# 1

Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Chapter 32 Chapter 32
Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Waves
2 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
God said, ''Let there be light...
...and there was...
|
¯
Ed
¯
A=
q
enc
c
0
|
¯
Bd
¯
A=0
|
¯
Bd
¯
l =µ
0
(
i
C
+c
0
d 4
E
dt
)
|
¯
Ed
¯
l =
-d d
B
dt
talklikeaphysicist.com
3 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Maxwell's Equations
|
¯
Ed
¯
A=
q
enc
c
0
|
¯
Bd
¯
A=0
Gauss' Law for E Fields
e
Static charges create
a conservative E field
e
EFL start from positive
charges and end at
negative charges
Gauss' Law for B Fields
e
Magnetic monopoles do
not exist
e
MFL form closed loops
4 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Maxwell's Equations
e
Changing magnetic
fields create
nonconservative
electric fields
Ampere's Law with
Maxwell's correction
e
Moving charges
create a magnetic field
e
Changing electric
fields create magnetic
field
|
¯
Bd
¯
l =µ
0
(
i
C
+c
0
d 4
E
dt
)
|
¯
Ed
¯
A=
-d 4
B
dt
5 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Waves
Transport disturbance, energy, and momentum
from one region to another
Amplitude
Wavelength or Period
Crest
Trough
Compression
Rarefaction v = f = /T
6 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Electromagnetic Waves
e
e
Consist of changing E and B fields
oscillating perpendicular to the direction of
propagation
e
Predicted by Maxwell's equations

2
7 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Electromagnetic Waves
e
E and B are always in phase and mutually
perpendicular with each other
e
Propagate in space even w/o a medium
e
Produced by accelerating charges
9 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Dipole Antenna (Transmitter)
10 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
11 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Wave Propagation
e
Wave front: locus of all
having the same phase
e
Distance between two
wave fronts is the
wavelength
e
Spherical wave
– Produced by a point source
– Spherical wave front
centered at the source

3
13 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Plane EM Wave
e
Fields are uniform at
any instant
e
Wave is transverse
e
Direction of
propagation (vacuum):
E × B
e
Magnitude (vacuum):
E = cB
e
Polarization: Along E
14 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Speed of Light in Vacuum
c=
1
.
c
0
µ
0
=3.00×10
8
m/s
Speed of light (EM wave)
Permittivity of free space Permeability of free space
e
Latin for celeritas
e
Exactly 299 792 458 m/s
e c
vacuum
c
air
15 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Speed of Light Not in Vacuum
e n
air
= 1.00029
e n
vacuum
= 1.00000
e n
not in vacuum
> 1 slows down EM waves
e
v < c nothing is faster than c
v=
1
.c µ
=
c
n
Speed of light (EM wave)
Permittivity of medium Permeability of medium
Index of refraction
16 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Application
n = 1 n = 1.33 n = -1.33
17 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Example
Two light waves are travelling in vacuum. Light
wave A has thrice the wavelength of light
wave B. What can be said about the
frequencies of A and B? Which is travelling
faster?
f
A
= f
B
/3
18 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Example
An EM wave propagates in vacuum along the
+z-direction. At an instant, the magnetic field
disturbance at point P due to this wave is 1 ×
10
-5
T along the -x-direction. What is the
electric field disturbance at P due to this
wave?
E = 3 × 10
3
N/C j

4
19 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Example
A certain non-magnetic glass has a dielectric
constant K = 4. What is its index of
refraction? How fast will light move inside the
glass?
n = 2
v = c/2
20 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
In a vacuum, red light has a wavelength of 700 nm and
violet light has a wavelength of 400 nm.
This means that in a vacuum, red light
A. has higher frequency and moves faster than violet light.
B. has higher frequency and moves slower than violet light.
C. has lower frequency and moves faster than violet light.
D. has lower frequency and moves slower than violet light.
E. none of the above
21 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Sinusoidal EM Waves
E and B are sinusoidal functions in time and
space
y ( x , t )=Acos( k x-ut )
Transverse displacement
from equilibrium
Wave number: 2/ Angular frequency: 2f
amplitude
Minus wave travels towards +x
Plus wave travels towards -x
22 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Sinusoidal Wave towards +x
¯
E( x ,t )=E
max
cos(kx-ut )
´
j
¯
B( x , t )=B
max
cos(kx-ut )
´
k
23 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Sinusoidal Wave towards -x
¯
E( x ,t )=E
max
cos(kx+ut )
´
j
¯
B( x , t )=-B
max
cos(kx+ut )
´
k
24 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Sinusoidal Wave towards -x
¯
E( x , t )=E
max
cos(kx+ut )
´
k
¯
B( x , t )=B
max
cos(kx+ut )
´
j

5
25 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Sinusoidal EM Waves
In vacuum:
e
E and B are in phase
and mutually
perpendicular
e
Direction of
propagation: E × B
e
Constant speed: c
e
E = cB
e E
max
= cB
max
Not in vacuum:
e
E and B are in phase
and mutually
perpendicular
e
Direction of
propagation: E × B
e
Constant speed: v < c
e
E = vB
e E
max
= vB
max
26 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
A. positive x-direction. B. negative x-direction.
C. positive y-direction. D. negative y-direction.
E. none of the above
At a certain point in space, the electric and
magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave at a
certain instant are given by
This wave is propagating in the
¯
E=
´
i (6×10
3
V/m)
¯
B=
´
k ( 2×10
-5
T)
27 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
A. positive y-direction . B. negative y-direction.
C. positive z-direction. D. negative z-direction.
E. none of the above
A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a vacuum is
propagating in the positive z-direction.
At a certain point in the wave at a certain instant in time,
the electric field points in the negative x-direction.
At the same point and at the same instant, the magnetic
field points in the
28 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
In a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a vacuum, the
electric field has only an x-component. This component
is given by
E
x
= E
max
cos (ky + wt)
This wave propagates in the
A. positive z-direction.
B. negative z-direction.
C. positive y-direction.
D. negative y-direction.
E. none of the above
29 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
In a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a vacuum, the
electric field has only an x-component. This component
is given by
E
x
= E
max
cos (ky + wt)
The magnetic field of this wave
A. has only an x-component.
B. has only a y-component.
C. has only a z-component.
D. not enough information given to decide
30 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
In a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a
vacuum, the magnetic energy density
A. is the same at all points in the wave.
B. is maximum where the electric field has its greatest value.
C. is maximum where the electric field is zero.
D. none of the above

6
31 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Poynting Vector (in vacuum)
e
Points towards the
direction of flow of
energy
e
Points towards the
propagation
direction
¯
S=
1
µ
0
¯

¯
B
S=
EB
µ
0
S
S
32 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Poynting Vector
e
Energy flowing per unit time per unit area

SI unit: J/s·m
2
e
Power per unit area
– SI unit: W/m
2
e
Total power out of any
closed surface:
P=
|
¯
Sd
¯
A
S=
1
A
dU
dt
John Henry Poynting
(1852 - 1914)
33 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
EM Wave Intensity
e
Average energy flowing per unit time per
unit area
e
Average power transfer per unit area
e
Average Poynting vector magnitude
I =
1
A
(
dU
dt
)
av
=S
av
=
1
2
S
max
=
1

0
E
max
B
max
34 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
e
Momentum density:
e
Momentum flow rate per unit area:
e
Average rate of momentum transfer per unit
area:
dp
dV
=
EB
µ
0
c
2
=
S
c
2
1
A
dp
dt
=
S
c
=
EB
µ
0
c
1
A
(
dp
dt
)
ave
=
F
ave
A
=p
35 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
e
If EM wave is totally absorbed:
e
If EM wave is totally reflected:
p
=
S
av
c
=
I
c
p
=
2 S
av
c
=
2 I
c
Larger force is imparted by an EM wave
to a reflecting surface
than to an absorbing surface
36 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Example
Which of the following yields the greatest
intensity of light?
a. 10 W with a cross-sectional area of 6 mm
2
b. 5 W with a cross-sectional area of 0.5 mm
2
c. 5 W with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm
2
d. 10 W with a cross-sectional area of 0.2 mm
2

7
37 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Example
In a space simulator facility, a series of overhead arc
lamps can produce light of intensity 1.5 kW/m
2
.
What is the average radiation pressure on a totally
reflecting section of the floor?
p
= 1 × 10
-5
Pa
38 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Example
A 50-W power light source is incident over an
area of 1 m
2
of a special reflecting surface. If
the surface reflects 50% of the incident light
beam and absorbs the remaining 50% of the
incident beam, what is the force exerted on the
surface?
F = 2.5 × 10
-7
N
39 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Example
A flat board is black at one side and white at the
other. Light of the same intensity is incident at
both sides. If other external forces are negligible,
what will happen to the board?
40 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Example
Consider a floating platform as shown below. It is
50% reflecting on the left and 50% absorbing
on the right as viewed from an axis normal to the
wall. What will happen to the system if light is
incident on it as shown?
50% Reflecting 50% absorbing
41 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
The drawing shows a
sinusoidal electromagnetic
wave in a vacuum at one
instant of time at points
between x = 0 and x = l.
At this instant, at which
values of x does the
instantaneous Poynting
vector have its maximum
magnitude?
A. x = 0 and x = l only B. x = l/4 and x = 3l/4 only
C. x = l/2 only D. x = 0, x = l/2, and x = l
42 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
The drawing shows a
sinusoidal electromagnetic
standing wave. The average
Poynting vector in this wave
A. points along the x-axis. B. points along the y-axis.
C. points along the z-axis. D. is zero.
E. none of the above

8
43 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Application
44 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Application
45 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
e
Groupings are by convention
e
Different manifestations of the same entity
e
Same speed in vacuum
e
Short wavelength High frequency

Electromagnetic Waves Dipole Antenna (Receiver) E and B are always in phase and mutually perpendicular with each other Propagate in space even w/o a medium Produced by accelerating charges Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 7 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 10 Wave Propagation Wave front: locus of all adjacent points of a wave having the same phase Distance between two wave fronts is the wavelength Spherical wave – – Produced by a point source Spherical wave front centered at the source 11 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) Dipole Antenna (Transmitter) Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 9 2 .

00000 nnot in vacuum > 1 v<c slows down EM waves nothing is faster than c 15 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 18 3 .Plane EM Wave Fields are uniform at any instant Wave is transverse Direction of propagation (vacuum): E×B Magnitude (vacuum): E = cB Polarization: Along E Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 13 Application n=1 n = 1.00029 nvacuum = 1.00×10 m/s Permeability of free space 8 Permittivity of free space Latin for celeritas Exactly 299 792 458 m/s cvacuum cair Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 14 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 17 Speed of Light Not in Vacuum Speed of light (EM wave) Index of refraction Example An EM wave propagates in vacuum along the +z-direction. At an instant. the magnetic field disturbance at point P due to this wave is 1 × 10-5 T along the -x-direction.33 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 16 Speed of Light in Vacuum Speed of light (EM wave) Example Two light waves are travelling in vacuum. What is the electric field disturbance at P due to this wave? E = 3 × 103 N/C j v= Permittivity of medium 1 c = n Permeability of medium nair = 1. Light wave A has thrice the wavelength of light wave B.33 n = -1. What can be said about the frequencies of A and B? Which is travelling faster? fA = fB/3 c= 1 0 0 =3.

This means that in a vacuum. What is its index of refraction? How fast will light move inside the glass? Sinusoidal Wave towards +x E x .t =B max cos kx t k t j y x . t = A cos k x Wave number: 2 / Minus Plus Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) t Angular frequency: 2 f wave travels towards +x wave travels towards -x 21 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 24 4 . B.t =E max cos kx B x .t =E max cos kx B x . has lower frequency and moves slower than violet light.t =E max cos kx B x .Example A certain non-magnetic glass has a dielectric constant K = 4. has lower frequency and moves faster than violet light.t = B max cos kx t j t k n=2 v = c/2 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 19 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 22 In a vacuum. red light has a wavelength of 700 nm and violet light has a wavelength of 400 nm. has higher frequency and moves slower than violet light. C. E. has higher frequency and moves faster than violet light. red light A. D.t = B max cos kx t j t k Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 20 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 23 Sinusoidal EM Waves E and B are sinusoidal functions in time and space Transverse displacement from equilibrium amplitude Sinusoidal Wave towards -x E x . none of the above Sinusoidal Wave towards -x E x .

E. the electric field has only an x-component. is the same at all points in the wave. the electric field has only an x-component. the magnetic energy density A. At the same point and at the same instant. C. has only a z-component. At a certain point in the wave at a certain instant in time. the electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave at a certain instant are given by In a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a vacuum. 3 A. C. has only a y-component. none of the above B.Sinusoidal EM Waves In vacuum: E and B are in phase and mutually perpendicular Direction of propagation: E × B Constant speed: c E = cB Emax = cBmax Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) Not in vacuum: E and B are in phase and mutually perpendicular Direction of propagation: E × B Constant speed: v < c E = vB Emax = vBmax 25 In a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a vacuum. This component is given by Ex = Emax cos (ky + wt) The magnetic field of this wave E = i 6×10 V/m 5 B= k 2×10 T This wave is propagating in the A. positive y-direction. E. D. positive z-direction. negative z-direction. positive y-direction . none of the above Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 28 At a certain point in space. is maximum where the electric field has its greatest value. positive x-direction. positive z-direction. the electric field points in the negative x-direction. C. C. C. positive y-direction. In a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a vacuum. This component is given by Ex = Emax cos (ky + wt) This wave propagates in the A. negative x-direction. none of the above B. negative y-direction. D. the magnetic field points in the A. D. B. negative z-direction. B. none of the above Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 27 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 30 5 . has only an x-component. B. E. not enough information given to decide Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 26 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 29 A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a vacuum is propagating in the positive z-direction. D. negative y-direction. D. is maximum where the electric field is zero. negative y-direction.

5 mm2 c.2 mm2 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 33 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 36 6 . 10 W with a cross-sectional area of 6 mm2 b. 5 W with a cross-sectional area of 0.1914) 32 2 S av 2 I = c c Larger force is imparted by an EM wave to a reflecting surface than to an absorbing surface prad = Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 35 EM Wave Intensity Average energy flowing per unit time per unit area Average power transfer per unit area Average Poynting vector magnitude 1 dU I= A dt 1 1 =S av = S max= E B 2 2 0 max max av Example Which of the following yields the greatest intensity of light? a. 5 W with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm2 d.Poynting Vector (in vacuum) Points towards the direction of flow of energy 1 S = E× B 0 Radiation Pressure Momentum density: dp EB S = = 2 2 dV c c 0 Momentum flow rate per unit area: 1 dp S EB = = A dt c 0c Average rate of momentum transfer per unit area: F ave 1 dp = = p rad A dt ave A 31 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 34 S S= EB 0 S Points towards the propagation direction Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) Poynting Vector S= 1 dU A dt Radiation Pressure If EM wave is totally absorbed: S I prad = av = c c If EM wave is totally reflected: Energy flowing per unit time per unit area – SI unit: J/s·m2 SI unit: W/m2 Power per unit area – Total power out of any closed surface: P= S d A Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) John Henry Poynting (1852 . 10 W with a cross-sectional area of 0.

Light of the same intensity is incident at both sides. is zero. points along the z-axis. x = 0 and x = l only C. points along the x-axis. What will happen to the system if light is incident on it as shown? prad = 1 × 10-5 Pa 50% Reflecting 50% absorbing Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 37 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 40 Example A 50-W power light source is incident over an area of 1 m2 of a special reflecting surface. x = l/2. x = 0.5 × 10-7 N The drawing shows a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave in a vacuum at one instant of time at points between x = 0 and x = l. x = l/2 only 38 B. The average Poynting vector in this wave A. E. a series of overhead arc lamps can produce light of intensity 1. At this instant. what is the force exerted on the surface? F = 2. If the surface reflects 50% of the incident light beam and absorbs the remaining 50% of the incident beam. C. 42 7 . If other external forces are negligible. and x = l 41 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) Example A flat board is black at one side and white at the other. none of the above Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 39 Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) B. points along the y-axis. at which values of x does the instantaneous Poynting vector have its maximum magnitude? A. D. It is 50% reflecting on the left and 50% absorbing on the right as viewed from an axis normal to the wall. what will happen to the board? The drawing shows a sinusoidal electromagnetic standing wave. What is the average radiation pressure on a totally reflecting section of the floor? Example Consider a floating platform as shown below. x = l/4 and x = 3l/4 only D.5 kW/m 2.Example In a space simulator facility.

Application Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 43 Application Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) 44 Electromagnetic Spectrum Groupings are by convention Different manifestations of the same entity Same speed in vacuum Short wavelength Physics 72 TWHFU AY1112S2 (C Alis) High frequency 45 8 .