# Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon

1

Design of Syphon Barrels
Design barrels of the canal syphon as reinforced concrete box. The data is given below:
1. Number of barrels =2
2. Size of barrel =3 m ×2.5 m
3. Bank level =254 m
4. Drain H.F.L =253.25 m
5. Uplift at base of barrel =4.5 t/m
2

6. Unit weight of dry earth =1.6 t/m
3

7. Unit weight of saturated earth =2.0 t/m
3

8. Weight of submerged earth =1.0 t/m
3

9. Angle of internal friction in all
conditions
=30º
Design
Assume the thickness of the frame 30 cm all through so that the effective length of horizontal
and vertical members are 3.3 m and 2.8 m.

Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon
2

1. Distribution factors
At joint A
For
2.8
0.46
2.8 3.3
AB = =
+

For
3.3
0.54
2.8 3.3
+

At joint D
For D A=0.54
D C=0.46
Consider one meter of barrel:
Depth of dry earth over barrel 254 253.25 0.75m = ÷ =
Depth of saturated earth 253.25 251.4 1.85m = ÷ =
Weight of dry and saturated earth
2
0.75 1.6 1.85 2 4.9t m = × + × =

Weight of top slab (0.3 m thick)
2
0.3 2.4 0.72t m = × =
Weight on the top slab including its own weight
=
2
4.9 0.72 5.62t m + =

Weight of barrels per meter of length
( ) 4 3.3 3 2.8 0.3 2.4 15.6t m = × + × × × =
15.6 4.9 6.9 49.4t m = + × =

Uplift per one meter length
4.5 6.9 31.05t m = × =
Net vertical load acting on foundation
49.4 31.05 18.35t m = ÷ =
Pressure on foundation soil (Soil reaction)
2
18.35
2.66
6.9
t m = =
Pressure acting on the base slab + uplift =Soil reaction

2
2.66 4.5 7.16t m = + =
Net upward pressure on the base slab
2
2
7.16 0.72 6.44
Say 6.5
t m
t m
= ÷ =

For A B,
For A D,
Therefore, distribution factors:
For
Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon
3

3. Earth pressure
The earth pressure shall comprise of the following:
a. Dry earth pressure above saturation line (from R.L. 253.25 m to R.L. 254.00 m)
b. Saturated earth pressure (from R.L. 253.25 m to R.L. 248.45 m).
Corresponding to 30 | = °,
1 sin 1
1 sin 3
p
c
|
|
÷
= =
+

Pressure at A = Surcharge due to dry earth+ surcharge due to saturated earth

( ) ( ) ( )
2
254 253.25 253.25 251.25 253.25 251.25
1 1
1.6 0.75 1.0 2 1 2 3.07
3 3
p p s
c c
t m
e e e = × ÷ + × ÷ + ÷
= × × + × × + × =

Pressure at D ( ) ( )
2
3.07 251.25 248.45 251.25 248.45
1
3.07 1 2.8 1 2.8 6.8
3
p s
c
t m
e e = + × ÷ + ÷
= + × × + × =

4. Fixing moments
a. On span
2 2
5.62 3.3
5.1
12 12
w
AB t m
×
= = = ·
b. On span
2
6.5 3.3
5.9
12
CD t m
×
= = ·

2 2
2 2
3.07 2.8 3.73 2.8
2.985
12 30
3.07 2.8 3.73 2.8
3.475
12 20
DA
M t m
M t m
× ×
= + = ·
× ×
= + = ·

Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon
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Joint C D A B
Member CD DC DA AD AB BA
D. factor 0.46 0.54 0.54 0.46
F.E.M. -5.9 +5.9 -3.475 +2.985 -5.1 +5.1
Balance -1.115 -1.31 +1.142 +0.973
C.O. -0.5575 +0.57 -0.655 +0.485
Balance -0.2622 -0.3078 +0.3537 +0.3013
C.O. -0.1311 +0.177 -0.1539 +0.151
Balance -0.081 -0.096 +0.083 +0.0708
C.O. -0.041 +0.042 -0.048 +0.035
Balance -0.019 -0.023 +0.026 +0.022
-6.630 +4.423 -4.423 +3.733 -3.733 +5.771

5. Design moments
a. Span AB
Net moments at center and face of span AB
Sagging moment at face
2
5.62 3.3 5.62 0.15
0.15 1.33
2 2
t m
× ×
= × ÷ = ·
Fixing moment at face ( )
3.15
3.73 5.771 3.73 5.68
3.3
t m = + ÷ = ·
Net fixing moments at face 5.68 1.33 4.35t m = ÷ = ·

Sagging moment at center
2
5.62 3.3
7.65
8
t m
×
= = ·
Fixing moment at center
3.73 5.771
4.75
2
t m
+
= = ·
Net sagging moment at center 7.65 4.75 2.9t m = ÷ = ·
b. Span CD
Sagging moment at face
2
6.5 3.3 6.5 0.15
0.15 1.54
2 2
t m
× ×
= × ÷ = ·
Fixing moment at face ( )
3.15
4.423 6.63 4.423 6.529
3.3
t m = + ÷ = ·
Net fixing moment at face 6.529 1.54 4.98t m = ÷ = ·

Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon
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Sagging moment at center
2
6.5 3.3
8.85
8
t m
×
= = ·
Fixing moment at center
6.63 4.423
5.53
2
t m
+
= = ·
Net sagging moments at center 8.85 5.53 3.32t m = ÷ = ·

Sagging moment at face:
i. Due to rectangular portion
2
3.07 2.8 3.07 0.15
0.15 0.61
2 2
t m
× ×
= × ÷ = ·
ii. Due to triangular portion
3.73 2.8 2
2.8 2.8
2 3
3.73 2.8
3
D
D
R
R
×
× = × ×
×
=

Sagging moment
2
3.73 2.8 3.53 0.15
0.15 0.483
3 2
t m
× ×
= × ÷ = ·
Total sagging moments 0.61 0.483 1.09t m = + = ·
Fixing moment at face ( )
2.65
3.73 4.423 3.73 4.39
2.8
t m = + ÷ = ·
Net fixing moment at face 4.39 1.09 3.3t m = ÷ = ·
Sagging moment at center
i. Due to rectangular portion
2
3.07 2.8
3.01
8
t m
×
= = ·
ii. Due to triangular portion
3.73 2.8 2.8
2.8
2 3
3.73 2.8
6
3.73 2.8 2.8 1.865 1.4 1.4
1.83
6 2 2 3
A
A
C
R
R
M t m
×
× = ×
×
=
× ×
= × ÷ × = ·

Total Sagging moment at center 3.01 1.83 4.84t m = + = ·
Fixing moment at center
4.423 3.73
4.08
2
t m
+
= = ·
Net sagging moment at center 4.84 4.08 0.76t m = ÷ = ·

Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon
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Span Fixing moment (-ve) at face (t.m) Sagging moment (+ve) at center (t.m)
AB 4.35 2.9
16 mm bars@ 12.5cm c/c (up) 12 mm bars@ 10 cm c/c (down)
CD 4.98 3.32
16 mm bars@ 11.25cm c/c 16 mm bars@ 16.25cm c/c
16 mm bars@ 16.25cm c/c 12 mm bars@ 25cm c/c

6. Thickness of members
Maximum moment in the barrels=4.98 t.m
The minimum effective thickness (d) required for bending moment is
4.98 1000 100
23.29
100 9.18
M
d
bQ
cm
=
× ×
= =
×

Adopt 27.5 cm effective depth and 30 cm overall thickness for all members.
7. Reinforcement
a. Span AB and BE
 At face (hogging moment, -ve steel)
2
4.35 1000 100
15.38
6
1200 27.5
7
t
A cm
× ×
= =
× ×

Provide 16 mm bars @ 12.5 cm c/c (up)
 At center (sagging moment, +ve steel)
2
2.9 1000 100
10.25
6
1200 27.5
7
t
A cm
× ×
= =
× ×

Provide 12 mm bars @ 10 cm c/c (down)

b. Span CD and CF
 At face
2
4.98 1000 100
17.6
6
1200 27.5
7
t
A cm
× ×
= =
× ×

Provide 16 mm bars @ 11.25 cm c/c
 At center
2
3.32 1000 100
11.74
6
1200 27.5
7
t
A cm
× ×
= =
× ×

Provide 16 mm bars @ 16.25 cm c/c

Hydraulic Structures – Structural Design of Syphon
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 At face
2
3.3 1000 100
11.7
6
1200 27.5
7
t
A cm
× ×
= =
× ×

Provide 16 mm bars @ 16.25 cm c/c
 At center
2
0.764 1000 100
2.70
6
1200 27.5
7
t
A cm
× ×
= =
× ×

Provide 12 mm bars @ 25 cm c/c
Table: Cross-sectional area for steel bars of different diameters
Diameter | (mm)
Cross-sectional area
( )
2
2
4
s
A cm
t|
=
12 1.13
14 1.54
16 2.01
18 2.54