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SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL SCOPE & SEQUENCE Year I (General Science) Year II (Biology) A.

Introduction to Biology -The Branches of Biology - The Famous Biologist -The Scientific Method and the Basic Scientific Techniques -The Compound Microscope and the tools in Biology -Characteristics of Life B. Balance of Nature I. Changes in Ecosystem A. Ecological succession B. Ecological backlashes II. Philippine Biodiversity III. Biodiversity Conservation Initiatives IV. Philippine and International Biodiversity Laws Year III (Chemistry) A. Introduction To Chemistry -The Science of Chemistry - The Scientific Method -Basic Laboratory Equipments in Chemistry -Scientific Measurements - Scientific Notation and Significant Figures -Measuring Temperatures -Conversion of Units : The Dimensional Analysis Method B. Properties and Classification of Matter I. Mixtures A. Solution - Classification based on solute and solvent used -solid -liquid -gas B. Colloid - Classification based on the dispersed phase and continuous medium used - gel - sol - aerosol - foam II. Separation of mixtures - Decantation - Filtration - Chromatography - Simple distillation - Fractional distillation - Crystallization - Scooping III. Substances A. Elements - Biological elements - Industrial elements B. Compounds - Biological compounds - Industrial compounds C. Atomic Structure - Daltons Atomic Theory - The Structure of Atoms -Rutherfords Nuclear Year IV (Physics) A. Introduction To Physics I. Physics Basic Science -Physics and Technology -The Scientific Method -Some Mathematical Concepts -Measurement II. Vectors -Scalar and Vector Quantities -Resultant Vector a. Graphical Method b. Pythagorean Theorem c. Component Method B. Mechanics I. Kinematics -Motion -Speed and Velocity -Graphical Analysis of Motion -Acceleration II. Laws of Motion -Newtons Laws of Motion -Momentum and Impulse -Friction III. Forces in Equilibrium -Static Equilibrium -Center of Gravity -States of Equilibrium - Conditions of Equilibrium -Torque IV. Force of Gravity -Aristotles Theory of Motion -Galileos Theory of Motion -Law of Universal Gravitation -Mass and weight -Projectile Motion -Weightlessness in Orbit V. Circular and Rotational Motion -Circular Motion -Rotational Motion -Rotational Inertia -Angular Momentum VI. Work, Energy and Power -Work -Energy

First Quarter

A. The Nature of Science and Technology -Origins and Branches of Science -The Science Processes and Scientific Method -Impact of Science and Technology in our Daily Life -Great Men and Women in Science -The Scientific Attitudes -Measurements -The Science Laboratory B. Matter

I .Properties and Phases of Matter 1.Properties of matter (physical: extensive or intensive; chemical) 2. Phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas and plasma) II. Classification of Matter I. Substances (elements : metals, non-metals and metalloids; compounds: inorganic & organic, acids, bases and salts) 2. Mixtures (homogeneous/ heterogeneous; types of mixtures (solutions, suspensions and colloids), their characteristics and uses) III. Beneficial effects of Physical and Chemical Changes on Health and the Environment

C. Cell Structure and Function The Chemical Basis of Life : An Introduction -Nature and Composition of Matter -Matters Ultimate Basis -Chemical Bonding Chemical Reactions and the Role of Energy Chemical compounds in the Living System -Chemical Elements and Life -Inorganic Compounds -Biological significance of Inorganic Compounds -Other Inorganic Elements and Compounds -Organic Compounds Cells: The Building blocks of Life -Early Discoveries on Cells -Cell Functions -Parts of the Cell -The Cell: Its role in

Food Production, Health and Drug Action -Cell Specialization: The Levels of Organizations The Cell and Its Environment -Homeostasis in Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms -Homeostasis and Tissue Culture -The Cells Environment -Substance Transport through the cell -External and Internal Conditions of the Cell -Osmosis in Animal Cells -Osmosis in Plant Cells

Model (Sub-atomic particles) - Cathode Ray tube, Canal Ray, Alpha Scattering experiment -Isotopes -Quantum Numbers -Electron Configuration

-Work-Energy Principle of Mechanics -Power VII. States of Matter -Nature of Matter -Density and Specific Gravity -Cohesion and Adhesion -Hydrostatics-Fluids at Rest -Hydrodynamics-Fluids in Motion -Properties of Solids

Second Quarter

C. Force And Motion -Distance & displacement -Speed and Velocity -Uniform velocity and uniform acceleration -Free fall, projectile and Circular Motion -Newtons Laws of Motion a. Law of Inertia b. Law of Acceleration c. Law of Interaction -Momentum and the laws of motion -Law of Universal Gravitation -Mass, weight and Gravity -Friction -Equilibrium D. Energy -Energyoperational definition, spontaneous and non- spontaneous/ deliberate energy transfer -Law of Conservation of Energy -Kinetic and potential Energy -Heat Transfer (Conduction, Convection and radiation) - Work -Power -Efficiency of Machines -Power rating of electrical appliances -Energy Use and Sources in the country, community and in the world -Conserving and Resources of Energy

D. Life Energy -Cellular Metabolism and Energy -Photosynthesis a. Light-dependent reactions b. light-independent reactions -Cellular Respiration a. Aerobic Respiration b. Anaerobic Respiration c. Electron transport chain -Protein Synthesis -Energy Flow in the Ecosystem a. One-way flow of energy in the biosphere b. Food Pyramid c. Increasing Food production E. Organs and Organ Systems Plant and Animal Tissues -Classification of Tissues -Animal Tissues -Plant Tissues Human Body Coverings and protectors -The Human Skin -The Skeletal System -The Muscular System Food and the Digestive system - Food and Body Nutrition -Nutrients for Energy -Non-Energy Nutrients -Parts and Functions of the Digestive System

D. Periodic Table and its Properties - Writing and Naming Symbols of elements - Modern Periodic Table -Periodic Trends -Nature of the Families and their uses E. Chemical Bonding -Lewis Dot Structure -Types of Chemical Bonds Polarity of Molecules - VSEPR Theory and Molecular Geometry F. Chemical Names and Formulas -Common and Systematic Names -Naming the formulas of: a. Binary Molecular Compounds b. Binary Ionic Compounds - Writing Chemical formulas of compounds with Polyatomic ions

C. Electricity and Magnetism I. Interaction of Electrical Charges -Electric Charge and Matter -Transfer of Electric Charge -Coulombs Law II. Electric Fields -Nature and Characteristics of Electrical Fields -Electric Lines of Force III. Electrical Quantities and Units -Current -Voltage -Resistance IV. Ohms Law - Simple Circuit -Understanding Ohms Law -Power in a circuit -Electrical energy, Its Cost and its conservation V. Multiple Load Circuits -Series Circuit -Parallel Circuits -Simple Network VI. Nature of Magnetism -Properties of Magnets -Magnetic Fields VII. Electricity to Magnetism -Electromagnetism -Uses of Electromagnetism a. Electric Motors b. Current Meters

(energy use and resources)

Body Transport Systems - Parts and Functions of the Circulatory Systems -The HumanIts parts and Functions -Blood Vessels -The Human Heart -Body Circulations -Your Heart and Your Health -The Lymphatic System Respiratory and Excretory Systems Respiration and Its Function -The Lungs -Excretion and the Body Waste Products - The Kidneys as the main Excretory Organs Body Control and the nervous system -The functions of the Nervous System -The Nerve Cells Structure and Functions - The Nervous Systems and Its Division -The Sense Organs Body Regulators and the endocrine System -functions of The Endocrine system -The Glands -The Hormones The Endocrine Glands -The Interaction of the Endocrine System with the Other Body Systems F. Reproduction Reproduction Lower Form of Life - Asexual and Sexual Reproduction -Significance of Sexual Reproduction -Reproduction in Flowering Plants -Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants -Kinds of Flowers -Development of fruits and Seeds The Human Reproductive System -The Male Reproductive System -The Female Reproductive System -The Ovarian and Uterine Cycle

VIII. Magnetism to Electricity -Electromagnetic Induction -Uses of Electromagnetic Induction a. Generators b. Transformers -Generating Electricity XI. Basic Electronics -Resistors -Capacitor -Semiconductor a. Semiconductor Diodes -Transistors -Other Semiconductor Devices a. Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) b. Thermistor c. Light emitting Diode (LED) d. Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) -Integrated Circuits -Electronic Logic Circuits a. Types of Logic Gates b. Combinations of Logic Gates -Radio and Television Communications

Third Quarter

E. The Lithosphere Evidence of Plate Tectonics -Lithosphere and Asthenosphere -Continental Drift Theory -Seafloor spreading -Relationship of laws of motion & energy transfer to plate tectonics Managing Effects of natural Phenomena associated with Plate Tectonics -Earthquake a. Causes of Earthquakes b. Damages of earthquakes on human live and the environment

G. Chemical Reactions and Equations -Difference between Physical and Chemical Changes -Laws Governing Chemical Change -Types of Chemical Reactions -Balancing Chemical Equation - Writing Chemical Equations -Predicting the Products of a Chemical Reaction H. Chemical Composition -Atomic Masses -Molecular and Formula Mass -The Mole Concept and Avogadros Number

D. Heat and Thermodynamics I. Heat and Temperature -Heat -Sources of Heat a. Natural b. Artificial -Heat and Temperature -Temperature Scales -Effects of Heat a. Thermal expansion b. Change of Phase c. How heat is measured? d. Heat Units e. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat f. Method of Mixtures g. Heat of Fusion h. Heat of Vaporization i. Condensation -Heat Transfer

c. Earthquakes and Tsunamis d. Management of damages caused by earthquakes -Mountain formations a. Plate Tectonics and formation of types of mountains -Volcanoes a. Types of Volcanoes b. Volcanic Formation c. Volcanic Activities d. effects of Volcanic eruption in humans and in the environment e. Making predictions for the country in regards to volcanic activities f. Monitoring and safeguards for volcanic activities F. Sun-Moon-Earth System Day and night cycle a. Causes of day and night cycle b. Human practices/ superstitious beliefs common in the community related to the phenomenon c. Managing effects of day and night cycle on human activities related to health, livelihood and transportation Seasonal Patterns a. Causes of seasonal patterns b. Human practices/ superstitious beliefs common in the community related to the phenomenon c. Managing effects of seasonal patterns on human activities related to health, livelihood and transportation Phases of the Moon a. Causes of phases of the moon b. Human practices/ superstitious beliefs common in the community related to the phenomenon c. Managing effects of the Different Phases of the Moon on human activities related to

Human. Fertilization, Development and Birth Control --Fertilization of the Ovum -Embryonic Membranes -Birth Control Methods Cell Growth and Division -Cell Growth and Reproduction at the Molecular Level -Limits of Cell Growth -Cells of organisms -Mitosis -Meiosis G. Genetics Basic Genetic Principles -Characteristics of Living Things -Factors that Influence Individuality -Gregor Mendel and the Science of Genetics -Mendels Experiment -Fundamentals of Genetics -Applying Mendelian Principles--Making the Test Crosses Modification of Mendelian Principles -Incomplete Dominance -Sex Chromosomes -Formation of Boys and Girls in a Family -Sex-linked Traits -Non-Mendelian Inheritance Human Genetics -Inherited Characteristics -Inheritance of Blood Types -Significance of Blood Types -Some Special Cases of Heredity--Inheritance of Human Traits -Intelligence-- Is it Inherited or Not? -Genetic Formation of Twins -Genetic Counseling Applied Genetics -Breeding Strategies: Selection and Inbreeding -Hybridization -Other Plant-breeding Methods -Genetic Improvement of Humans

-Percentage Composition -Empirical and Molecular Formula

I. Stoichiometry - Mole-Mole Stoichiometry Problems - Mass-Mole Stoichiometry Problems - Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Problems - Mass-Mass Calculations - Mass-Volume Stoichiometry Problems - Volume-Volume Stoichiometry Problems -The Limiting Reactant -Percent Yield

II. Thermodynamics -Heat and work -Zeroth Law and Thermodynamic Processes -First Law of Thermodynamics -Heat Engines and Heat Pumps -Entropy and second Law of Thermodynamics E. Nuclear Physics I. Structure of the Atom -Electron -Nucleus a. Composition of a Nucleus b. Proton Number and Nucleon Number c. Nuclide Notation d. Isotopes II. Radioactivity -Radioactivity -Characteristics of the: a. radiation b. radiation c. radiation -Nuclear reactions -Half Life -Uses of Radioactive Isotopes

health, livelihood and transportation Eclipses a. Causes of Eclipses b. Human practices/ superstitious beliefs common in the community related to the phenomenon c. Managing effects of eclipses on human activities related to health, livelihood and transportation Tides a. Causes of Tides b. Human practices/ superstitious beliefs common in the community related to the phenomenon tides on human activities related to health, livelihood and transportation G. Earth and Space Explorations I. Space-based Observations of the Earth (historical development, types and uses of satellites in exploring mineral deposits, weather events, topography, etc) II. Explorations of Earths Waters (Earth as the water planet, freshwater resources, ocean systems and ocean environments) III. Earth-based and Space based Observations of Space (historical development of astronomy from ancient to modern, technologies or tools used to explore the space: telescopes, spacecrafts, orbiters, landers, probes and flyby; space flights and challenges encountered by astronauts/ cosmonauts, explorations within the Solar System, explorations outside of the Solar System) IV. Recent Discoveries or Breakthroughs in Earth and Space Explorations (latest information/ discoveries about earth

-Other Genetic Improvements

Fourth Quarter

H. Evolution Evidence of Evolution and the Diversity of Life -Evolution Defined -The Earth throughout the ages -Evidences of evolution Evolutionary Theories and Processes Human Evolution -Lamarcks Theories on Evolution -Darwins Theory of Natural Selection -Lamarck and Darwin Compared -The Process of Evolution -Human Evolution I. Taxonomy The Science of Taxonomy -The Classification by Aristotle -The Problem of Common Names -Linnaean System of Classification -Binomial Nomenclature -The 5 Kingdom Classification Scheme Microbiology -Viruses: Structures and Classification -Plant Viruses -Human and Animal Viruses

J. Gases -Properties of Gases -Boyles Law (PressureVolume Relationship) -Charles Law (Temperature-Volume Relationship) -Gay-Lussacs Law (Pressure-Temperature Relationship) -Avogadros Law (Volume- Amount Relationship) -Combined Gas Law -Ideal Gas Law -Daltons Law of Partial Pressures K. Solutions & Colloids I. Solutions - Properties of Solutions -Types of Solutions -How the dissolving process occurs -Relationship between the dissolving process and energy changes - Saturated, Supersaturated and unsaturated solutions - Factors affecting solubility -Colligative Properties of Solutions -Relationship between the mole concepts and the concentration of solutions -Problems on concentration of solutions (% by volume,

F. Oscillation and Waves I. Wave Motion 1) Simple Harmonic Motion a. Hookes Law b. Simple Pendulum 2)Waves: Carriers of Energy - Nature of Waves -Types of Waves - Measures of a Wave 3)Wave Properties and Interactions -Reflection -refraction -Diffraction -Interference and Superposition -Standing Waves and Natural Frequency II. Sound 1)Sound Production, Propagation and Perception -Sound Waves -Production of Sound - Propagation of Sound - Perception of Sound (Pitch, Loudness, timbre) 3) Speed of Sound 4) Sound Wave Interactions -Reflection of Sound -Refraction of Sound -Diffraction of Sound -Interference of Sound -Resonance 5) Musical Sounds

and space, latest theories developed on earth, space/ universe, benefits of the society from spin-offs of technologies used in earth and space explorations) H. Ecology and the Environment I. Basics of Ecology 1.Basic units of ecology (organism to biosphere) 2.Components of ecosystem (ecological communities, ecological habitats, ecological niches) 3.Functions of ecosystem (self-regulating: carrying capacity, maximum sustainable yield, waste assimilative capacity, natural enemies; selfperpetuating) II. Human Impact on Ecosystems 1.Altering biotic and abiotic factors 2.Human contributions to pollution and its impact on ecosystems (impact on the quality of air and water, global warming and climate change) III. 7 Environmental Principles (nature knows best, all life forms are important, everything is connected to everything else, everything changes, everything must go somewhere, ours is a finite earth and humans are stewards of nature)

-Bacteriophages -The Lytic Cycle of a Virulent Phage -Infectious Viral Diseases -Bacteria -Contact diseases Caused by Bacteria -How Pathogens May Cause Diseases -Cyanophyta Protozoans, Algae and Fungi -Protozoans--Animallike Protists -Algae--Plantlike Protists -Fungi The Plant Kingdom -The Bryophytes-Primitive Land Plants -Tracheophytes--The Vascular Plants Plant Organs -The Roots and the Root System -Stems -The Leaves -Herbal Medicine The Animal Kingdom -Comparative Study of Invertebrates and Vertebrates - Pore-bearing Animals/The Sponges (Phylum Porifera) -The Hydra (Phylum Coelenterata) -Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) -Unsegmented Roundworms(Phylum Nematoda) -Segmented roundworms (Phylum Annelida) -Soft-bodied Animal (Phylum Mollusca) -Animals with Jointed Legs (Phylum Arthropoda) -Spiny-skinned Animals (Phylum Echinormata) -The Vertebrates (Phylum Chordata)

Molarity, Molality, Mole Fractions) II. Colloids - Classification of Colloids -Preparation of Colloids -Properties of Colloids -Biological Impact of Colloids L. Rates of Reaction -Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions -Conservation of Energy in Chemical Reactions -How Chemical reaction takes place -Factors Affecting the Rate of Chemical Reactions a. Nature of Reactants b. Concentration of the Reactants c. Temperature d. Pressure e. Presence of a catalyst f. Surface Area -Chemical Equilibrium -Redox Equations a. Reduction reactions b. Oxidation reactions

G. Electromagnetic Waves and Optics I. Electromagnetic Waves -The Electromagnetic Spectrum -Radio Communication and Broadcasting II. Light -Light in Focus -Properties of Light -Spectra and Colors III. Optics 1) Images form by reflection of light a. Reflections in Plane mirrors b. Reflections in Curved Mirrors 2) Images formed by refraction of light 3)Optical Devices -The Human Eye -Camera -Magnifying Glass -Microscope -Telescope -Binoculars