991 PSU Gunsmith Course for Basic, Master, Journeyman After you return the brief exam at the

end of this document, you will be sent the advanced program if you ordered Master or Journeyman. Phoenix State University Gunsmith Program (This course does not constitute legal advice, but is only a guide. Consult an attorney if you have any legal questions).

Phoenix State University
Basic Gunsmith E-Guide
Copyright © ETI/PSU 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 All Rights Reserved, Tenth Edition www.e-PSU.com Mail@e-PSU.com www.Becomeagunsmith.com You will receive your Gunsmith Certificate from PSU upon completion of the brief exam at the end of this course. If you ordered an advanced cert (Master or Journeyman) you will receive the next questions after you return the exam below. Your validation of completion for customers, licensing boards, insurers, and trade references for manufacturers, distributors and tool/ ammo/ equipment sellers is ALWAYS FREE from PSU once you complete the questions. IF you

require your certificate quickly to protect your ammo, business, license, profession or equipment; or to launch your new career/ business/ income hobby, we will send it to you immediately, and your validation/ transcript will then become active when you email us your exam(s). Brief, EASY, exams! If you enrolled only for the Gunsmith certificate, and are a first time PSU student, you need to send back Exam 1. If you jumped right to your advanced Master or Journeyman Gunsmith Certification, you need to return exam 1, and then you will be sent the advanced material. The material in this course is sufficient to get a passing grade on all three exams, but improvisation is always valued! Even if you are only getting the Gunsmith certification alone, you have to have a basic understanding of advanced firearm operation and topics. This material is included here. If you want to upgrade to Master or Journeyman Gunsmith, it is an additional $49 each, which you can Paypal to Mail@epsu.com or email us for an invoice at Mail@gunengine.com with the subject on either option of “Course Upgrade.”

How to take this course 1. Study this course thoroughly 2. Email us your answers to the brief exam at the end of the course. All questions are OPEN BOOK, and you are free to use both this course and the web, Wikipedia, etc. as well as your library, life experience and professional friends for your answers. Knowing

how to find an answer is more important than getting a question “right” at this level, as there are many correct answers to every question. After you email your answers, you will receive the next course if you ordered Master or Journeyman. 3. If you are stuck on any question, here is a simple rule: always THINK SAFETY first when answering. A poor technical answer with better safety answers is FAR BETTER than a great technical answer that glosses over safety. Accidents have been called “inevitable” in reloading and gunsmithing, and can involve the loss of sight, fingers, hands or life, for you OR your customer. SAFETY is the primary purpose of this course, and your certification in a program high in safety helps greatly with obtaining insurance. 4. You will receive your Certificate by 2-3 day Priority Mail at your Paypal/ purchase address of record. If you need or receive your certification before submitting your exam(s), you will still need to send in your exam before your cert validation becomes active, please don’t forget to do so. Before you do, please also be sure you have sent us your name as you’d like it to appear on your certificate, if it differs from Paypal. Some people use their spouse’s email to order and we have the wrong name on file, and others order via a company name or email. Some people forgot they even had a Paypal email and think they are not getting responses from us when our answers are going into their spam folders or bouncing back! It

This is normal. Federal. trade references. We also will give you trade references at all the major wholesalers for tools. and many more. and “professional” sounding designations in your corporate name. employers. Unlike any other program. customers. insurers. Read more in the Marketing section about how you should set up your corporate name and structure to maximize the value of your certificate. supplies. After Completion The benefits of your PSU Certificate only begin at graduation.can also take time for us to communicate between you. If your ship link is about to expire. you will sometimes get your cert before you sent in your exam. your PSU certificate validation is ALWAYS free. prospects. ammo and component sellers. ETI. State and City licensing bureaus. Smith. components. etc. and all you have to do is return your answers to activate the cert completion validation. by laws or DBA’s. Schools charge between $100 and $400 EACH for validation or transcripts! We ENCOURAGE you to use your new credential with vendors. including both using client names and resources. so PLEASE BE PATIENT AND DO NOT ASSUME we are not listening if it takes a bit to get back to you. PSU and your advisor. 4 . lifetime. and unlimited. equipment.

Some of these further courses include: Gunsmith Reloader (www.com) 5 . it will be perfectly adequate for the majority of your needs.Becomeagunsmith.com) Master Gunsmith (www.Related Courses The Basic.com) Journeyman Gunsmith Bladesmith (www. and protections.Becomeabladesmith.com) Certified Reloader (You are automatically upgraded FREE to Gunsmith Reloader if you purchase Certified Reloader after taking this module) FFL (www.HOMEFFL. We RECOMMEND specializing for many reasons you will see below. with or without the sister PSU Reloading or FFL credentials. We are not telling you to stop at this course. unless you want to specialize even further and add additional skills. Master and Journeyman Gunsmithing programs are all you need to start a multi-million dollar home-based new business.certifiedreloader. opportunities. as many of our successful grads have already found! We have thousands of grads in many categories making half a million a year or more as Reloading/ Gunsmithing/ FFL experts. but to be honest.

” This is true in many of our courses and fields! True! Don’t be everything to everyone.com for info on further or related courses and specially priced upgrades. specialize in Pistachio. never the whole course amount within the same series (eg: Master or Journeyman Gunsmith) if you haven’t already ordered the advanced course. you get buying power. etc. It always only costs the difference to upgrade. where ROI was graphed vs. add to it. If someone sells your item or caliber. Specialization in your Niche An old saying goes: “Sell ice cream. This is what it looks like in simplified form: 6 . and can be huge right at home. customize it. and you’ll own the niche. and you’ll own a tiny share of a huge market. the lower course(s) are always included. dominate your niche. If you did. Pick a niche (Clubs.) and BE THE best in that niche. The Boston Consulting Group had the old “smiley face” model. repackage it… YES make it unique and you will win every time. Law Enforcement. market share. Government. Military.Email your counselor at Mail@e-PSU. it WILL make you rich! Add value and you won’t eat price! By specializing.

Since you probably won’t begin as a GE. It will make you big with 7 . Another way to say this is that the niche dominators and share dominators are “price makers” (monopolies) whereas everyone in the middle is a price taker: they don’t have much flexibility in raising prices as their choices are inelastic relative to the big boys and the niche owners! What is my Niche? Your niche is the area of SPECIALIZATION that you love and can dominate. In the “middle” are a bunch of “price takers” who battle for share and sales by lowering price. there are very high profits.High Margins High Market Share What this says is that at the two ends of the graph: low share/niche and high share monopoly. this means that dominating your own niche will make you a BIG player in a smaller pond (your niche).

competitors. refurbishing. fragmentation or mixed/coated defense loads and custom accessorized firearms that no one can get except from you! Then: NAME your price! We have one grad making serious income specializing in rock salt/ rubber loads for non lethal home and law enforcement defense shotguns. cleaning. wildcat calibers. pistols. cowboy shooters. Reloading and Gunsmithing Niches are similar and include include: Safari. If you can’t compete with Wal Mart prices on generic 12 gauge birdshot. rifles and other unique categories. porting. collapsible stocks and other accessories. very high quality bench accuracy rounds. partitioned.You can also specialize in shotguns. stock bedding. or compete with European exporters on hand built AK Pistols. big and dangerous game hunters. adding limbsavers. Military. inexpensive practice rounds. Law Enforcement. Snipers. and MANY more. SWAT customers. Your IMAGINATION is the limit More On Gunsmithing Specialization 8 .suppliers and vendors as well as customers! There are NICHES in reloading that relate to many aspects. from customers to calibers to quality and type. offer specially loaded. special defense or prey shotshell.

creating a custom gun that auctions off for $50.Functional and safety evaluation -.Specialty/pistol hunting -.000 can be done in a number of ways. Repairing a feed problem or doing a complete trigger job and 3.Gorgeous furniture refinishing.Big game loads and rifles -. trigger.Large scale niche conversions. However. such as SKS from wood to tactical accessories -.Custom stock. Tools used range from simple screwdrivers to lathes.Metal engraving and marking -.Antique repairs or refurbishing -. Installing and sighting a scope.Grading and appraising -.Bird/trap/skeet shotguns 9 . in order: 1. Building a rifle or pistol from scratch.Ballistics and Reloading -.There are three levels of gunsmithing: Basic or Apprentice. bore and barrel work -. Here are just a few examples of successful specialties: -.1. Three examples of these would be. Advanced or Master and Manufacturing or Journeyman. depending on your choice of SPECIALTY. cad/cam engravers and milling machines. action.Tactical weapons and conversions -. 2.000 Yard Competition/Sniper Accuracy guns -. including engraving -.Military and Law Enforcement -.

and trade reference benefits you will get by being part of the ETI family. you get a “smiley face. referral. Parkerizing. you will see other network.” The niche players are winners at the beginning of the smile.Basic to advanced repairs and MANY. tricking out -.-. The ETI/PSU philosophy is YOU MUST SPECIALIZE. If you do not yet have your FFL. and the losers group in the middle and battle over scraps. the huge heavily capitalized market owners are winners at the other end. wholesale purchase.Forensics -. your shop will grow with a wide variety of specialized tools and equipment as you advance from basics to fully custom building. At the end of this course. is recognized in all 50 States and numerous countries worldwide for meeting city licensing requirements in most cities and counties. and freedom from the price taker generalist herd. This differentiates you. SMILE and SPECIALIZE! Your PSU Certificate Your PSU Gunsmithing Certificate. and many other nations. 10 .Custom grips -. creates your own unique niche. military and ranges throughout the US. whether Gunsmith. or Journeyman Gunsmith.Refinishing. please visit our sister site at WWW.COM for important information on Federal licensure.Semi auto or auto actions -. and much more. with buying power.Leather work -. PSU Gunsmiths are working worldwide in areas as diverse as custom competition load design to fully custom weapons systems. rare items. ATF primary focus questions. and makes you a big profitable fish in your own pond. Master Gunsmith. Many of our graduates are now Armorers for police. Many more! Depending on your specialization plan. When you plot ROI and margin against market share.GUNSMITHFFL.

finish reading this guide from beginning to end. Doing basic work such as installing a scope or swivel studs or engraving a simple scroll or logo seems easy. the ETI/PSU gunsmithing academy company. which is why we offer one of the least expensive. After 20 years of real work. etc. there are a number of top online sites that all gunsmiths use for tools. best recognized courses available. and yes. but these skills are the foundation of all the other more advanced projects. courteous response from one of our Master Gunsmiths or Instructors. go back through the text and be sure your answers are correct before emailing them back to PSU. This is an “open book” format. die/tap kits. That alone could save you years of 11 .com. we’ve tried to spend more time on the WHY of different basic projects. If you have any questions. and every course is sprinkled with advice on how to market and profit from both your new and previous skills. These include the hundreds of gunsmiths and apprentices at www. FOR EXAMPLE.Smithtactical. and the general strategy of your profession. and you’ll receive a prompt. CAD/CAM engravers. you could spend years checking out the top engraving companies for laser. the ways you can make a career with certain skills and projects. diagrams. routing. Next. cermark and other manual and automated knife and gun applications. from a business and success standpoint. but very few give the guidance on what is worth doing and why.com). parts. There are hundreds of good books and online resources here and on the web to answer specific detailed questions. email us. How to complete this course First. such as lasers. This guide is filled with the latest shortcuts and tools that will make the advanced work much easier. take a shot at the exam at the end.Newing-Hall. the top gunsmiths agree there is no better automated system than Newing Hall (www. Then. diamond drag. While there are specifics on techniques as in any course. and all our gunsmiths have started with much valuable life experience. supplies. even swivel stud gunsmith kits! Tool Resources Although we’ve included a list of tools and equipment here. EVERY course we offer is about YOUR success. videos.Most importantly.

com (Grizzly Imports machines) www.com www.Sarcoinc.b-square.com www.Brownells.walkerarms.chapmanmfg. with updates that make most printed materials obsolete. ETI also offers competitive LEASES on nearly every piece of gunsmithing equipment.Midwayusa. Brownells.com (Biggest and best next to Numrich for what they do) www.com (especially wildcat cartridge development) www.wikipedia.com (South Bend Lathe) www.waldenspecs.e-gunparts. Here are the top companies in the most important other areas: www. articles and other resources www.com (Terrco gunstock carving machine) www.com www. even when the manufacturers themselves do not.clymertool.terrco.gunpartscorp.com (Service center for manufacturers) Videos.com (Parts) www.southbendlathe.hard work and disappointment for the engraving part of your business. Lyman and other brands) www. created originally by ETI/PSU gunsmiths at Smith tactical: 12 . Here is an example article.grizzlyimports. Midway and Numrich also have hundreds of books and videos on their sites.forsterproducts.org is one of the best resources on gunsmithing topics.com (Includes B-Square www.com .com (Numrich competitor) www.com (Numrich site) www. if that is one of your specialties.

For serious target shooting and as shooting distances increase the attention to MOA value relative to sight adjustment becomes more essential. Normally.6992 inches The distance covered by 1 degree of angle (37. There are 360 degrees of arc to a full circle. and the real difference is a mere 0. Calculating Minute of Angle The angle of an arc is expressed in number of degrees.1416 circumference = 12 x 3. Each degree consists of 60 minutes of arc. The precise value of pi is so far unknown to man but is normally resolved to 3. Circumference can be calculated as: circumference = (radius x 2) x pi circumference = (6 x 2) x 3.47 inch at 1000 yards. Actually the comparison is close enough to not be of practical concern.1416 circumference = 37. Knowing the radius (distance to center of circle) circumference is easily calculated by using the constant pi .1416 or 3. The distance covered by the measure of arc is relative to the circumference (total distance around the circle) it is contained within.141 for our purposes. especially at distances up to a few hundred yards. 13 . shooters refer to these adjustments as a change of a fraction of an inch at 100 yards rather than the true value of MOA for which they are supposedly calibrated to.Minute (Moment) of Angle (ETI/PSU originally created the article for Wikipedia on this topic) Most firearm sighting scopes incorporate windage and elevation adjustments referenced to MOA (minute of angle). Suppose a circle with a 6 inch radius. The ratio (represented by pi ) of circumference is constant to diameter (radius x 2) regardless of circle size.6992 / 360 or. The value of inch is a nice easy number to work with and most of us can easily visualize its length and its multiples without the aid of a calculator. Each click of the scope turret is usually 1/4 MOA change and on some scopes 1/8 MOA.

1 degree divided by 60 minutes) 0.47 inch @ 1000 yards.1047 inch at 6 inches from center of circle. 14 . twice @ 200 yards. And. 6 times @ 600 yards.047) At 50 yards 1/2 the 100 yard value. So. the value of MOA at 100 yards is 1.1047 / 60 or. 70% @ 70 yards. Six inches (the radius of the above example) is 1/600th of 100 yards: (100 yards x 36 inches) / 6 inches = 600 Therefore.001745 x 600 = 1. the difference between thinking in inches as opposed to MOA is 0.047 inches (0.001745 inch at 6 inches from center of circle. 1 minute of angle represents (0. Knowing what MOA represents allows us to calculate its value to any distance. and so on.circumference divided by 360 degrees) is 0.

Writing the symbol commonly used to represent the measure of inch (") is not accurate here. the value of a measure of angle can easily be calculated to any distance from its source of origin . It could also be written as 1' since that symbol (') is used to represent minute of angle but that might be misleading to those thinking in feet. 15 .047 inch change @ 100 yards for scopes of 1/4MOA per click. and in fact misleading since that symbol also represents 'second of angle' (1/60 of a minute of angle). Where group size is expressed in inches the word 'inch' should be spelled.Four (4) clicks of the scope adjustment equals 1. Why Use MOA As shown above.center of circle or muzzle of barrel. Therefore. a group of 1 inch would properly be written as '1 inch' not 1".

While knowing a rifle has a precision of a certain value of the inch at a particular distance also makes it simple to calculate its precision at other distances.697). Determine the distance between the center of the two groups. 16 . That is the calculated value of change for that distance for each click. The two equate practically the same (1 MOA = 1. Shooting from a solid bench rest.mathematics.73 / 1. Divide that distance by the number of elevation clicks used to achieve group two. Two informative sites for further discussion of MOA relative to firearm use: What Is MOA and Is It Really an Inch At 100 Yards? and Mil-dots and Minutes-of-angle. Return the scope elevation to its previous setting. This is especially true if scope settings are changed in the field as shooting distances change.047 inch @ 100 yards) but the expression using MOA is more concise since no distances are included in the expression.Such measures as MOA (minute of angle) are also part of our only universal language . Again determine center of group using the Average Group Radius method. Not all scopes are precisely calibrated to MOA (minute of angle) or to the inch. thereby giving a false indication of true performance. In contrast. From a Technical Perspective Calculating Scope Click For long ranges where shooting distances may vary considerably it is wise to know the actual value of each scope adjustment. determine the center of group using the Average Group Radius method. make and record as many scope elevation clicks as will still keep the group on the target while shooting at the same aiming point as before.0472 = 0. An example of the contrast is expressing 0. Below is a procedure learned from Varmint Al's Shooting Page for better determining the value of each click of the scope turret.7 MOA (0.73 inch @ 100 yards verses 0. For high power rifles it is recommended the target be no less than 100 yards distance as some projectiles may not completely stabilize at shorter distances. knowing only the measure of angle is needed to do the same. one would have to know both the distance and the measure in inch (example: 1 inch @ 100 yards) before calculating it to other distances. Without reaching the adjustment limit of the scope.

drawers. -. etc. grinding. punch sets. as many as you can cram in. not just ft #s). stone set.BLUEPRINTS Numrich. two or three if you’re also doing reloading -. dremel. cnc) -. drill sets -.Torque wrenches (incl. table saw. micrometer. PROJECT BLUEPRINTS also are available at Brownells and many other suppliers for specific guns and projects. screw pitch gauge. oil and solvents 17 . leather covers or fabric/rubber grip covers -. milling.Bullet trap -. watchmaker’s and dentists’s tool sets -.Snap caps. solvent tank. etc. buttplate kits. crown cutters -. flashlights.File sets.Gunsmith screwdrivers.Jeweler’s. and the various manufacturers (eg: Bushmaster) also sell great videos on all aspects of gunsmithing and individual gun projects and blueprints. disc/belt sander.Hammer set. bore lights.All safety equipment and systems including fire. tape measures. Midway and Numrich -. with room to grow -.Well ventilated. socket sets. bedding kits. grinder. gloves. pick sets. gun vices -. cleaning supplies. and the famous NUMRICH CATALOG has nearly every antique and modern gun in exploded parts diagrams. in.Swivel stud sets/drill kits. cabinets. safety glasses -.Drill press. chisel sets. dial caliper. rulers. ratchets.4’ Fluorescent lights. eye and ear protection.As large as you can afford. air compressor (advanced: lathe. safes.Security system. levels -. cordless drill. router. cooled -. rifle and pistol gun stand/clamps. can’t have too much light -. Your Shop Checklist: -.Check out the checklists at Brownells.Lots of pegboards. Brownells.At least one bench. heated. sandpaper. shelves.Plenty of room to expand for machines -. two bench vices. racks -.Magnetic vice fabric jaws. lighted magnifiers. Your Tools -.

gunsmithing deals with many smaller and finer parts (much like watchmakers or jewelers) such as tiny springs. combination. components and work objects for which they were designed. trigger kits.Handgun or Long-gun (ATF) -. Centerfire 18 . and very fine surfaces that. not to mention a lot longer. derringer.” Likewise for everything from scope kits and tools to swivel stud installation kits! Cutting down a barrel? Get the “Barrel cut down kit” which includes everything from saw blades to crown cutters in one kit. specialty item -. have replaced a lot of Master jury-rigged tools and knowledge.Stainless. -. synthetic. TODAY. blued.Rim vs. tap wrenches and screw kits. can’t be easily “polished out” because of their tough metallurgy once they are scratched. tube fed. gauge.-. However. MORAL: BUY gunsmith specific tools. full auto -. Recently.Handfed. They also are non tapered and won’t destroy expensive guns. DON’T try to get away with home repair or automotive tools! Most people who are evolving gunsmiths have always been handy with tools. Firearm Taxonomy -. stripper clip/chamber fed. less slip. bore -. rifle.etc. multi shot. semi auto.Gloves and shop clothes -.Single shot.Unlike olden times. to make the job that much easier and less risky to you and the product. and FIT the fixtures. plus screw extractor kits/tools -. ring and key tools. IMPORTANT NOTE: Even basic gunsmith screwdrivers are MUCH different. magazine fed.Both metric and US tap and die sets. than any other screwdrivers. cylinderfed.Caliber. Two step Parkerizing sprays. experience and knowledge. pistol. nearly every project has it’s own special tools that make the job a lot easier. specific bolt. They make you “look good” because their design complements your skill. revolver.Airgun. many new KIT developments are allowing novice gunsmiths to advance to much tougher and more complex projects faster and easier. unlike gold and silver. check out Brownell’s “bedding install kit. Gunsmith tools are specifically made to give better grips. If you’re installing bedding.Modern or Antique (more than 50 years old) -. belt fed -. etc. shotgun.

” It was pioneered by Glock in Semis. pressures. faster access. dog claws. trajectory. barrel length and composition. flows. material.Single or double action or combination -. bullet drop. Most weapons with a usable hammer can be shot in either mode. These can include range. sighting and the trade offs of different load/firearm combinations vs. which makes them slower than snapping off the safety of a cocked/locked 1911. MOA. range. with a huge number of duty AD’s with holster catches. drag and other aspects of symmetric projectiles in motion. forces.Chamber/eject mechanism -. type. Without getting a PhD in engineering.” Many officers now carry their Glock unchambered for this reason. scraping the “trigger safety. who fooled ATF into thinking that a special trigger group that “decocked on each cycle” was similar to a DAO revolver (one which can only be shot by pulling the trigger.-. displacement. the goals of the shooter. trajectories. “Full DA” or DA/SA usually means you can shoot either SA or DA. stresses. for supposedly safer.Effective range -. -. Foreign or both -. Old cowboy revolvers that have to be cocked also are considered SAO or just SA. bullet 19 . Ballistics is the math and science of energies. although single shot derringers and rifles often have no DA option. not cocking it). lands and grooves. twists. many LE organizations require a DAO for duty carry. shapes. etc. Because of the “heavier” trigger. the Sig DAK. and have to be cocked to be fired (SAO). a gunsmith is expected to understand enough about ballistics to safely and accurately counsel customers on handloading. Glock advertised this originally like a revolver. Ballistics Classified as interior. SAO means it COCKS on each cycle and has to be decocked if you don’t want to fire. able to be carried in condition one.US. exterior or terminal. without being “cocked and locked” like a 1911. The safety record shows that’s BS. HK LEM and Para LDA are updated versions of this design. etc. reliable. although DA can also mean that.Barrel size.Nondestructive or NFA DAO DAO Stands for “Double Action Only. Since then.

Hunters need to balance burn speed vs. and load control. Reloading Although reloading can be a hobby. velocity and terminal energy delivered. especially for dangerous game. expense control. Example Basic Gunsmithing Projects Fix a safety Install a scope Install bedding Install new sites Install new trigger Appraise condition or value Inspect a bore Disassemble and clean Fix a jam Add accessories Cut down a stock Install a buttplate/ recoil pad Adjust a trigger Diagnose a feed problem Install swivel studs Replace furniture Add a bipod Bore sight a scope Increase shotgun capacity Fix a hammer bind Refinish a surface Polish bore and chamber Replace or repair a spring Clean. for fun. that create specific characteristics for certain applications. serious hunters and competition shooters also are interested in handloading or reloading. clear an obstruction Remove a stripped screw 20 . loads. bullet shape. composition and weight.weight. such as the 458 Lott for Water Buffalo. “Wildcat” loads are special calibers. etc. Numerous PC based ballistics programs are now available to the gunsmith. neck ups or downs.

Laminate/ Parkerize a stock Cut down a barrel Repair a magazine Reshape a stock comb/ cheek rest Combine features of several guns into one Add shell holders and speed feeders Adjust sights Live sight Assess firing condition and safety Determine provenance and/or age etc. builds and repairs. even if it’s just unusual stocks and scopes! Bore Sighting a Scope Once again. instead of machine engrave. is experience. A journeyman might then take it a step further and cast or mill components with custom metal formulas and hand engrave. Build a custom gun Upgrade fire control components Notch a rail File/ de-burr a part Understand how components work together … and hundreds more! Advanced Evolution Once you have done a number of “basic” projects. making it possible for the scope to shatter with the first shot? Don’t laugh. tools and the fine points of application knowledge. Gunsmithing can be a lifelong journey of growth. the difference between a pro and an amateur installing and sighting a scope. It’s all a matter of degree. Is the caliber too large for the scope quality or ring quality. You use many of the same tools and techniques. you will begin to notice that advanced projects are just variations on the theme. A master might make some of those components including custom springs and engraving. After a few months of practice. the finished product. you can build a gun from the ground up with purchased components. venerable Remington introduced their 710 series which included “factory 21 . with just more steps. and there is no reason you can’t begin to immediately profit from the uniqueness of your initial customization.

scopes” and when they graduated from 270s to 30-06 and higher: you guessed it. rails. do your best. but take into account the TRADE OFFS created by the constraints. Some major scope manufacturers don’t make rings to match some military rail systems. BTW. and try to do so on the sadly now defunct Bushmaster Bullpup. With the variety of Picatinny. but is an example of CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION. For example. rings and scope is not always simple. When in doubt READ the instructions or study the blueprints! This is against all male instinct if you’re a guy. 1913. you’ll find that the entire chambering mechanism with all it’s tiny little springs. OUCH. by converting a drill press to an arbor press and holding components in place with the chuck while raising the table to stretch the spring. hooks and components just BOINGED into your lap as a pile of components. If you always start by removing the “placeholder” screws in the manufacturer’s tap. not FOOT pounds. The combination of rail. with highly specialize manufacturing equipment. even though low is preferable for accuracy. but LEADERS ARE READERS and pros always read. We had to save one of our students from this problem. and you’ll now be re-manufacturing a Bullpup in addition to installing a scope! INSTANT transition from basic to master gunsmithing! How do you hold all those little springs in place since you can’t get your fingers in there? Well. do you need a hammer extension so the hammer can be reached due to scope position on your lever or single shot rifle or hunting pistol? Will rounds bounce off your scope when they are ejected? Does the scope fit the cheek position of your customer taking into account the eye relief of the scope? Some scope manufacturers consider 9” “generous” eye relief—try that squinting at a scope with a high caliber hunting pistol! BONK in the forehead if it’s a 444 Marlin or 45-70 BFR! These constraints are why MEDIUM rings are most often chosen over low. the scopes started shattering. yikes. This means. they are INCH pounds. not to mention the injuries from eye contact due to recoil with scopes too far back! The general rule of getting the scope as far back as possible and as low as possible to the bore is generally true. the manufacturer did it at an earlier stage of production. not having all the specialized manufacturing tables. notch. you’ll snap a $300 ring in half long before hitting the FOOT 22 . if you are torqueing custom milled rings. choosing the right combination can be difficult. manufacturer and other drill/tap scenarios. which requires a special torque wrench! If you try your spark plug wrench. custom.

This is fun and easy on a practice barrel that is nude. and the length of screw needed to securely hold the scope so you don’t accidentally extend into the barrel and catch a round or chambering component with a screw that extends into the barrel.gunengine. but our students regularly get guns for $5 and $10 bucks. A more advanced application would be doing this on a barrel that is NOT drilled and tapped. you have to know the thickness and metallurgy of the barrel. This is a lot more than just tap and go. and sellers think you are crazy when you want a gun they are about to throw away.com/technology/50bmgreport. but removing a barrel from many guns. “what lies beneath” so you’re not disturbing a chamber rail. or a used non-firing junk barrel for practice. rings and tube 23 . that end up being $5. BUY THE RIGHT TOOL! If you are asked to install and sight a 50 BMG scope. the scope AND rings have to handle the recoil and you’ll be on the phone to Brownell’s asking about those $300 milled rings with inch pound torque requirements (click this link: http://www. pin or spring. You NEED to purchase lots of cheap junk guns (curios and relics are fun) that you can play with.000 treasures when they are done restoring them! The general steps are: --Secure the firearm on your gun vise safely --Point barrel at a target on a nearby wall --Set the scope for the sighting focus specified by the manufacturer --Adjust the reticle for your customer’s proposed distance application --Install the scope as low and as far back as possible give the constraints and objectives --Do NOT use locktite or any other binding or glue agent (drop of oil is fine) --Torque set to specs all three sets of screws: rail tap. the leverage on your auto TW is way too powerful. like AR’s.html to see an example of a 50 our Smith Tactical division sighted).pound. some hopelessly junked. and you’ll be using that tap and die set FIRST on your own gun. NO YOU CAN’T just divide the gauge by 12. is a project in itself.

--Use a crosshair gauge (reticle leveler) to true the scope on its twist axis --Attach a magnetic Leupold bore sight or a laser bore sighter or both in turn --Adjust windage and elevation clicks (act like you are moving the TARGET, not the crosshairs, in the direction specified on the scope click adjust wheels) so the crosshairs center on the bore sight grid or laser grid This will get you “in the black,” but live sighting is needed to accomplish your customer’s goals, holdovers, application, and specific MOA and click rules of thumb for the scope specs. Training your customer on how to compensate based on the scope’s ZERO points (two with each trajectory curve) is an important step if you are dealing with Elk, big game, precision distance varmint hunters, LE/Military snipers, etc. Installing Studs A good example of accessorizing is to install sling swivel studs. EASY: Just buy studs and screw them into the pre-drilled holes that came from the manufacturer on the fore and stock. Use pliers with leather inserts or a pin through the hole to tighten, direct metal will scratch the finish off of the stud. It is better to use a plain hole stud than a pre-assembled swivel loop stud, because if your customer decides he wants a bipod, the swivel loop will be in the way. The bipod had two little “arms” that clamp onto the swivel, then screw tight to the fore with the big wheel. Many bipods have a second stud beneath the first so you can still attach your sling if you wish. Make sure you push the clamps AWAY from the bipod before squeezing them to unlock them and allow them to expand wide enough to clamp into the stud. If you accidentally get a stud with a swivel loop, the loop often just clamps to each stud hole, with metal in between (no complete hole through the stud). This stud will still work for a bipod if you remove the loop, since the bipod arms also don’t go through the complete stud, but just “grab” each little hole. To remove the loop: with a pair of bolt cutters, crimp the loop at the TOP, OPPOSITE where the arms go into the stud, with the cutters at inside bottom and top of the loop (not the sides). Next, stick a pair of needlenose pliers

through the loop and pull them open firmly. The crimp will become a “hinge” for the loop, and the two sides will come right out of the stud holes. Why not just cut right through the loop? Usually if the bolt cutters are strong enough, they are too big to get a good grip, and the crimp works just as well! MEDIUM: Use your drill and tap kit to thread unprepared fore and stock for new studs. Make sure the tap is the size of your studs, and never larger than the top lip of the stud. TOUGHER: Repairing an oversized or stripped stud hole is a little more challenging. There are several thread-fitting mold compounds available for use with glass bedding, “bondo” like hole repair, and even specialized tap repair compounds. All work similarly: you oversize the stripped hole (but still no larger than the stud size itself!). Next, you insert the goop, and screw the stud or screw into the hardening goop. The stuff hardens, takes the shape of the screw pitch, and forms a permanent new tap. Don’t put any load on the new stud until you follow the manufacturer’s CURE time on the form fitting bondo or accu glass: usually 24 hours at least. To remove an embedded stripped stud, rusty or stripped screw, etc. there are many screw removal bits for your handheld drill, be sure to get one specifically designed for gunsmith work (they have straight, non tapered cutting sides so they don’t slip and scratch the metal, wood or plastic). Read the instructions! Some of the newer ones require you to first go clockwise and bind, then twist out the opposite way. Replacing Furniture and Accessorizing One of the easiest things you can do as a gunsmith to add value to a firearm is to create a “custom” look with grips, stocks, fores, and accessories like shellholders, speedfeeders, slings, lights, lasers, custom bedding, Parkerizing, laminating, engraving, and many others. These projects can pay off in much greater margin than the herd out there selling all the same items against the big box stores with cutthroat profits. We have one grad who is making 20% more on cowboy action shooting pistols by simply replacing a one pin trigger component and a one screw set of custom grips! Example steps in converting a wood furniture rifle or shotgun to a “tactical” platform might include:


-- Secure firearm in your gun vise and be SURE it is not loaded -- Pre-arrange your tools, screwdrivers, wrenches, parts, flashlight, oil, sockets, etc. for the project --Wear goggles or safety glasses --Unscrew and set aside the old fore, being sure it doesn’t secure other internal components --Remove the butt plate/recoil pad from the old stock --Using a very long gunsmith screwdriver, or a ratchet extension (depending on whether the stock is secured by a screw or a bolt), remove the stock from the receiver. --Before trying to screw the new stock or pistol grip into the receiver, practice the screw/bolt angle without the stock to be sure the new screw/bolt matches the receiver. A light drop of oil will help. When you use the actual stock, “start” the bolt with your fingers first (using the space between the stock and the receiver, for example). If you set a screwdriver or ratchet right away before starting the bolt, you won’t have the “feel” of the placement angle, and the leverage of the tool can easily strip or damage the receiver threads. Cutting Down a Barrel There are many occasions when you will need to shorten or repair a barrel due to wear, tactical considerations, or accuracy (yes, some loads are more accurate with a shorter barrel). With new anti-gun bans happening every day, some manufacturers purposely make barrels at 28” that should be 16” due to the tactical nature of the load (7.62, .308 or .223 for example). Customers that want a brush gun and buy a long barrel will soon find it a hassle to carry due both to weight and snagging trees and underbrush. You can also buy long barrel guns in very powerful calibers and cut them down to create a very unique and fast selling tactical or dangerous game backup gun. Pick calibers that aren’t normally found in short barrels, like .358 Win, cut it down, and sell it as a quick access Bear gun.


As some of you may know. chuck er down. but I have recently been thinking about getting into some Gunsmithing.. many smiths simply use a hacksaw and then apply a whole variety of specialty cutters to finish off the rough/uneven cut of the hacksaw. at a more basic level. WHICH lathes would make good gunsmithing lathes???? 27 . you’d just remove the barrel. there are a number of excellent manual. I sold off my last SB 13" lathe. My questions are in regards to WHAT makes a good gunsmithing lathe? Simply put..With a fully featured machine shop.taf?itemnumber=45861 --You can also find many manual mini’s on ebay and various craft sites.com/cpi/ctaf/Displayitem. However. and git er done. but is one of the best discussions ever of the pros and cons of a variety of gunsmith lathes: Gentleman. I have actually held off. and taking on all the challenges of this fine form of metalworking.000 plus for cnc: http://www.000 geared to $50. Anyhow. but much of the finishing work still has to be done if you want a professional crown. but results are comparable to your lathe. --This thread is unfortunately gone now.harborfreight. On the other hand. non-CNC lathes that work well without putting a huge hole in your wallet. Enough personal drama! Back to the lathe. compared to $13. Here are a couple examples: --Geared head mini for about $800. in hopes of finding the "Right" lathe for me. thus finally acquiring my "Dream" lathe of many years. with the sole intent of upgrading to a 10EE. Takes a little longer. and beginning (and even some advanced) gunsmiths don’t have enough work to justify the expense of a good lathe. put it on the lathe.

If I 28 . as the barrels/parts are always SHORT.I'm interested to hear about any and all lathes.. a 10L or simular is good (as long as it is accurate and you understand it) I do not know much about the 10EE but I am sure with the right methods it will be a good "gunsmithing" lathe. Depends on alot of which school of thought you follow. to say the least? In other words.. both have advantages and disavantages. and what you guys prefer to use for smithing. but I'm actually most interested in lathes that fit a budget of somewhere between $1000 and maybe $3000. it's really only critical. Condition. when it comes to finding a good gunsmithing lathe. unless you want to turn barrels from a basic blank. would it be safe to assume that most ANY lathe would be GREAT for handgun work. when working with long barrels/long guns/rifles????? Thanks so much guys. GA | IP: Logged rsal Brass Member # 5424 Rate Member posted 12-20-2006 08:36 PM12-20-2006 07:36 PM depends on where your intrest lies and the methods you want to use. Granted. Posts: 962 | From: Atlanta. between centers or through the headstock.. in any price range. other needs a big spindle hole. Condition)! I just want to know what makes a good gunsmithing lathe. A 9 inch SB and the right set up is all you really need.??? Finally. The only reason I use the 10L is it was available and I undrestand it ( I learned to run a lathe on 9" so I was familure with it) and it is paid for. I realize it's all about the "Three C's" (Condition. IMHO. One requires long bed..

and with 20" between centers won't let you do it in the steady rest. just my $0.com and do a search.. I think the key is the man not necessaryly the machine... Several threads on this.. but it is not practical for barreling work. ". but the 5C drawtube is an astonishing 25" long. Yes." 29 . give (key word here) me an HLV and equal tooling and I would be happy. Go to Benchrest. Butch Posts: 311 | From: Poetry Texas USA | IP: Logged peterh5322 posted 12-21-2006 09:27 AM12-21-2006 08:27 AM Diamond Member # 1011 Member Rated: "The [ 10EE ] headstock is too long to do work in the headstock .had a choice. a VERY long headstock." The through hole is 1-3/8".02 Roger Posts: 37 | From: Danville IN | IP: Logged Butch Lambert 303 Stainless Member # 833 Member Rated: posted 12-20-2006 09:14 PM12-20-2006 08:14 PM I would love to have a 10EE. The headstock is too long to do work in the headstock and with 20" between centers won't let you do it in the steady rest.

but the distance between centers and lenght of the head stock is an issue. the 10EE is more at home machining plutonium pits for thermonuclear bombs. but are very rare. So .30" models were made. than it is threading barrels for smokeless power rifles. SBs and similar older lathe designs that still have banjos befor the thread feeds offer the ability to slip an extra gear or two into the gear train and cut almost any thread. Having run all the lathes discussed in this thread.tool room size lathes are what your after. Also. Its easy 30 . I think you may have parted with one of the better gunsmithing lathes when you got rid of your 13" SB Currently I have a EE. I also have my brothers 10L and 13" SB. the range of threads is a little restricted on the WWII vintage machines with round thread selection boxes. The EE is unquestinablely my favorite machine. and a SB10L. In other respects. EE's have an excelent range of threads and feeds as well. Posts: 5961 | From: Monterey Bay. California | IP: Logged ahall 303 Stainless Member # 3245 Member Rated: posted 12-21-2006 01:07 PM12-21-2006 12:07 PM Gunsmithing involves relitively small parts with close fits and lots of threads. if you can do the math. These machine are less expensive. and not as refined as the later ones.

but they are well known for precision and bed 31 . If you want to do a litte hunting. The EE's shortcomings are its short bed and long head stock. the large Rivet (I forget the model #) that was built as a competitor to the EE is probably worth looking for. Amost 3000 lb and electricaly complex. but it was one of three that came up when asking what is the best tool room machine made.to adjust speed and has plenty of power. tapper attachement and other accessories. Franky the 13"SB is rigid enought for my needs. I have not played with this machine personaly. If you intend to work on english guns. Its reputation is good and its not as electricaly complex. Another option is a Hardinge HVL. I will keep my 10L for chambering because the head stock is shorter. but was intended to be a hobby/ student/ tool room machine. it will probalby have a better selection of threads. steady rest. In my opinion the 9" SB is a fine machine. and I keep trying to talk my brother out of the 13" that he loveingly restored. Its also HEAVY compaired to the other lathes discussed. Its even heavier and has more distance between centers. Its not as heavy as the EE or Rivet. Especialy if it were equiped with a 5C collet set. Its only draw back is that the EE has spoiled me for power and speed. The 10L is a significant improvement over the 9" and with a long bed it would be a fine gunsmiths machine. Its just a little to light for my tastes. This makes a lot of barel work difficult. It has enough length between centers and a relitively short head stock and footprint for a lathe its size.

it's no EE. and it's precision. Posts: 85 | From: Corrales. This lathe will thread any barrel I need to. just so happens to also be an HLV. Thanks so much for the response. It just looks like a sweet machine.length and head stock lenght are probably better suted for gunsmithing. Granted. that I've been lusting after an EE. as my next lathe. It's long enough to contour barrels as well. It is all the lathe a gunsmith will need and is very cost-effective. Posts: 279 | From: perry. I really have started leaning towards other options. OK. As I said. it seems like forever now. However. and it WAS my plan to acquire one. NM | IP: Logged Paul Cataldo 303 Stainless Member # 4228 Rate Member posted 12-22-2006 12:08 AM12-21-2006 11:08 PM Well guys. USA | IP: Logged Toomany Tools Aluminum Member # 6249 Rate Member posted 12-21-2006 10:30 PM12-21-2006 09:30 PM I looked at many different model lathes and spoke to a number of long-time full-time gunsmiths before I purchased. and one such option (as you guys have recommended). but I have always been drawn to this lathe. 32 . than the SB's 900-ish rpms. I WOULD have kept the SB 13". I was just hoping to finally get set up with another lathe. that would be perfect for gunsmithing. but in all honesty. Based on what some of them use and their advice I purchased a JET 1340GH and installed DRO. either through the headstock or use the steady rest. I also really wanted a lathe with a higher top end speed. but thats not the point of gunsmithing. Well. It wont put chips in the pan as fast as an EE. a "step up" from South Bend machines.

.. Posts: 962 | From: Atlanta. you sold it I'm afraid. one day I WILL eventually acquire an EE. and if anyone cares to share any other gunsmithing/lathe info. (BTW. and now we're down the road to pointless. They can be very Rate accurate. I keep a 10L SB around for this sort of stuff. and I surely wouldn't turn one down if I found one in good condition that I could afford. problem is I'd have to have a longer lathe to prep it with. Discussion at the benchrest site seems to center around newer asian stuff. I 33 . and from some of the guns that get built it must be working. Seems to be a little different opinion than you usually get here. GA | IP: Logged huntinguy posted 12-22-2006 12:47 AM12-21-2006 11:47 PM Plastic Member # 15940 The EE is a good machine but to say it is electrically complicated is an understatement. GA | IP: Logged blackboat 303 Stainless Member # 266 Member Rated: posted 12-22-2006 12:17 AM12-21-2006 11:17 PM Uh. Thanks for all the replies.Of course. I'm very interested to hear from you! I sure WISH I had a gunsmith buddy to hang out with in my area! It still seems I'm the only guy in the state of GA. It would not be my first or tenth choice. Rob Posts: 619 | From: Conyers. who's into this kind of thing. I believe I could chamber a barrel with a steady in a 10EE.

Plenty heavy. I had a chance at one but it was the short bed and not of much value for gun work (bore is too small). Not for someone in a hurry though. It is not hard to change out the pulleys and get any speed range you wish (providing the spindle bearing will handle the speed). One model (I don’t recall the number) has a gap (yes. You want a good 36" usable bed bigest headstock hole you can get. there are issue with removing and reinstalling the gap). a slow slow and a fast fast. It is reasonably accurate. 34 . On my want list. 36" bed 16" through the head with a 1 7/16 bore. Posts: 16 | From: Washington | IP: Logged SamD Plastic Member # 3459 Rate Member posted 12-22-2006 03:30 AM12-22-2006 02:30 AM I am currently using a Rockwell 11" that I think is just about perfect. The Hardinge is accurate as all get out. but if you are like me you were raised on lathes there is a great deal you can do with it. I have run the Jet. Speed range is good. Threading is an issue. It is also not really heavy.Member run one most every day) SB 9 is a great little machine. For what ever my opinion is worth. I am a fan of belt driven machines. solid smooth and accurate. It requires an accessory to be able to thread. I have used them. they work but…. It has a nice heavy feel like the EE. it is below a EE. All that said. I think it would be in my top three for gun work.

so much the better. There are quite a few out there. Personaly. I know nothing of the quality. Yes the SB is slow. but the plain journal bearings and lack of gears in the headstock keep the vibration to a minimum. An EE for general work and a 13" SB for barrel work would be a good combo. The other option not listed is a Logan. I believe have also seen an import copy of that machine in recent years. Take a hard look at that if you buy an import lathe. I think very highly of the EE and think there is nothing wrong with having a couple of lathes if you have the room. but they are out there. The gear train creates a long spindle hole. and if you can find one set up for inch and metric threads. Headstock length is also the issue with most 14" or larger engine lathes. Large spindle bore/ short spindle is a restricting requirement.After that just get to know your machine. but not as popular as the 35 . SamD Posts: 9 | From: NM | IP: Logged ahall 303 Stainless Member # 3245 Member Rated: posted 12-22-2006 01:15 PM12-22-2006 12:15 PM I agree that the HVL is a nice machine. Inexpensive bearings and gears can cause problems with fine surface finishes.

Posts: 1757 | From: WAPELLO. front clamping collet chucks work well for small work and it still goes 1600 rpm. http://www. QC gearboxes. the HLV and HLVH are lathes fully equipped with leadscrews. OK. right out of the box.com/forums/showthread.benchrest. Posts: 279 | From: perry. IA USA | IP: Logged Kurt posted 12-22-2006 05:47 PM12-22-2006 04:47 PM Westfall Titanium Member There was a post over on BRC about lathes that mit interest # 225 you. USA | IP: Logged WILLEO6709 posted 12-22-2006 05:40 PM12-22-2006 04:40 PM Titanium Member # 256 Member Rated: I like the Clausing colchester 8000 series in a medium lathe. a non-leadscrew machine) Indeed the HLVH is a dream to thread with. (the thought that a special threading attachment would be required probably involves a mix-up with the DV-59.php?t=38232 Rate Member Posts: 1106 | From: Montrose Iowa | IP: Logged jim rozen Diamond Member # 2561 Member Rated: posted 12-22-2006 08:16 PM12-22-2006 07:16 PM Actually. and the ability to thread. 36 . and very similar in design.SB. This series has a d1-8 and a 3" thru hole so you have no issues with any size barrel until you get into serious artillery.

Indeed the threading lever can be set to disengage with a stop operated by the carriage. The saying is that most threads can be cut on that machine. lablonde for example.0001. with 1. at 1000 rpm. and you can make one later.It uses a single-point dog clutch so there is no threading dial to contend with. but not required. but it's not . gunsmithing is precise.. The halfnuts are left closed at all times. and the lever that engages the leadscrew in forward or reverse is used to set the carriage in motion. if you go for an import. look for a lathe that you can still get parts on. for spares. go ahed and buy ALL the threading gears train. It can be started or stopped at any point. you might get them 37 . so that threads can be cut in a highly automated fashion. NY | IP: Logged jeffeosso 303 Stainless Member # 2371 Member Rated: posted 12-23-2006 12:41 AM12-22-2006 11:41 PM 10EE is a poor choice for gunsmthing... a taper is good. and be FLOORED at the +/. or a classic german full rib and sighted barrel... Jim Posts: 6828 | From: peekskill. the first time you have a barrel with a front sight on it. and re-enaged at any time in perfect sync with the thread being cut.5 or larger through spindle hole. read a "true" case drawing. you will curse the day you bought it.

. 1957.. I would get the gear drive if I had to do it over again... One adavantage of a new import is cheaper and available repair parts I have had zero issues with parts breaking. Tx | IP: Logged 1yesca Hot Rolled Member # 2929 Rate Member seanb Brass Member # 10792 Rate Member posted 12-23-2006 02:48 AM12-23-2006 01:48 AM logan mod. if i can find one for the right price jeffe Posts: 758 | From: Porter... and the lathe is well made where it counts(spindle and ways) Posts: 49 | From: st... and keep your spares...remade from your spares...... my next lathe will be a 15" lablond..... MO | IP: Logged Ken R Catskin Aluminum Member # 1680 posted 12-23-2006 08:02 PM12-23-2006 07:02 PM One thing I haven't seen mentioned is metric threading right on the gear box ...... but i'll tell you from experience that getting it RIGHT is a PIA. louis...thats a big plus in my neck of the 38 . Posts: 130 | IP: Logged posted 12-23-2006 11:19 AM12-23-2006 10:19 AM I have a Grizzly 12x37 which for the money is an excellent lathe...

. It has a foot brake that stops the spindle instantly. The main thing is the Asian lathes are AVAVILABLE. Rate Member BobB Hot Rolled Member # 2241 Rate Member Posts: 73 | From: Redmond...so there are no issues there. although I rarely use it. They 39 . Its got a hole thought the spindle that will accomodate anything short of a . It has metric/standard threading capability and it cuts threads easily.5 x 40 Grizzly that I've built several guns with. but fact of the matter is they do what they are supposed to do. It has good speed range and its very easy to change. The 3 and 4 chuck are large enough to do whatever I want. Ive built a 15 inch taper attachment and a collet closer that serves me very well. I know that many here destest the Asian lathes as being good enough for anything. Oregon | IP: Logged posted 12-23-2006 10:32 PM12-23-2006 09:32 PM I've a got a 13.woods.yet small enough to easliy change by hand. its there if I need it. The headstock is short enough that a chuck can be made that attaches to the spindle on the backside of the headstock that will support a fairly short barrel and keep it from flexing or wobbling and risking a bent barrel. I have had no issues with mine. I've gotten some exellent finishes with various barrels.50 BMG..

built recievers.arent hard to find and there are a multitude of parts and enhancments for them. Yes.blueprinted actions and pretty much done everything that you can do on a rifle including building them from scratch. cna anyone tell me what porcess in gunsmithing is considered heavy duty? I've chambered barrels.with no issues whatsoever. Is there a 800 rpm limit on threading? Its been a long time... the Asian imports can and do the job as well as any. but what a dream to thread on!! Posts: 607 | From: littlestown.but how many NEW American built machines are there now ? AS for light duty. I know that they are considered light duty by American standards..Although I love heavy iron and I work with them everyday. They have two new models of lathes made for 40 .pa | IP: Logged posted 12-31-2006 10:00 PM12-31-2006 09:00 PM Have any of you guys got your new Grizzly catalog. so it might have been a shop policy.chucked up the action and taken the barrels off. Posts: 194 | From: God's Country | IP: Logged jabezkin 303 Stainless Member # 14873 Member Rated: Andbl33 Plastic Member # 5301 posted 12-24-2006 01:09 AM12-24-2006 12:09 AM Jim Rozen. Using a bigger lathe can make some things on a gun harder to do.

00. They have two models the professional 16x40 with 2" spindle bore for $6750.. I found the Grizz lathes you were talking about. Posts: 15 | From: iowa | IP: Logged 41 .. I have a 10EE and it is about useless for this type of work.00 and a beginner model 12x36 with 1 5/8 spindle bore for $2695. Check them out and let me know what you think! Posts: 15 | From: iowa | IP: Logged matt_isserstedt posted 12-31-2006 10:44 PM12-31-2006 09:44 PM Interestingly.but the weblinks for both aren't operable yet! I was curious if they have different form and function than their other lathe offerings or if they are "hopped up" with additional tooling? Posts: 7644 | From: Atlanta. The tail stock is suppose to be more accurate and can be torqued down to Zero The head stock is notched out on the back end of the spindle bore and comes from the factory with a build in spider. They look to be real nice.Rate Member gun smithing. GA. USA | IP: Logged Diamond Member # 2207 Member Rated: Andbl33 Plastic Member # 5301 Rate Member posted 01-01-2007 04:17 AM01-01-2007 03:17 AM The new Grizzly have higher quality bearings. I really like the looks of the 16x40 looks real heavy duty and is big enough for most other jobs you may run across.

I'd choose something with a bigger spout through the headstock and slightly longer between centres. What about the next size up Monarch or a Hendey? I'm biased. make sure you have a fixed steady rest with it as well. getting a lot of good input from knowedgable folks.uk | IP: Logged smokepolesc posted 01-12-2007 07:09 PM01-12-2007 06:09 PM Brass Member # 9536 You are on the right track. this is free 42 . Posts: 1 | From: peterborough. common failing with these lathes. at least 30" between centres and a minimum 1. Just remember.it was one of the best lathes I ever had.5 " centre height. I think you ought to be looking for a 6 or 6. Although it seems that like me you appreciate the EE for what a fine machine it is rather than what use you can make of it. Posts: 61 | From: alabama | IP: Logged rude_mechanical13c posted 01-10-2007 08:24 PM01-10-2007 Plastic 07:24 PM Member # 16884 Paul Rate Member the 10EE is a fabulous machine.Bob N Aluminum Member # 6319 Rate Member posted 01-10-2007 04:07 PM01-10-2007 03:07 PM I'm surprised that there was no mention of the 5900 and 6900 series Clausing lathes.However.5" spindle bore.its a fine machine but it only has a 1.25" spout. I have an English Holbrook.I had one once.

and then tooling. clean US or European lathe by known maker where parts and service are still available: Monarch. Over 60" is too long. After spending a year repairing and restoring my first lathe. avoid threaded or A type. Reducing sleeve for head stock center. It gives the same kind of satisfation to some as shooting a hand built H&H. condition. 4 jaw chuck. Griffin & Howe. I 43 . aloris wedge type(not piston) tool post with holders. condition.. I am a graduate industrial engineer with 30 years experience manufacturing all types of anti-friction bearings from 1" to over 6 foot diameter. My current lathe (number 3) is a 1941 12 x 36 gear head Sebastian with 2 1/4 threaded spindle with all tooling listed. Leblond. 36-40" (1 meter) is better. Hardinge. 1214" is better..375 minimum hole thru hole in GEAR head spindle for 5-C collets. full set of 5-C collets with lever or Sjogren type closer. but that's another story! This being said. live center. BUT may be a good value if bed can be cut down. I don't think New Asian import lathes are not as good a value as a good.. L-0. lathe at a fair price vs a "beater".... Taper attachment is nice but not really necesary. L&S. .. had to spend much more on tooling! Basic tooling: 3 jaw chuck w/T&G top jaws. weighing about 2000 lbs is the most versatile and cost effective option. TS chucks. plus a 1J 9 X 42 Bridgeport. Personally. a fairly recent 13" X 40" (metric) gear head tool room lathe. They are available and sometimes very reasonably. Minimum 24" between centers. The Monarch EE is an exquisite machine. clean. but I wouldn't hunt some of the places I do with a gun that's worth more than my car. However. SB. 1. Colchester. Clausing. The challenge is finding and recognizing a good. or L-00 spindle nose. I have done a lot of "hobby" gun work.Rate Member advice and worth just what you paid for it! Here are my min specs for Gunsmithing Lathes: 10" min swing. and run my own machine shop. D1-4. Most important are condition.

I never heard of a 15x40 model 8000 so a little investigation paid off. Butch Posts: 311 | From: Poetry Texas USA | IP: Logged posted 01-13-2007 07:08 PM01-13-2007 06:08 PM 44 . (rifle work mostly) I was lucky enough to find one that falls in your price range. buy what you can afford and use what you have. Variable speed to 2000rpm. primarily for gunsmithing. I learned how to thread and chamber a barrel on a 5913 Clausing. short enough headstock to use a spider if that is desired. large enough thru hole for a barrel blank. They won't take a heavy cut without chattering. Posts: 30 | From: South Carolina | IP: Logged t00lmanii Plastic Member # 14518 Rate Member posted 01-12-2007 11:26 PM01-12-2007 10:26 PM Bob N wsa right. The bottom line is. had to look a long time though. I just bought a 15X50 Colchester.have seen phenomenal gun and model work done on machines that can barely be called a lathe. I have to use a cathead on both ends to do it through the head stock. Fella had it listed as a 15x40 and it didnt attract much attention. but as has been said. by an old retired toolmaker. Good luck with your new aspirations. heavy cuts aren't what you're after in a 'smithing lathe anyway. It works great. Posts: 13 | From: Southern Indiana | IP: Logged Butch Lambert 303 Stainless Member # 833 Member Rated: t00lmanii posted 01-13-2007 12:29 AM01-12-2007 11:29 PM I use a 6913 Clausing.

my lathe is a model 2000. Posts: 837 | From: Chino [Flats]...Now would a AXA tool post be the one or if I go Phase II do I go 100 or 200 Posts: 29 | From: NY-Long Island | IP: Logged GGaskill posted 01-14-2007 03:37 AM01-14-2007 02:37 AM Moderator Member # 73 Member Rated: Johle Plastic Member # Probably the smallest one. It is a through the head with Variable speed..I need to make a spider for it and I need to get a Quick Change Post. Ca SSR. Posts: 13 | From: Southern Indiana | IP: Logged posted 01-13-2007 07:30 PM01-13-2007 06:30 PM Delta/Rockwell 10" is the one I just acquired couple of months ago..Just got a Steady Rest and also looking for a 4 jaw chuck. Runs great. USA | IP: Logged posted 01-17-2007 01:08 AM01-17-2007 12:08 AM 45 .Plastic Member # 14518 Rate Member BATF666 Brass Member # 15934 Rate Member I must have been asleep at the keyboard.. I got the second largest for my 12" Logan and it was too big.

if I were doing shotgun work I would prefer a longer bed for screw in choke work. Varible speed drive is great for contouring barrels. trying to learn something. Clemson Posts: 45 | From: Upstate SC | IP: Logged Johle Plastic Member # 13498 Rate Member posted 01-18-2007 11:36 PM01-18-2007 10:36 PM Butch Most of the time I just lurk in the shadows. Posts: 7 | From: Texas | IP: Logged Butch Lambert 303 Stainless Member # 833 Member Rated: Clemson Brass Member # 8942 Rate Member posted 01-17-2007 11:42 PM01-17-2007 10:42 PM Good to see you on the forum Freddy. Mine is 12 X 36.13498 Rate Member I've been using a Clausing 5914 for over ten years now and consider it ideal for gunsmithing. I have no idea of condition or tooling. 46 . Butch Posts: 311 | From: Poetry Texas USA | IP: Logged posted 01-18-2007 01:02 PM01-18-2007 12:02 PM There is a 12x36 Clausing advertised in my local paper for $1000. can chamber through the headstock or with steady. A great gunsmith and can help you guys alot.

"How do you make the grooves?" is one of the most common questions answered by a barrelmaker. But. Elk hunting interfered. The barrel is the determining factor for a hit or miss. and has a lot of patience. Contrary to popular belief. it is the barrel that intrigues the shooter.Sure hated missing the swap meet at Shilen's. Little is understood about the actual barrelmaking process prior to the gunsmith's lathe. in the same token. Freddy Johle Posts: 7 | From: Texas | IP: Logged willbird Titanium Member # 6717 Rate Member posted 01-20-2007 03:13 PM01-20-2007 02:13 PM The grizzly 16" x "40 Gunsmith does seem pretty nice for the price. Drop by sometime. here is a useful summary from a recent sniper magazine article about the process of manufacturing a barrel in the first place: Barrel Construction Of all the components involved in constructing a rifle.. there is no real mystery to barrelmaking.the smaller one isnt bad either at least looking at pictures :-). 47 .. barrelmaking requires skilled technicians who fully understand the processes and machines. Bill Posts: 1600 | IP: Logged Before we get into the steps for cutting down a barrel. Priorities you know. and a rifle that is shot out or inaccurate will usually be in the gunsmith's shop for a "re-barrel" job..

Stainless steel barrels are not true autensitic stainless. or 4150 type steel. There are two determining factors when selecting steel for barrels: tensile strength and impact strength. and can be hardened by heat treatment. Barrel steels should be rated a factor of two over chamber pressures (for a good safety margin). Will harder steel last longer than softer steel? Well. STEEL The quality of steel used is the first and foremost factor a good barrelmaker considers. The tensile strength increases as the steel is hardened. and sulfur is added to obtain good machining qualities.In this article I will explain the basic processes involved in turning a chunk of raw steel into a rifled barrel. 4145. and most target or similartype makers use stainless steel. are equipped with Cro-Moly barrels.000 lb/in^2. is easily machined. Cro-Moly is relatively cheap and readily available. which is a martensitic class. which is usually a tensile strength over 100. Most high-production manufacturers use a Chrome Molybdenum (Cro-Moly) steel. It is a more expensive steel. but the Teflon process has filled that void. Most factory hunting rifles. 416 stainless has a high Chrome content.or maybe from the explosion you create in the chamber 48 . I am often asked how hard barrel steel should be. can be hardened by heat treatment. the better term would be "rust-resistant" steel. concentrating on the cut-rifling process. yes and no. Basically it measures how much force it takes to pull a rod of steel apart. but the steel also becomes more brittle (easier to fracture upon impact . Cro-Moly steel is usually designated as 4140. Tensile strength is defined as the measured force required to break a one-inch cross-sectional area of steel by pulling at both ends. as well as military rifles. and does not black well due to the chrome content. as that is my field of expertise. and is easily blacked. Stainless barrels are a 416 type. Impact strength is the steel's ability to take a sharp blow without breaking.

There must be some elasticity in the steel. This relieving process is achieved.012" under the finished bore diameter. known as deep hole drills. ensuring a more stress-free barrel. by cooking the steel in a high temperature oven and then allowing it to cool at a specific rate. generally known as Gundrills. Not your everyday twist drill. stress-free barrels. and is also ground so that the forces acting on the tip keep the drill centered in the workpiece. then Rifling (in that sequence). safe trade-off. 49 .008-. and it has been determined that a 26-32 Rc (Rockwell C scale) hardness is the appropriate. DRILLING A straight barrel begins with a straight hole. for if it is not. Cryogenics is an additional stress relief technique used by some barrelmakers. The face of the carbide tip is asymmetrical so that it will only cut on one side. Production processes at the steel mill often leave residual stress in the steel. A hollow tungsten carbide tip is brazed to the end of the tube and then ground to specs. Normally. including a V-groove to match the tube. Users of cryogenics claim that cryo-treating the steel after the heat treatment process creates a more homogenous microstructure in the material. The deep hole drill is basically a long. and then brought to room temperature at a specific rate. This stress must be relieved prior to machining.when you pull the trigger!). A cryoed barrel is frozen at -300 degrees Fahrenheit or more. The drill (drill bit) used is a special application type specifically used for drilling deep holes. The deep hole drill used is . the barrel or bore will bend while you are removing material. hollow tube with a Vgroove formed on the outside. barrel steel is double stress-relieved to ensure straight. Drilling a straight hole in a rifle barrel is accomplished with special drilling machines. either at the mill or in house. which leaves room for the reaming process. BARRELMAKING There are three steps in creating a cut rifled barrel: Drilling. Reaming.

" which is ground just under the reamed bore diameter. so has the cut rifling technique. The reamer is pulled through the barrel on a special reaming machine at around 200 RPM and a feed rate of 1"/minute. As the barrel steel has improved." which scrapes metal out of the bore. The reaming process is what determines the finish of the tops of the lands. Rifling is produced using a cutter.After a bar of steel has been cut to length and both ends faced square. The oil and chips are forced back through the Vgroove and into the chip tray. straight hollow steel 50 . REAMING A good bore reamer maker is a barrelmaker's best friend. It is now ready to be rifled. After the reamer is pulled through. The drill is fed into the material at a rate of about 1"/minute. so a 28" blank will take approximately 30 minutes to drill. The rifling head is mounted on long. A steady rest rides along the drill to keep the tube rigid while drilling. and will bring the drilled hole to size as well as leave a good surface finish. sometimes called a "hook cutter. The Gundrill rotates the barrel at 2000-4000 RPM while a stationary deep hole drill is fed into the material through a tight-fitting bushing. or "rifling head. The reamer is ground to finished bore diameter. The cutter rides in a hardened hollow steel cylinder. it is inspected for flaws in surface finish and air-gauged for dimensional uniformity. and contains a lift mechanism and feed screw. where the oil is strained and returned to the reservoir. The reamer is mounted on a long hollow tube to allow coolant to be pumped to the tool. Coolant is pumped through the hollow drill at 1000 psi via the tailstock to clear chips and cool the drill face. It was invented in Nuremberg circa 1492 and is still the optimum method of creating precise spiral grooves. CUT RIFLING Cut rifling has been around for 500+ years. the "blank" is inserted into the Gundrill.

making them capable of rifling two barrels at the same time. which pull the cutter through the bore. After a cycle has been completed (the first pass has been made on all grooves) the machine activates the lift mechanism. and it can take over an hour to fully cut a barrel. and is made specific to a caliber and twist rate. Then the rod is pushed back through the bore until the barrel is indexed for the next groove to be cut. The machines used for cut rifling are specialized for barrels only. Dubbed "B" riflers. Cuttermaking requires great skill and a lot of patience. are single-spindle belt-driven machines that utilize a sine bar to change the rate of twist. 51 . The rifling slide is attached to the sine bar and the spindle rotates at the determined twist rate as the slide moves back and forth on the machine. The nut is held against the lead screw with the aid of a large clock spring to limit backlash and provide a uniform spiral. Additional cycles are completed until the grooves are cut to size. The rifling slide is attached to the machine. usually Pratt & Whitney or Diamond Machine riflers. and are still very accurate. A well made rifling cutter produces some of the most uniform groove circles found today.tubing so that coolant can be pumped to the cutter. with a nut that follows the lead screw. Sine bar riflers. they are hydraulic powered machines that have two spindles. A series of "new" riflers was introduced by Pratt & Whitney during WWII. The cutter is ground to fit in a slot milled in the rifling head. RIFLING MACHINES The rifling is cut on rifling machines. and a well maintained cutter will leave a superior finish that requires minimal lapping. There are two basic types of riflers: Sine bar and Hydraulic "B" riflers. Most of these machines are of WWI vintage. or lead screw. A leader bar. which increases the cutting depth. The tubing is fitted with an adapter so that it can be attached to the machine. replaced the sine bar to determine the rate of twist. The average cut is a ten thousandth of an inch per groove per cycle.

clean interior surface finish. Good barrels are hand-lapped. which can take a few hundred strokes. The barrel is then swung vertical and molten lead is poured into the bore. a cleaning rod without jag. Although new developments in boregrooving have erupted in the last 50 years. and end up re-finishing the entire gun. and smeared with a lapping compound.The last production rifler was the Pratt & Whitney "B" rifler. polished finish that follows the direction of the cut groove spiral. I can only account for the manufacturing attributes of the cut-rifled barrel. de-burred. The lap is pushed and pulled through the barrel until the barrelmaker feels an even resistance. Next. up the bore 3-4 inches from the end. The result is a uniform. blued? Unless you want to get into an entirely different new project. and lead is the lap of choice among barrelmakers. I hope I have given you at least a glimpse of what is endured in the process. you start with a little. we’d stick with Stainless! Re-bluing is like shortening the legs of a table. but not as a service after you’ve hacked up their barrel! 52 . lubricating medium. the age-old art of cut rifling has remained the staid force in accurate barrels. The lead freezes to the end of the rod and makes a cast of the rifling. your first consideration has to be: Stainless vs. Next Steps Given all that. This is the lap. A lap is made by pushing a lapping rod. and provides a uniform. Little known secret: Ruger and some other manufacturers will actually re-blue your gun for free. In this article. LAPPING The final stage for the barrel in raw form is lapping. The "B" rifler is the zenith of cut rifling machine technology to date. Lapping the barrel ensures a dimensionally uniform bore. eliminating much of the break-in process. which is grit suspended in a greasy. It’s one reason Magna Port doesn’t port that many blued guns. end to end. the lap is pushed out the bore. as higher production rifling techniques emerged after WWII.

This step takes guts.Hack away.Remove the bolt and block the barrel between your cut and the action with a wad of cotton to prevent sending chips into your action as you saw -.). using either the manual Thandle cutter. set your drill on the lowest possible setting. or their attachment for your drill chuck.For the “quick and easy hacksaw version”.Using a perpendicular muzzle facing cutter/crown cutter (available at Brownell’s. and go SLOW or you’ll end up with a much shorter (and perhaps illegal) barrel without intending to. which is a felony. fit the cutter a little larger than the muzzle. you need to switch to the crown cutter.Finish the work with a scoring/radius cut done with your muzzle radius cutter. and if you use your drill chuck. -.). here are the time-tested steps: -. drown the work in cutting oil. -. dura coating the whole thing is a great finish. Midway.Gun on vise. -.Mark your cut with a Sharpie (don’t go below 18 for shotguns or 16 for rifles or you’ll be creating an NFA weapon. the cut will be crooked and rough. Numrich. no need to remove barrel with this method -. IMPORTANT NOTE: this cut only requires a small finishing score.If the barrel is stainless. or you can just leave the raw steel 53 . just give it a quick spin and you’re DONE. You’ll know when to stop when you hit the stops and all the little grind or chatter marks are gone (actually evened out). All three cutters now come in the “barrel cutting kits” offered at all the good supply houses. Make sure the radius cutter fits your barrel size range as marked on the box. etc. We prefer the 11 degree crown size (sometimes called 79 as the difference from 90) due to accuracy in the higher calibers. and “lathe” away! -.Once faced (remember the 90 was just to even out your hacksaw cut). Leave an extra inch or two for overcuts. with a pilot chuck in the bore (we prefer brass to steel as it is softer and has less chance of scratching your bore). and.Be sure to use a STOP COLLAR to avoid uneven cutting and to cut to perfect face. -. Yes. -.

re-crowning. Refurbishing We mentioned practicing on old. and keep the tip clean. burred or otherwise damaged? Once you render an opinion on condition. to deep cleaning. You close the bolt. worn out.-. Are the lands and grooves distinct and the bore smooth and still polished? Are the surfaces like new or so fouled you can’t see them? Is the steel rusted. cracks.” Sophisticated gunsmiths and armorers can even tell tolerances by how far the bolt closes before stopping on the no-go. Stop every few turns to remove chips. and check the barrel for wear. re-oil. These gauges are just like cartridges. you’re “good to go. 54 . Headspace is a constant topic on gunsmith forums. but not the nogo. overnight soaking. pitted. you can see what you’re doing. there is no greater step forward to accuracy than a good cleaning! Bore Polishing. to complex milling and cutting. employing non-embedding bore cleaning compounds. reaming. Headspace Gauges and Barrel Work Barrel work can range from simple condition appraisal to diagnostics. and general condition. Two.KEY: Go SLOW. lead fouling. to repairs ranging from simple cleaning and adjustment. but most often a very good cleaning can take the place of days of expensive lathe work. A “go/nogo” gauge system is an important tool for checking headspace. the chips and heat aren’t accidentally ruining your barrel as you go. electronic “reverse plating. This has two advantages: one. obstructions. There are two other major topics we have to cover for a great beginning business: repair and refurbishing old guns. etc. dull. Get a good bore inspection light. “trash” guns to get experience. and if it closes on the go. right up to installing a completely new barrel. powder residue. Halfway up is a great general rule. adjusting headspace are all progressively more extreme accurizing tactics. You’ve learned how great it can be to differentiate yourself with even light accessories to make a unique product.” deep cleaning agents. Gunsmiths can use a series of more aggressive cleaning techniques than the general public’s rod and solvent.

refinish with beautiful modern finishes. a scratched or pitted stock. and is making over $30. many months are spent simply taking guns apart. Next. then re-assembling them. But there is a point: by just taking an older gun apart. sending the slides to China or Pakistan.In classic gunsmithing schools. varnish or laminate. The secret to this specialty is: guns last a surprisingly long time. etc. damaged or bent ones with either new components or pre-built entire assemblies (trigger group/fire control group etc. He’s gotten conversions down to an art. and check all the parts for rust and wear. This is the reason many engraving houses are 55 . Engraving Engraving can go from hand scratching detailed artwork at a world-class artist’s level. There is a months long waiting list for his guns. and re-assemble. it is getting easier and easier to “Start” with a great or even classic platform at very little cost if you’re buying in quantities of at least 10 at a time. camo. and can often be brought back to firing condition with very little work! If you purchase a gun with a lot of rust. but he puts his unique mark on each with custom features and engraving and never gets bored. Often. Much of the gun engraving today from the “big boys” involves disassembling 100 pistols. then re-assembling it. for say an old Mauser.” We have one gunsmith who only sells AK pistols. With the worldwide market for imports of Chinese guns. or parkerize sprays. This exercise goes on and on. a good overnight soaking will make the vast majority of parts gleam again. and re-assembly. and very dirty barrel and action. you have the basic skills to create an outstanding refurbishing business! The same is true of repairs: often taking apart. strip all furniture.). Get your exploded diagram from Numrich. MINOR repair. Russians. rusted. and you have a fully functioning gun again and a very happy customer. to software-controlled machine engraving. disassemble the old thing.000 a month. and seems like a huge waste of time. You’ve turned a junk gun into a “classic beauty. SKS’s. then re-assembling the “custom engraved” end products. Romanians. checking for rusted or worn parts. cleaning. His shop is extremely specialized and almost an assembly line. Replace the really badly worn. you might pay $10 to $50.

Most gunsmith/engravers are engravers first. has made several custom knives for ETI to thank them for their blade combat training videos. going out more than two years at a time. pens. routing stocks. acid etching. customizing guns and knives can involve electroplating. We say this because the capital investment or leases have to keep the machines busy. It can take years to be proficient enough to create a $100. and put them on a 1911 batch. laser cutting stocks.bladecombat. On the other hand. go for it! In addition to cutting metal. carve the area to be 56 . gunsmiths second. there are guys that will pay $100. but no limit to ad specialties. chemically soaking camo patterns into guns. These were FACTORY engraved. His deal was that he’d take orders for custom engraved. if you are planning to also include engraved jewelry. from diamond drag. Yes.000 signed masterpiece with elephants. The term “engraving” is used as a catch-all for hundreds of different techniques.000 for a custom over/under that he paid $25. This is particularly true with China taking over most of the world’s production of almost everything. is to coat the surface with wax. Jay Fisher. Cermark laser “baking.” and many others. Although we will lease engraving machines to you as a graduate. and advice to his LE and Military clients. you need to carefully think about your business plan if engraving is going to be a primary focus. and even screen printing logos and symbols. We have one gunsmith grad who cut deals with a few Italian and German shotgun and Olympic/ big game hunting rifle manufacturers. See www. especially on knives and disassembled gun parts. awards.com for more information on knife engraving. meaning special serial numbers.000 for. etc.Becomeabladesmith. one-of-a-kind items. Just look at Les Baer! On the knife side (www. with orders from giant Safari outfitting companies (many in Abu Dhabi). and gunsmiths soon find there is a limit to knives and guns. screenprinted T-shirts and other ad specialty items.secretive about giving tours of their “engraving” facilities: the DON’T HAVE any. the world’s best custom knife-maker. quail and other details.com). true routing. than trying to do it in-house. Sometimes it’s cheaper and easier to buy 50 custom grips already ivory carved. plaques. trophies. Another way to engrave. and he is a multimillionaire.

.engraved. and soak the piece in an acid bath that “carves” only the areas with no wax. This is called acid etching. including revolvers and the 1911.fnhipower. . However.com/index. My wife prefers it over all other tested weapons. the factory trigger is very stiff and gritty. simple to operate. particularly for those with small hands. You may want to review the following webpage: http://www. It is an excellent choice.. It's a "natural pointing" pistol.html To do a trigger job. and very robust and dependable.html 57 . but easy to repair. first review the following: www. Some gunsmiths have had thoughts about using a Hi-Power (or clone) as a tactical sidearm.com/a_hi_power_schematic.fnhipower.

This board/hole will be used to receive all pins removed. 5) acetone -.otherwise. with a 1/4" hole drilled about 3/4" deep.) 2) a pack of 1500 grit wet/dry sandpaper 3) a small triangular file -. Shorten the punch to 1/2" . or similar 4) a chunk of 2x4. it will be prone to bend when you're removing pins.jeweler's file.maybe a bottle of nail-polish remover 6) Q-tips for the acetone 7) regular cleaning supplies 58 .Tools required for this job are: 1) a 1/16" punch (available from Sears or other hardware stores.

Step 3: Place the receiver on the board with the trigger pin over the hole. Step 2: Examine closely the trigger assembly. the trigger lever will fall off. about 10" 10) Tequila and cigars. you must now bend the rear of the trigger spring DOWN 59 .8) hammer 9) piece of coathanger. and then clean and lube thoroughly prior to re-assembly. Save them for future interests. UNDER the trigger spring. Step 4: Time to remove the magazine safety. then remove the slide and handgrips. and observe how the trigger lever moves in its well. Step 1: Clear the weapon. push out the trigger pin and remove the trigger assembly. When in doubt. Pull the trigger. General: Use the sandpaper to polish all surfaces. Place the trigger assembly on the board. and the mag safety/spring will pop out. and a Border Collie. ask the Border Collie -.they KNOW things. Using the punch. Step 5: Since the mag safety spring was a part of the "trigger return" force. During this process. Punch out this pin. Also observe how the trigger lever is mounted in the trigger block. with the mag safety pin over the hole.

) Step 9: Remove the barrel from the slide. and then move it down using another pair of pliers. and temporarily put it into position on the frame. clamp the spring (using needle nose pliers) just ahead of the existing bend. the hammer and corresponding sear hooks will be exposed so that you can polish them with the 1500 grit paper. Step 8: Clean and lube the trigger assembly. and the interior of the trigger lever well (on the frame).hook the free end into the magazine well. and observe the movement of the trigger lever against the side of the barrel. At this point. If you feel any friction. polish the pertinent surfaces on the side of the barrel. It isn't really necessary to do further disassembly here.about 1/4". and re-install into the frame. and carefully polish the trigger lever. Pull the trigger a few times. remove any lubricants from the trigger assembly. Step 6: Using acetone/Q-tips. Step 7: Cut a piece of the 1500 grit sandpaper. but simply cock the hammer. and from the interior of the frame in the area of the trigger assembly. Step 10: Time to look at the hammer/sear interface. and then bend the piece of coat hanger so it holds the hammer at its rear-most position -. from the trigger lever. all points where the trigger lever mounts to the trigger assembly. (Gotta hold your mouth just right to make this happen. 60 . wrap it around the end of the small file. To make the bend.

Modifications to the sear face and hammer hooks should only be attempted by a trained and certified gunsmith who has the proper tools and know-how to do the job. This can cause the gun to fire unexpectedly or fire multiple rounds on a single trigger pull. If the tension is reduced too much. the mainspring. This can result again in multiple shots and even full auto fire. Here is a good summary of the risks: The Elements of a Trigger Job on an M1911 Pistol There are four areas of concern with a trigger job: the sear and hammer hook interface. I have done it. it also 61 . Some people will attempt to take a lot of metal off the hooks and sear face. Proper tension is critically important. the sear may not re-engage the hammer hooks during cycling. re-lube. In doing so. Trigger should be smooth. A polish is good but removing metal and changing the angle of the hook-sear interface is dangerous. The sear spring puts resistance on the transfer bar of the trigger and on the foot of the sear (and also the base of the disconnector). The Mainspring (the spring hidden in the mainspring housing at the lower rear of the grip) controls the force of the hammer. especially in the 1911. There are risks associated with the first three. but when I do. and breaking at about 4 pounds. as over polishing can create a full auto weapon. and the trigger bow. but this also reduces the tension against the base of the sear. and re-assemble.Step 11: Clean. This can make the gun dangerous by allowing the sear to slip off of the hammer hooks or not catch during the cycle. and too light a spring can cause misfires. CAUTION People advocating polishing and even replacing springs have to be careful. the sear spring. The sear and hammer hook interface can be polished and lubed. I use a stock Colt sear spring as a template and I do not vary significantly from the factory curves in the spring. The sear spring can be bent to give less resistance to the trigger. Adjustments to the sear spring should be attempted only by a trained professional.

There are no real risks associated with the trigger. The “poor mans” trigger job involves simply removing one side of the trigger return spring: The following pictures illustrate the author's procedure for smoothing & lightening the trigger pull on a sixgun. Regardless of whether you do the work yourself or have a gunsmith do the work. There are some safety tests that you can do prior to range testing. test the work yourself. The hammer should not fall. lock the slide back pull the trigger and hold it back. You can replace the mainspring with a lighter mainspring and get a significant lightening in the trigger pull. The bow should be checked to see if it is moving freely and not snagging on either the frame or the magazine. This piece is the bow that begins behind the trigger and extends back around the magazine well to engage the grip safety. The last area of concern is the trigger bow. I like to stone the edges of the trigger bow to make sure there are no small burrs that may be snagging on things. spring. do extensive reliability testing before deploying the gun for serious work. With an UNLOADED GUN. spring and still have a reliable gun. Have a firm grip on the gun when you load it. cock the hammer and slap the side of the gun briskly. This risk here is obvious. Even if the work is done by a trusted gunsmith. and then release the slide release. If the mainspring is too light. but it may remove some slop in the trigger. If you go down to a 19 lb. Be mentally and physically prepared for the gun to go off unexpectedly or fire multiple rounds. The hammer should not fall. The hammer should remain cocked. Changing or polishing the trigger bow does very little toward lightening the trigger pull.contributes to the pressure applied to the sear face-hammer hook interface. It will also make it feel less gritty. mainspring in my Combat Commander and it did a lot toward lightening and smoothing the trigger pull. but there are also the least benefits to be obtained. A Ruger Vaquero 62 . Cock the hammer and push the slide back about a quarter of an inch and pull the trigger. it could fail to detonate the primer and result in a misfire. With the slide in battery. I put a 21 lb. always go to the range and test the pistol carefully after a trigger job. You can actually go down to a 19 lb. Factory spec for Kimber pistols is 21 lbs. Factory spec for Colt mainsprings is 23 lbs.

This simple procedure smoothes the sear & trigger a great deal without even having to disassemble the gun! 63 . but the procedure is similar for many quality revolvers. The above pictures show the procedure for "marrying" the trigger as described by the author.is shown for illustration.

just including it in case you’re asked about it! Business thoughts for your focus 64 . On Ruger SA revolvers. the trigger return spring will be visible. and you have dramatically reduced the trigger pull without affecting the weight of hammer fall or detracting from the function of the revolver. and it results in a smoother. the trigger return spring will bear against a pin at the top of the mainspring at either side as shown. lighter.With either grip panel removed. Simply lift one side of the trigger return spring from the pin. reliable trigger at no cost! We’re not recommending this procedure. Author has used this procedure too many times to count.

then email them to us at Mail@gunengine. make it easier to get your home based FFL. 1. custom building. and become the best there is at that niche. others can be started when you put down this course. from beginning to Master gunsmiths. expand your FFL.com. Get the basics down. exam! The material in this guide is sufficient to get a passing grade on yout exam. Being a generalist is a great retirement hobby. the important thing is to SPECIALIZE in the area you enjoy. such as Journeyman or Master. whether reloading.HOMEFFL. EASY.What is your objective in moving into gunsmithing? Is it to augment your FFL. then move immediately into the area that interests you the most. or locally. but improvisation is always valued! EXAM 1: GUNSMITH CERTIFICATE Please answer the following questions. What is the difference between a semi auto and a revolver? 65 . our sister site. Why is it better to specialize? 3. Moral: FOCUS. or basic repairs. intended to whet your appetite about the many areas in which you can specialize as a gunsmith or armorer. Some can take 20 years to perfect. accurizing. or to move beyond a hobby into a great new career? If you haven’t considered your home ffl yet. the next exam/ website course will be sent to your email address.COM . but will not enhance your margins on GunsAmerica. accessorizing. and what does it mean? 4. is a great place to start. Please return the answers. What does DAO stand for. Gunbroker. WWW. Neither path is more profitable than the other. and if you purchased a higher cert. Brief. This course is a basic beginning. Why do people say that every gun should be considered loaded? 2.

What is a crown cutter for? 10. Name 4 accessories a gunsmith can add to make a gun unique. 18. work just as well for gunsmithing as expensive specialized gunsmith tools. or even write them out. such as screwdrivers. True/False: a blued barrel is easier to cut down successfully than a stainless barrel. True/False: Headspace is measured with “go/no go” gauges that fit the chamber like a cartridge. True/False: Normal home repair tools. just number the answers. Name a leading supplier of gunsmith tools and accessories. What are two types of bore site tools? 12. Why can overpolishing be dangerous on a trigger job? 6. Name three types of engraving techniques or methods. What is a tool called that’s used to be sure a reticle crosshair is level? 16. 14. 15. True/False: You can make a lot more profit by offering a full service shop than by specializing. fax them. scan and email or fax—whatever is most convenient for you! GOOD WORK and THANKS! 66 . 19. 17. True/False: you can use an automotive torque wrench for gun work and just convert the dial from foot pounds to inch pounds by dividing by 12. 20.5. How old does a gun have to be to be a curio? 11. mail them fax— in. put them into a word document and attach it to an email. What is one of the simplest ways to accurize a gun? 9. What machine can be used instead of a hacksaw to cut off a barrel? 7. just You can type the answers into an email (don’t repeat the questions. Why can too light a spring replacement on a trigger job be dangerous? 13. 8.

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