea to use a fertiliser for de-icing growth. transpiration. like growth reduction.6 % N) and ammonium sulphate (21. Ca and Mg are exchanged against K and washed out with the percolating water. 1998. Ecological impact of nitrogen containing de-icers The ecologically hazardous constituents of nitrogen containing de-icers that are sold under different trademarks are urea (46. After frequent application of high doses soil structure collapses and soil humus is dissolved. necrosis and chlorosis occur due to nutritional imbalances as well as decrease of soil aggregate stability (Sieghardt et al. Primarily. These effects are minimised and stabilised by formation of hydrocarbonates and carbonates in calcareous soils (Figure 2). In practical experiments no increase of ammonia concentrations occurred. Mg++. These are frequently-used fertilisers. NO3-.
When penetrating to the ground. The respective calculations include average deposition rates and are based on a tree disk of 4 m2. Even when we assume that urban sites are in general low in nitrogen. Model calculations Figure 4 shows the results of model calculations comparing element fluxes and enrichments after application of different de-icing agents. Urea 276 . The output is calculated via tree-leaf-litter and herbaceous vegetation. Additional to the impact of enhanced nitrogen supply and growth the nitrogen cycle is affected: nitrate availability as well as diverse exchange processes of cat ions versus ammonium is increased. Ammonium sulphate reacts physiologically acidic in soils and decreases NH3-toxicity depending on soil temperature and pH. Enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in soils is highly oxygen-demanding. Ammonium sulphate is highly corrosive (Dirnböck 1993). Ammonia is highly bio-toxic: root growth and mycorrhiza frequency decrease. Excessive sulphate availability may enhance instability of urban vegetation as well. When it is nitrified. Urea-hydrolysis causes a local increase of soil water pH and a higher solubility for ammonia in water (Gubler 1993). It contains sulphate. Urea also contributes to gaseous losses of Ammonia. The increasing uptake of nitrogen by urban vegetation enhances growth and imbalances the nutrient ratios in the biomass and increases transpiration as well as the susceptibility to several stresses like drought. a severe problem in frequently compacted urban soils. 1996). this 2 H+ are generated and pH decreases. a tree with a DBH of 40 cm. soils. Losses to the soil and the groundwater are not considered. This idea turned out to be totally wrong (Figure 3): N-containing de-icer are heavily affecting vegetation. which is easily leached and as well easily taken up by vegetation. fertiliser recommendations are for forest plantations for one rotation of 80 years. De Visser et al. uncontrolled applying nitrogen via de-icing agents is problematic and enhances deficiencies by increasing growth and relatively diluting other elements.and surface water it is highly toxic for fish and for most micro-organisms (Dobson 1991) and has an impact on drinking water quality.seems to be striking and harmless to the environment. water and sewage systems by over-fertilisation and enhancing nutritional imbalances and reducing frost hardiness (Balasch 1987). frost and pathogens (Bloom 1997. The organic nitrogen pool in the soil is enriched presumed enough carbon is available. Ammonium itself causes an exchange against other cations resulting in nutritional deficiencies and imbalances. In the sewage systems this process causes problematic changes and enhances the ammoniumoutput into surface waters. N2O and NO via denitrification. a crown diameter of 7 m and de-icer applications according to practical doses and 20 times per year.
5 times the recommended fertiliser amount for 80 year rotation.Clay + K-carbonate Deicing agents and elelments input (g/ tree) output (g/ tree) accumulation (g/ tree) recommended fertilizer (g/ tree) Figure 4. tree DBH = 40 cm. crown diameter = 7 m.with 46 % N-content generates an input that is equivalent with 1. Environmental compatibility ranking Based on these results the following environmental compatibility ranking for different methods of winter road and pavement maintenance is presented (without considering the impact on ground. which exceed the fertiliser recommendations for one forest rotation period in between two years. Calculations including average deposition rates tree disk = 4 m2. Brine impregnated expanded clay is evaluated ecologically less harmful and has the additional advantage of being an antigliss. fertilizer recommendation for forestry for one rotation. Element balance for different de-icers.and surface water): Gravel=EC>>EC+Urea=EC+K2CO3>>(NH4)2SO4 (NH2)2-CO K2CO3>NaCl+CaCl2>NaCl 277 . output calculated via tree-leaf-litter and herbaceous vegetation. Ammonium sulphate and potassium carbonate contribute to extraordinary high accumulation of N and K respectively. g / tree 1400 1000 600 200 0 N N AmmoniumUrea sulfate K Potassiumcarbonate NaCl NaCl Cl Na N Exp. deicer application = 20 times/year. Clay + Urea K Exp.
Umwelt. Trees 10: 301-307. Impact of de-icing salt on roadside vegetation. Sc. Dincer AR & Kargi F (1999).Environm 235: 161-168. Effect of de-icing NaCl and CaCl2 on spruce (Picea abies). Keltjens W & Findenegg G (1996). Environ. Bloom AJ (1997). Wien. Airborne spreading and deposition of de-icing salt – a case study. Environmental Science and Technology 26: 703-709. Technol. Blomqvist G (1998). Plant and Soil 120: 203211. Eller BM (1977). Transpiration and drought resistance of Douglas-fir seedlings exposed to excess ammonium. Forestry Bulletin 101. Mitteilungen des Institutes für Straßenbau und Straßenerhaltung der Technischen Universität Wien. Dissertation an der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien. VTI Rapport 427A. a literature review. 160: 253-259. Dirnböck G (1993).Pflanzenernaehr. Angew. 20: 1147-1153. Beeinflussung der Energiebilanz von Blättern durch Straßenstaub. Strong JE & Mosher PA (1992). Effects of de-icing salts on metal and organic matter mobilization in roadside soils. Neirinckx L & Stassart JM (1989). Balasch (1987) Die Anwendung von Auftausalz und dessen Alternativen unter ökonomischen und ökologischen Kriterien.References Amrhein C. Tot. Blomqvist G & Johansson EL (1999). Wien. 51: 9-15 278 . Z. Bogemans J. Heft 3. Bot. Dobson MC (1991). Salt inhibition of nitrification and denitrification in saline wastewater.und Rechtsaspekte beim Streudienst. London. De Visser P. Bodenk. Interaction between inorganic nitrogen nutrition and root development. De-icing dalt damage to trees and shrubs.
Auswirkungen von chloridhältigen Auftaumitteln auf Wasser und Boden im Bereich von Autobahnen und Schnellstraßen. Pflanzenernaer. Z. Transporttechnik. Institut f.und Eisenbahnbau. Potassium carbonate as an alternative de-icer: impact on soil properties on vegetation. J. 6: 629-640 Frühwirth I (1990). Literaturstudie: Salzersatz im Winterdienst. Ursachen der Schädigung des Straßenbegleitgrüns in Städten und an der Autobahn. Österreichische Wasserwirtschaft. Bodenkundliche Aspekte der Salzanwendung. Die Verfrachtung salzhaltiger Verkehrsgischt entlang Autobahnen und ihre Wirkung auf exponierte Gehölze. Auswirkungen der Wintersalzstreuung auf den Mineralhaushalt von Linden. Path. Wien. Strassen. 4: 41-44. Ruge U (1974). Gubler A (1993). Staubbelastung durch Straßenstreusplitt. For. Phyton 23: 177-184. Path. Bodenk. Matsché N (1996). Peer Th & Podlesak K (1991). Wresowar M & Tartar A (1998). NHP Report 43: 41-51. 4: 48-49. Eur.Ernst W & Feldermann D (1975). Zürich. Kreutzer K (1974). Sonderdruck 43: 24-36. Waste Magazin 3/96: 11-13. In: Lenz P (Ed) Aspekte zum Salzeinsatz im Winterdienst. Sieghardt M. Diplomarbeit am Institut für Wassergüte und Landschaftswasserbau der Technischen Universität Wien. For. 279 . Einsatz von Kaliumkarbonat als Auftaumittel: Auswirkungen auf die Kanalisation und auf die biologische Abwasserreinigung. Sieghardt H (1983). Eur. Beeinflussung der spektralen Absorptionseigenschaften der Blätter von Hedera helix durch Staubimmissionen. Straße und Verkehr 1-87. J. Aspekte zum Salzeinsatz im Winterdienst: Auswirkungen auf das Wasser. Neuberger M (1996). Verkehrsplanung. Leornardi S & Flückiger W (1987).
In: Dujesiefken D & Kockerbeck P (Eds) Jahrbuch der Baumpflege 2000. The influence of industrial dusts on mycorrhizal status of plants in PinoQuercetum forest.Sieghardt M (2000). Thalacker Medien. Aktuelle Untersuchungen über die Auswirkungen von Auftausalzen auf Böden. Ecological and applied aspects of ecto. Turnau K (1990). 280 .and endomycorrhizal associations 28(1-4): 529-533.
Appendix 281 .
Roberto Causin (University of Padova.00 Kim Wilkie (Landscape Architect. management and directions. Mario Bencivenni (University of Milan. 283 . Mirella Di Giovine (Municipality of Rome. UK) Case studies of restoration projects: the Park of the river Thames and Villa La Pietra. Thomas Randrup and Cecil Konijnendijk (Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute. Italy) The Castelfusano forest management: suggestions and issues.Programme: Florence. 29-31 March 2001 Conservation and management of historical parks Thursday 29 March Plenary session Time: 13. Review of higher education on urban forests and trees in Europe.00 . Emilio Amorini (Research Institute of Silviculture. Italy) Historical parks. old trees: technical and research aspects of their conservation and restoration. Italy. Ministry of Agriculture and Forest Politics.18. Italy) A walk through the historical public parks in Florence. Italy) Management of root disease in the Botanical Garden of the University of Padova. Italy) The Urban Forest of Florence: environment. Denmark). Laura Gatti (ISA. Italy) The system of urban and historical Parks of Rome: case studies of the Caffarella and Castelfusano Parks. Fabio Salbitano (University of Florence.
a dream or a task? Primoz Oven (Biotechnical Faculty. Slovenia) Multifunctionality in urban forests . University of Ljubljana. University of Ljubljana. Slovenia. Dusan Robic (emeritus professor of Phytosociology. Ljubljana.17. Janez Pirnat (Biotechnical Faculty. 28-30 June 2001 Multifunctionality in urban forestry Thursday 28 June Plenary session Time: 13. University of Ljubljana. Slovenia) Forest vegetation of Slovenia as a reflection of physical environment and human activity. Slovenia) Report on research of trees in the city of Ljubljana (1999-2000). the Netherlands) Experiences with establishment of multifunctional urban and periurban woodlands in the Netherlands.30 .00 Rien van den Berg (Dutch Service of Land and Water Management.Programme. 284 .
DG Environment) The European Commission’s nature management policies and strategies in changing European societies. Wageningen. Denmark) The challenges of changing urban-rural relations for forest and nature manage ment in Europe.00 Nicolas Hanley (EU Division Nature & Biodiversity. the Netherlands) Developments and recent driving forces in urban areas in a European perspective. 285 . Ireland) Multifor: the role of forests for rural development in Europe – introduction and main results. between urbanization and rural development Monday 12 November Plenary session Time: 10. the Netherlands) & Thomas O’Leary (University College Dublin. Gregory Ashworth (University of Groningen. Niels Elers Koch (Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute.the impact of urbanization and rural development. Birgit Elands (Wageningen University. France) & Marie-Christine Kovacshazy (Commissariat du Plan.18. Robert Sommer (University of California. International Policy Research Symposium on: The changing role of forestry in Europe. The Netherlands. Klaas Kerkstra (Wageningen University.00 .Programme:11-14 November 2001. France) Developments and recent driving forces in rural areas in a European perspective. the Netherlands) Interaction between urban and rural areas in Europe – underlying processes and their consequences for forest and nature management. Nathalie Bertrand (Cemagref. USA) Changing relationships between people and nature .
00 Developing the Social Values of Urban Forests Sjerp de Vries and Martin Goossen (the Netherlands) Professionalising planning for the social functions of forests and nature areas. Case Studies of Urban Woodland Planning and Design Simon Bell (United Kingdom) Use and abuse of woodlands in Central Scotland.15. Denmark) COST-E12: Urban forests and trees – introduction and main results - Changing form. Klaus Seeland (Switzerland) and Fabio Salbitano (Italy) The potential of social integration in some of the major cities of multicultural Switzerland and Italy in urban green areas. Developing Innovative Programmes for Urban Forestry Kevin Collins and John Brosnan (Ireland) Ireland’s NeighbourWood scheme .the case of Flanders. Israel 286 .A catalyst for the regeneration of a region. Ann Van Herzele (Belgium) Challenges of neighbourhood participation in city-scaled urban green-space planning.Kjell Nilsson & Cecil Konijnendijk (Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute. Dominique Blom (the Netherlands) Urban woodlands in the lowlands. Iris Bernstein (Israel) Creating an urban forest in the city of Maale Edomim.urban greening through partnerships. Alan Simson (United Kingdom) The White Rose Forest .30 . benefit and functions of urban forests and trees Tuesday 13 November Parallel sessions COST E12 Time: 9. Christin Janssens and Danny Wildemeersch (Belgium) Social learning and urban forestry planning .
287 . Jitze Kopinga (the Netherlands) The effect of adding mycorrhizae to planting soil on the establishment and first growth of street tree plantings. and Nerys Jones (United Kingdom) Tree selection and establishment practices in Europe . Jürgen Samyn (Belgium) The assessment of mulch sheets to inhibit competitive vegetation in tree plantations in urban and natural environment. Jose Luis Garcia-Valdecantos (Spain). Francis (Ireland) Enhancing the diversity of woodland field layer communities in urban plantation woodlands for amenity and wildlife purposes Marel Tomalak (Poland) Biological and integrated control of insect pests in urban parks and forests. Louis Marie Rivière (France). Innovative approaches in urban tree establishment Stephan Pauleit (Germany). Laure Vidal-Beaudet (France).Innovative approaches in selection and establishment of urban tree resources Innovative Approaches in Plant Selection and Pest Control Arne Sæbø (Norway). Monika Sieghardt and Martin Wresowar (Austria) Informing the public about the ecological impact of different methods of road and pavement winter maintenance in Vienna. Palle Kristoffersen and Camilla B. Sørensen (Denmark) Weed control in the urban environment in Denmark. park trees and urban woodlands.Results from a European survey. Monique Bodson (Belgium). Improving Urban Soils for Urban Trees Els Couenberg (the Netherlands) The Amsterdam Tree Soil revisited. Thorarinn Benedikz (Iceland). Joanna L. Thomas Randrup (Denmark) and Jos Van Slycken (Belgium) Plant selection for street trees. Gemma Garcia-Marin (Spain).
Management of urban woodlands Åsa Ode (Sweden) Visual aspects in the management of urban woodland.Innovative approaches in urban forest and tree management Developing management systems in urban forestry Werner Pillmann (Austria) Management of urban greenery . Anna Jönsson and Roland Gustavsson (Sweden) Management styles and knowledge cultures of yesterday and tomorrow for multiple use and urban woodland management. Case studies of urban forestry ownership and management Ömer Eker and Kenan Ok (Turkey) Results of changing social demands in Istanbul Bahcekoy Forest Enterprise: a case study. Russia. Spain 288 . Petersburg. Evgeny Kouznetsov (Rusland) and Andrey Selikhovkin (Rusland) Developing an information system for structural urban green planning and ma nagement in St.a system oriented model of tasks in urban forestry. Cecil Konijnendijk (Denmark). Jens Ole Juul (Denmark). Susanne Guldager (Denmark). Alexander Alekseev (Rusland). José-Luis Garcia-Valdecantos and Maria-Louisa Tello (Spain) A historical case of periurban forestry: the ‘Sotos Históricos’ of Aranjuez. Martin Hermy and Johnny Cornelis (Belgium) Towards a monitoring method and a number of multifaceted and hierarchical biodiversity indicators for urban and suburban parks.
Spain) Managing forest fires near urban areas in Spain. Thessaloniki.Greece) Pests and diseases to urban forests in Greece. Christos Tourlakidis (Director of Reforestation Service of Thessaloniki. Greece) Analysis of the wildland fire problem of Greece at the urban-rural interface. Ramon Vallejo Calzada (CEAM. Switzerland) Urban and community forestry in India and Nepal. Greece.the North-South perspective Thursday 11 April Plenary session Time: 14. Alexandros Dimitrakopoulos (Dept. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.Programme.18. Syaka Sadio (FAO) Urban forestry issues in Africa: case studies in Near East (Egypt. Sudan) and Sahelian (Mauritania. Malia and Ethiopia) countries. Greece) Periurban forest of Thessaloniki: Post-fire restoration and perspectives. Alicia Chacalo (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. Mexico) Urban forestry in the South: the case of Mexico City.00 Guido Kuchelmeister (Tree City Initiative. Germany) Urban forestry as a development tool. Klaus Seeland (Technical University of Zurich. of Forestry and Natural Environment.00 . 11–13 April 2002 Treats to urban forests and trees . 289 . Helen Michalopoulos (National Agricultural Research Foundation/ Forest Research Institute of Thessaloniki.
16. Ilse Wuyts (Ministerie van het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest) „The Green Logic“.optimal use of open space in Europe Thursday 13 June 2002 Plenary Session Time: 14. Ellen Moons (Catholic University of Leuven. Roel Vanhaeren (Flemish Community. Belgium. 13-15 June 2002 Integrating research and practice . Renovation of street trees in Brussels. Belgium) Cost-revenue analysis of urban forests from a research point of view Muriel Eyletters (Université Libre de Bruxelles) ‘Diagnosis of trees capacity to live in an urban environment’. Forest and Green Areas Division) Realising urban forests in Flanders: a policy perspective. 290 .00 .30 Peter Janssens (Benelux) Urban forestry and efficient use of open space in western Europe from a research point of view.Bruges.
de Hes Brosnan Brus Buck Bussche Buyse Calvo Causin Chacalo Christodoulou Collet Collins Firstname Ekko Emilio Christos Gregory Chris Teije Simon Tibor Mario Thorarinn Iris Massimo Yves Vaius Dominique Monique Karel Zelimir Anko Sanneke John Robert Alexander Brenda Griet Enrico Roberto Alicia Athanasios Gregor Kevin Country The Netherlands Italy Greece The Netherlands United Kingdom The Netherlands United Kingdom Slovakia Italy Iceland Israel Italy France Greece The Netherlands Belgium The Netherlands Croatia Slovenia The Netherlands Ireland Slovenia Austria Belgium Belgium Italy Italy Mexico Greece Germany Ireland 291 . and Bruges Participants at the COST E12 meetings in Florence (29-31 March. Thessaloniki. 2001). Wageningen (11-14 November. 2002) and Bruges (13-15 June. 2001). 2002) Lastname Aertsen Amorini Apostolides Ashworth Baines Bakker Bell Bencat Bencivenni Benedikz Bernstein Bianchi Birot Blioumis Blom Bodson Bonsen Borzan Bostjan Broekhuijsen . Thessaloniki (11-13 April. 2001). Ljubljana (28-20 June.Participants – Florence. Ljubljana. Wageningen.
Lastname Couenberg Cuizzi de Deugd De Nutte De Rogatis de Schrijver De Vico Fallani De Vreese de Vries De Wilde de Winter Devaere Di Giovine Dimitrakopoulos Dominguez Drénou Ducatillion Dujesiefken Edelin Edwards Eker Elands Eriksson Eyletters Falck Fede Forrest From Garcia-Marin García-Valdecantos Gatti Gauthier German Chiari Ghag Gijsbers Gijsel Goossen Gorissen Gundersen Firstname Els Danielle Maartje Tim Anna Filip Massimo Rik Sjerp Joris PJ Veerle Mirella Alexandros Gloria Christphe Cathérine Dirk Claude Penny Ömer Birgit Liselott Muriël Jan Salvatore Mary Johanna Gemma José Luis Laura Michelle Cristina Jasbinder Ineke Katrijn Martin Dries Vegard Country The Netherlands Italy The Netherlands Belgium Italy Belgium Italy Belgium The Netherlands Belgium The Netherlands Belgium Italy Greece Spain France France Germany France United Kingdom Turkey The Netherlands Sweden Belgium Sweden Italy Ireland Sweden Spain Spain Italy FAO Switzerland United Kingdom United Kingdom Belgium The Netherlands Belgium Norway 292 .
Lastname Gustavsson Hanley Hasler Hatzistathis Hermy Heyens Hoogstra Hunter Hyttinen Härdter Jager Jansen Janssens Jensen Jóhannesson Jones Juul Jönsson Kalb Kassioumis Keizer Kerkstra Knol Koch Konijnendijk Koolen Kopinga Kovacshazy Kristofferesen Kuchelmeister Kvarda Lagerstrom Larsen le Floch Lub Löfström Malamidis Martin McCormack Firstname Roland Nicholas Berit Athanasios Martin Veerle Marjanke Beatrice Penti Ulf Laslo Hans Peter Frank Arni Nerys Jens Ole Anna Joop Konstantinos Gerrit Jan Klaas Reijer Niels Elers Cecil Jos Jitze Marie-Christine Palle Guido Eva Tomas J. Bo Sophie Jan Irja George Luis Art Country Sweden EU Denmark Greece Belgium Belgium The Netherlands The Netherlands COST Germany Hungary The Netherlands Belgium Denmark Iceland United Kingdom Denmark Sweden The Netherlands Greece The Netherlands The Netherlands The Netherlands Denmark Denmark/The Netherlands The Netherlands The Netherlands France Denmark Germany Austria Sweden Denmark France The Netherlands Finland Greece Portugal Irelande 293 .
Lastname Michalopoulos Moons Motta Mussche Mutto Nachtergaele Nas Nieto Nilsson Niskanen Nyhuus O’Sullivan O’Brien Ode O’Leary Olsen Oosterbaan Østerbye O’Sullivan Ottitsch Oven Paganova Pálsson Papageorgiou Pauleit Petit Piggen Pillmann Pirnat Plana Potyralska Præstholm Quist Randrup Rautamäki Rego Robic Rolf Rydberg Firstname Helen Ellen Emma Sylvie Sergio Jeroen Rob Laura Kjell Anssi Signe Rory Elizabeth Åsa Tomas Ib Asger Anne Lars Rory Andreas Primoz Viera Jóhann Kostas Stephan Franck J Werner Janez Eduard Aleksandra Søren Willem Thomas Maija Francisco Dusan Kaj Dan Country Greece Belgium Italy Belgium Italy Belgium The Netherlands Spain Denmark Finland Norway Ireland United Kingdom Sweden Ireland Denmark The Netherlands Denmark Ireland The Netherlands/Austria Slovenia Slovakia Iceland Greece United Kingdom/Germany Belgium The Netherlands Austria Slovenia Spain Poland Denmark The Netherlands Denmark Finland Portugal Slovenia Sweden Sweden 294 .
Lastname Sadio Salbitano Samyn Sanesi Schanz Scheirlinck Schmidt Schraml Schröder Seeland Selby Shannon Siegel Sieghardt Simson Siwecki Skarphédinsdóttir Slee Sneep Soares Sommer Steidle-Schwahn Stoffer Stoker Supuka Susca Szepesi Sæbø Tello Terrasson Tomalak Tourlakidis Trakolis Tyrväinen Uilarino Valk Vallejo van den Berg van der Sleesen Firstname Syaka Fabio Jürgen Giovanni Heiner Hans Gbor Ulrich Klaus Klaus Ashley Denis Gunther Monika Alan Ryszard Ragnhildur Bill Huib Ana Luísa Robert Anna Bart Christian Ján Vito András Arne Maria-Luisa Daniel Marek Christos Dimitrios Liisa Jose Remco Ramon Rien Sasha Country FAO Italy Belgium Italy The Netherlands Belgium Hungary Germany Germany Switzerland Finland Ireland COST Austria United Kingdom Poland Iceland United Kingdom The Netherlands Portugal United States of America Germany The Netherlands Switzerland Slovakia Italy Hungary Norway Spain France Poland Greece Greece Finland Spain The Netherlands Spain The Netherlands Ireland 295 .
Lastname van der Wiel van der Wielen Van Herzele van Holsteijn Van Hoye van Ingen van Kerckhove Van Slycken van Tuyll van Serooskerken van Vliet Varga Veer Visschedijk Von Weisenberg Vriesman Vuletic Weber Wiegersma Wiersum Wilderink Wilkie Wohlers Wuyts Zagas Firstname Hans Pierre Ann Hein Dirk Michel Geert Jos Frederik Kees Gabor Marije Peter Kim Kees Dijana Norbert Lodewijk Freerk Ellen Kim Antje Ilse Theocharis Country The Netherlands The Netherlands Belgium The Netherlands Belgium The Netherlands Belgium Belgium The Netherlands The Netherlands Hungary The Netherlands The Netherlands Finland The Netherlands Croatia Germany The Netherlands The Netherlands The Netherlands United Kingdom Germany Belgium Greece 296 .
6 x 25 cm ISBN 92-898-0009-7 The purpose of this report is to make available the outcome of the work of COST Action 722 ‘Short-range forecasting of fog.41BL17_Pages_lim 07-07-2005 10:20 Pagina 3 COST Office COST domain: Forests and forestry products EUR 21524 — COST Action E12 — Urban forests and trees — Proceedings No 2 Edited by: C. C. visibility and low clouds’. which was carried out from 2002 to 2003. they could be also useful for a wider community interested in the processing of input data (in-situ. Nilsson Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2005 — 296 pp. — 17. an inventory of existing forecast methods and ongoing projects was made and an evaluation of requirements from customers and from forecasters was prepared. Konijnendijk. K. Schipperijn. satellites). J. These results will be used for the next phases of COST Action 722. However. numerical and statistical forecasting and in application purposes. . During this period.
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