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Anatomy / Pathology

The blood

1. What tasks fulfilled the blood in the human body?
A. Transportation to / from the cells by oxygen / carbon dioxide, nutrients / metabolic waste products,
B. Defense by the leukocytes and defense substances in the plasma
C. Heat regulation through continuous circulation, the temperature is stable, at 36.5 ° C
D. sealing / coagulation
E. buffer: constant pH

2. What is the blood together?
A. solid ingredients 42%
- Erythrocytes 96%
- Platelet 3.9%
- Leukocyte 0.1%

B. Plasma 58%
- Water 90%
Proteins 8%
- Dissolved substances such as Salt, sugar, hormones 2%

3. What is the difference between blood plasma and blood serum?
Blood serum, blood plasma without clotting.
Blood serum albumin, alpha1-Globuline, alpha2-Globuline, beta-Globuline, gamma-Globuline

4.Blood proteins What do you know and what tasks selbige?
A. albumin: for maintaining the osmotic pressure = draw water from the tissues in the capillaries
B. Transport proteins for transport of enzymes, hormones, nutrients, etc.
C. Coagulation: for coagulation
D. gamma-Globuline: for defense
E. specific proteins: for constant pH
F. specific proteins: a form quickly available reserve

5. Please tasks of the red cells, platelets and leukocytes!
A. erythrocytes:
- Sauerstoff-/Kohlendioxid-Transport
- For red dye responsible
Truss blood groups
Buffer effect

B. Platelets:
- Densities from cracks
- Activate coagulation

C. Leukocytes:
- Specific and
Non-specific immune -
Pathogens and körperfremden substances
6. Which blood groups with their corresponding antibodies are there?
The blood group antibodies in the plasma

Blood groups Antibodies at Plasma
AB -
0 (Null) A, B

7. Which groups can be divided leukocyte?
A. granulocytes: 60%, non-specific immune, granulated
- Neutrophils G.: 50-70%, phagocytosis, small macrophages
Eosinophilic - G.: 2-6%, to be formed in Allergieen strengthened
- Basophils G.: 0-1%, increased formation of tumors

B. Lymphocytes: 35%, specific defense
- T lymphocytes: cellular defense
- T-helper cells: recognize antigens, activate the appropriate plasma cells to defense
- T Suppressorzellen: quit and inhibit the immune response, preventing wrong defensive reactions
- T-Killerzellen: serve the destruction virusbefallener cells and tumor cells
- T-Gedächtniszellen: recognize an antigen, even after a long time
- B lymphocytes: by humoral immune antibodies

C. Monocytes: 5%, nonspecific defense, big macrophages

8. Please describe the process of bleeding from the injury to the closure of the wound!
A. injury
B. Primary hemostasis:
Vascular reaction vessel pulls together = vasoconstriction
C. Platelet Aggregation / -anlagerung: seals the wound loosely, not a permanent closure
D. Secondary hemostasis:
Platelet Activating coagulation
E. 13 Coagulation, the cascade activated
- When major violations on exogenous activation system
At Gefäßinnenhautverletztungen activation on endogenous system
For Akivierung of coagulation 10 will be needed calcium
Coagulation 10 activated thrombin, by the fission of fibrinogen forms fibrin
F. fibrin formed from fibrinogen (or thrombin)
G. Fibrinfäden network to form with a fixed mesh erythrocytes work = the red thrombus (Blutpfropf)
H. Red thrombus liable firmly to the Wundrändern
I. Does collapses
J. Permanent closure of the wound

Hemostasis of injury to the closure of the wound
• Vessels reaction
• hemostasis
• coagulation

Platelet -
- 13 Coagulation
Calcium ions
- Vitamin K

For lack of a clotting factor can Kaskadenartiger end (domino effect) bleeding is no longer take place.
Anatomy / Pathology
The blood

1. What changes in blood cell counts do you know?

A. Too many blood components
- Erythrozytose (too many red blood cells)
- Thrombocytosis (too many blood platelets)
- Leukocytosis (too many white blood platelets)

B. Too little blood components
- Anemia (Erythrozytopenie)
- Thrombocytopenia (too little blood platelets)
- Leukopenia (too few white blood cells)

C. No granulocytes = agranulocytosis (no white blood cell count?)

2. When one speaks of a anemia?
With too little hemoglobin
Hb <12 g / dl

3. Describe the three causes, which can trigger anemia and please mention three examples!

A. Education disorder
- Ferrous recycling impairment (in cancer, chronic inflammation),
Iron-deficiency (for pregnancy, too strong or too frequent menstruation, disturbed intestinal absorption with
hydrochloric acid reduced production)
- Vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency (pernicious anemia), which for lack of absorption necessary Intrinsic-
Faktors (responsible for the absorption of vitamin B and Fohlsäure).
Disrupted-cell formation in bone marrow (aplastic anemia)
- Erythropoetinmangel in renal insufficiency

B. Too rapid degradation (haemolytic anemia)
- ZB By autoimmune diseases, poisoning, allergic reactions
For example, ball-cell anemia (hereditary disease) recognizes the spleen cell = will not fade out

C. Blood loss
- ZB By blutendes stomach ulcer, injury, bladder cancer

4. What is a leukemia and the leukemia forms do you know?

A. leukemia is a malignant disease of the red bone marrow or white blood cells of the cell line with
Ausschwemmung immature blood leukocytes into

B. ALL = acute lymphoblastic leukemia
CLL = chronic lymphatic leukemia
= AML acute myeloid leukemia
CML = chronic myeloid leukemia
Degeneration of granulocytes series = Myeloische leukemia
Degeneration of the number of lymphocytes = Lymphocytic Leukemia
5. Why can the disease images of thrombosis and embolism in the framework of the
coagulation disorders discuss?

Because coagulation disorders cause of thrombosis or embolism can be. There is either an increased
Gerinnungsbereitschaft or vascular wall damage, a coagulation favor.

6. What is haemorrhagic diathesis and what causes that come into question?

= Increased bleeding
- Gefäßbedingt (vasculär)
With allergies, infections, vitamin C Deficiency (= scurvy sailors disease)
- Thrombozytär
In congenital Thrombopenie, SSA 100 (prevent coagulation)
- Coagulation
For hemophiliacs, Marc Umar, heparin, vitamin K-Mangel, lack of clotting
- Hereditary diseases (Hämphilie A: Factor 8 is missing, hemophilia B: Factor 9 missing)

Anatomy / Pathology
The lymph

7. What are the causes and symptoms of swelling of lymph nodes are there?

A. causes: pneumonia, cancer
B. Symptoms: swelling, induration, pain, pressure, expansion, verschieblich. Attention!: Cancer is not
verschieblich and painless

8. What do you mean by a Lymphoedema and how is it treated?

A. Definition: Interruption of Lymphabflusses (eg by scarring after surgery or inflammatory or tumoröse change)
leads to backlog and swelling in tissues
B. Therapy: Lymph drainage (massage form), compression, skin care, high storage, movement

9. Describe the malignancies of the lymphatic system can expect!
A. lymphoma, or lymph node cancer
B. Can leukämisch lost when many lymphocytes in the blood ausgeschwemmt be
C. Forms: Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma
D. Symptoms: painless lymph node enlargement, Leisungsknick, fatigue, weight loss, nocturnal sweats, fever
E. diagnosis: fine-examination
F. treatment: radiation, chemotherapy
G. Other malignant disease of the lymphatic system: Plasmozytom = degeneration of plasma cells to unbridled
antibody factory

10. functions of the lymphatic system
Drainage System = drainage of fluid between cells (interstitial fluid) in the venous system.
transport of dietary fat from the intestines
defense system serves the defense körperfremder substances