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Economic Examples of Partial Derivatives

partialeg.tex April 12, 2004

Let’ start with production functions. A production function is one of the many ways to

describe the state of technology for producing some good/product. Assume the firm produces a single output, x , using two inputs, labor, l , and captial k . The production function

x f k , l l 0 , k 0

identifies the maximium output, x , that can be produced with any nonnegative combination of labor and capital.

Visualize this production function in two-dimensional space. Physics requires that f 0, 0 0 .

Note that a production function is only one of many ways to describe the state of technical knowledge for producing a good

Other ways include the input requirement set k , l : f k , l x , l 0 , k 0

the production possibilities set X , where X is the set of all technically feasible output input combinations, x , k , l . Note that X is a subset of R ^{} , where R denotes n -dimensional nonnegative space.

the cost function is another way to represent the state of technical knowledge for producing x . I will show that later.

n

3

Consider the specific production function

x f k , l al ^{} k ^{1} ^{}^{}

where a 0 is a constant and 0 1 is another constant. This particular production function is called the Cobb-Douglas production function with constant returns to scale.

The partial derivatives of a producti on function have fancy economic names:

Definition : The marginal product of labor is

1

mp _{l} k , l ^{} ^{f} ^{} ^{k} l ^{,} ^{l} ^{} For the Cobb-Douglas, The marginal product of labor is

_{m}_{p} _{l} _{} _{k} _{,} _{l} _{}_{} f k , l

l

_{} _{a} _{} _{l} 1 _{k} 1

For the Cobb-Douglas, is the marginal product of labor always positive?

Definition : The marginal product of capital is _{m}_{p} _{k} _{} _{k} _{,} _{l} _{}_{} f k , l

k For the Cobb-Douglas, The marginal product of capital is

_{m}_{p} _{k} _{} _{k} _{,} _{l} _{}_{} f k , l

k

a 1 l ^{} k ^{}^{}

For the Cobb-Douglas, it is also always positive.

For this Cobb-Douglas, what happens to the marginal product of labor as labor increases?

mp _{l} k , l _{} ^{2} f k , l

l

l ^{2}

1 a l ^{}^{} ^{2} k ^{1} ^{}^{} 0 Why is it always negative?

That is, the marginal product of labor, while always positive, always decreases as l increases. The marginal product of capital also always decreases as k increases.

mp _{k} k , l _{} ^{2} f k , l

k

k ^{2}

a 1 l ^{} k ^{}^{}^{} ^{1} 0

For this Cobb-Douglass, the law of diminishing marginal productivity applies. Said generally, the law applies to f k , l with respect to both inputs if f _{l}_{l} k , l 0 and f _{k}_{k} k , l 0

Note that the law does not require the marginal products to always be positive. The Cobb-Douglas form is sufficient but not necessary for the law to hold.

Not that the law is not really a law. It more something that we often, but not always, observe.

2

For this Cobb-Douglas production function what happens to the marginal product of labor (capital) as the quantity of capital (labor) increases. Does the marginal product of labor increase when k increases?

mp _{l} k , l _{} ^{2} f k , l

k

l k

1 a l ^{}^{} ^{1} k ^{}^{} 0

How do we know it is always positive? As k increases, labor becomes more productive.

Do you think the Cobb-Douglas production function is an accurate description of the state of technical knowledge for producing any real-world products? No.

We study it because it is simple, not because it is realistic.

Typically firms use more than two inputs. In which case, one might represent the production function as

x

f l _{1} , l _{2} ,

,

l _{N}

where l _{i} is the quantity of input i .

The production functions that economists estimate are typically much more complicated than this simple Cobb-Douglas form. Before computers, we were restricted to simple functional forms such as the Cobb-Douglas, but this is no longer the case.

There are lots more economic examples of partial derivatives in the review questions.

One of the problems with marginal product f unctions is that the marginal product is sensitive to the units in which x , l , and k are measured. For example, changing the ouput from pounds of stuff to tons of stuff will dr astically change the numerical values of the marginal products. It would be nice to be able to denote the productivity of the a marginal unit of input in a way that was not sensitive to the units that the inputs and output were measured.

Can we come up with such a measure? Yes. They are called elasticities

Looking ahead, using partial derivatives to find the a

3

maximum.

Imagine a mountain in the room y f x _{1} , x _{2} . we want to find the values of x _{1} and x _{2} that maximize y .

Consider two individuals: Lewis and Clark. Both are smart and logical. But, they both have perception disabilities. Lewis can only see and perceive in the directions North and South. Clark has the same problem but he is an east-west kind of guy. It is, as if east west does not exist for Lewis and north south does not exist for Clark.

Both guys can wander around in both dimensions, but both lack shorterm memory; that is, they can’t remember what it was like the last place they were at. Each of you pick a partner. You are Lewis and Clark.

Your job is to write down a rule that you can use to find the the values of x _{1} and x _{2} that max y

The rule: keep moving and looking until each of you is at a point that is a max in your direction, and you are both standing on the same point. That point will be the max.

Could you use partial derivatives to find this point? At the max ^{}^{f} ^{} ^{x}

x _{1}

^{o} , x ^{o} _{2}

1

f x ^{o}

^{o}

1

, x _{2}

x _{2}

0 .

Use partial derivatives the find the values of x _{1} and x _{2} that max f x _{1} , x _{2} 2 x ^{2} x ^{2} _{2} 4 x _{1} 4 x _{2} 3

1

2x ^{2} x _{2} ^{2} 4 x _{1} 4 x _{2} 3

1

0 , and

4

-4

-4

-2

-2

2

0

2

4

4

-50

z

f x _{1} , x _{2} x _{1}

f x _{1} , x _{2} x _{2}

4 x _{1} 4

2 x _{2} 4

find the values of x _{1} and x _{2} where both of these partials is zero.

That is solve 4x _{1} 4 0 2 x _{2} 4 0 In this simple case each can be solved separately. x ^{0} 1 and x ^{0} _{2} 2

1

5

Use partial derivative to find a likely candidate for those values of x _{1} and x _{2} that maximize

f x _{1} , x _{2} 2 x ^{2} 2 x _{1} x _{2} 2 x ^{2} _{2} 36 x _{1} 42 x _{2} 158

1

2x ^{2} 2x _{1} x _{2} 2 x ^{2} _{2} 36 x _{1} 42 x _{2} 158

1

-4

-4

-2

-2

2

0

2

4

4

-200

z

-400

f x _{1} , x _{2}

x _{1}

f x _{1} , x _{2}

x _{2}

4 x _{1} 2 x _{2} 36

2 x _{1} 4 x _{2} 42

4 x _{1} 2x _{2} 2x _{1} 4x _{2}

36 0 42 0

, Solution is: _{} x _{1} 5, x _{2} 8 _{}

6

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