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12/05/2008 Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources

Home Page: Mobile Combustion CO2 Emissions Calculation Tool. January 2005. Version 1.3 WRI-WBCSD GHG Protocol Initiative
Tip: Do not edit this page. This page displays totals that come from the detailed worksheets you can access by clicking on the sheet tabs below.

Summary of CO2 Emissions (in metric tonnes CO )
2

Source of Emissions Road Vehicles Trains Ships Aircraft
Calculated from fuel use: Calculated from distance: Calculated from fuel use: Calculated from distance: Calculated from fuel use: Calculated from distance: Calculated from fuel use: Calculated from distance: Edit details Edit details Edit details Edit details Edit details Edit details Edit details Edit details 0.0 mt 0.0 mt 0.0 mt 0.0 mt 0.0 mt 0.0 mt 0.0 mt 0.0 mt 0.0 mt

Total Emissions:

12/05/2008 Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources

12/05/2008 Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources

12/05/2008 Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources

12/05/2008 Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources

12/05/2008 Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources

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Introduction to Worksheets for CO2 Emissions from Mobile Sou
Please read the accompanying guidance document before using these worksheets.

This brief introduction supplements the guidance document, "Fossil Fuel Combustion in Mobile Sources: Gui

### The intellectual property rights of this calculation tool belong to WRI and WBCSD, unless stated otherwise in any of the tools. ### Please cite the orginial reference when using this tool. ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###

Purpose and domain of this section Assumptions

The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels produces carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, trace amounts of methane (CH4), (N2O) and ash or soot (from incomplete combustion). This workbook makes a simplifying assumption that the combus is 100% complete, whereby all the carbon in fuel is converted to CO2. By itself, this assumption results in an approxim overestimate of CO2 emissions from combustion. This overestimate is offset by a second assumption that by itself wo roughly 1% underestimate of global warming impact. The second assumption is that the emissions of CH4 and N20 fr are so small and uncertain that they may be ignored in the calcuation. Each gram of CH4 and N2O has a greater impa gram of CO2. Even so, the amounts emitted during combustion are so small, and the factors for these emissions are is little benefit in calculating their global warming impact. (Processes other than combustion do produce significant am and these have non-trivial global warming impacts.) The combined effect of these assumptions is likely to alter results a variance that will in most cases be negligible.

Companies that wish to calculate global warming from N2O and CH4 can do so as a last step, by multiplying their tota with an appropriate small percentage. This is justified because the ratio of N2O and CH4 to CO2 emissions from com across fuels and equipment. Calculation Approaches

Two calculation approaches are provided in these worksheets. The first calculates emissions based on amount of fu The second calculates emissions based on distance traveled or equipment activity, i.e. truck kilometers traveled. Co approach or approaches which make best use of available data. When fuel use data is available, it is usually more reli If fuel use data and distance data are of equal quality, the fuel use data should be used (fuel composition varies less th If distance data and fuel economy factors are known, use the calculator provided on the 'fuel use' worksheet to calcula Approaches can be combined, but to avoid double counting do not enter the same activity twice. These guidelines and worksheets are intended to help all companies calculate their direct and/or indirect CO2 emissio Default or average-case factors are included for your information as a possible alternative if custom emission factors a If mobile sources are a significant source of direct emissions for your organization, and your fuel records are not accur recommended that you compile emission factors that accurately reflect the characteristics of the equipment and techn Note that the default emissions per distance factors were developed in the United States and/or Europe, and m not be accurate for countries with different traffic conditions, vehicle sizes, and average number of passenger

Possible Methods and Related Emission Factors to Calculate CO2 Emissions from Mobile Sources
Fuel used Distance

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Traveled Fuel used Fuel per distance factor

emissions per fuel factor

emissions per fuel factor

emissions per distance factor

Emissions

Emissions

Blue line shows calculation sequence for Based on Fuels Worksheet Brown line shows caculation sequence for Based on Distance Worksheet Dotted line shows emission factors built into the calculation of emissions per distance factor

Suggested Sequence 1 2 3 4

5

Make a back-up copy of this workbook, in its blank unused state. Determine your direct and indirect emission sources from mobile combustion. If you have both direct and indirec make two copies of the workbook for accounting them separately. Review the default values proposed for emissions factors, and enter any different local default emission factors o custom values that best represent your emission sources. Check coal factors since they vary widely by country. Complete each of the applicable worksheets, filling in relevant light green cells and optional values in cells shade entry row similar to an existing row, select the existing row, then click on the Add a Row button. A new row will b the row you selected. Be certain to change user-entered values in the new row. Worksheets are color coded but may be printed in black and white. Review the Summary on the "Home" page. Totals there should automatically reflect totals computed on each wo Print the Summary page. Make a back-up copy of this completed workbook.

Top Tips 1 2 3 Color Scheme: Labels: Help Warnings Enter data green cells Optional data entry light blue cells Auto calculated value in gray cells

Click on "Twisties" 6 4 to expand and collapse sections. To add another data entry row, select the row you want duplicated, and click on the "Add a Row" Button. A ne

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4 5 6

layout and formulas will be inserted beneath the row you selected. Be sure to change the user-supplied values! Navigate from one spreadsheet to another using the tabs at the bottom of your screen. To print in black and white (without shadings) check the appropriate box in the Sheet tab of the Page Setup com To fit the active section of the workbook to your screen, adjust the zoom percentage shown in the Stardard icon

Acknowledgements

This workbook was developed by David Cross of RPM Systems, The RETEC Group, Inc., with contributions from Pankaj Bhatia/WRI, Michael Gillenwater/US-EPA, Vincent Camobreco/US-EPA, Matthew Addison/Nexant Inc, a from WRI/WBCSD. All intellectual property rights belong to GHG Protocol Initiative. Please cite the original refere While the workbook is largely self explanatory, for questions or suggestions on workbook mechanics, contact DC For comments on workbook content, contact Pankaj Bhatia at pankaj@wri.org. Please visit the GHG Protocol Initiative at www.ghgprotocol.org for other GHG calculation tools.

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rom Mobile Sources

on in Mobile Sources: Guidelines",

amounts of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide assumption that the combustion of carbon mption results in an approximately 1% assumption that by itself would result in a emissions of CH4 and N20 from mobile combustion and N2O has a greater impact on climate than a ors for these emissions are so uncertain, that there on do produce significant amounts of CH4 and N20, ptions is likely to alter results by less than 0.5%,

step, by multiplying their total CO2 emissions to CO2 emissions from combustion varies little

ions based on amount of fuel consumed. ruck kilometers traveled. Companies should use the ailable, it is usually more reliable than distance data. uel composition varies less than vehicle efficiency). uel use' worksheet to calculate fuel consumption.

and/or indirect CO2 emissions from mobile sources. if custom emission factors are not available. ur fuel records are not accurate, it is of the equipment and technology you are operating. tates and/or Europe, and may erage number of passengers per vehicle.

have both direct and indirect emissions,

cal default emission factors or they vary widely by country. optional values in cells shaded light blue. To add a data Row button. A new row will be inserted below

t totals computed on each worksheet.

Auto calculated value in gray cells

Default values light yellow cells

he "Add a Row" Button. A new row with the same

ge the user-supplied values!

et tab of the Page Setup command in the File Menu. shown in the Stardard icon bar.

p, Inc., with contributions from Gwen Parker/WRI, tthew Addison/Nexant Inc, and project team members Please cite the original reference whenever using this tool. book mechanics, contact DCross@retec.com.

Part 1. Emissions Calculated from Fuel Used: All Modes of Transport
Note: Use this worksheet to calculate your emissions from amount of fuel consumed. A B C D Fuel used Type of Fuel Used Fuel Units Fuel Type E1 E2 F Energy used GJ per Fuel Unit GJ energy Default GJ/unit Custom GJ/unit Used F=BxE 0.00 30,000.00 US gals
US gals US gals US gals US gals Imp. gals litres litres Metric tonnes US gals Imp. gals litres Metric tonnes lbs. kg lbs. kg US gals litres

Home/Summary
Optional Calculator I Emissions metric tonnes H =FxG/1000 Metric ton CO2 0.0 1,000 = Distance traveled 0 = miles per gallon OR 30 = litres per 100 km 300 litres used

G1 G2 Emissions Factor kg CO2 per GJ Default kg CO2/GJ Custom CO2/GJ

Amount of Source Description fuel used

Road transportation
Sample fleet Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel CNG CNG LPG LPG LPG LPG

0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.16 0.03 0.03 43.57 0.14 0.17 0.04 44.17 0.0228 0.0523 0.0209 0.0460 0.0942 0.0249

3,906.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0

69.250 69.250 69.250 69.250 69.250 69.250 69.250 69.250 69.250 74.010 74.010 74.010 74.010 56.06 56.06 63.2000 63.2000 63.2000 63.2000

270.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Rail transportation Water transportation Aircraft Total NOTES

Part 2. Emissions Calculated from Distance Traveled, All Modes of Transport
Note: Use this worksheet to calculate your emissions if you have activity data only for the distance travelled. A B C Transportation Activity Amount of Source Description Transport description Activity Activity unit D E1 E2 F CO2 emissions kg CO2 per unit Total emissions Default CO2/unit Custom CO2/unit metric tonnes F = CxE/1000 0.0
Note: Gallons are US Gallons

Home/Summary
Optional Calculator Vehicle fuel efficiency miles per gallon liters /100 km 24 3.9 kg CO2 Gas Diesel 0.38 0.43 kg CO2 per mile 0.09 0.11 kg CO2 pr km

Road transportation activity
Measurements in Miles: hybrid auto 56 mpg 4.2 l/100km 8.1 l/100km 10.2 l/100km 12.4 l/100km 9.8 l/100km 16.8 l/100km 39.2 l/100km 15.7 l/100km 33.6 l/100km 3.9 l/100km vehicle miles vehicle miles vehicle miles vehicle miles vehicle miles 24 mpg 14 mpg vehicle miles vehicle miles vehicle miles vehicle miles vehicle miles vehicle miles 0.1610 0.3109 0.3920 0.4746 0.2865 0.4330 0.6440 1.5028 0.6928 1.4847 0.1503

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 See calculator above to obtain kg per mile from fuel efficiency

small gas auto 29 mpg med gas auto 23 mpg large gas auto 19 mpg LPG automobile diesel auto gas light truck

gas heavy truck 6 mpg diesel light truck 15 mpg diesel heavy truck 7 mpg light motorcycle 60 mpg your vehicle hybrid auto 56 mpg small gas auto 29 mpg med gas auto 23 mpg large gas auto 19 mpg LPG automobile diesel auto gas light truck 24 mpg 14 mpg

4.2 l/100km 8.1 l/100km 10.2 l/100km 12.4 l/100km 9.8 l/100km 16.8 l/100km 39.2 l/100km 15.7 l/100km 33.6 l/100km 3.9 l/100km

passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles passenger miles short ton miles

0.0895 0.1727 0.2178 0.2636 0.1591 0.2406 0.3578 0.8349 0.3849 0.8248 0.0835 0.0781 0.2997 0.1033

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

gas heavy truck 6 mpg diesel light truck 15 mpg diesel heavy truck 7 mpg light motorcycle 60 mpg bus (diesel)- long distance bus (diesel)- urban transit road freight (other car mpg below) Measurements in Kilometers: hybrid auto 56 mpg small gas auto 29 mpg med gas auto 23 mpg large gas auto 19 mpg LPG automobile diesel auto 0 gas light truck 24 mpg 14 mpg

4.2 l/100km 8.1 l/100km 10.2 l/100km 12.4 l/100km 9.8 l/100km 16.8 l/100km 39.2 l/100km 15.7 l/100km 33.6 l/100km 3.9 l/100km

vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers vehicle kilometers

0.1001 0.1932 0.2436 0.2949 0.1780 0.2691 0.4002 0.9338 0.4305 0.9226 0.0934

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 See calculator above to obtain kg per km from fuel efficiency

0 gas heavy truck 6 mpg 0 diesel light truck 15 mpg 0 diesel heavy truck 7 mpg 0 light motorcycle 60 mpg your vehicle hybrid auto 56 mpg small gas auto 29 mpg med gas auto 23 mpg large gas auto 19 mpg LPG automobile diesel auto gas light truck 24 mpg 14 mpg

4.2 l/100km 8.1 l/100km 10.2 l/100km 12.4 l/100km 9.8 l/100km 16.8 l/100km 39.2 l/100km 15.7 l/100km 33.6 l/100km 3.9 l/100km

passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers passenger kilometers
0 passenger kilometers 0 passenger kilometers

0.0556 0.1073 0.1353 0.1638 0.0989 0.1495 0.2223 0.5188 0.2392 0.5125 0.0519 0.0485 0.1862 0.0720

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

gas heavy truck 6 mpg diesel light truck 15 mpg diesel heavy truck 7 mpg light motorcycle 60 mpg bus (diesel)- long distance bus (diesel)- urban transit road freight

Metric tonne kilometers

Rail transportation
diesel locomotive diesel locomotive diesel locomotive diesel locomotive electric locomotive electric locomotive electric locomotive electric locomotive coal locomotive coal locomotive coal locomotive coal locomotive UK Rail UK Rail US Intercity Rail (e.g. Amtrak) US Intercity Rail (e.g. Amtrak) US Transit Rail (e.g subway, tram) US Transit Rail (e.g subway, tram) US Commuter Rail US Commuter Rail Canadian Rail Canadian Rail passenger miles short ton miles passenger kilometers Metric tonne kilometers passenger miles short ton miles passenger kilometers Metric tonne kilometers passenger miles short ton miles passenger kilometers Metric tonne kilometers passenger miles passenger kilometers passenger miles passenger kilometers passenger miles passenger kilometers passenger miles passenger kilometers passenger miles passenger kilometers 0.1719 0.0287 0.1068 0.0200 0.3437 0.0574 0.2136 0.0400 0.2238 0.0374 0.1391 0.0260 0.0966 0.0600 0.1909 0.1186 0.1604 0.0997 0.1649 0.1025 0.1662 0.1033

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Boat transportation Water transportation Aircraft
(distance figures are for one-stop flights, in land miles, not nautical miles- check your source)

0.0

Optional Calculation Table
# of Flights units unit description 1 passenger land miles 1 passenger land miles 1 passenger land miles 0 tons 0 tons 0 tons 1 passenger land miles 1 passenger land miles 1 passenger land miles 0 metric tons 0 metric tons 0 metric tons 1 passenger land miles 1 passenger land miles 1 passenger land miles 1 passenger land miles Total acrtivity units 0 (copy to green column to left) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 =??*N98*O98

Use optional calculator to the right for calculating miles traveled based on number of flights (short, medium or long) short haul (<452 km) long haul (>1600 km) short haul (<452 km) long haul (>1600 km) short haul (<452 km) long haul (>1600 km) short haul (<452 km) long haul (>1600 km) flight of 300 km flight of 900 km nonstop flight 2719 km See more factors below Last row above totals enter no data here 0 0 <281 miles >994 miles <281 miles >994 miles <281 miles >994 miles <281 miles >994 miles 186 miles 559 miles 1690 miles passenger land miles passenger land miles passenger land miles short ton land miles short ton land miles short ton land miles passenger land km passenger land km passenger land km Metric tonne kilometers Metric tonne kilometers Metric tonne kilometers passenger land km passenger land km passenger land km
0 passenger land km

0.2897 0.2028 0.1770 2.3062 1.1677 0.8320 0.1800 0.1260 0.1100 1.5800 0.8000 0.5700 0.2180 0.1420 0.1170 0.1170

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

medium haul (452 to 1600 km) 281 to 994 miles

medium haul (452 to 1600 km) 281 to 994 miles

medium haul (452 to 1600 km) 281 to 994 miles

medium haul (452 to 1600 km) 281 to 994 miles

Total for indirect emissions calculated from distance traveled

0.0

Emissions factors for rail travel Type of Train kg CO 2 per passenger km UK Rail1 US Intercity Rail2 (i.e., Amtrak) US Transit Rail3 (e.g., subway, tram) US Commuter Rail4 Canadian Rail5 0.0600 0.1186 0.0997 0.1025 0.1033

kg CO 2 per passenger mile 0.0966 0.1909 0.1604

1 km equals 1 mile equals

0.62 miles 1.61 km

To convert from lbs to kg, multiply by 0.1649 0.1662 0.45

1. Source: Railtrack http://www.railtrack.co.uk/our_business/environment/benefits_of_rail/index.cfm gives annual passenger-miles and tonnes of CO2. 2. Sources: TEDB = Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22, 2002. Table 2.11 and A16. http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/ EIA = Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2000, Appendix B, Table B1 3.Sources: TEDB = Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 22- 2002, Table 2.11 and Table A.15. Available at http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data. EIA = ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/e-supdoc.pdf, page 5. Note: transit rail is defined as light and heavy rail. For definitions, please see http://www.apta.com/info/define/mode.htm 4. Source: TEDB = Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22, 2002. Table 2.11 and A14 http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/ EIA = Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2000, Appendix B, Table B1 Note: commuter rail is defined at http://www.apta.com/info/define/mode.htm. A list of agencies that are considered commuter rail can be found at http://www.apta.com/stats/modesumm/cragency.htm 5. Source: Canada’s Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. (VCR Inc.), 2002. An Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. P 12. www.vcr-mvr.ca. Please note units are in CO2-eq.

Air Travel factors for flights with different distances Passenger calculations for bus travel based on ridership
Average miles per gallon, 6.7 per US DOT table VM1, 1999 Assumed urban Miles per gallon: Grams CO2/mile, per bus g/ psgr Mile, 5 pasengers g/ psgr Mile, 10 pasengers g/ psgr Mile, 15 pasengers g/ psgr Mile, 20 pasengers g/ psgr Mile, 30 pasengers g/ psgr km, 5 pasengers g/ psgr km, 10 pasengers g/ psgr km, 15 pasengers g/ psgr km, 20 pasengers g/ psgr km, 30 pasengers 4 2500.0 500.0 250.0 166.7 125.0

[Based on Emission Factors provided by DEFRA (Table 9, Environmental Reporting - Guidelines for Company Reporting on GHG Emissions) for short haul and long haul flights] (DEFRA & US - DOT)
10 kg CO2/gallon (DEFRA says 9.99, a lower estimate than some others) AverageAssumed intercity 6 1666.7 333.3 166.7 111.1 83.3 6.7 1492.5 298.5 149.3 99.5 74.6

9
1111.1 222.2 111.1 74.1 55.6

shaded cells approximate estimates derived from Btu/passenger mile estimates from US DOT inter-city: 48.5 g CO2 per passenger km urban: 186.2 g CO2 per passenger km

83.3 310.7 155.3 103.6 77.7 51.8

55.6 207.1 103.6 69.0 51.8 34.5

49.8 185.5 92.7 61.8 46.4 30.9

37.0 138.1 69.0 46.0 34.5 23.0

Miles per gallon for typical vehicles, EPA/USA
Other default emission factors are from: IPCC. 1997. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Reference Manual

Conversion Factors and General References
For most activities, the reporting worksheets include all the detail needed including default emission factors. The tables given below are provided as a general resource for those users w ho may wish to develop custom factors, or trace the derivation of factors given. Home/Summary

Energy and Weight Volume Conversions Distance Factors and Conversions Table 3
Linear Measure: English Unit Metric Units 1 inch = 1000 mil = 2.54 centimeters (cm) 1 foot (ft) = 12 inches = 30.48 cm or 1 yard = 36 inches = 91.44 cm or 1 mile = 5280 ft = 1.61 kilometers (km) or 1 nautical mile = 1.149 miles = 1.85 kilometers (km) To convert liters per 100 km to miles per gallon, invert (liters per 100 km/3.785/100*1.6093) [gallons per liter * km per mile] To convert miles per gallon to liters per 100 km, divide 100 by (mpg/3.785*1.6093)

0.3 meters (M)

0.91 meters (M)
0.87 nautical miles (nm)

Converting Energy Units (worksheet) Table 4
Megajoule (MJ)
1 x 10
-3

Convert fuel use from Btus Tonne oil equivalent (toe)
1.05506 x 10 -6 41.86

Kilowatt hours (kWh)
3.6 x 10 -3

To Gigajoule (GJ)

Fuel type Sample

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

240.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.000253 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000

Sources: International Energy Annual, 1998 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/convheat.html BP Group Reporting Guidelines, 2000

Converting Mass Units (worksheet) Table 5
Convert fuel use from Short tons Long tons
0.91 1.02

Pounds (lb)
4.5359 x 10 -4

To Metric tons

Fuel type 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000

Sources: International Energy Annual, 1998 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/convheat.html BP Group Reporting Guidelines, 2000

Emissions Factors for Electricity Summary of English to Metric conversions Transportation Fuels Emissions Factors Table 9
Emission factors in blue shaded columns are from IPCC, 1999, Volume 2, Section 1, if not otherwise noted. Heating values in blue shaded columns are from API, 2001, if not otherwise noted. Values in other columns is derived arithmatically except as commente Fuel type Lower heat value (derived) (derived) (derived) (derived) (derived) Typical density kg CO2/tonne IEA kg CO2 / GJ GJ / liter (API, 2001) GJ/ US gallon GJ/Imp Gal GJ/tonne kgCO2/liter kgCO2/US gal lb / gal (API, 2001) Density* (UK DETR) (IPCC, 1999) Gasoline / petrol 69.25 0.0344 0.1302 0.1564 43.5674 2.3822 9.0166 6.59 0.739 t/m3 3135 Kerosene 71.45 0.0357 0.1351 0.1623 44.0768 2.5508 9.6546 6.76 3150 Jet Fuel 70.72 (EIA) 44.5900 0.780 t/m3 10.009 Aviation gasoline 69.11 (EIA) 0.0343 0.1299 0.1561 2.3774 8.9984 Diesel 74.01 0.0371 0.1404 0.1687 44.1667 2.7458 10.3927 7.49 0.840 t/m3 3142 Distillate fuel oil No.1 74.01 0.0371 0.1404 0.1687 43.9211 2.7458 10.3927 7.05 3142 Distillate fuel oil No.2 74.01 0.0371 0.1404 0.1687 43.9211 2.7458 10.3927 7.05 3142 Residual Fuel oil#4 74.01 0.0379 0.1435 0.1723 2.8050 10.6168 3142 Residual Fuel oil#5 77.30 0.0397 0.1503 0.1805 39.9535 3.0688 11.6154 8.29 0.930 t/m3 3117 Residual Fuel oil#6 77.30 0.0405 0.1533 0.1841 40.7586 3.1307 11.8495 8.29 0.930 t/m3 3117 LPG 63.20 0.0249 0.0942 0.1132 45.9779 1.5737 5.9564 4.52 Lubricants 73.28 0.0382 Anthracite 98.30 0.02860 GJ / kg 28.6000 1747.30 Bituminous coal 94.53 0.03023 GJ/kg 30.2300 2236.80 Butane 0.0258 4.84 (liquid) 1685.50 Propane 62.99 (EIA) 0.0240 47.3373 4.24 (liquid) 0.507 t/m3 Sub-bituminous coal 96.00 Wood, wood waste 100.44 (EIA) 1730.00 0.039 GJ / standard Natural gas 56.06 0.673 t/m3 cubic meter API, 2001(for heating Source: IPCC IEA (UK DETR) values) (unless noted) Density:: International Energy Annual, 1998 Technical Data on Fuel, 1977, J.W. Rose; J.R. Cooper http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/convheat.html d.

Coal, GJ per tonne by country Converting from Miles per Gallon to grams CO2 per km, also Liters per 100 km Table 11
9.02 kg CO2/gallon gas 10.39 kg CO2/gallon diesel A B Miles per Kg CO2 gallon per mile 9.016627/A 4 2.2542 5 1.8033 6 1.5028 7 1.2881 8 1.1271 9 1.0018 10 0.9017 11 0.8197 12 0.7514 13 0.6936 14 0.6440 15 0.6011 16 0.5635 17 0.5304 18 0.5009 19 0.4746 20 0.4508 21 0.4294 22 0.4098 23 0.3920 24 0.3757 25 0.3607 26 0.3468 27 0.3339 28 0.3220 29 0.3109 30 0.3006 31 0.2909 32 0.2818 33 0.2732 34 0.2652 35 0.2576 36 0.2505 37 0.2437 38 0.2373 39 0.2312 40 0.2254 41 0.2199 42 0.2147 43 0.2097 44 0.2049 45 0.2004 46 0.1960 47 0.1918 48 0.1878 49 0.1840 50 0.1803 51 0.1768 52 0.1734 53 0.1701 54 0.1670 55 0.1639 56 0.1610 57 0.1582 58 0.1555 59 0.1528 60 0.1503 61 0.1478 62 0.1454 63 0.1431 64 0.1409 65 0.1387 66 0.1366 67 0.1346 See transport fuels emissions factors above 2.38 kg CO2/ liter gas for CO2/gallon sources 2.75 kg CO2/ liter diesel D E F G Km per Gas Diesel Liters per mile g CO2/km g CO2/km 100 km col E x 10.392743235/9.016627 To convert miles per gallon to liters per 100 km, divide 100 by (mpg/3.785*1.6093) =C/D 1.61 1401 1,614.5 58.8 Shaded table to left is used as 1.61 1121 1,291.6 47.0 basis of values in worksheet 1.61 934 1,076.3 39.2 for distance traveled by vehicles. 1.61 800 922.6 33.6 1.61 700 807.2 29.4 1.61 623 717.5 26.1 1.61 560 645.8 23.5 1.61 509 587.1 21.4 1.61 467 538.2 19.6 1.61 431 496.8 18.1 1.61 400 461.3 16.8 1.61 374 430.5 15.7 1.61 350 403.6 14.7 1.61 330 379.9 13.8 1.61 311 358.8 13.1 1.61 295 339.9 12.4 1.61 280 322.9 11.8 1.61 267 307.5 11.2 1.61 255 293.5 10.7 1.61 244 280.8 10.2 1.61 233 269.1 9.8 1.61 224 258.3 9.4 1.61 215 248.4 9.0 1.61 208 239.2 8.7 1.61 200 230.6 8.4 1.61 193 222.7 8.1 1.61 187 215.3 7.8 1.61 181 208.3 7.6 1.61 175 201.8 7.3 1.61 170 195.7 7.1 1.61 165 189.9 6.9 1.61 160 184.5 6.7 1.61 156 179.4 6.5 1.61 151 174.5 6.4 1.61 147 169.9 6.2 1.61 144 165.6 6.0 1.61 140 161.4 5.9 1.61 137 157.5 5.7 1.61 133 153.8 5.6 1.61 130 150.2 5.5 1.61 127 146.8 5.3 1.61 125 143.5 5.2 1.61 122 140.4 5.1 1.61 119 137.4 5.0 1.61 117 134.5 4.9 1.61 114 131.8 4.8 1.61 112 129.2 4.7 1.61 110 126.6 4.6 1.61 108 124.2 4.5 1.61 106 121.8 4.4 1.61 104 119.6 4.4 1.61 102 117.4 4.3 1.61 100 115.3 4.2 1.61 98 113.3 4.1 1.61 97 111.3 4.1 1.61 95 109.5 4.0 1.61 93 107.6 3.9 1.61 92 105.9 3.9 1.61 90 104.2 3.8 1.61 89 102.5 3.7 1.61 88 100.9 3.7 1.61 86 99.4 3.6 1.61 85 97.8 3.6 1.61 84 96.4 3.5

C G CO2 per mile x 1000 2254.2 1803.3 1502.8 1288.1 1127.1 1001.8 901.7 819.7 751.4 693.6 644.0 601.1 563.5 530.4 500.9 474.6 450.8 429.4 409.8 392.0 375.7 360.7 346.8 333.9 322.0 310.9 300.6 290.9 281.8 273.2 265.2 257.6 250.5 243.7 237.3 231.2 225.4 219.9 214.7 209.7 204.9 200.4 196.0 191.8 187.8 184.0 180.3 176.8 173.4 170.1 167.0 163.9 161.0 158.2 155.5 152.8 150.3 147.8 145.4 143.1 140.9 138.7 136.6 134.6

Miles per Gallon, US cars and small trucks, by year Table 12 to 15 are from National Transportation Statistics, 2000, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, USA http://www.bts.gov/btsprod/nts/Ch4_web/4-23.htm ...v/ntda/nts/NTS99/data/Chapter4/4-23.html Table 12 See also:
Average Fuel Efficiency of U.S. Passenger Cars and Light Trucks http://www.bts.gov/ntda/nts/NTS99/ch4index.html Average U.S. passenger car fuel efficiency, Miles per gallon Transp Energy Data book: http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb20/Index.html (mpg) (calendar year) 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Passenger car 15.9 17.4 20.2 21.1 21 20.5 20.7 21.1 21.2 Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle 12.2 14.3 16.1 17 17.3 17.4 17.3 17.3 17.2 New vehicle fuel efficiency (mpg)a (model year) Light-duty vehicle (passenger cars plus light trucks) Domestic 21.4 24 23.9 24.4 23.9 24.3 23.7 23.8 24.1 Imported 28.6 30.3 28.5 28.4 27.9 28.1 27.7 27.9 27.7 Passenger car Domestic 22.6 26.3 26.9 27.3 27 27.8 27.5 27.7 28.3 Imported 29.6 31.5 29.9 30.1 29.2 29.6 29.6 30.3 29.7 Light truck (<8,500 lbs GVWR) Domestic 16.8 19.6 20.3 20.9 20.5 20.7 20.5 20.3 20.5 R 22.2 Imported 24.3 26.5 23 23 22.7 22.8 22.1 21.5 CAFE standards (mpg)a (model year) Passenger car 20 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 Light truck 16.0/14.0 b 19.5 20 20.2 20.2 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 a Assumes 55% city and 45% highway-miles. The source calculated average miles per gallon for light-duty vehicles by taking the reciprocal of the sales-weighted average of gallons per mile. This is called the harmonic average. b 2 Wheel Drive/4 Wheel Drive. No combined figure available for this year. KEY: CAFE = Corporate Average Fuel Economy; GVWR = gross vehicle weight rating; mpg = miles per gallon; R = revised; U = data are unavailable NOTE: The fuel effic iency figures for light duty vehicles represent the sales-weighted harmonic average of the combined passenger car and light truck fuel economies. SOURCES: Average U.S. passenger car fuel efficiency: 1980-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A. 1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1. New vehicle fuel efficiency (based on model year production): 1980-90: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, final fuel economy calculations for the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, as cited in Internet site www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/fuelecon/index.html. 1991-99: Manufacturer's preliminary estimates for the U.S. Department of Transportation, as cited in National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Automotive Fuel Economy Program, Twenty-Fourth Annual Report to Congress, Calendar Year 1999, Internet site www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/fuelecon/index.html. CAFE standards: 1980-99: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Automotive Fuel Economy Program, Twenty-Fourth Annual Report to Congress, Calendar Year 1999, Internet site www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/fuelecon/index.html. Below, Transportation Energy DATA book edition 20 - 2000, Table 8.1, miles per gallon for trucks 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Trucks with 6+ tires 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.8 Combination trucks 5.3 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9

1997 21.5 17.2

1998 R21.6 R17.2

1999 21.4 17.1

R

23.3 27.5 27.8 30.1 20.1

R

23.3 27.6 28.1 30 20.5 22.9 27.5 20.7

23.7 26.9 28.2 28.4 20.4 22.5 27.5 20.7

R R

R

22.1 27.5 20.7

1997 7 6.1

1998 7 6.1

Energy Intensity of Passenger Transportation Table 13
http://www.bts.gov/btsprod/nts/Ch4_web/4-20.htm Bureau of Transport Statistics, USDept of Transportation

Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes-Ground (Excerpts]
1960 1965 AirR Certificated air carrier Domestic operations 8,633 10,118 International operat. 9,199 10,292 HighwayB Btu per passenger mile Passenger car 4,495 4,455 Other2 axle vehicle N N Motorcycle a a N N Transit Motor Bus N N Amtrak Long distance motor bus 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 P

10,185 10,986 4,841 6,810 2,500 N N

7,746 8,465 4,743 6,571 2,345 N

5,272 8,866 4,348 5,709 2,125 2,742 2,148

5,047 5,103 4,267 4,971 1,896 3,396 2,094

4,932 4,546 3,812 3,654 4,451 4,277 1,990 1,917 3,723 2,064

4,671 4,609 3,703 4,256 1,990 3,767 1,978

4,564 4,258 3,785 4,275 2,063 4,038 2,035

4,558 4,099 3,771 4,345 2,135 3,944 2,023

4,444 4,145 3,721 4,539 2,227 4,162 1,935

4,382 4,173 3,702 4,560 2,250 4,155 1,838

4,183 4,108

4,146 4,168

4,123 4,278

4,196 2,148

3,657 3,672 4,563 4,591 2,295 2,330 4,228 3,729 2,200 2,138 1000 (according to Davis 98, in Chapter 5, DOT Annual report for 1999

a Included in passenger car. b For 1995 and subsequent years, highway passenger-miles were taken directly from Highway Statistics rather than derived from vehicle-miles and average occupancy, as is the case for 1960-1994. KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; N = data do not exist; P = preliminary; R = revised. NOTES: To calculate total Btu, multiply fuel consumed (see tables 4-21, 4-22, 4-24, 4-25) by 135,000 Btu/gallon for air carrier, 125,000 Btu/gallon for passenger car, other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle, and motorcycle, and 138,700 Btu/gallon for transit motor bus and Amtrak. SOURCES: Air: Certificated air carriers: Passenger-miles: 1960-99: Air Transport Association, Internet site http://www.air-transport.org/public/industry, as of July 5, 2000. Fuel consumed: 1960-99: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html, as of July 5, 2000. Highway Passenger car: 1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A. 1995-98: Ibid. Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1. Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle: 1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A. 1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1. Motorcycle: 1970-85: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A. 1990-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1. Transit motor bus: 1980-98: American Public Transportation Association, Public Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: March 2000), tables 30, 42; and 65. Amtrak: 1975-98: Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communications.

Table 14

http://www.bts.gov/btsprod/nts/Ch4_web/4-21.htm

Bureau of Transport Statistics, USDept of Transportation

Energy Intensity of Certificated Air Carriers, All Servicesa
1960 1965 Aircraft-miles (millions) Domestic operations 858 International operations 182 Available seat-miles (millions) Domestic operations 52,220 International operations 13,347 Passenger-miles (millions) Domestic operations 30,557 International operations 8,306 Fuel consumed (million gallons) Domestic operations 1,954 International operations 566 Seats per aircraft Domestic operations 60.9 International operations 73.3 Seat-miles per gallon Domestic operations 27 International operations 24 Energy intensiveness (Btu/passenger-mile) b Domestic operations 8,633 International operations 9,199 Load factor (%) R58.5 Domestic operations R62.2 International operations
a b

1970 1,134 284 94,787 29,533 51,887 16,789 3,889 1,280 83.6 104.0 24 23 10,118 10,292
R R

1975 1,948 377 241,282 61,724 131,728 31,082 7,558 1,949 123.9 163.7 32 32 7,746 8,465 54.6 54.4

1980 2,523 401 346,028 86,507 200,289 54,363 9,096 1,938 137.1 215.7 38 45 6,131 4,813 58 62.8
R

1985 3,046 415 445,826 110,963 270,584 65,819
R

1990 3,854 807 543,638 171,561 332,566 115,389
R

1991 3,854 807 551,562 186,468 338,085 125,211
R

1992 3,995 904 557,989 194,784 347,931 130,622
R

1993 4,157 961 571,489 200,151 354,177 135,508
R

1994 4,380 980 585,438 198,893 378,990 140,391
R

1995 4,629 998 603,917 203,160 394,708 145,948 12,812 R4511 130.5 203.6 47 45 4,382 4,173
R R

1996 4,811 1,043 626,389 208,682 425,596 153,067
R

1997 4,911 1,114 640,319 216,913 442,640 160,779 13,660 4,964 131.1 194.7 47 44 4,146 4,168 69.1 74.1

1998 P 5,031 1,191 649,442 224,728 455,799 163,656 13,877 5,186 129.1 188.7 47 43 4,123 4,278 70.2 72.8

1999 5,176 1,197 686,940 230,909 479,689 171,908 14,402 5,250 132.7 192.9 48 44 4053 4,123 69.8 74.4

2,068 475 213,160 51,960 104,147 27,563 7,857 2,243 103.1 109.4 27 23 10,185 10,986
R

10115 R2488 146.4 245.7 44 41 5,047 5,103
R R

11506 R3940 141.1 212.6 47 47 4,671 4,610
R R

11,637 3,945 143.1 231.1 47 47 4,647 4,253 61.3 67.1

11,763 R4,120 139.7 215.5 47 47 4,564 4,258
R R

11959 R4113 137.4 208.7 48 49 4,558 4,099 62 67.6
R

12476 R 4311 133.7 203 47 46 4,444 4,161
R R

13187 R4658 130.2 200.1 48 45 4,183 4,108
R R

54.7 56.8

48.9 R 53

R

60.7 64.6

61.2 67.3

62.4 67.1

R

64.7 70.6

65.4 71.8

67.9 73.3

R

U.S. owned carriers only. Operation of foreign-o wned carriers in or out of the United States not included. Calculation based on unrounded figures not shown here.

KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; P = preliminary; R = revised NOTES: Aircraft-miles includes all four air-carrier groups (majors, nationals, large regionals, and medium regionals), scheduled and charter, passenger, and all-cargo. Fuel consumed includes majors, nationals, and large regionals, scheduled and charter, passenger, and all-cargo. Passenger-miles includes all four air-carrier groups, scheduled and charter, passenger service only. International operations include operations outside the United States, including those between the United States and foreign countries and the United States and its territories or possessions. Heat equivalent factor used for Btu conversion is 135,000 Btu/gallon. SOURCES: Aircraft-miles, available seat-miles, passenger-miles, and load factor: 1960-80: Air Transport Association, Internet site http://www.air-transport.org/public/industry, as of July 5, 2000. 1985-98: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington DC: Annual December issues). 1960-99: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html, as of July 5, 2000. Seats per aircraft, seat-miles per gallon, and energy intensiveness: Derived by calculation.

Comparative Analysis of per passenger mile data provided in US DOT Tables Btu/ Psgr_Mile Aircraft carriers 1998 x 1055 Joule/ P_Mile GJ per P_Mile kg CO2/GJ IPCC, by fuel 0 0 71.5 71.5 g CO2 /P_Mile g CO@ / P-km =IxH 304.3 307 = J/1.6093 189.1 190.8

g CO@ / P-km lb CO2/P_mile DETR

g CO@ / P-km Union Concerned Scientists pg 57,265, Consumer's Guide to Effective Environmental Choices 180long 110short 37.7 These UCS impacts include upstream Bus Analysis 6.7 1280.6 106.72 UCS 66.31 # of riders 12 gallons per mile g CO2 per mile per mile per rider per km per rider DOPT 98

Domestic International Ground Passenger car Other2 axle vehicle Motorcycle

4,034 4255870 4,070 4293850
1997

=j/453.6 g CO@ / P-km 0.6709 0.6768 0.5895 0.7551 0.3391

3,657.00 3858135 4,427.00 4670485 2,104.00 2219720

0 0 0

69.3 73.3 69.3

267.4 342.5 153.8

166.2 212.8 95.6

66.6 66.6 66.6

lifecycle emissions

Transit Motor Bus Amtrak, train Long Distance Bus

3,835.00 4045925 2,200.00 2321000 1,000 1055000

0 0 0

74.1 74.1 74.1

299.7 171.9 78.1

186.2 106.8 48.5

0.6607 0.3790 0.1722

may havemisplaced a decimal place in footnoot on 265 60 train 26.6 22.2

Energy Intensity of Rail Freight, Truck Freight Table 15
http://www.bts.gov/btsprod/nts/Ch4_web/4-25.htm Bureau of Transport Statistics, USDept of Transportation

Energy Intensity of Class I Railroad a Freight Service
Revenue freight ton-miles (millions) Car-miles (millions) Tons per car load Fuel consumed (million gallons) Energy intensiveness (Btu/revenue freight ton-mile) Energy intensiveness (Btu/car-mile)
a

1960 572,309 28,170 44 3,463 839 17,051

1965 697,878 29,336 49 3,592 714 16,983

1970 764,809 29,890 55 3,545 643 16,450

1975 754,252 27,656 61 3,657 672 18,341

1980 918,958 29,277 67 3,904 589 18,495

1985 876,984 24,920 68 3,110 492 17,310

1990 1,033,969 26,159 67 3,115 418 16,516

1991 1,038,875 25,628 66 2,906 388 15,727

1992 1,066,781 26,128 66 3,005 391 15,952

1993 1,109,309 26,883 64 3,088 386 15,932

1994 1,200,701 28,485 63 3,334 385 16,234

1995 1,305,688 30,383 65 3,480 370 15,886

1996 1,355,975 31,715 67 3,579 366 15,652

1997 ### 31,660 63 3,575 368 15,662

1998 ### 32,657 64 3583 361 15218

Class I railroads are those that have operating revenues of $255 million or more. NOTE: The heat equivalent factor used for Btu conversion is 138,700 Btu/gallon.

KEY: Btu = British thermal unit SOURCE: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: November 2000), pp. 34, 37, and 40.

Converting to other units Joules per ton mile (@1055/btu) Gigajoules per ton mile (@ 10^9 per) Kg CO2 per ton mile (74.067/gj) Kg CO2 per tonne-km Gallons per ton-mile Ton-miles per gallon Kj/tonne-km

1960 885423.08 0 0.07 0.04 0.01 165.3 606.3

1965 753157.39 0 0.06 0.04 0.01 194.3 515.7

1970 678253.7 0 0.05 0.03 0 215.7 464.4

1975 709475.51 0 0.05 0.04 0 206.2 485.8

1980 621645.89 0 0.05 0.03 0 235.4 425.7

1985 518916.69 0 0.04 0.03 0 282.0 355.3

1990 440838.44 0 0.03 0.02 0 331.9 301.9

1991 409318.37 0 0.03 0.02 0 357.5 280.3

1992 412190.64 0 0.03 0.02 0 355.0 282.3

1993 407336.83 0 0.03 0.02 0 359.2 278.9

1994 406316.8 0 0.03 0.02 0 360.1 278.2

1995 390003.72 0 0.03 0.02 0 375.2 267.1

1996 386223.71 0 0.03 0.02 0 378.9 264.5

1997 ### Joules per ton mile (@1055/btu) 0 Gigajoules per ton mile (@ 10^9 per) 0.03 kg CO2 per ton mile (74.067/gj) 0.02 kg CO2 per tonne-km 0 gallons per ton-mile 377.3 ton-miles per gallon 265.6 Kj/tonne-km

The following values are drawn from "Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight (TS&W) Study" Phase 1-Synthesis, Working Paper 12, Feb, 1995, by Batelle Team for Federal Highway Admin and US Dept of Transportation Study summarized For year Truck Rail Ratio kJ/tonne-km Rail to Truck Truck to Rail Bronzinei, pg 6 1972 1,693 496 0.29 3.41 Rose, pg 6 1977 2045 636 0.31 3.22 Transport Canada 1976 1631 396 0.24 4.12 Kahn ? 1357 313 0.23 4.34 US DOT/FRA Rail vs Truck Efficiency: The Relative Fuel Efficiency of Truck Competitive Rail Freight and Truck Operations Compared in a range of corridors (1991) Container truck Rail Ratio 1. This factor is very general and should only be used if more specific data is not available. Data on specifc a fleet, equipment per gallon ton miles type, company, transportation contractor, region, national, etc will often be more accurate (fleet-specific is generally most accurate, while national factors are generally least accurate). Steps Range: 90-140 300-1000 should be taken to determine appropriate, accurate factors for your specific situation. Compare at: 110 400 3.64 In comparison with other data sources, this factor 4 times more efficient end of the per ton-mile or tonne-km. 1 These comparative studies suggest rail is 3 to may be near the smallerthat trucks spectrum of estimates of freight weight-distance factors. US Dept. of Energy data suggests that US is estimated at freight wide kg CO2/tonne-km is Therefore truck freight economy truck 3.6 times .02 kg CO2/tonne_km 2 to 3.5 times larger than .72 kg CO2/tonne-km. (Transportation Energy Data Book, 23rd Ed., US DOE, Tables 2.14, 2.15, A.6. http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/Index.html). However, this tool continue to cite this factor as a general estimate based on peerreviewed studies.

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Excel mechanics

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When I save the file, I get a message from Excel saying it is in an earlier version. What do I do? This workbook was deliberately designed as an Excel 95 file, so that users with Excel 95 could use it. You may sav in any version of Excel (5/95 or higher), but if saved as a Excel 97 document, someone using Excel 95 will not be ab You may click either the yes or the no buttons on the dialog box that Excel presents when you save the file. I get a message from Excel saying a cell is protected. What do I do? Worksheets have been protected to restrict data entry to cells shaded yellow and light blue. If you must unprotect a go to the Tools menu and select the Protection subcommand. Select the option to unprotect sheet, which toggles. When the file was distributed, there was no password. Generally, keep worksheets protected to prevent errors. To make a cell editable when the sheet is protected, first unprotect the sheet. Then select the cell, and using the Fo activate the protection tab on the command dialog box and make sure the Locked option is not checked. (It toggles re-protect the worksheet using the Tools Protection Command. How can I insert rows (without messing up the twisties and the rows they collapse and hide)? Select a data entry row you would like to copy, then click on the "Add a Line" button located near the top of each wo How can I delete a row? We are not expecting users to delete rows. However, if you wish to delete a row, select the entire row and delete it Deleting a row will create errors, because it confuses the numbering scheme in hidden column A that is used to disp number of rows in each section. To rememdy these errors, after deleting a row, USE THE TOOLS/ MACRO COMM and run the FIX ROWS macro before re-protecting the worksheet. This updates the row numbering scheme in hidd column A, which is used so the "Twisties" can open and close the correct number of rows in the section below them The workbook pauses to calculate each time I add a number. Can I speed this up? Under the tools menu, select the Options subcommand, then the tab labeled Calculation. Set calculation to manua turns off Excel's default setting which is to recalculate the entire sheet with every change. Enter as much data as yo press on the F9 button to calculate the entire worksheet at once.

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Module

could use it. You may save it using Excel 95 will not be able to open it. n you save the file.

ue. If you must unprotect a worksheet, otect sheet, which toggles. ected to prevent errors. ct the cell, and using the Format Cell command is not checked. (It toggles). Finally,

ted near the top of each worksheet page.

the entire row and delete it using the Edit menu delete command. olumn A that is used to display and collapse the appropriate E TOOLS/ MACRO COMMAND numbering scheme in hidden s in the section below them.

. Set calculation to manual- this . Enter as much data as you like, then

Macros

MACROS PAGE This page contains macros (programs) that automate features of this workbook. Do not modify this page! Last revised 10/10/2001 David Cross 203-776-2358 ext 225 Welcome Auto Open macro, runs when file opens #MACRO? #MACRO? Assigns address of worksheet to variable name #MACRO? Assigns name of workbook to variable name #MACRO? gets pathway name of macro file Err:502 Checks to see if in DOS or Mac environment #MACRO? Sets file separator for MAC #MACRO? skips to rest of welcome Macro Err:502 sets proper DOS name turns off calculation? =OPTIONS.CALCULATION(3,,,0.001,,FALSE) #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? these rows set screen to be viewable on most computers #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? to make sure column A has the right numbers so that #MACRO? twisties and totals reference correct rows.

Addrow =ECHO(FALSE)

Adds a row above the row #MACRO? the calling button is on #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? get reference of cell #MACRO? get location of "C" #MACRO? get row #MACRO?

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Macros #MACRO? #MACRO? copy down repeated material from above #MACRO? #MACRO? correct row numbering scheme in column A #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? ShowCloseblock opens and closes "twisty" sections #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? get reference of cell #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? get rows to do #MACRO? get status of section #MACRO? if open, close, otherwise open #MACRO? #MACRO? install closed button #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Open section #MACRO? #MACRO? install closed button #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO?

Close section

Fix_Sheets #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? turn off screen refresh

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Macros #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Fix_rows #MACRO? Fixes row numbering so twisty boxes #MACRO? select proper number of rows, also, totals work #MACRO? correct row numbering scheme in column A #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_Home #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_Introduction #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_D1_Road #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_Reference #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_FAQ #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_D1_air #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_D1_boat

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Macros #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_D1_rail #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_In2_Distance #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_In2_Rail #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_In2_Boat #MACRO? #MACRO? Go_In2_Air #MACRO? #MACRO?

Add_Data_Row #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? 0 #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? what shade is it? 0 #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? Alert here #MACRO? #MACRO?

get_color

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Macros #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? zSee_full_size #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? turn off screen refresh #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO? #MACRO?

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Macros

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Macros

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Macros

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Macros

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Macros

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Version 1.0 October 2001

Version 1.1 September 2003 Fixed Macros leading from introduction to calculation pages.

Version 1.2 October 2003 Added passenger train emission factors based on distance and type of service such as intercity, commuter, and subway. These are particularly applicable to commuting emission estimates. Version 1.3 January 2005 Updated Table 5.4 in the guidance to correct the "Litres fuel per km" values.