Hydrology

Course report and introduction to hydrology in Spain

Jorge Martinez Guanter

Index:

 Hydrology, (what is…?)……………………..…...………….2  Fields of work in hydrology………………………………...5  Hydrologic cycle…………………………………..………….6  Cycle phases  Groundwater  Surface water  Runoff  Water resources in Spain…………………………..……...10  Factors affecting Spanish rivers  Climatology of Spain  Spanish basins and rivers  Hydrologic situation in the Valencian Community…....15  Hydropower energy in Spain…………………………..….16  Engineering Hydrology………………………………….....17  Catchment  Discharge  Streamflow  Measurement  Problems using current meters  Course works……………………………………………..….21  Laboratory work: Rainfall measurements…...…...22  Water level measurements (Report)……………….27  Adcon telemetry………………………….……………30

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Hydrology, (what is…?)

Hydrology is the science that encompasses the occurrence, distribution, movement and properties of the waters of the earth and their relationship with the environment within each phase of the hydrologic cycle. Domains of hydrology include hydrometerology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage basin management and water quality analysis, fields where water plays a central role. The water cycle, or hydrologic cycle, is a continuous process by which water is purified by evaporation and transported from the earth's surface (including the oceans) to the atmosphere and back to the land and oceans. All of the physical, chemical and biological processes involving water as it travels its various paths in the atmosphere, over and beneath the earth's surface and through growing plants, are of interest to those who study the hydrologic cycle.

There are many pathways the water may take in its continuous cycle of falling as rainfall or snowfall and returning to the atmosphere. It may be captured for millions of years in polar ice caps. It may flow to rivers and finally to the sea. It may soak into the soil to be evaporated directly from the soil surface as it dries or be transpired by growing plants. It may percolate through the soil to ground water reservoirs (aquifers) to be stored or it may flow to wells or springs or back
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businesses and industries. economists. design. and engineers in several fields. biologists. water is returned to another part of the cycle: perhaps discharged downstream or allowed to soak into the ground. political scientists. chemists. analysis. 3 . or water resources engineer. infiltration. which often poses a problem for downstream users. People tap the water cycle for their own uses. and management of water resources. specialists in applied mathematics and computer science. Water resources problems are also the concern of meteorologists. streamflow. and for production of electric power. precipitation. The hydrologist studies the fundamental transport processes to be able to describe the quantity and quality of water as it moves through the cycle (evaporation. even after treatment. Water is diverted temporarily from one part of the cycle by pumping it from the ground or drawing it from a river or lake. Used water normally is lower in quality. They cycle for water may be short. The engineering hydrologist. ground water flow. oceanographers. and other components). It is used for a variety of activities such as households. construction and operation of projects for the control.to streams by seepage. for irrigation of farms and parklands. geologists. is involved in the planning. After use. or it may take millions of years. utilization. physicists.

4 . Agricultural hydrology: branch of hydrology dealing with hydrological phenomena described by considering the agricultural point of view. basically field work. Hydrogeology: part midway between hydrology and geology that deals with the study of freshwater and especially the groundwater and its use. Hydrometry: focuses on the measurement of hydrological variables. Continental hydrology: a branch of hydrology that deals with hydrological processes in continental areas with special emphasis to the continental phase of the water cycle.Fields of work in hydrology: General hydrology: hydrological branch that describes the general hydrological and water cycle processes in nature. Applied hydrology: the hydrology branch studying hydraulic engineering and other aspects of hydrology dealing with its application to fields related to the development and utilization of water resources. proper selection of the premises in which the measurements are made and the correct interpretation of results is critical the quality of the information collected. Forest hydrology: the study of the hydrological cycle. the circulation of water between the earth and the atmosphere in the mountains. forests or other natural areas. studying the physical sense of the phenomenon. where the proper use of measuring instruments.

Hydrologic cycle: It is called the hydrologic cycle to the general movement of water upward and downward by evaporation from precipitation and surface runoff and groundwater. 2) The groundwater runoff is much slower than the superficial. it is true that dominates the ocean evaporation and precipitation on the continents. The slow groundwater runoffcycle gives some fundamental characteristics. In the figure below shows that in both media evaporation and precipitation occurs. On this definition we can make some observations: 1) is not as simple as water evaporates from the ocean rushes over the continents. 5 . such as the rivers continue to flow long afterthe last rainfall.

but it is more intuitive to begin in precipitation and consider the paths taken by water falling on the continents in precipitation: Evaporation: part evaporates from the soil surface (pools) or have been retained in the leaves of trees. Interflow or subsurface runoff that side after a short distance before reaching the water table just surfacing. 6 . Infiltration: water can follow these paths in turn:   Evaporation: water evaporates from the soil moist. not related to vegetation Transpiration: plant roots absorb water infiltrated into the soil.Cycle phases As it is a cycle stages might consider starting from any point. a small part is retained for growth and most of it is transpired. The sum of evaporation and transpiration is the Evapotranspiration.

Freshwater stored in rivers. and wetlands    7 . Groundwater:  Ground water commonly is an important source of surface water. the remaining water runoff results in groundwater. Ground water also is a major source of water to lakes and wetlands. The movement of ground water normally occurs as slow seepage through the pore spaces between particles of unconsolidated earth materials or through networks of fractures and solution openings in consolidated rocks. lakes. lakes.Finally. about 75 percent is estimated to be stored in polar ice and glaciers and about 25 percent is estimated to be stored as ground water. ground water moves along flow paths from areas of recharge to areas of discharge at springs or along streams. Of all the freshwater that exists. and as soil moisture amounts to less than 1 percent of the world's freshwater. Ground water serves as a large subsurface water reservoir. Under natural conditions. but hydrologists estimate the average contribution is somewhere between 40 and 50 percent in small and medium-sized streams. The contribution of ground water to total streamflow varies widely among streams. Velocities of ground-water flow generally are low and are orders of magnitude less than velocities of streamflow.

which is still ongoing way to the sea. Finally an important part is the rapid surface runoff. 8 . Although several things can happen:    Some water is evaporated from the surface of lakes and rivers.Surface runoff: The rainwater is not evaporated or infiltrated runoff. Another part may be retained as snow or ice on lakes and reservoirs.

Terrain and topography: affects to the organisation of the hydrographic zones and in the erode and sediments. affects to the posibility of build hydropower plants. it’ll be a surface flow. The temperature and amount of rainfall an area depend on latitude. Human being. relief and its distance from the sea. Vegetation: more vegetation makes less erode of the river and affects to decrease evaporation. If that rocks are of limestone. 9 .Water resources in Spain: Factors affecting Spanish rivers:      Climatic factors: affects to the discharge and even to the stage. The climate is the set of atmospheric conditions that characterize an area. Climatology of Spain: Climate: The study of all the daily weather allows us to establish the characteristics of the climate at each location. velocity and depth. it could be a ground water flow. Lithology: if rocks of the base of the river are made of clay. Even. The two most important conditions in the climate are temperature (variations of it in different seasons and the average annual temperature) and rainfall and its distribution during the year.

With low rainfall.  Continental Mediterranean: . .They are dry and hot summers. minimum and maximum value in summer in winter.They are soft winter temperatures and little cold and cool summers. with mild temperatures and abundant rainfall winters.It is characteristic for the area between the coast of Alicante and the coast of Granada.Climatic variations in Spain depending the zone:  Mediterranean climate: . . .With abundant rainfall.With cold winters and very hot summers.It is characteristic of the Balearic Islands and virtually the entire Mediterranean coast.  Ocean Climate: . . especially in winter and spring.  Subdesert: . which are influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and the Cantabrian Sea.It is typical in coastal areas north and northwest of Spain. the Ebro basin and parts of Andalucía. . .Are persistent rainfall and are distributed evenly throughout the year. 10 .There is abundant rainfall and when there fall as storms. and summer scarce and stormy. the Canary Islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. .Is characteristic of much of the Plateau.Winter temperatures warm and very hot in summer. and at stations where they are most abundant are in autumn and spring. .

. The majority of Spain's peninsular region consists of the Meseta Central. Sella. Segura. The country can be divided into three different basins:  Atlantic rivers: Duero. they do in winter. To determine the distribution of Spanish rivers and streams of different basins. Other landforms include narrow coastal plains and some lowland river valleys. Nalón. Vesalla. we have to study first the country's geography and climate in the different regions. the Galician rivers have allowed the creation of numerous reservoirs (Eume in the homonymous river.It is characteristic of the mountain ranges of our country. the Miño Belesar.It is characteristic of much of the Canary Islands. . Tajo. Pas.When there is rainfall. Duero (897 km) and Miño (340 km). a highland plateau rimmed and dissected by mountain ranges.  Mountain: .008 km). .With very little rainfall and especially when they fall. Subtropical: . 11 . Due to the structure of the relief. . fall as snow.The summers are cooler than lowland and cold winters. Miño…  Mediterranean rivers: Turia. Highlights include the Tajo river(1. Júcar and Ebro Atlantic rivers: The rivers of the Atlantic are the longest and highest flow. With these characteristics are accentuated latitude. Guadiana and Guadalquivir  Cantabric rivers: Bidasoa. which sometimes are constantly repeated. The watercourses of the Cantabrian are shorter and rains due to the proximity of his birth near the sea. the most prominent of which is the Andalusian Plain in the southwest.With mild temperatures year round. San Esteban and Siqueiros in the river Sil).

Zújar. and its tributaries are the Borbollón.326 km2 and collects and uses the abundant rainwater and contributions pluvio-nival of the mountains that almost surround the plateau. which follows an east west. 12 . Garcia de Sola. Montijo. with 570 m3/sec Regarding the most important reservoirs of the rivers of the Atlantic slope. especially hydrologic jump called Aldeadávila I and II to be. the first in Spain in power (1.146 MW) and annual production (3. causing a steep slope in itstributaries on the right(Jandula. Mares.500 GWh of average: 1 June . On the left bank extends a great plain that crosssome mighty tributaries.Guadalmellato. boxed SierraMorena. Orellana. with a capacity of 3232 hm3. with more than 3. Guadiato and Bembézar). Flows near the town of Sanlucar de Barrameda. with the great artery of the valley of the same name. overall.In the Guadiana there are seven reservoirs: those of Cíjara. This adds to the spectacle of the works. The most important river is the Guadalquivir (657 km). for much of its route. with a retaining wall. Gabriel y Galán and Rosarito. making it the second largest river of the peninsula. Alange and La Serena.The channels of the River Tajo at Caceres and Badajoz Guadiana River are regulated by a large number of lakes and reservoirs. 3% of national total). which has a dome shape. The Duero River rises in Urbión peaks and flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the Portuguese city of Oporto. The lower reaches of the river is a wide plain with swamps and marshes.160 hm 3. Passes. Its basin is 79. height 140 m and 250 m in length. In the Tajo built the Alcántara reservoir. from among which the river Genii.

The hydrographic network leads south to north and consists of short rivers flow constant andfast water. with its tributaries Place. with its tributary the Cares. the increasing demands for irrigation and the evaporation (higher than the rainfall. The most important are the Deva.Cantabric rivers: In the cantabrian basin. This situation has a direct impact on the deltaic system at the mouth of the river because its hydrological dynamics are mainly controlled by the river discharge. and fast enoughrate. Mampodre and Cobra. Sella. 928 km in length and with a drainage basin of 85. However. rivers as we have said are short. Mediterranean rivers: They are generally longer than those of the Cantabrian. reservoir water in the Ebro river: 13 . which at its mouth forms the Ribadesella estuary. although not as much as those of the Atlantic (excluding the Ebro) because they are born too close to the sea mountain systems (Pyrenees-Catalan Coastal Cordillera. high sunshine and strong and dry winds) from reservoirs in the river basins. Iberian and Betic Cordilleras).550 km². the river that forms the Nalón Pravia. The Ebro is the most important river in Spain. due to low rainfall. where droughts presents strong that can become dry riverbeds (wadis) much of the year. the most length (159 km) and the Eo. the mean annual flow decreased by approximately 29% during the 20th century due to many causes: the construction of dams. Because ofits weather flow decreases from the north (wetter) to the south. the Navia.

Turia and Mijares Segura. in the Community have built a series of dams to regulate these flows of water. in the Valencian Community have emerged serious political problems of water management. Moreover. may further aggravate. 850km Valencia. which usually cause catastrophic human and economic effects far reaching. Most rivers in the Valencian Community are integrated into the Júcar basin except Bergantes River and its tributaries in northwestern Castellón (Ebro basin) and Segura in the south of Alicante. is 3300hm3/año distribution with the following watersheds: These contributions are distributed unevenly and temporarily do not agree with changing demands. a wet and dry.Hydrologic situation of the Valencian Community Our region. The total length of streams with permanent water is 1500km. with torrential rain. but widely spaced in time that can prolong dry periods. whose essential characteristic is the marked irregularity. 14 . in Valencia. For this reason. particularly scarce in the south of the community. The main rivers are Júcar. with periods of drought that exacerbated the shortages and the prospect of the dreaded climate change. Surface runoff is reduced as a result of the high permeability of the carbonate materials that make up most of the territory. divided as follows according to the provinces: Castellón. whose main characteristics are: The total contribution of the rivers. Alicante 300km. 350km. as a result of water distribution and irregular rainfall has led to talk of two Spains. This characteristic of Valencia is known rivers ancient. The water problem in Spain is important. favored by deforestation of the watershed. so that a high percentage of useful rain infiltrates into the aquifers. Flooding occurs occasionally very violent. the Valencian community has a Mediterranean-type drainage system.

the growing number of electricity generating installations in Spain became increasingly based on fossil fuel thermal power plants and later on nuclear power plants.Hydropower energy in Spain: Hydroelectric Development The first hydroelectric power plants in Spain were constructed at the end of the last century. 18% in 2001) This is due to increased production of thermal and nuclear power in the last 50 and 30 years respectively. 15 . In 1901 40% of the electric power plants existing in the country were of the hydroelectric type. There are more than 7 plants over 500 MW of energy installed all over Spain all legislated by a national use of water plan called PHN (Hydrological National Plan). Due to the great irregularity of precipitation patterns many dams were built for combined irrigation and hydroelectric use. which meant a gradual decrease in the percentage of hydro power in the total installed. The creation of a series of public electricity companies at the end of the forties added to the efforts which had been made before that time by the private electricity companies and boosted hydroelectric development. major pumping stations were built and there has been a continuing refurbishment of existing hydroelectric power plants and construction of new plants.16 The hydraulic production plant is the largest installed capacity of the dam on the Duero river called Aldeadávila (Salamanca) with 1140 MW. The installed power in Spain in 2008 was 18. Nevertheless. Nowadays Spain is in line with other OECD countries regarding the production of electricity. With the appearance of alternating current at the beginning of the 20th century it became possible to transport electricity over great distances and there was a large scale development of hydroelectric power plants. From the mid-sixties. several of which continue to exist to this day. followed by Jose Maria de Oriol reservoir on the Rio Tajo (province of Caceres) with a 915 MW. The construction of major hydroelectric works called for considerable economic resources and numerous private companies were created.451 MW.5% of this energy from hydropower. The development of hydroelectric power in Spain in recent decades has been ever increasing although the latter's participation in the total electricity produced has decreased (92% in 1940 vs. with18.

16 . The drainage basin includes both the streams and rivers that convey the water as well as the land surfaces from which water drains into those channels. which may be a permanent lake. where the waters join another waterbody. The catchment is the most significant factor determining the amount or likelihood of flooding. lake. usually the exit of the basin. known as a sink. we will continue with concepts related to the study of engineering hydrology. Shape Shape will contribute to the speed with which the runoff reaches a river. If the gauges are many and evenly distributed over an area of uniform precipitation. and is separated from adjacent basins by a drainage divide In hydrology. and there are different ways to interpret that data.Engineering Hydrology: In this work. Topography Topography determines the speed with which the runoff will reach a river. Rain gauge data is used to measure total precipitation over a drainage basin. Catchment: A catchment or drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point. we have previously explained concepts such as the water cycle and the runoff and the different types of them. or ocean. such as a river. because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin. Measurement of the discharge of water from a basin may be made by a stream gauge located at the basin's outlet. reservoir. A long thin catchment will take longer to drain than a circular catchment. A portion of the water that enters the groundwater system beneath the drainage basin may flow towards the outlet of another drainage basin because groundwater flow directions do not always match those of their overlying drainage network. In closed drainage basins the water converges to a single point inside the basin. wetland. dry lake. or a point where surface water is lost underground. Now. Clearly rain that falls in steep mountainous areas will reach the river faster than flat or gently sloping areas. using the arithmetic mean method will give good results. estuary. the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle. sea.

The equation to calculate the discharge is: the discharge (Q) is equal to the product of the stream's cross-sectional area (A) and its mean velocity ( ): where    Q is the discharge ([L3T−1]. Land use Land use can contribute to the volume of water reaching the river. m2 or ft2) is the average flow velocity ([LT−1]. which is transported through a given cross-sectional area. including any suspended. pavements and roads will be collected by rivers with almost no absorption into the groundwater. m/s) The velocity is measured simply with a method by timing the movement of a float over a known distance. However. For example. Discharge: Discharge is the volume rate of water flow. The catchment discharge of a river above a certain location is determined by the surface area of all land which drains toward the river from above that point. The river's discharge at that location depends on the rainfall on the catchment 17 . as the larger the catchment the greater the potential for flooding. dissolved chemical species and biologic material. After prolonged rainfall even free draining soils can become saturated. The determination of discharge at a permanent river gauging station is best made by measuring the flow velocities with a current current meter. meaning that any further rainfall will reach the river rather than being absorbed by the ground. in a similar way to clay soils.Size Size will help determine the amount of water reaching the river. soils containing clay can be almost impermeable and therefore rainfall on clay soils will run off and contribute to flood volumes. Soil type Soil type will help determine how much water reaches the river. m3/s or ft3/s) A is the cross-sectional area of the portion of the channel occupied by the flow ([L2]. rainfall on roofs. Certain soil types such as sandy soils are very free draining and rainfall on sandy soil is likely to be absorbed by the ground.

from groundwater flow out of the ground. or to predict a stream's reaction to a predicted storm. it is of interest in flood studies. Because the peak flow also corresponds to the maximum water level reached during the event. After measurements are made for several different levels. and is a major element of the water cycle. If a continuous level-recording device is located at a rated cross-section. rivers . some laboratory works are included to see how we do this in the practice. a record of how the discharge varies over time after a precipitation event. Streamflow or channel runoff: Streamflow is the flow of water in streams. as well as evaporation and evapotranspiration from the area's land and plant surfaces. a rating table or rating curve may be developed. stream modifications such as dams and irrigation diversions. The stream rises to a peak flow after each precipitation event. Once rated. then falls in a slow recession. In storm hydrology an important consideration is the stream's discharge hydrograph. Water flowing in channels comes from surface runoff from adjacent hill slopes. The velocity and the area give the discharge for that level. and from water discharged from pipes. the discharge in the stream may be determined by measuring the level. and other channels. the other component being surface runoff. It is one component of the runoff of water from the land to water bodies. The relationship between the discharge in the stream at a given cross-section and the level of the stream is described by a rating curve. Average velocities and the cross-sectional area of the stream are measured for a given stream level. At the end of this explanations. and determining the corresponding discharge from the rating curve. and the response of the stream discharge is mmm by the concept of the unit hydrograph which represents the response of stream discharge over time to the application of a hypothetical "unit" amount and duration of rain. 18 . Using this method either actual historical rainfalls or hypothetical "design storms" can be modeled mathematically to confirm characteristics of historical floods. This represents a certain volume of water (depending on the area of the catchment) which must subsequently flow out of the river. the stream's discharge may be continuously determined.or drainage area and the inflow or outflow of groundwater to or from the area. Analysis of the relationship between precipitation intensity and duration. for example 1 cm over the entire catchment for a period of one hour.

e.The discharge of water flowing in a channel is measured using stream gauges or can be estimated by the Manning equation. For small streams — a few meters wide or smaller — weirs may be installed. Large streams: There is always difficulty in locating the instruments accurately at the sampling points and inaccuracies invariably occur.g. 19 . current meters or acoustic Doppler velocity profilers can be used. For purposes that do not require a continuous measurement of stream flow over time. Problems in Gauging using current meters Small streams: The depth of flow may be insufficient to cover ordinary current meter. Measurement: There are a variety of ways to measure the discharge of a stream or canal. A Stream gauge provides continuous flow over time at one location for water resource and environmental management or other purposes. Mountain streams: Streams with steep gradients and high velocities cannot be gauged satisfactorily by the velocity –area method and alternative means must be used.. Measurements of depth have to be corrected due to inclination of the meter cable. In deep swift flowing rivers heavy weights are attached that causes a drag downstream from the vertical. dilution gauging.

Course Works 20 .

Laboratory work: Rainfall measurements.  These fall into two related categories: › the relationship between rainfall and runoff from catchment areas of variable permeability the abstraction of ground water by wells. Other factors. water application rate. such as infiltration rate change with time. They can apply reasonably reproducible quantities and intensities of water to areas up to 10's of square meters. some of the physical processes found in hydrology. and vegetation composition and density. Some of these factors are constant with time during the runoff event. plot slope and vegetation composition. 21 . on a small scale. infiltration rate. While the runoff hydrograph from rainfall simulator plot appears to be simple picture of the runoff event. Rainfall simulators are tool that has been used for more than 30 years to evaluate hydrologic parameters such as infiltration. Because of the complexity and interaction of site factors. and sediment yield. erosion. runoff.. › Thus it is concerned with that part of the hydrological cycle bounded by the arrival of 'net rainfall' on the ground surface and the catchment runoff by surface streams. ie. it is difficult and maybe erroneous to select single component or portion of the runoff hydrograph to characterize the runoff process or to use as determinant in evaluating treatments or watershed performance. with or without surface recharge from rainfall. Using S10 Rainfall Hydrographs we tried to measure and demonstrate. plot slope. it represents continuous integration of all factors that affect the runoff flow such as surface roughness.

The gravel tank is manufactured in stove enamelled mild steel supported by a painted mild steel frame. This apparatus. give us the possibility to simulate and measure this different situations:  storm hydrographs from single or multiple storms  storm hydrograph from a previously saturated catchment  storm runoff from an impermeable catchment  effect of a moving storm on flood hydrograph  effect of reservoir storage on flood hydrograph  effect of land drains on flood hydrograph Procedure: Demonstrations are initiated using a gravel filled tank which incorporates facilities for supplying water to the surface of the gravel and measuring the runoff. The equipment can be bench mounted or free standing on a laboratory floor.4 to 4.2m deep.2m in length x 0. Detachable see-through curtains 22 . flow meter and solenoid valve.4 litres/minute.  A motor driven traversing vessel with seventeen compartments is moved by timer beneath the outlet at a preselected rate to collect the runoff and provide an immediate display of the hydrograph.8m wide x 0.or floor-standing tank with two overhead square pattern spray nozzles supplying water via a flow control valve. flow meter and solenoid valve. Water is supplied to two overhead square pattern spray nozzles via a flow control valve.  The tank is 1.The instrument: The unit used in this laboratory work was the rainfall hydrograph Armfield S10. which has the following features:  A unit designed to obtain catchment rainfall and runoff values as functions of time.  Comprising a bench.  The flow range is 0.

Water collected in the vessel provides an immediate histogram of runoff as a function of time.around the tank contain any spray. A control console is used to control the traversing vessel and the water supplied to the spray heads. depression storage effect and land drainage. A collection and measuring unit is located near to the outlet from the tank. The time each compartment is located under the tank outlet can be preselected and the overall time from the start is displayed. A range of accessories allows demonstrations of surface reservoir retention. These comprise: ■ Polythene sheet for impermeable catchment ■ Four plastic containers for reservoir storage ■ Permeable pipe for tile drain 23 . The collecting vessel is mounted on a plinth incorporating a motor drive and central drainage trough. Runoff is conducted to an outlet at one end of the tank. This comprises a traversing vessel divided internally into 17 storage compartments.

 Water collected in the vessel provides an immediate histogram of runoff as a function of time. 24 .So what we do on laboratory work?  A control console is used to control the traversing vessel and the water supplied to the spray heads. The time each compartment is located under the tank outlet can be preselected and the overall time from the start is displayed.

we measure the quantity of water based on the discharge (was in cm^3/min). we made an Excel spreadsheet with the results for the different flows and times with the graphs: 25 . After this measurements. With the vessels catching the runoff water.

To take data from the meter. temperature sensor and conductivity sensor. This pressure transducer called DipperTEC made by SEBA company. velocity and flow discharge of an affluent of the Nemunas river. we went with some other Lithuanian guys and with Erikas Martinaitis to take some information data about the water level and other measures like depth. we use a portable laptop where using StreamPro Software we could download the registry of the values of the water level.Water level measurements (Report) On November 10th morning. So we take a car and arrived to the river. has 3 sensors: water level sensor. and the first thing to do was to take data from the pressure transducer installed there. 26 .

27 .2011 06:00:00 10.561 18.603 18.11.383 18.2011 09:00:00 10.537 18.510 18.2011 04:00:00 10. the channel cross sectional area and the velocity: For doing this.2011 07:00:00 10.11.2011 05:00:00 10. we started to use the acoustic Doppler catamaran system for the measurement of the profile and the discharge.585 18.11. one of the Lithuanian guys went up to the bridge above us with a rope.11.11.2011 08:00:00 10.2011 01:00:00 10.11.482 18.2011 00:00:00 10.11.11.2011 03:00:00 10.11.11.Some of the measurements done with the pressure transducer 10.11.449 18.2011 02:00:00 10.350 18.2011 10:00:00 18.417 18.619 m m m m m m m m m m m After that.

That guys crosses the river two times with the rope tied to the catamaran. 28 . So the catamaran acoustic Doppler system send the information that we required to our computer in real time. After all. it was a very useful experience and a good time with that people learning how to use those instruments.

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Adcon telemetry is focusing on delivery solutions (not just in products). pressure monitoring…  Environmental monitoring I this work. This solutions are:  In the new techniques known as ―precision farming". becomes indispensable. leak detection. 30 . I have focused more in the solutions that Adcon offers to the agricultural disease management. Adcon was one of the first companies to offer a tailor-made solution for improved agricultural risk management. the selective use of inputs such as water. because in the future it will be my field of work. This solutions deals with different working areas like:  Agricultural disease management  Irrigation management: soil moisture.Nowadays. The growing environmental awareness of consumers further accelerates this process. irrigation monitoring…  Accure water data: level and flow monitoring  Efficient water management: water management. evapotranspiration. fertilizers or chemicals.

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Adcon hardware (climate stations) in the field collects environmental data and delivers it to the receiver where it is available for processing by the addVANTAGE Pro software.Adcon climate wireless stations: Plant disease initiation and development is a function of the interaction of several factors. Adcon Telemetry's plant disease risk assessments are based on the disease triangle.  Standard sensors • Temperature • Relative humidity • Leaf wetness • Precipitation  Additional sensors • Wind speed and direction • Atmospheric pressure • Soil temperature • Soil moisture • Solar radiation • Water level • Conductivity 32 . That interaction is often referred to as the "Disease Triangle".

This climate stations has some of this sensors:  Precipitation:  Leaf wetnesss  Temperature & PH 33 .

34 .  The farmer can define wet temperature low limits (calculated as a function of temperature and relative humidity).  Then. and selection of appropriate crop varieties. And about the growing degree days:  The growth and development of plants.  Adcon technologies gives the farmer the punctual information about this days and the best way to take care of their crops. insects.  Many organisms slow or stop their growth and development when temperatures are above or below threshold levels. Degreedays and other heat unit measurements have been used for determination of planting dates. and many other invertebrate organisms is largely dependent on temperature. decreasing temperatures are always under control. prediction of harvest dates. The farmer can activate frost protection equipment and reduce crop loss to a minimum or prevent it at all. the software sends an alarm via email or SMS. when the temperature drops below the predefined thresholds. The accumulation of thermal energy over time is known as degree-days or heat units.Some other important information for farmers are provided by other features like frost warning:  With the help of Adcon's weather monitoring equipment.

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