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TUGAS BHS. INGGRIS
The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome,
Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96). The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia). Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine. Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. The Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium, often anglicized as Flavian Amphitheater. The building was constructed by emperors of the Flavian dynasty, hence its original name, after the reign of Emperor Nero. This name is still used in modern English, but generally the structure is better known as the Colosseum. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by the unofficial name Amphitheatrum Caesareum; this name could have been strictly poetic as it was not exclusive to the Colosseum; Vespasian and Titus, builders of the Colosseum, also constructed an amphitheater of the same name in Puteoli (modern Pozzuoli). The name Colosseum has long been believed to be derived from a colossal statue of Nero nearby (the statue of Nero was named after the Colossus of Rhodes). This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios (Sol) or Apollo, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. Nero's head was also replaced several times with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval era and was credited with magical powers. It came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome. In the 8th century, a famous epigram attributed to the Venerable Bede celebrated the symbolic significance of the statue in a prophecy that is variously quoted: Quamdiu stat Colisæus, stat et Roma; quando cadet colisæus, cadet et Roma; quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus ("as long as the Colossus stands, so shall Rome; when the Colossus falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome falls, so falls the world"). This is often mistranslated to refer to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus (as in, for instance, Byron's poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage). However, at the time that the Pseudo-Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre. The Colossus did eventually fall, possibly being pulled down to reuse its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre. The statue itself was largely forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Venus and Roma. The name further evolved to Coliseum during the Middle Ages. In Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il Colosseo, and other Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as le Colisée (French), el Coliseo (Spanish) and o Coliseu (Portuguese).
in 80. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. placing it both literally and symbolically at the heart of Rome. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories. The building was remodelled further under Vespasian's younger son. through which a canalised stream ran. who constructed the hypogeum. more work followed in 484 and 508. the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning.000 wild animals were killed during the inaugural games of the amphitheatre. with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435. in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions. much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. "the emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheatre to be erected from his general's share of the booty. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425–455). Esquiline and Palatine Hills. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. Although the Colossus was preserved. when Anicius Maximus celebrated his consulship with some venationes. gardens and porticoes. Medieval Map of medieval Rome depicting the Colosseum . By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Great Jewish Revolt in 70 AD. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the 6th century. In 217. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site. criticised by King Theodoric the Great for their high cost. possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443. In contrast to many other amphitheatres. placating the Roman people instead of returning soldiers. in effect. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. INGGRIS A map of central Rome during the Roman Empire. according to Dio Cassius) which destroyed the wooden upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity. It was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son. which were located on the outskirts of a city. It was not fully repaired until about 240 and underwent further repairs in 250 or 252 and again in 320. with the Colosseum at the upper right corner Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian in around 70–72 AD. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian. Titus. Dio Cassius recounts that over 9.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 History Ancient TUGAS BHS. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site. a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. the newly designated Emperor Domitian. The existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea. the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre. Animal hunts continued until at least 523.
788 ft / 1. Physical description Exterior The exterior of the Colosseum.000 cubic meters (131. hospitals and other buildings elsewhere in Rome.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. Each of the arches in the second- . The north side of the perimeter wall is still standing. Ionic.000 m 2). and are recorded as still being rented out as late as the 12th century. having been constructed in the early 19th century to shore up the wall. The arena was converted into a cemetery. Around 1200 the Frangipani family took over the Colosseum and fortified it. above which rose tiers of seating. the distinctive triangular brick wedges at each end are modern additions. it has suffered extensive damage over the centuries. with large segments having collapsed following earthquakes. apparently using it as a castle. The outer wall is estimated to have required over 100. churches. which was reused elsewhere. The arcades are framed by half-columns of the Tuscan. The surviving part of the outer wall's monumental façade comprises three stories of superimposed arcades surmounted by a podium on which stands a tall attic. the Colosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. surrounded by a wall 5 m (15 ft) high. or (in the case of the marble façade) was burned to make quicklime. By the late 6th century a small church had been built into the structure of the amphitheatre. The perimeter originally measured 545 meters (1. while the attic is decorated with Corinthian pilasters. The height of the outer wall is 48 meters (157 ft / 165 Roman feet). lying on a less stable alluvional terrain. leaving numerous pockmarks which still scar the building today. with a base area of 6 acres (24. The interior of the amphitheatre was extensively stripped of stone. Severe damage was inflicted on the Colosseum by the great earthquake in 1349. and Corinthian orders. A religious order moved into the northern third of the Colosseum in the mid-14th century and continued to inhabit it until as late as the early 19th century. The remainder of the present-day exterior of the Colosseum is in fact the original interior wall.000 cu yd) of travertine stone which were set without mortar held together by 300 tons of iron clamps. Much of the tumbled stone was reused to build palaces. The numerous vaulted spaces in the arcades under the seating were converted into housing and workshops. It is elliptical in plan and is 189 meters (615 ft / 640 Roman feet) long.835 Roman feet). and 156 meters (510 ft / 528 Roman feet) wide. It derives its basic exterior and interior architecture from that of two Roman theatres back to back. causing the outer south side. The central arena is an oval 87 m (287 ft) long and 55 m (180 ft) wide. to collapse. showing the partially intact outer wall ( left) and the mostly intact inner wall (right) Cross-section from the Lexikon der gesamten Technik (1904) Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides. The bronze clamps which held the stonework together were pried or hacked out of the walls. INGGRIS The Colosseum underwent several radical changes of use during the medieval period. though this apparently did not confer any particular religious significance on the building as a whole. both of which are pierced by windows interspersed at regular intervals.  However.
the maenianum secundum. with a hole in the center. Special boxes were provided at the north and south ends respectively for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins. Flanking them at the same level was a broad platform or podium for the senatorial class. while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. presumably reserving areas for their use. scribes. although modern estimates put the figure at around 50. from which English derives the word vomit. The next level up. net-like structure made of ropes.000 people. as was each staircase. was originally reserved for ordinary Roman citizens (plebeians) and was divided into two sections. Some groups were banned altogether from the Colosseum. The name vomitoria derived from the Latin word for a rapid discharge. Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around the top of the attic.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. but entrances XXIII (23) to LIV (54) still survive. This comprised a gallery for the common poor. priests and so on. 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level. All four axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco reliefs. that kept the sun and rain off spectators. Sailors. The tier above the senators. These quickly dispersed people into their seats and. by the steps and aisles from the vomitoria. actors and former gladiators. It would have been either standing room only. Each tier was divided into sections (maeniana) by curved passages and low walls (praecinctiones or baltei). The names of some 5th century senators can still be seen carved into the stonework. or wedges. known as the velarium. heralds. boys with their tutors. who were allowed to bring their own chairs. who presumably would have brought their own cushions with them. Specific sectors were provided for other social groups: for instance. and were subdivided into cunei. cuneus. could permit their exit within only a few minutes. foreign dignitaries. providing the best views of the arena. was occupied by the non-senatorial noble class or knights (equites). Each row (gradus) of seats was numbered. Interior seating Side view of Colosseum seating According to the Codex-Calendar of 354. probably honoring divinities and other figures from Classical mythology. They accessed their seats via vomitoria (singular vomitorium). the Colosseum could accommodate 87. This consisted of a canvas-covered. INGGRIS and third-floor arcades framed statues. It covered twothirds of the arena. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens. notably gravediggers. . Another level. The northern main entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides. Inscriptions identified the areas reserved for specific groups. passageways that opened into a tier of seats from below or behind. They were seated in a tiered arrangement that reflected the rigidly stratified nature of Roman society.000. whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. upon conclusion of the event or in an emergency evacuation. Many of the original outer entrances have disappeared with the collapse of the perimeter wall. soldiers on leave. of which fragments survive. Each entrance and exit was numbered. slaves and women. which directed them to the appropriate section and row. permitting each individual seat to be exactly designated by its gradus. specially enlisted from the Roman naval headquarters at Misenum and housed in the nearby Castra Misenatium. known as the maenianum primum. was added at the very top of the building during the reign of Domitian. were used to work the velarium. the maenianum secundum in legneis. Its architects adopted solutions very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with the same problem. Stone (and later marble) seating was provided for the citizens and nobles. and number. The Colosseum's huge crowd capacity made it essential that the venue could be filled or evacuated quickly. They originally supported a retractable awning. or would have had very steep wooden benches. and sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Spectators were given tickets in the form of numbered pottery shards.
with the gladiators' barracks at the Ludus Magnus to the east also being connected by tunnels. INGGRIS The Colosseum arena. Animals and performers were brought through the tunnel from nearby stables. Detail of the hypogeum The arena itself was 83 meters by 48 meters (272 ft by 157 ft / 280 by 163 Roman feet). Substantial quantities of machinery also existed in the hypogeum. The hypogeum was connected by underground tunnels to a number of points outside the Colosseum. It consisted of a two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages beneath the arena where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There is evidence for the existence of major hydraulic mechanisms and according to ancient accounts. but the hypogeum is still clearly visible. Interior of the Colosseum Supporting buildings The Colosseum – a view from the Oppian Hill . at least twelve different phases of construction can be seen. larger hinged platforms. provided access for elephants and the like. called hegmata. It was restructured on numerous occasions. It comprised a wooden floor covered by sand (the Latin word for sand is harena or arena). Eighty vertical shafts provided instant access to the arena for caged animals and scenery pieces concealed underneath. as well as lifting caged animals to the surface for release. Elevators and pulleys raised and lowered scenery and props.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 Arena and hypogeum TUGAS BHS. Separate tunnels were provided for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins to permit them to enter and exit the Colosseum without needing to pass through the crowds. Little now remains of the original arena floor. showing the hypogeum. covering an elaborate underground structure called the hypogeum (literally meaning "underground"). it was possible to flood the arena rapidly. presumably via a connection to a nearby aqueduct.
to allow easy access for the gladiators. or that the Colosseum originally featured a wide floodable channel down its central axis (which would later have been replaced by the hypogeum). where bodies of dead gladiators were stripped of their armor and disposed of. including the Ludus Matutinus (Morning School). During the early days of the Colosseum. and were immensely popular with the population. with five remaining on the eastern side. Other training schools were in the same area. or an outer boundary for ticket checks. They were also occasionally used for executions in which the hero of the story – played by a condemned person – was killed in one of various gruesome but mythologically authentic ways. Immediately to the east is the remains of the Ludus Magnus. Another popular type of show was the animal hunt. Such scenes might be used simply to display a natural environment for the urban population. the Sanitarium. where fighters of animals were trained. barbary lions. INGGRIS The Colosseum and its activities supported a substantial industry in the area. they may have been a religious boundary. Painters. nor would there have been enough space in the arena for the warships to move around. Beneath the Colosseum. and included creatures such as rhinoceros. caspian tigers. Trajan is said to have celebrated his victories in Dacia in 107 with contests involving 11. technicians and architects would construct a simulation of a forest with real trees and bushes planted in the arena's floor. giraffes. hippopotamuses.000 animals and 10. This utilized a great variety of wild beasts. In addition to the amphitheatre itself. where machinery was stored. mainly imported from Africa and the Middle East. it is unclear how the arena could have been waterproofed. or an anchor for the velarium or awning. Around the perimeter of the Colosseum. a . plus the Dacian and Gallic Schools. at a distance of 18 m (59 ft) from the perimeter. This was connected to the Colosseum by an underground passage. and the Spoliarium. bears. crocodiles and ostriches. 1872 The Colosseum was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events. They had a strong religious element but were also demonstrations of power and family prestige. Accounts of the inaugural games held by Titus in AD 80 describe it being filled with water for a display of specially trained swimming horses and bulls. were always given by private individuals rather than the state. This has been the subject of some debate among historians. although providing the water would not have been a problem. Sylvae or recreations of natural scenes were also held in the arena. panthers. was a series of tall stone posts. aurochs. or could otherwise be used as the backdrop for hunts or dramas depicting episodes from mythology. The Ludus Magnus had its own miniature training arena. though entrance for EU citizens is partially subsidised. Animals would be introduced to populate the scene for the delight of the crowd. Various explanations have been advanced for their presence. elephants. a training school for gladiators. the Summum Choragium. Use Pollice Verso ("Thumbs Down") by Jean-Léon Gérôme. Part of the arena floor has been re-floored.000 gladiators over the course of 123 days. Also nearby were the Armamentarium. which was itself a popular attraction for Roman spectators. Battles and hunts were often staged amid elaborate sets with movable trees and buildings. Such events were occasionally on a huge scale. and under-18 and over-65 EU citizens' entrances are free. called munera. which had facilities to treat wounded gladiators. Today The Colosseum today is now a major tourist attraction in Rome with thousands of tourists each year paying to view the interior arena. It has been suggested that the reports either have the location wrong. ancient writers recorded that the building was used for naumachiae (more properly known as navalia proelia) or simulated sea battles. many other buildings nearby were linked to the games. The shows. comprising an armory to store weapons. There is also an account of a re-enactment of a famous sea battle between the Corcyrean (Corfiot) Greeks and the Corinthians. or venatio. There is now a museum dedicated to Eros located in the upper floor of the outer wall of the building.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. leopards. wisents. such as being mauled by beasts or burned to death.
Crosses stand in several points around the arena and every Good Friday the Pope leads a Via Crucis procession to the amphitheatre. The Colosseum is also the site of Roman Catholic ceremonies in the 20th and 21st centuries. prior to his death in 1783. Christians and the Colosseum The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer. Martinelli's book evidently had an effect on public opinion. but apparently not for any particular religious reason. Leonard of Port Maurice. At the instance of St. It was not included in the itineraries compiled for the use of pilgrims nor in works such as the 12th century Mirabilia Urbis Romae ("Marvels of the City of Rome"). who listed the Colosseum at the head of a list of places sacred to the martyrs in his 1653 book Roma ex ethnica sacra. Pope Benedict XIV (1740–1758) forbade the quarrying of the Colosseum and erected Stations of the Cross around the arena. In the Middle Ages. For instance. at a time when sites associated with martyrs were highly venerated. Pope Benedict XVI leads the Stations of the Cross called the Scriptural Way of the Cross (which calls for more meditation) at the Colosseum on Good Fridays. Its use as a fortress and then a quarry demonstrates how little spiritual importance was attached to it. living on alms. on the grounds that it was impregnated with the blood of martyrs. The ensuing controversy persuaded Pope Clement X to close the Colosseum's external arcades and declare it a sanctuary. Benedict Joseph Labre spent the later years of his life within the walls of the Colosseum. . by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1883). the Colosseum was clearly not regarded as a sacred site. and it still retains a Christian connection today. though quarrying continued for some time. Part of the structure was inhabited by a Christian order. which claims the Circus Flaminius – but not the Colosseum – as the site of martyrdoms. In 2011. INGGRIS network of subterranean passageways once used to transport wild animals and gladiators to the arena opened to the public in summer 2010. Diego Della Valle founder of Tod's shoe firm. which remained until February 1874. Carlo Tomassi published a pamphlet in protest against what he regarded as an act of desecration. It appears to have been only in the 16th and 17th centuries that the Colosseum came to be regarded as a Christian site. St. This seems to have been a minority view until it was popularised nearly a century later by Fioravante Martinelli. in response to Cardinal Altieri's proposal some years later to turn the Colosseum into a bullring. Several 19th century popes funded repair and restoration work on the Colosseum. Work is planned to begin at the end of 2011 and take up to two and a half years.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. Pope Pius V (1566–1572) is said to have recommended that pilgrims gather sand from the arena of the Colosseum to serve as a relic. entered into an agreement with local officials to sponsor a €25 million restoration of the Colosseum.
232. The most comprehensive archaeological survey. which is made of stone. the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers. and unified are now collectively referred to as the Great Wall. to regulate or encourage trade (for example trade between horses and silk products). troop barracks. History Early walls Great Wall of the Qin Dynasty Great Wall of the Han Dynasty Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty The Chinese were already familiar with the techniques of wall-building by the time of the Spring and Autumn Period. Wei. the Great Wall has on and off been rebuilt. During the Warring States Period from the 5th century BCE to 221 BCE. Little of that wall remains. 359. INGGRIS Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications running in general east to west through the entire northern part of China. such as border check points allowing for the various imperial governments of China to tariff goods transported along the Silk Road. Built to withstand the attack of small arms such as swords and spears.8 km (5.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. using advanced technologies.5 mi) sections of actual wall. Other purposes of the Great Wall have included allowing for normal national border control practices. Several walls had already been begun to be built beginning around the 5th century BC: these.5 mi) of trenches and 2. This is made up of 6.6 km (3. built originally in part to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire or its prototypical states against intrusions by various nomadic groups or military incursions by various warlike peoples or forces.3 mi).387. has concluded that all the walls measure 8. as well as generally to control immigration and emigration. to Lop Lake in the west. these walls were made mostly by stamping earth and gravel between board frames. Qin Shi Huang. signaling capabilities through the means smoke or fire.851. along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. The Great Wall stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east. Zhao.5 km (1. and other materials.500. maintained. Intending to impose centralized rule and prevent the resurgence of feudal lords. Qin Shi Huang conquered all opposing states and unified China in 221 BCE. garrison stations. and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor. Since then. wood. establishing the Qin Dynasty.889. Furthermore. which began around the 8th century BC. enhanced.259. Yan and Zhongshan all constructed extensive fortifications to defend their own borders.7 km (223. the states of Qin. stronger. brick. tamped earth. Qi. the majority of the existing wall was reconstructed during the Ming Dynasty.2 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Especially famous is the wall built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor of China. he ordered the . later joined together and made bigger.
however the Jin did construct defensive walls in the 12th century. they would have no need throughout most of their history to build a wall along this line. The Liao. but more basic in construction. however. Acknowledging the Mongol control established in the Ordos Desert. so construction and repairs on the Great Wall were discontinued. As Mongol raids continued periodically over the years. within today's Inner and Outer Mongolia. rebuilt. The Manchus were finally able to cross the Great Wall in 1644. he ordered the building of a new wall to connect the remaining fortifications along the empire's new northern frontier. Jin. an additional 290 km (180 mi) of previously undetected portions of the wall. preventing the Manchus from entering the Chinese heartland. The Ming adopted a new strategy to keep the nomadic tribes out by constructing walls along the northern border of China. the so-called Willow Palisade. Even after the loss of all of Liaodong. China's borders extended beyond the walls and Mongolia was annexed into the empire. The Tang and Song Dynasties did not build any walls in the region. it was). in any event. There are no surviving historical records indicating the exact length and course of the Qin Dynasty walls. most of it was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides. Its purpose. the Ming construction was stronger and more elaborate due to the use of bricks and stone instead of rammed earth. and the gates at Shanhaiguan were opened by the commanding Ming general Wu Sangui. The Liao carried out limited repair of the Great Wall in a few areas. was not defense but rather migration control. Early Western reports of the wall The North African traveler Ibn Battuta. Dhul-Qarnayn had built to contain Gog and Magog. was constructed by the Qing rulers in Manchuria. Unlike the earlier Qin fortifications.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. Sections near the Ming capital of Beijing were especially strong. no one of . During the 1440s–1460s. But. On the other hand. This indicated that Arabs may have heard about China's Great Wall during earlier periods of China's history. Later. inquired among the local Muslims about the wall that. if not up to a million. Stones from the mountains were used over mountain ranges. so builders always tried to use local resources. Ming era The Great Wall concept was revived again during the Ming Dynasty in the 14th century. and defeated both the rebel-founded Shun Dynasty and the remaining Ming resistance. protecting it against potential incursions by JurchedMongol Oriyanghan from the northwest and the Jianzhou Jurchens from the north. To protect the empire against intrusions by the Xiongnu people from the north. Most of the ancient walls have eroded away over the centuries. The newly discovered sections range from the Hushan mountains in the northern Liaoning province. The human cost of the construction is unknown. Towards the end of the Ming Dynasty. the wall followed the desert's southern edge instead of incorporating the bend of the Huang He. Ibn Battuta reported that the wall was "sixty days' travel" from the city of Zeitun (Quanzhou). following a line similar to that of the Ming Liaodong Wall. In 2009. in a sense. Sui. and associated it with the Gog and Magog wall of the Qur'an. the Ming also built a so-called "Liaodong Wall". the Ming army under the command of Yuan Chonghuan held off the Manchus at the heavily fortified Shanhaiguan pass. according to the Qur'an. INGGRIS destruction of the wall sections that divided his empire along the former state borders. the Great Wall helped defend the empire against the Manchu invasions that began around 1600. The Manchus quickly seized Beijing. but it has been estimated by some authors that hundreds of thousands. had their original power bases north of the Great Wall proper. built during the Ming Dynasty. and the long-drawn conflict was taking a toll on the empire. who hoped to use the Manchus to expel the rebels from Beijing. and Northern dynasties all repaired. Transporting the large quantity of materials required for construction was difficult. or expanded sections of the Great Wall at great cost to defend themselves against northern invaders. workers died building the Qin wall. The sections had been submerged over time by sandstorms which moved across the arid region. the Ming devoted considerable resources to repair and reinforce the walls. to Jiayuguan in western Gansu province. Under Qing rule. The Ming had failed to gain a clear upper hand over the Manchurian and Mongolian tribes after successive battles. who was in Guangzhou ca. while rammed earth was used for construction in the plains. who ruled Northern China throughout most of the 10-13th centuries. and following the Ming army's defeat by the Oirats in the Battle of Tumu in 1449. after Beijing had fallen to Li Zicheng's rebels. 1346. While stones and tiles were used in some parts of the Liaodong Wall. Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb noted Ibn Battuta has confused the Great Wall of China with that built by DhulQarnayn. the Han. but those were located much to the north of the Great Wall as we know it. Similar in function to the Great Wall (whose extension. were discovered. and very few sections remain today. and Yuan dynasties. the Liaodong Wall enclosed the agricultural heartland of the Liaodong province. accordingly. establishing the Qing Dynasty rule over all of China.
known as the Badaling. and 6 meters (20 ft) across the bottom. "North Pass" of Juyongguan pass. One of the most striking sections of the Ming Great Wall is where it climbs extremely steep slopes. at least not in the Muslim communities in Guangzhou. This fort is near the western edges of the Great Wall. which were renovated and which are regularly visited by modern tourists today. 980 meters (3. even though no European was to see it with his own eyes for another century. When used by the Chinese to protect their land. and its significance for the defense of the country against the "Tartars" (i. this portion of the Great Wall is 7. It runs 11 kilometers (6. Soon after Europeans reached the Ming China in the early 16th century. accounts of the Great Wall started to circulate in Europe. INGGRIS Ibn Battuta's Guangzhou interlocutors had seen the wall or knew anyone who had seen it. ranges from 5 to 8 meters (16–26 ft) in height. Interestingly. "Pass" of Shanhaiguan.220 ft) above sea level. this section of the wall has had many guards to defend China’s capital Beijing.8 meters (26 ft) high and 5 meters (16 ft) wide. Barros himself did not travel to Asia. narrowing up to 5 meters (16 ft) across the top. "West Pass" of Jiayuguan (pass). Possibly the earliest description of the wall. Mongols). but was able to use Chinese books brought to Lisbon by Portuguese traders.e. in this case) may be that of the Portuguese Jesuit brother Bento de Góis. This fort is near the eastern edges of the Great Wall.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. Wangjinglou is one of Jinshanling's 67 watchtowers. who had reached China's north-western gate from India in 1605. . may be the one contained in the Third Década of João de Barros' Asia (published 1563). Notable areas Photograph of the Great Wall in 1907 An area of the sections of the Great Wall at Jinshanling The Great Wall Some of the following sections are in Beijing municipality.8 mi) long. One of the earliest records of a Western traveler entering China via a Great Wall pass (Jiayuguan. Made of stone and bricks from the hills. which implies that by the late Yuan the existence of the Great Wall was not in the people's living memory.
meters for large telescopes) only an object of reasonable contrast to its surroundings which is 70 mi (110 km) or more in diameter (1 arc-minute) would be visible to the unaided eye from the moon.2 km) away. however. due to erosion from sandstorms. Condition While some portions north of Beijing and near tourist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated. INGGRIS South East of Jinshanling. which makes a considerable figure upon the terrestrial globe. and wood. and stone. To see the wall from the . The claim the Great Wall is visible has been debunked many times. The claim that the Great Wall is visible also appears in 1932's Ripley's Believe it or Not strip and in Richard Halliburton's 1938 book Second Book of Marvels. in many locations the Wall is in disrepair. stones. Stone can hold under its own weight better than brick. whose average distance from Earth is 384. and is about the same color as the soil surrounding it. is the Mutianyu Great Wall which winds along lofty.3 miles). but it appears to be silver. "This mighty wall of four score miles in length (Hadrian's Wall) is only exceeded by the Chinese Wall. due to years of decay of the Great Wall.  15 km northeast from Shanhaiguan. The size and weight of the bricks made them easier to work with than earth and stone. According to the records of Lin Tian. Stukeley wrote that. Sections of the Wall are also prone to graffiti and vandalism.1 m (30 ft) wide. During the Ming Dynasty.4 ft) to less than two meters. was of high importance. 3 km north of Shanhaiguan is Jiaoshan Great Wall. bricks were heavily used in many areas of the wall. with defensive gaps a little over 30 cm (12 in) tall. stones cut in rectangular shapes were used for the foundation. and about 23 cm (9. 25 km (16 mi) west of the Liao Tian Ling stands apart of Great Wall which is only 2~3 stories high. but is more difficult to use. However. The square lookout towers that characterize the most famous images of the wall have disappeared completely. inner and outer brims. More than 60 km (37 mi) of the wall in Gansu province may disappear in the next 20 years. Additionally.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. Those parts might serve as a village playground or a source of stones to rebuild houses and roads. including the ability to call reinforcements and warn garrisons of enemy movements. Visibility from space Visibility from the moon One of the earliest known references to this myth appears in a letter written in 1754 by the English antiquary William Stukeley. Battlements line the uppermost portion of the vast majority of the wall.25 kilometers (about 1. the wall was not only extremely short compared to others. thin objects were visible from space. the height of the wall has been reduced from more than five meters (16. Characteristics Before the use of bricks. as were materials such as tiles. Parts have been destroyed because the Wall is in the way of construction. Signal towers were built upon hill tops or other high points along the wall for their visibility. it is hard to see the silver part of the wall today.851 mi). lime. The wall is a maximum 9.393 km (238.1 in) wide. but is still ingrained in popular culture. Many western sections of the wall are constructed from mud. The apparent width of the Great Wall from the moon is the same as that of a human hair viewed from 2 miles (3. the Great Wall was mainly built from rammed earth. where many mines are found. rather than brick and stone. and may be discerned at the moon. is the Jiumenkou. Consequently." The issue of "canals" on Mars was prominent in the late 19th century and may have led to the belief that long. It is connected with Juyongguan Pass to the west and Gubeikou to the east. which is the only portion of the wall that was built as a bridge. and gateways of the wall. In places. cragged mountains from the southeast to the northwest for approximately 2. Another notable section lies near the eastern extremity of the wall. the site of the first mountain of the Great Wall. so construction quickened. Watchtowers and barracks Communication between the army units along the length of the Great Wall. Archeologists explain that the wall appears to be silver because the stone they used were from Shan Xi. The stone contains extremely high levels of metal in it causing it to appear silver. where the first pass of the Great Wall was built on the Shanhaiguan (known as the “Number One Pass Under Heaven”). bricks could bear more weight and endure better than rammed earth. and thus are more susceptible to erosion." The claim was also mentioned by Henry Norman in 1895 where he states "besides its age it enjoys the reputation of being the only work of human hands on the globe visible from the moon. Based on the optics of resolving power (distance versus the width of the iris: a few millimeters for the human eye.
it is impossible to see the wall with the naked eye. they acknowledged that the "Great Wall" in the picture was actually a river. However. NASA claims that it is barely visible.Nur Utami Ning Tyas VII-G/12 TUGAS BHS. . took a photograph from the International Space Station that shows the wall. in a press release a week later (no longer available in the ESA’s website). INGGRIS moon would require spatial resolution 17. Senator Jake Garn claimed to be able to see the Great Wall with the naked eye from a space shuttle orbit in the early 1980s. the ESA published a picture of a part of the “Great Wall” photographed from Space. Veteran U. Based on the photograph. Expedition 7 Science Officer aboard the International Space Station.S. the resolution of a camera can be much higher than the human visual system. Other authors have argued that due to limitations of the optics of the eye and the spacing of photoreceptors on the retina. and only under nearly perfect conditions. under favorable viewing conditions.S. astronauts." In 2001. at least with my eyes.7 times better than normal). the Great Wall is visible to the naked eye. rendering photographic evidence irrelevant to the issue of whether it is visible to the naked eye. if one knows exactly where to look. no lunar astronaut has ever claimed to have seen the Great Wall from the moon. indeed." U. a Chinese-American astronaut. and the ones I've talked to didn't see it. particularly Shuttle guys. even from low orbit. the China Daily later reported that the Great Wall can be seen from space with the naked eye. Chinese astronaut Yang Liwei stated that he had not been able to see the Great Wall of China. and the optics much better. Unsurprisingly. and would require visual acuity of 20/3 (7. but said that "it wasn't visible to the unaided eye. the Great Wall of China is." Ed Lu.S. Leroy Chiao. that have been many orbits around China in the daytime.I've asked various people. In response. Neil Armstrong stated about the view from Apollo 11: "I do not believe that." In October 2003. "it's less visible than a lot of other objects. it is no more conspicuous than many other man-made objects. Visibility from low earth orbit A more controversial question is whether the Wall is visible from low earth orbit (an altitude of as little as 100 miles (160 km)). the European Space Agency (ESA) issued a press release reporting that from an orbit between 160 and 320 km. astronaut Gene Cernan has stated: "At Earth orbit of 100 miles (160 km) to 200 miles (320 km) high.. It was so indistinct that the photographer was not certain he had actually captured it. In an attempt to further clarify things. I have not yet found somebody who has told me they've seen the Wall of China from Earth orbit. ..000 times better than normal (20/20) vision. visible to the naked eye. However. there would be any man-made object that I could see. And you have to know where to look. adds that. Anecdotal reports Astronaut William Pogue thought he had seen it from Skylab but discovered he was actually looking at the Grand Canal of China near Beijing. He spotted the Great Wall with binoculars. but his claim has been disputed by several U.