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Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

32.3 Baffle Stilling Basin

The baffle sill basin involves a transverse sill of height 'h' with a minimum width. For a given approach flow depth y1 and approach Froude number F1 , various types of flows may occur, depending on the relative sill height S = h / y1 and the tail water level yt . Following types of jumps are identified: jump with end of roller above sill, (as practically no scour potential it is suitable for easily erodible beds). B - jump with a lower tail water level, a surface boil on the sill and the roller extending in the tail water, with small erosion mainly along the side walls. Minimum B-jump with a secondary roller, and plunging flow beyond the sill that does not reach the basin bottom, suitable for the channel with rocky beds in the downstream. C-jump with plunging flow that causes inappropriate tailwater flow, and scour potential, Wave type flow with supercritical flow over the sill and unacceptable energy dissipation. In case of sufficient tail water submergence type A and B-jumps are very effective for stilling basins. On the other hand, the type - c jump and the wave jump are unacceptable in view of the very poor dissipation of the energy. Figure 32.5 shows the significance of tail water submergence in the basin design. This is also an example representing the cases of a slight decrease of tailwater level below the sequent depth. The purpose of any baffle element should thus involve a length reduction. Figure shows the baffle sill basin and the hydraulic jump basin. The sill is defined with the relative height S = h / y1 and the relative sill location X s =

Lsrj L rj

. The sequent depth ratio required

y sb = y0 ys includes the effect of normal hydraulic jump and the influence of the sill
(Hager, 1992).

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

y2 y1 a)

Adequate Tail waterproper formation of the jump and effective dissipation of energy. Lrj Lj

y1 b)

Inadequate Tail waterhence Submergence is wanting. Ljb Lsrj


y2 y1

y2 y1 xs


h Lsrj h xs = ____ , S = __ y1 Lrj

c) Classical hydraulic jump


Baffle sill basin

Figure 32.5 - Definition Sketch for Stilling basin with Sill

Ys = 0.7 S 0.7 + 3S (1 xs )

For any sill height h1 , minimum approach Froude number F1min is necessary for the formation of the hydraulic jump, and the corresponding maximum relative sill height Smax

1 for any approach flow Froude number is given by S max = F15 / 3 . 6

The relative sill height is normally limited to S max = 2 in practice. It may be noted that the sill should neither be too small nor too large. The optimum sill height Sopt is Sopt = 1 +

1 2 .5 F1 . 200

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

Depending mainly on the relative sill position X s three types of jump may form: I. A-jump II. B-jump III. Minimum B-jump
X s > 0.8 ( to 1)

0.65 < X s > 0.8 0.55 < X s > 0.65

The length of the jump L jb from the toe to the end of the bottom roller relative to the length of the classical jump L j is

L jb Lj

= 1 0.6S 1 / 3 (1- ) .

The length of the sill basin jump L jb is marginally less than the length of a classical jump

L j for all three types of flows mentioned above. A sill basin improves the stabilization of
a hydraulic jump under variable tailwater and is somewhat shorter than a classical hydraulic jump.

Baffle Block Basin

For optimum basin flow, the blocks must have an appropriate location and adequate height to overcome the ineffectiveness or overforcing of flow. Basco in 1971 defined the optimum height of the baffle as the ratio of Sopt = given by,

hopt y1

and the optimum basin length is



/ h)


= 1.6 + 7.5 F12 1 2 ( F1 2 ) 40

Sopt = 1 +

Figure 32.6 shows the basin with the standard USBR blocks, where spacing of the blocks sp is equal to the block width s p = w b and


= 0.75 .

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara



h Xs a) Longitudinal section WB



b) Standard baffles

Figure- 32.6 Typical Baffle block basin

A coefficient for representing the force on the blocks PB is given by

= PB / g wb y 2 / 2 2
for optimum basin performance, the coefficient is

opt = +
2 and the sequent depth ratio is Yb = 1+
1/ 2

1 F1 7 100 F1 0.5

The tail water reduction is above 10% when compared to the classical jump. Type II, Type III and Type IV basins are shown below.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras


Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara

dentated sill Chute blocks

Slope 2:1

Lb = 4.3 y2 (a) Type II basin F1 > 4.5 v1 > 18.0 m/s Tail Water (TW) = 0.97 y2

Fractional space Chute blocks Baffle piers

End sill Sill optional h4 = y1(9+F1)/9

0.8 y2

h3 = y1(4+F1)/9

(b) Type III basin F1 > 4.5 v1 < 18.0 m/s Tail Water (TW) = 0.83 y2

Fractional space 2y1 min

Space = 2.5 w h4 = y1(9+Fr1)/9 Lb = 6.1 y2

(c) Type IV basin 2.5 F1 < 4.5 Tail Water (TW) = y2

Indian Institute of Technology Madras