The latest techniques in the field of Human Resource Development are: Employees for Lease: Sometimes the organizations depend upon consultancy agencies or individual consultants for their expertise to tap and utilize their expert knowledge. The consultancy agencies offer expert advice and the execution of the advice is left to the employees of the organization. The employees may in some of the cases fail to covert the know-how into a project. Under such circumstances, new types of organizations will emerge, which would be called as Employee Leasing Organization. These leasing organizations will be principal employers and send the required number and kind of employees to various organizations on lease basis. They collect the fee & other charges from various industries & pay the salaries, provide benefits to the employees. The Leasing company will pay complete salary and benefits to the employees irrespective of the number of days that the employee is sent to various organizations on lease. This type of agreement is beneficial to the leasing company, specialist employees and the industry. The industry with limited budget can utilize the expert advice & service of most competent human resources. Moonlighting by Employees: This is a situation, which arises among employees on account of dissatisfaction from present wage & salary structure. They feel that employer enjoys the increased profit and that they are being exploited by the employer. Consequently they agitate for hike in wages or take up another part-time job or business simultaneously with that of the original job. This is also known as Double Jobbing. Moonlighting by employees affects almost all the functions of Human Resource Management. The effects of Moonlighting would be mostly negative & it poses challenges to the personnel manager. Presently very limited number of employees does moonlighting, but the number of employees will go on increasing due to change in employee values & expectations. Management will have to take all possible care in selection process about the possibility of moonlighting by the prospective candidates. Dual Career Groups: There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female employees in all types of organizations due to: * * * * * * * * increased career orientation among women in recent years. creation of variety of jobs. higher level commitment better performance. Less demanding & agitative oriented. Economic Freedom. Better Social Status. Aspirations for quality of work life.

Due to dual career groups, both wife & husband will be loaded with grievances & problems as both of them share their problems, both at work and off the job. In view of overloading of the problems to both the members in dual career groups, they spend heir time and

Decisions relating to policies on employment. After the completion of the course. transfer. information and knowledge to understand each other's viewpoint. For example. Flexi-time is a program that allows flexible entry and leaving times for employees. work methods. reward them equitably. the management cannot make unilateral decisions those affect employee relationship directly or indirectly. in a nutshell. Flexi-work: It is a program that allows flexibility in handling the type of work in various departments of the organizations in systematic way by the employee during his tenure of employment in an organization. This management arrangement will automatically take care of the problem of unemployment and underemployment. promotion. training. number of days in a week and work schedule when the worker has to perform is normally stated in the Job in solving the problems or in getting the grievances redressed for both the parties. and integrate their aspirations with corporate goals through suitable HR policies. Due to this new trend in HR. . This technique enables the two parties to exchange ideas. the management representatives may provide effective plans. Decisions on the policies and administration may still rest with management. with an open mind and thereby avoid all misunderstandings. developing and educating their employees in tune with the job awareness and organizations' requirements. the HR manager should treat people as resources. This is mostly due to the absence of linkage between the industry and universities. are no longer determined by unilateral action of management and must now be discussed with the representatives of employees' organizations. Thus. Flexi-time & Flexi-work: The number of hours in a day. Management Participation in Employees' Organizations: With the formation and recognition of employees' organizations. the candidate will be awarded a diploma and absorbed by the organization. This arrangement will also minimize the duration of time to be spent by the candidate in his educational process. Training & Development: Organizations spend a lot of time and resources in training. So. adoption of latest technology etc. Flexi-time increases productivity. The intake of these institutes depends on exclusive requirements of organization. Organizations in future will establish their own educational institutes. there will be possibility of less commitment to the work in the organization by both the parties. advice organization and directions for sound management and functioning of federations and unions for the common good of both the parties. These institutes will frame their course curriculum to suit the requirements of various jobs in the organization as a whole. These institutes will go on changing the course curriculum depending upon the changes in technology. suggestions. and reduction in employee turnover & increase in morale. production process. but they are frequently subject to question and criticism by union representatives under a formal grievance procedure. The concept of Flexi-time has been introduced in order to suit the convenience of the workers without affecting the organizational functioning. decline in absenteeism. a candidate may be selected as a clerk in the Personnel Department and after two years he may be allowed to take up work in any other department of the organization. opinions. activities and so on.

* Human Resource Management function will be extended to cover career planning and development. RECOMMENDATIONS : Change is the law of nature. the two parties discuss the problem and each party tries to solve the problems of the other. recognize human resource as a profit centre and as a basic instrument to earn profits rather than as a cost centre. By using the above-mentioned techniques and many other programs. social justice etc. the role of all Personnel Manager will also change. organize climate. national wage policy. The scope of collective bargaining is wider as the solutions for common problems can be found directly through negotiations between both the parties. * Shift the emphasis from legal and rule bounded approach * Participate in trade union activities. it has to constantly upgrade its skills and sharpen its capabilities. while the management puts forth its demands regarding employee co-operation and commitment so as to maximize its profits. COLLABORATIVE MANAGEMENT: It is the general practice that the owners and/or their representatives manage the organization. to develop a sense of belongingness and loyalty to the organization. Further. .COLLECTIVE BARGAINING: is an institutional process for solving problems arising directly out of employer-employee relationships. It is necessary way of life in different circles. organization and development. the two parties become responsive to each other. the organization tries to make the workers and employees more competent. The management in future will try to: * Give up authoritarian style of leadership and adopt participative style of leadership. Such type of management system is referred as 'Collaborative Management'. * Encourage creative skills and abilities and reward those talents. * Understand the fact that human resource management will dominate all other functional areas of management. Employee's participation in management was initiated to satisfy workers' psychological needs. Thus. * Follow human relations approach and partnership approach towards employees. Employees ventilate their problems relating to wages. role analysis. Today competition is very tough and if an organization has to survive in the race gracefully. Though there may be some discontentment during the early days of change. committed & comfortable to do a given job. employee benefits etc. Those changes will be as follows: * Personnel manager and individual manager will give emphasis on overall development of human resources. But most of the organizations have started allowing their employees to participate in management. Through collective bargaining. Many new techniques are implemented in the organizations to motivate the employees and to help them perform to their optimum capacity. people learn to meet the changes and adopt themselves to the changing situations. It is viewed that different parties concerned with the organizational activities will manage the organization through participation.

etc. Over the years. * Utilize people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area. * Decentralize operations and rely on self-managed teams to deliver goods in difficult times e. counseling. The role of HR manager is shifting from that of a protector and screener to the role of a planner and change agent. HR Managers should concentrate on the following areas to ensure success: * Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralize threats. .g. * Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions like training. development. Motorola is famous for short product development cycles.CONCLUSION:Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each other are met. highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. It has quickly commercialized ideas from its research labs. * Employ innovative reward plans that recognize employee contributions and grant enhancements.

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