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UNIVERSITY .RowN SPROVIDENCE, R. 1.

**AN ANALYSIS OF COMBINED LONGITUDINAL AND TORSIONAL PLASTIC WAVES IN A THIN-WALLED TUBE BY
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R. J.CLIFTON

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**"AN ANALYSIS OFLCOMBINED LONGITUDINAL AND
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TORSIONAL PLASTIC WAVES IN A THIN-WALLED TUBE by R. J. Clifton .

Technical Report No. 5 Division of Engineering Brown University Providence, Rhode Island

May 1966

Sponsored by Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Contract DA-19-020-AMC-0077(R) ARPA Order No. 71, supervised by Ballistic Research Laboratories Aberdeen Proving Ground

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Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted for any purpose of the United States Government

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**An Analysis of Combined Longitudinal and
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1 Torsional Plastic Waves in a Thin-Walled Tube

by R. J. Clifton 2

Abstract.

This paper presents a one-dimenslonal rate independent The tube material is elastic-plastic

theory of combined longitudinal and torsional plastic wave propagation in a thin-walled cylindrical tube. assumed to behave as an isotropic work-hardening, smooth curve, concave toward the strain axis. and c

solid, for which the stress-strain curve in simple tension is a The resulting 5 c 2 where c 2 is the equations are shown to yield two wave speeds, cf and cs, which satisfy the inequalities c 2 _<cf _ c elastic shear wave velocity and c is the elastic bar velocity.

The solution is given for combined longitudinal and torsional step loading of:a semi-infinite tube, which is initially at rest and either unstressed or statically pre-stressed to arbitrary values of normal stress and shear stress. solutions. The solution consists of adjoining centered simple wave solutions and constant state There are two types of simple wave solutions corresThe stress paths in ponding to the two wave speeds cf and c s. form an orthogonal network. 1 This research was partly supported by the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Order No. 71, through Contract DA-19-020-AMC-0077(R) with Ballistic Research Laboratories,, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Partial support was also provided by the Advanced Research Projects Agency under Contract .SD-86. 2 Assistant Professor of Engineering (Research), Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

stress-space associated with these two types of simple waves

Such a test. designed to study the dynamic mechanical behavior of a material. that the material satisfies either the Tresca or von Mises yield conditions. for stress states beyond the elastic limit of the material. Accordingly.Introduction A test involving combined dynamic stress states which is attractive from the point of view of analysis and which would not seem to present unsurmountable experimental difficulties is that of combined longitudinal and torsional impact of a thin-walled cylindrical tube. It will be assumed that the stress-strain curve for simple tension is smooth.g. elastic-plastic theory for isotropic work-hardening (see e. In other words. the purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of combined longitudinal and torsional impact of a thin-walled cylindrical tube. and independent of the rate of strain. In order to interpret the results of plastic wave tests. concave toward the strain axis. although simple. the theory is the same as the usual quasi-static. El]) except that the inertia terms are included. could be expected to result in a useful theory for interpreting experimental observations. The theory presented here reduces to that of von Kgrman [2] for the case of longitudinal impact. that isotropic work-hardening applies. could be expected to provide useful information regarding the dynamic plastic behavior of solids under combined stress states. based on an assumed material behavior which. it is necessary to first solve the associated boundary value pro- blem for an assumed material behavior. that the elastic and plastic strain rates are separable and that the plastic strain rate is given by the theory of the plastic potential. Clearly this information is of fundamental importance in the development of a three-dimensional theory of plastic wave propagation. without torsion. It is similar to the theory presented . the appropriateness of the assumptions regarding the material behavior is then evaluated by comparison of theory and experiment.

then a combined stress state propagates as a wave of strong discontinuity followed by a constant state. of one-dimensional plastic waves involving combined stress states is survey paper by Cristescu [6]. for their case the normal strain in the direction parallel to the impacting faces and in the plane of the plates is zero whereas in the case assumed to considered here the normal stress in be zero. They considered the case of edge impact of two plates for which the directions of the velocities of the two plates are in the plane of the plates and are oblique to the impacting faces. the slower combined stress wave the velocity of propagation of a a plastic wave of pure given level of shear strain was shown to be faster than in shear. He showed that a given level of compressive strain propagates faster in the faster of these two combined stress waves than it similarly. From these results Cristescu concluded that combined dynamic stress is In contrast with the results transmitted in a body only by combined stress waves.2 by Bleich and Nelson [3] for the case of a uniformly distributed step load of pressure and shear on a half space.*4] and Cristescu [5] have material to be elastic-perfectly plastic. . discontinuity occurs only in wave exists fora the present theory prpdicts that a wave of strong elastic regions and that a leading uniaxial plastic A bibliography of studies given in a step load of normal stress and shear. except that Bleich and Nelson assumed the Rakhmatulin [. found two types of combined stress waves. using the same equations as Rakhmatulin and assuming less than a material for which the slope of the stress-strain curve in shear is the secant modulus. of Rakhmatulin and Criptescu. Cristescu. the corresponding direction is Rakhmatulin described a solution in which first a uniaxial stress state propagates into the body as a simple wave followed by a constant state. used a deformation theory of plasticity to study elastic-plastic wave propagation for combined stress states analogous to the stress states considered here. in would in a plastic wave for a uniaxial stress state.

t) denote the average rotation about the x-axis at time t and v(x. again neglecting Pyt (4) where T(x.t). 1. Tx Conservation of angular momentum gives.t) is the force in the longitudinal direction per unit cross-sectional area and p is the density. are assumed to be the sum of an elastic part .t) of the cross-section at x.t) denote the average displiacement in the longitudinal direction at time t of the cross-section at a distance x from the impact end'of the tube. Let U(x.t) denote the shearing strain rOx the tangential velocity r~t. Let y(x. Then. neglecting changes in r. Since this is to be a small deformation theory. we have .t) denote the longitudinalstrainU x. changes in r. Derivation of the Basic Equations Consider a long slender thin-walled tube with mean radius r as shown in Fig.can refer to either the initial position of the cross-section or its. the coordinate x.t) the longitudinal particle velocity'U t Then if U is twice continuously differentiable et Analogously. position at time t.3 1.is the force in the tangential direction per unit cross-sectional area. The strain rates e and y and a plastic part.Yt = v Conservation of linear momentum gives ax = Pu x (2) (3) where a(x. u () let Q(x. £(x. (subscripts x and t denote partial Let differentiation with respect to x and t respectively) and u(x.

t t E t (5a) eY + Y (5b) where the superscripts e and p denote the elastic and plastic parts respectively. Cet+ e . in particular. (5) are given by e Et For an isotropic elastic solid 1 0 at (6a) Yt = where E is e 1 Tt (6b) Young's modulus and p is the modulus of rigidity. the hoop stress associated with the lateral inertia of the tube will be neglected. . (8) where e is a constant. the elastic parts in Eqs.4 Thus.T) (•) a 2 + T = k2 For 0 = F (8) Eq. and k is the yield stress in pure shear. (8) corresponds to the Tresca (maximum shear stress) yield condition. corresponds to the von Mises (distortion energy) yield condition and for 0 = 2 Eq. The yield condition is assumed to have the form f(C. The plastic strain rates are given by ep = yP = af (7a) (7b) t T where f(o. If isotropic work-hardening is assumed then there is a one to one correspondence between k and the plastic work Wp. In formulating the stress-strain relations it will be assumed that a and T are the only non-zero stresses. The plastic work rate Wj is given by t.T) is the yield function and A is a positive scalar function to be specified subsequently.

(13) and the initial condition WP( y/8) = 0. (11) and regarding the slope of the as a function of the stress a.5 t -p aJp + T t t (9) the function is found From Eqs. (8). (12) d+ E Eq. and (9) and the relation W to satisfy -kt dwP 2 2k The function WP(k) dk (10) can be determined from the stress-strain curve for a For this. T.we da = For simple tension the yield condition. let a = f(e) be the stressrelated to the simple tension test or a pure shear test. say g(a). determine the function WP(k) corresponding to the stress-strain curve a = f(e). terms of a. dWp d- = 02k ( i i 1) dk g(k) E (13) Eq. (7). reduces too = Ok. strain curve in simple tension. latter relation in Eq. dW+ a a (8). The governing equations are obtained by using Eqs. (7). (1) and (2) in (5). An increment in stress do is elastic strain increment de e and the plastic strain increment dep by e do = f (E)[dse + dep] (11) Substituting dEe = da/E and dep = dWP/a in stress-strain curve (i. f (e)) obtain Eq. (10) to express e t and yt in Eqs. (8). . where ay is the initial yield stress in tension. and Thus. (12) Using the we obtain the following first order differential equation for the function WP(k).. (6).e. at and Tt.

) Et0 1 o2 1t a + a t T t] U x (14) t Tt + H(k)[GT at + 2 T2 Tt] = V (15) respectively. 2. (4). constitute a system of four first order partial differential equations for the four unknown functions a. u and v. dk (16) If Eq. (16) and (15) (3). where dWp H(k) - 02 k3 in terms of a and T then Eqs. T. Characteristic Properties of the Equations The governing system of first order partial differential equations derived in the previous section can be written in the following matrix form L[w] where w is the vector Awt + Bwx 0 (17) and A and B are the following symmetric matrices. (8) (14). p 0 A 1+ 0 H( ) 0 HOT 0 0_ B= 0 00 -1 0 0 01 0 0 HOT p 0 0 ±+ He2T2 0 0 - 0 0 - .6 Eqs.(2) become + H(k)[(. is used to express k in Eq. (1) and.

For the case of torsional impact (i. (18) are 1/2 Pc 2 = M +.T) by the associated value . of longitudinal plastic waves. is a system of quasi-linear. Eqs. In order to study the dependence of the wave speeds on the stress state it is helpful to characterize the stress state (o.N ± [(M-N) 2 + 4H 2 T2 0 2 ]• 2L (19) The wave speed. bar velocity c0 1/2o For the elastic case (i. for example. (19). will be denoted by cf and. The characteristic velocities c are the roots of the characteristic equation det. (17) in Chapter 5 of Ref. symmetric hyper(The theory of such equations bolic.e. by cs. C=0 where C = (cA-B) The characteristic equation is 2 - is the characteristic matrix. otherwise. H=0) cf becomes the elastic becomes the elastic shear wave velocity = (E/p) 1/2 and c c 2 = (//20 For the case of longitudinal impact (i. partial differential equations of first order.e. (17). [7]). a=0) cs corresponds to the velocity of torsional plastic waves. T=0) cf corresponds to the velocity of longitudinal plastic waves for stresses sufficiently small that cf > c 2 . cs corresponds to the velocity. for Eqs.e.7 The system of equations. L(pc 2 ) (M+N)(pc 2 ) + 1 0 (18) where i• )2IHO2T2 L + 1 H(cy/O = + •H'T M - +H22 11 N N 1 + H(a/)2 )2 The roots of Eq. taking the plus sign in.Eq. the subscripts f and s denote 'fast' wave speeds respectively. is given. and 'slow' taking the minus sign.

8. Substituting o/O = k cos 4 for which the yield condition. For values of v satisfying 0 5 v : 1/2 and values of 0 satisfying 3 • 02 < 4. and writing the slope of the uniaxial stress-strain curve at a = Ok (i.e. using Eqs. The wave speeds cf and cs given by Eq. and 8. fixed value of 8. In this way we obtain the following dimensionless form for the wave speeds as functions of 0 and 4. (20) in Eq. (-)2 c2 = 2L 1/2 (21) where L 2 2 1 + (i/!-l)(cos ¢ + 2(l+v) sin S= 2(1+v) + (1/ý-l) = 1 + (1/8-1) cos 2 e2 sin2 4 4 2 2 = 4(1/0-1)2 02 sin 4 cos 4 are plotted and v is Poisson's ratio. and an angle 4)by use of the relations T = k sin 4 (20a) (20b) is identically satisfied. g(Ok)) as 8E where 0 = O(k) satisfies 0 S 8 : 1 and decreases monotonically with increasing k. 0 for an arbitrary Also. vs. Eq. the wave speeds cf and cs satisfy cs 5 c 2 e cf < c . cs is monotonically decreasing and cf is monotonically increasing with increasing 4 for 4 in the interval (0. 7r/2). 2 for fixed values of 0. cs and cf decrease monotonically with decreasing.8 of the yield stress k. for a fixed value of 4. (19) we obtain expressions for the wave speeds in terms of k (16) and 4. These expressions can be simplified by substituting for H. (21) 4 in Fig. from Eq. . (8). v. and (13). (8). Eqs. Furthermore.

t) and T(x. Associated with the characteristic matrix C. (19).t) is known.for Eqs.The characteristic curves. (17) which correspond to positive wave velocities are given by -pc2 HaT -pc + f f HOTdx for -+c(4a d-t +cf (24a) 2 Cf+ H(a/1) ) + Pcf 21 Pcf f fE• (2 + H(a/e) 2 ) E - 1 1 pcs + s c1 s(+ He2t 2 ) 1C +H2T2) pc ( =for + H H-c s ) - 1 rdx = + C •dt s (24b) -pc2 HaT s . 5 The null vectors for Eqs. for a characteristic with wave velocity c.. Since the right sides of Eqs. or simply the characteristics. is a null vector k which satisfies Cz = 0 (23) There are four linearly independent null vectors corresponding to the four wave velocities± cf and ± cs. are the four families of curves which satisfy d- (17) cf (22a) dt dx x= ± c s (22b) where cf and c are given by Eq. (22) depend on a and T the characteristics can be constructed only after the solution a(x.

respectively by replacing cf by -cf and cs by -cs. The functions a. The null vectors tf and (24a) -s and (24b) corresponding to negative wave velocities are obtained from Eqs. equation on the characteristic associated with the null vector 2(Ref. [w I is CEw I " 0 so that. or T special cases in which either H = 0. and v are continuous across a characteristic.10 in which there is an arbitrary scalar factor. but their derivatives may occur in the direction of the normal to the characThe jump [w ] in n the normal derivative of the vector w must satisfy (23). (17) given by Z. 6 = 0. 427). it follows that in both. n proportional to the corresponding except for general null vector k. u. The linear combination of Eqs. . (24) in Eq. n in view of Eq. jumps in teristic. = 0. (26a) c f and d dt - c s are and (26b) respectively.dT] 0.L[w] 0 is (25) an interior differential [7] pp. Substituting Eqs.He 2 T2 )] [pcs du . 424- where the dot denotes the Euclidean inner product. r.do] + HoT[pc dv . These incremental relations along characteristics are used in the next section to obtain simple wave solutions. [1/pc 2 - (l/E + H(o/O) 2 )] [pcf dv - dr] + Ho[pcf du [1/pC2 - do] 0.longitudinal and torsional motion are associated with each wave speed. They are also useful in deriving difference equations and boundary for the numerical solution of problems involving arbitrary initial conditions [8]. (25) we obtain the following incremental relations along the characteristics. d- + c (26b) The incremental relations along the characteristics dx cdt obtained by replacing cf by -cf and cs by -cs in Eqs. Since all components of the null vector are non-zero.dx + cf (26a) - (1/u +.

by integration of Eqs. The solution for slow simple waves can be obtained by examining the computation of the solution at point P in Fig. Characteristics for these two types of simple waves are shown in Fig. and . u.T)= -s of cf. Simple Wave Solutions There are two types of simple wave solutions of Eqs.T) (27) where 2 l/E + H(a/6) Y(G. T. (26) The solution at point P is computed dx along the characteristics L. -c. T.c 0 0 5 Since a.cf gives the following first order ordinary differential equation for a as a function of T da =(o. for the characteristics + cf and . u. 3. equivalently Hot T(a.= +cf. and fast simple waves in which the solution is constant along the characteristics dx - cf. 3(a) for given constant values of 0. (17). in view of Eq. 2 - 1/pc 2 (28c) HOT . namely. (18). slow dx - simple waves in which the solution is constant along the characteristics s. and v on the characteristic c .11 3.T) = 1/p + H02 T2 (28b) - I/pc2 It is convenient to also have expressions for T involving the wave speed c5 instead Thus 1/P + He2T (. and v are constant along c these three incremental relations can Adding the two equations be regarded as three ordinary differential equations.T) 1/pc 2 f (28a) HaT or.

obtained by numerical stress-strain Solutions of Eq. passes through any point (at). (c) curves that intersect the initial yield surface. represents a locus of stress states that occur at a section during the passage of a slow simple wave. (b) curves that intersect the a-axis in the interval Each of the < JIu < a. T vanishes on the T-axis. T 0 sect the a-axis at values of a satisfying is a unique solution of the differential > a because.T) of Eq.. the solution of Eq. (27) except the points where T is This solution will be denoted by a = a(T. (0. yield surface or intersect the a-axis in (27). equation dr/do = l/T(U. The solution through a point a unique solution of (GT) with a $ 0 cannot intersect the T-axis because a = 0 is Eq.i) with T_ $ 0 cannot interat such points. In Fig. . and on the a-axis in the interval ay the uniaxial stress-strain lJl < a where a is the stress for which the slope of (28a).. O = /3) was used. (27).e. (27) the initial through an arbitrary point (. curves in Fig. Except at these points. 4 there are three types of curves: (a) curves that pass through the point a a a. Therefore. lines in Fig. the function continuous and continuously differentiable. From Eq. is IJu > a. the solution through a point Jul (. T = 0. Thus. Likewise. on the initial < yield surface. curves. (28b). a unique solution infinite.T)).T) must either intersect the interval ay :aj Y J integration.T) l/E + H(a/O) 2 - 1/pC 2 (28d) S From Eq. 4 satisfy the inequality 0 <da<a (29) d 2 2 . These stress paths are traThe slopes of the versed in the directions indicated by the arrows in Fig. points on the a-axis for which T(a.T). 4. are shown as solid For-these curves a curve representing that of The von Mises yield condition annealed commercially pure aluminum was used. 4. (i..12 or HoT -(o. T is infinite at curve is equal to 1j. or stress paths.

- result from integrating Eqs.[(a/6) 2 + T21/2. dc s/dT is negative and the simple wave solution is valid. (. 3c s D da dk + 3 s de ddk dT d¶ 3 ac ac is positive and -is negative (see Fig. (26) along the characteristics dt + c. (oT)). dc s (31) Recall that -- From the condition The result that the stress-strain curve is concave downward da/dk is negative. becomes infinite. (aT)) Cs(a. (a. and .. 2). use is made of the two ordinary differential equations which.T)) is the stress path for the slow simple wave.T) is given by Eq. The slow simple wave solution is completed by determining the velocities u and v associated with each point on the stress path a = a(T. (21). Fig. (27). that do/dT satisfies inequality (29) insures that dk/dT and dc/dT are positive. cf. s (19). (3a). and the functionc (0. For this.T) (30a) (30b) = where a = a(T. the wave velocity c s must decrease monotonically as the stresses a and it T increase along the curve a = a(T. The solution for stresses as functions of x and t for a slow simple wave. centered at the origin.cs in These two equations can be written as dvdT 1 pcs (32a) du 1 pc (32b) . Consequently. is determined implicitly by the relations a a(t. however.13 and approach the upper limit as the radius of the subsequent yield surface. . in addition to Eq.T)). To show that this is the case Then is convenient to regard c s as a function of 8 and ý as in Eq. In order for this slow simple wave solution to be valid.

The change in strain with the passage of a slow simple wave can be obtained (l4) and (15).T)) can be obtained by quadrature. Making use of Eqs.14 Since the right side of Eqs. Comparison of Eqs. (at)). (35) and (27) reveals that the stress paths for fast simple waves are orthogonal to the stress paths for slow simple waves. the equations governing the change in strain in the following form de do 1 PC2 S (33a) dy _1 dr 'C2 s (33b) from which the strains can be obtained by quadrature. (32) is a known function of a and T the change in u and v as the stress state varies along the path a = a(T. (27) with respect to time. of Eqs. obtained in the same way as was the Integration along the three characteristics in 3b yields the following differential equation for the stress path for fast simple waves d- 1 (35) where (O(. along the path a aC(r. Fig. As these . 4. we can write by integration of the strain rates. (28). and (28). The former are shown as dashed lines in Fig.T) is the same as in Eq. (33) is that in slow simple wave regions An interesting consequence do dy That is. The solution for fast simple waves is solution for slow simple waves. Eqs. (34) the direction of the total strain-rate vector coincides with that of the stress-rate vector. (6.

4. du = do dv dT (36b) The equations for computing the changes in strains are d do 1 2c (37a) cf :dT dy = 1 pc2 (37b) Pf From Eqs. I Pcf 1 pCf are (36a) analogous to Eqs. the directions of the total strain-rate vector and the stress-rate vector also coincide for fast simple waves. T across which jumps in Jumps in a and u can occur only across a wave front with speed c . and v can occur only across a wave From conservation of momentum these jumps must satisfy dx(3a [a] = . constant state solutions. (37).PCo[u] for dt co (38a) [T] = - PC 2 [VI 2 for d- dt c2 (38b) . and waves of strong discontinuity (i.15 stress paths are traversed from left to right the wave speed cf decreases monotonically from c0 to c 2 .e. The equations determining the changes in velocities for (32). fast simple waves. jumps in front with speed c 2 . Solution for Step-Loading of a Semi-Infinite Tube Solutions for a variety of step-loading problems for a semi-infinite tube can be obtained by appropriate combinations of slow and fast simple wave solutions. waves stress and velocity occur).

4. respectively. and 5(c). For this problem there are three types of wave solutions as shown in Figs. a and T increase across the slow simple wave region. which type results in a given case depends on the values Figs. and (c). 0 in Fig. Double parallel lines in Fig.t) = 0 0 < t < O (40a) T(0. 5(b). 5(a). 5 repre- sent wave fronts across which jumps in stress and velocity occur.16 where square brackets denote the jump in the enclosed quantity. T = T is reached. are such that the point (ao . according to the von Kdrman solution. a and T are constant in the constant o Case (b) differs from case (a) only in that the fast simple wave . we seek a solution of Eqs. For case (a) the stress wave behavior is as follows: a jumps to ay across the wave front propagating with a speed c0 .0) = v(x. until s . 4 is intersected by solutions of Eq.0) = G(x.T ) in Fig. 0 < t < (17) in which satisfies the initial u(x. we consider the case of a tube initially at rest and unstressed is simultaneously subjected to a constant normal stress That is. 5(b). the region 0 5 x s -.t) = t 0 < t < C (40b) in which 0 and T are constants satisfying (ao/e)2 + t 2 '> (aY/0) 2 (41) where a is the initial yield stress in simple tension. following stress path (a) the stress state a = state region. and 5(c) correspond to the cases when a and To (27) of a0 and To. (b). a increases across the fast simple wave region to a. while T remains zero. 5(a). As an example. a0 and a constant shear stress T . 0 of types (a).0) = T(xO) = 0 (39) and the boundary conditions a(0. at the end x = 0. conditions which.

As a second example we consider a case which differs from the first example only in that the tube is initially stressed statically*by a shear stress exceeds the initial proportional limit of the material. A case for which the solution exhibits an even more unexpected behavior is the case where the tube is initially stressed by a tensile stress s and then subjected to step-loading such that the final stress state (aoT ) lies outside the yield surface through the point (as. following the stress t = path ab. satisfy 0 0 + T2 > (aCF/0) 2 (42) . (32). It should be possible to carry out experiments that would either verify or refute such a prediction. ( 2 (a /6) That is. region to the final stress state (a 5 This second example exhibits the unexpected result that the shear stress at any cross-section would first decrease due to the passage of a fast simple wave. 4 intersects the a-axis. a and T increase across the slow simple wave region. and (38).= c 0 t. (36).0). to the stress state a = a. t which In this example the final shear stress will again be denoted by T0 so the jump in shear stress at t = 0 is T - Ts. to the stress state a = a1 . there. The solution for this case can be read from Figs.17 solution terminates when the stress a reaches the stress. a across T jumps from 0 to C the wave front x = c 2 t. In case (c) T and T = 0 separates the fast and slow simple waves in Fig. A constant state region with a = ab. say ab.is a constant state region with for cS(aTI) < x < c (0I1T a and T follow the stress path bc as they increase across the slow simple wave. a in- creases and decreases across the fast simple wave region. at which the stress path (b) in Fig. a and T. 00 T = The particle velocities u and v for these three ciuses can be obtained from the solution for stresses by use of Eqs. jumps to aC (see Fig. following stress path (c0. 4) across the wave front x. T = T T1. 5(b). T 6(a) and 6(b). G = a1 .

. 8. 4 and then computing the particle velocities along these paths by numerical integration of Eqs. the theoretical predictions in this case probably do not agree well with what would be observed experimentally. The contours v 0 stant have an analogous interpretation. of the jumps at the two wave fronts clearly depends strongly on the assumption that the subsequent yield surface for tension followed by torsion can be located by the theory of isotropic work-hardening. instead of the stresses. So far solutions have been given for step-loading of tubes subjected to either an initial shear stress T = T or an initial normal stress a = a. 8 a contour u0 = constant represents the locus of applied stresses (aoTo) for which the longitudinal velocity at the impact end is u0 . For given values of prescribed velocities (U . Unloading occurs at the wave T jumps to T across the wave front x = cot where the normal stress falls to a front x = c 2 t. are prescribed at x = 0. T T. The contours are then plotted by connecting points on the various stress paths for which the velocities are the same. (32).V ) the cor090 responding stresses at the impaetaface (& . Therefore. without difficulty. In Fig.T). 7. These contours are obtained by first con- determining several stress paths for slow simple waves as shown in Fig. However. The solutions given here are also valid for the case of combined longitudinal and torsional impact in which the velocities. The can solution for the case of an arbitrary initial stress state a = o clearly be obtained. in static tests the subsequent yield surface ordinarily agrees better with the assumption that the yield surface translates in the direction of the initial tensile stress than it does with the assumption of isotropic work-hardening [9].Oi) can be obtained by interpolation from a'network of contours of constant values of u0 and v as shown in Fig. a and T follow the stress path cd as they increase across the slow In this case the magnitude simple wave region to the final stress state (aO. using the techniques already established here.18 The solution for this case is shown in Fig.

"Methods of Mathematical Physics. Ivey. London. A. Cristescu. Partial Differential Equations. Vol. J. 1959. New York." Plasticity. 23." Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. Bibliography 1. Hilbert. pp. N.19 Acknowledgment The author would like to acknowledge the contribution of Mr. 1952. David Vitiello. Space Due to Combined Surface Pressure and Shear. Stresses. 243-255. pp. 3. 8. 1958. who performed the calculations for Fig. R. E." Oxford University Press. 1605-1612. Courant and D. 1950. "On the Propagation of Elastic-Plastic Waves Owing (PMM). pp. Vol. 1960. Isaacson. 1961. A-29. Cristescu. "Plane Waves in an Elastic-Plastic Half- Th. edited by Lee and Symonds. R. NDRC Report No. November 1965. 9. "On the Propagation of Elasto-Plastic Waves for Combined (PMM). H. "On the Solution of Nonlinear Hyper- bolic Differential Equations by Finite Differences. (to appear in the Journal of Applied Mechanics). II. Nelson. pp. 14-52. Rees. OSRD No. N. 15-31. *H. pp. London. Rakhmatulin. a graduate student in the Division of Engineering at Brown. 7. Bleich and I. 2. and M. 6. Courant. 22. "European Contributions to Dynamic Loading and Plastic Pergamon Press. 4. Vol. 5. Vol." Journal of Mechanical Sciences. IME." Interscience Publishers. 385-442. von Kgrman. pp. to Combined Loading. 1962. 8. . R. H. Waves. "On the Propagation of Plastic Deformation in Solids." presented at the winter meeting of ASME." Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics." Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. "The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity. 3. "Plastic Stress-Strain Relations and Yield Surfaces for Vol. Hill. Aluminum Alloys. 4 and Fig. 1079-1088. 5. 1942. Kh." 365.

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