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6, No 3, September 2006 © AUTEX

**TEXTILE FABRICS AS THERMAL INSULATORS
**

Zeinab S. Abdel-Rehim1, M. M. Saad2, M. El-Shakankery2 and I. Hanafy3

1 2

Mechanical Engineering Department of the National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt Textile Department of the National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt 3 Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract

In recent times, a wide range of textile materials has been used as thermal insulators in many industrial applications. The thermal insulating properties of textile fabrics depend on their thermal conductivity, density, thickness and thermal emission characteristics. Experiments have been made with the aim of studying heat transfer by conduction through the different types of fabrics used as thermal insulators. 100% polyester and 100% polypropylene nonwoven fabrics are used in this work as case studies. The temperature variation through the selected fabrics is measured under different operating parameters such as densities and inlet temperature. The thermal response and behaviour for the selected fabrics used in this work as thermal insulators are illustrated. The relationship between the thermal conductivity and material density of the selected fabrics is studied. Polyester fabric has higher thermal resistance and specific heat resistance than polypropylene. Fabric thickness has a significant effect on the fabric temperature variations. The results of ?[Anova-two way measurements] are presented for 100% polyester and 100% polypropylene nonwoven fabrics. The temperature variation of the fabric increased with the testing time, and also decreased with the increase of fabric weight up to a certain limit beyond its optimum level. The results show that the selected nonwoven fabrics are suitable for usage as thermal insulators.

Key words:

fabrics, heat transfer, industry, textile and thermal insulator

1. Introduction

Many development applications for the new materials such as textile fabrics used as thermal insulators require a full study of their thermal insulating properties at different operating conditions. One of the most important of these studies is the effect of temperature with thermal conductivity and material density on the response of the textile fabrics as insulators. The thermo-insulating properties of perpendicular-laid versus cross-laid lofty non-woven fabrics are presented by Jirsak et al. [1]. In their study, the relationship between the thermal conductivity and material density of samples was studied. They concluded that the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing material density. Morris [2] presented a study of thermal properties of textiles, and concluded that their thermal conductivity increases with density, based on his observation that when two fabrics are of equal thickness, the one with a lower density shows the greater thermal insulation. However, he reported that there is a critical density of about 60.0 kg/m3 below which the convection effects become dominant and the thermal insulation falls. Recently, a heat flux sensor was used to measure the thermo-insulating properties of textiles in an apparatus called the Alambeta [3]. The thermal properties of fabric insulators are investigated by Ukponmwan [4]. Heat and mass transfer analyses of textile fabrics are presented in many researches [5-8]. In these works, the effect of operating parameters such as temperature, humidity and heat & mass transfer coefficients are examined by mathematical and experimental studies. A model of heat and water transfer through layered fabrics was developed by Fohr et al. [9]. They aimed at studying the effect of weather conditions and human activities on the wearers’ selection of clothing. Their model considers the occurrence of condensation or evaporation in accordance with the environmental conditions and their variations. The thermal expansion behaviour of hot-compacted woven polypropylene and polyethylene composites was studied by Bozec et al. [10]. The compression and thermal properties of recycled fibre assemblies made from the industrial waste of seawater products are presented by Sukigara et al. [11]. In their study, the effective thermal conductivity of fibre assemblies with steady-state and parallel plates was measured. Their results showed the lower

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which indicates that the effect of heat radiation on thermal conductivity cannot be disregarded.T2) / (Q L) 2. characterise the fabrics’ heat capacity to impede the transfer of heat through them.2. of textile fabrics is a function of the actual thickness of the material and the thermal conductivity k. passing in 1 h through area (A) of 1 m2 of the fabric thickness (L) at a temperature difference (T1 – T2) of 1ºC. ((m2ºC) /W) where L is the actual thickness of the sample. i. The thermal insulation properties of the selected textile fabrics are calculated and studied with respect to the importance of operating conditions such as inlet temperature. (L) and difference temperatures of two media (air and fabric) 1ºC. density. Temperature. (R) The heat resistance. 2. Vol. as given in the following equation: λ = Q L / A t (T1 − T2 ) 2 2 (1) Heat transfer coefficient K [W/m ºC] expresses the heat flow passing during 1 h through 1 m of fabric with actual thickness. The main characteristics of heat conductivity are as follows: Conductivity factor λ [W/(mºC)] expresses the heat flow (Q).e. as in the following equation: K = Q / A t (T1 − T2 ) 2. 2. The comparison between the selected textile fabrics as thermal insulators according to certain operating conditions is given. 6. W. The basic concepts of heat transfer through fabrics are explained as follows: 2.AUTEX Research Journal. September 2006 © AUTEX effective thermal conductivity of recycled fibre assemblies compared to pure wool fibre assemblies.pdf 149 . Thermal resistance. the heat transfer through two different fabrics. No 3. convection and radiation. their capacity for transferring heat from a warmer medium to a cooler one. as in the following equation: r = 1/λ = Α t (T1 . (Rth) The thermal resistance. weight and density.autexrj. The experiments are carried out using a special test-rig to study the thermal behaviour of the selected textile fabrics used as thermal insulators in many applications. as well as easily explainable phenomena such as heat exchange in porous media. Rth. thickness.4. R (m2ºC / W) is a characteristic inverse to heat transfer coefficient K.3. Governing Equations The heat energy can be transferred through the textile fabrics by conduction. some applications for these materials are considered. m. (5) (3) http://www. polyester and polypropylene is studied.org/No3-2006/0167.T2) / (Q) (4) The specific heat resistance rr and the heat resistance R. r ((mºC) /W) is a characteristic inverse to the heat transfer factor λ. as in the following equation: R = 1/K = A t (T1 .1. Specific heat resistance. thickness and weight are measured for the selected textile fabrics used as case studies. In this work. Heat resistance. On the basis of this study. (r) (2) The specific heat resistance. Thermal conductivity Heat transfer by conduction depends on the materials’ heat conductivity. This function is given by the following relationship: Rth = L / k .

qr is the heat flux by radiation at any point within the fabric. Within the period before the heat conducted by the fibres becomes predominant. Q.autexrj. Thermal Insulating Value (TIV) Outer surface L/2 X=L T2 Figure 1. The TIV of textile fabric depends upon the thermal conductivity of the fabric. ρF. T and t are the thermal conductivity. CP. T1 is the initial air temperature and T2 is the transient air temperature. temperature and time for the selected fabrics respectively.pdf 150 .67×10-8 W/m2K4. It is defined as the percentage reduction in heat loss from a hot surface maintained at a given temperature. Energy equation The energy equation for textile fabric is simply the transient heat conduction equation with a heat radiation source term.(Kt / εo) / (L + (Kt / ε1) ] (10) http://www. specific heat. Fabric sample. relative to the heat loss from the surface. and is given as: 0 ≤ X ≤ L.7.T2) / L (6) where A is the surface area exposed to the hot air. 0 ≤ t ≤ ∞ (8) where L is the fabric thickness.AUTEX Research Journal. and To is the mean temperature in our experiment (To=298K). this equation is given as follows: k ∂ qr ∂2 T ∂T = ρ CP + 2 ∂t ∂ X ∂ X (7) where k. the better they will fulfil these two functions. CP. the following relation represents this value: (TIV)% = 100 [ 1 . the thickness of the assembly and the thermal emission characteristics of the surface fabric. they prevent air movement and provide a shield against radiant-heat losses. X is the X-axis. through the textile fabric is given as the following: Q = . Thus. Heat flow. Vol. Schematic drawing of the fabric insulator model TIV represents the efficiency of the textile fabric as an insulator. the more densely the fibres are arranged within the fabrics.6. 6. the density as calculated as ρ= ω/L (ω is the basic weight of the sample). KF Inner surface T1 X=0 2. Figure 1 shows the schematic drawing of the fabric insulator model. No 3. September 2006 © AUTEX 2. (Q) The heat flow. 2.k A (T1 . It is expressed as a percentage which represents the reduction in the rate of heat loss due to the insulation. ρ. The TIV increases to 100% when a ‘perfect’ insulator is obtained.org/No3-2006/0167. and can be written as in [12]: qr (x) = 4 σ To ( T1 − T2 ) at 0 ≤ X ≤ L 3 (9) where σ is the Stephan-Boltzman constant and equals 5. The textile fabrics have two thermal functions.5.

5 Exposure temperature. m 3. 3 ρ. 80. TF.026 0.pdf 151 . 80. 120. 160 and 200 Table 3. 80.44×10-3 4.30 0. Vol. Tables 2 and 3 give the numerical values of parameters for the samples of the selected textile fabrics (polyester and polypropylene.033 0. Our experiments were carried out on two non-woven fabrics. 80.4 125. 80.5 51. September 2006 © AUTEX where εo and ε1 are the emissivity of one and the other surface of the insulator (textile fabric) respectively. ρ.29 0.54×10-3 4. W/m2 o C 0.7×10-3 2o K.ºC 40. 160 and 200 40.08 0.10 0.95 49. where 1 tog=0.418 m2 sºC / cal. 160 and 200 40. 120. 160 and 200 40.11 0.17 λ.7 140. m 3. kg/m3 112.5 142. The conversion of TIV to the tog unit can be written as follows: (TIV)% = 100 [1.6×10-3 5.88×10-3 5.7×10-3 (TIV). in order to evaluate its thermal resistance and behaviour as a thermal insulator.44×10-3 4.org/No3-2006/0167. an experimental test-rig was especially designed and constructed to measure the temperature variation with test time through the selected textile fabrics during the heat exchange process between the hot air inlet and the fabric sample.15 41.62×10-3 7. Numerical values of parameters for polyester samples Sample 1 2 3 4 5 Weight.02 0.76×10-3 4. The fabric samples were subjected and exposed to different levels of heat in the emission side (the heat source side).54×10-3 4. W/m o C 0.022 0.AUTEX Research Journal.32×10-3 4. W/moC 0. kg/ m 400×10-3 600×10-3 650×10-3 800×10-3 2 Thickness. and then the temperatures are measured on the other side of the fabric sample. One group of samples were made from polyester fibres with different weights per unit area.05 51. 120.62×10-3 7. 120.32×10-3 4.98 Polypropylene 3. / m2 sºC. 160 and 200 40.09 0.76×10-3 4. 80. and another group made from polypropylene with the same weight.62×10-3 5. 160 and 200 40.97×10-3 K.3 52.99 135.06 0. 2 kg/m 400×10-3 600×10-3 700×10-3 800×10-3 1000×10-3 Thickness.% 41.06 cal. No 3.097 0. 6. 160 and 200 http://www.4 Exposure temperature.034 0. W/m C λ. kg/m 111.(Io / I1)] (11) where Io and I1 are the tog values of unclothed and clothed bodies respectively. Numerical values of parameters for polypropylene samples Sample 1 2 3 4 Weight. 80.89 50.3 50. 120.11 Density. The fabric samples are prepared by the ?[drying rout web formation][ technique and produced on a needle-punching machine. 160 and 200 40. 120. 120. Table 1 gives the calculated values of the TIV in percent for the samples of the selected fabrics. m 3.97×10-3 3.073 0. 80. A typical value of emissivity of textile fabric is 2. 80.88×10-3 5.21 49.99 138. TF.9 143.1 140.025 0. 160 and 200 40.ºC 40. Experimental Work In order to investigate the heat transfer and thermal behaviour of textile fabrics as thermal insulators. 120. respectively) and the inlet heat exposure levels as the temperatures that are used in the presented study Table 2. Table 1. 120. Thermal insulating values (TIV) of the selected fabrics Selected fabrics Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Polyester Sample 5 Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Thickness.autexrj.05 Density.

6. we see that the polyester has higher specific heat resistance and thermal resistance than polypropylene.0 X*Y – 0. Figures 11 and 12 show the effect of polyester and polypropylene thickness on fabric temperature (TF) respectively.003*Y*Y 75 65 Temperature.66 * Y .AUTEX Research Journal.55 + 0. the relations between the temperature variations of the polyester and polypropylene fabrics.0 X*Y – 0. 120. It is found that polyester samples have higher specific heat resistance than polypropylene samples.0. respectively weight and time. 80 100 120 Figure 2. 13. 7-10. oC 55 45 35 25 15 0 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 Sample 1 20 40 60 Time. It is found that the heat flow rises rapidly during the early stage of the hot air’s exposure to the fabric. and decreased with fabric weight up to a certain limit beyond its optimum level.511 * Y . Also. are given as the following expression (Figures 23 and 24): Z = 14. This may be because the thermal conductivity of the polyester is lower than polypropylene. 80. It is found that higher fabric thickness means good insulation. In addition. As the results of the ?[Anova-two way]. high exposure temperature means a high heat flow through the fabric.036 * X + 0. Κ. 160 and 200ºC).pdf 152 . This may be because the temperature difference between the fabric sample and the exposed hot air is high in the early stage of the exposure process.003*Y*Y Z = 21. Temperature variations of polyester (sample1) at different exposure temperatures http://www.0 X*X – 0. Figures 2 to 24 illustrate the thermal response and behaviour of the selected fabrics (polyester and polypropylene) that were used in this work as thermal insulators. No 3. From the figures.0. CP) affect the insulation response. Temperature variations with time for polyester samples (1-5) at different exposure temperatures (40. September 2006 © AUTEX 4. It is found that the temperature variations of the fabric increased with the increase of time. temperature variations with time of the polypropylene samples 1-4 at different exposure temperatures are shown in Fig. 160 and 200ºC) through 25 experiments are plotted in Figures 2 to 6. 80. Figures 15 to 22 show the effect of exposure temperatures on the heat flow through the polyester and polypropylene for each of samples 1 to 4.autexrj.org/No3-2006/0167. Through 20 experiments. and consequently the fabric thickness. Results and Discussions The results of the laboratory experiments and calculations show that the thermal insulating properties of textile fabrics (ρ.035 * X + 0. it is found that the fabric temperature (TF) variations increase rapidly in the initial stage of the exposure temperature. From these figures. in other words.0 X*X – 0. The specific heat resistance values for the selected fabrics is shown in Fig.68 + 0. TF. the compactness of nonwoven fabrics increased with the increase in the basic weight. This is due to the high temperature difference between the fabric surface (cold) and the hot air. This may be due to the fibre quantity increasing with the increase in of fabric weight. 120. Figures 23 and 24 show the surface plot and contours of measured fabric temperatures for 100% polyester and 100% polypropylene nonwoven fabrics respectively. the thermal resistance of the selected fabrics is shown in Figure 14. Vol. min. The figures show the influence of nonwoven fabric weight and time on the temperature variations when exposed to different temperatures (40. This is the reason for the thermal behaviour of these fabrics.

TF.autexrj. Vol. min T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 Sample 3 Figure 4. C o 55 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 Sample 4 45 35 25 15 0 20 40 60 Time. September 2006 © AUTEX 75 65 Temperature. 6. Temperature variations of polyester (sample 3) at different exposure temperatures 75 65 Temperature. t. Temperature variations of polyester (sample 2) at different exposure temperatures 75 65 Temperature. T F. TF. min 80 100 120 Figure 3.t. Temperature variations of polyester (sample 4) at different exposure temperatures http://www. No 3.AUTEX Research Journal.org/No3-2006/0167. o C 55 45 35 25 15 0 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 Sample 2 20 40 60 Time. oC 55 45 35 25 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time. min 80 100 120 Figure 5.pdf 153 . t.

Temperature variations of the polypropylene (sample 2) at different exposure temperature http://www. C 65 55 45 35 25 15 0 o T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 Sample 2 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time. min 80 100 120 Figure 7.AUTEX Research Journal.pdf 154 . TF.org/No3-2006/0167. No 3. C 55 45 35 25 15 0 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 o Sample 1 20 40 60 Time. 6. t. September 2006 © AUTEX 75 65 Temperture.autexrj. C 55 o T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 Sample 5 45 35 25 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time. min Figure 8. t. Temperature variations of polyester (sample5) at different exposure temperatures 75 65 Temperature. T F. TF. Temperature variations of the polypropylene (sample 1) at different exposure temperature 75 Temperature. t. min Figure 6. Vol.

=4. min 80 100 120 Figure 10. min 80 100 120 Figure 9. =7. Temperature variations of polypropylene (sample 3) at different exposure temperatures 75 65 Temperature. 75 65 Temperature. =3.97 mm 20 40 60 Time. oC 55 45 35 25 15 0 Thic. =5. Effect of polyester thickness on temperature variation http://www. min 80 100 120 Figure 11. No 3. oC 55 45 35 25 15 0 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 Sample 4 20 40 60 Time. TF. t. Vol.AUTEX Research Journal. 6. TF. t. Temperature variations of polypropylene (sample 4) at exposure temperatures. =4. September 2006 © AUTEX 75 65 Temperature. t. oC 55 45 35 25 15 0 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 20 40 60 Time.32 mm Thic.54 mm Thic.62 mm Thic.pdf 155 .autexrj.88 mm thic. TF.org/No3-2006/0167.

=5.autexrj.=4.AUTEX Research Journal.44mm Thic. September 2006 © AUTEX 75 65 Temperature. Vol.=3. Specific heat resistance for the selected fabrics 0.Thermal resistance for the selected fabrics http://www. No 3. R. T F. m C/W 3o Selected fabrics Figure 14.03 0. moC/W 40 30 20 10 0 Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Polyester Polypropylene Selected fabrics Figure 13.04 0.=4.62mm Thic.org/No3-2006/0167. Effect of polypropylene thickness on temperature variation 50 Specific heat resistance.06 0.01 0 Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Polyester Polyproylen Thermal resistance.pdf 156 Sample 5 Sample 5 . r. C 55 45 35 25 15 0 Thic. t. 6.05 0.02 0.7mm o 20 40 60 Time.76mm Thic. min 80 100 120 Figure 12.

q. 80 100 120 Figure 15.org/No3-2006/0167. t. Effect of temperature exposure on the heat flow through polyester. Effect of temperature exposure on heat flow through the polyester. 6. 80 T1-40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 Heat flow. min. min. sample 1 60 Sample 3 50 40 Heat flow. min. sample 3 http://www. Effect of temperature exposure on the heat flow through the polyester. q. Vol. W 100 120 Figure 17. 80 100 120 Figure 16.pdf 157 . W T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 Time. September 2006 © AUTEX 60 Sample 1 50 Heat flow. No 3.autexrj. t. W 40 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 Time. t. sample 2 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 Time. q.AUTEX Research Journal.

min.org/No3-2006/0167. sample 2 http://www. t. 80 100 120 Figure 18. Effect of temperature exposure on heat flow through polyester. sample 4 60 50 Heat flow. 80 100 120 Figure 20. min. W 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 Time. q. Effect of temperature exposure on heat flow through polypropylene. 60 50 Heat flow. q. q. September 2006 © AUTEX 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 Sample 4 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4-160 T5=200 Heat flow.pdf 158 . sample 1. T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 100 120 Figure 19. Vol. W 40 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 Time. Effect of temperature exposure on heat flow through polypropylene. t.AUTEX Research Journal. W 60 Time.autexrj. min. No 3. t. 6.

pdf 159 .885 21.035*x+0. q.768+0.640 32. min. Effect of temperature exposure on heat flow through polypropylene.66*y-0*x*x-0*x*y-0. min. No 3. Effect of temperature exposure on heat flow through polypropylene.236 23.746 47.799 Figure 23.587 25.342 37. September 2006 © AUTEX 60 50 Heat flow. 100 120 Figure 21. sample 3 60 50 Heat flow.AUTEX Research Journal. Figure 22. q.autexrj. Vol.938 28. W 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 Sample 3 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 60 80 Time.534 18. 6.097 49.org/No3-2006/0167.448 51. Surface plot of temperature variation of 100% polyester nonwoven fabrics at different weights and times http://www. t. t.289 30. W 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 Sample 4 T1=40 T2=80 T3=120 T4=160 T5=200 60 80 100 120 Time.991 35.693 40. sample 4 z = 14.044 42.395 44.003*y*y 16.

‘Thermo-Insulating Properties of Perpendicular-Laid Versus Cross-Laid Lofty Nonwoven Fabrics’. 2. Vol. G. 5. El-Okeily. Textile Res. 6.. and M. 1953. fabric temperature variation decreases with increasing fabric thickness. The study concludes that the selected fabrics have high thermal performance and thermal response as insulators. 4.. Hes..659 40. Textile Prog. P.. Ukponmwan. Vol. Surface plot of temperature variation of 100% polypropylene nonwoven fabrics at different weights and times 5.762 23.org/No3-2006/0167..047 49.272 31. Both the thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of all the selected fabric samples increases with the increase in fabric density.. Araujo. References: 1. ‘Effect of Mutual Bonding of Textile Layers on Thermal Insulation and Thermal Contact Properties of Fabric Assemblies’. P. J.415 44. 7.292 46. V. The effect of fabric thickness on the fabric temperature variations has the obvious significance that higher thickness means good thermal insulation. Textile Res. The exposure temperature affects the heat flow through the selected fabrics.121-128.904 36.517 27. Jirsak.12. ‘Thermal Properties of Textile Materials’. J. No. 20. Vol. J. Textile Res... The temperature variations of the fabric increase with the increase in time.394 29. 2000. No 3. And Computer Modeling. Ammar A. Vol.autexrj. 2. 4. ‘The Thermal-Insulation Properties of Fabrics’. 245. No.. 3. 5. S.170 48. 5.639 25.511*y-0*x*x-0*x*y-0. while heat flow increases with increasing exposure temperatures.925 Figure 24. Math. Vol. 1993.036*x+0. L. T 449. O. 6. Fabric thickness affect the transient fabric temperatures. 44. http://www. 6. J. 1998. Issue 9.AUTEX Research Journal. 3. 1997.537 42.1187.149 33. the following conclusions can eb drawn: 1. Park Sang Il. September 2006 © AUTEX z = 21.782 38. Textile Inst.003*y*y 21. and also decrease with fabric weight up to a certain limit beyond its optimum level.311-316. 24. 66. ‘Heat Transfer Through Textile Fabrics: Mathematical Model’.pdf 160 . pp. 1996. 2. The laboratory experiments and calculation have shown that selected textile fabrics can be used as good thermal insulators in a range of exposure temperatures from 40 to 200ºC. Morris. pp.027 34.55+0. Vol. M. J. ‘Heat and Mass Transfer Analysis of Fabric in The Tenter Frame’. J. and Djulay. O. Vol. Conclusions Based on the previously calculated and experimental results of the selected fabrics that are used as thermally insulators.. 67.

Vol. J.310-315. J. Bozec Y. G. Composites Science and Technology. No. Hine and I.373-472. 38. 9. Feb.autexrj.org/No3-2006/0167. S. V. 1995. No 3. Holcombe. ‘Dynamic Heat and Water Transfer Through Layered Fabrics’. ∇∆ http://www... V. Issue 3.AUTEX Research Journal. Kaang. 12. Holman. P. 6th ed. 4. pp. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Couton and G. 1998. Textile Res. No. LY. 68. Treguier. Textile Res. and B. of Heat and Mass Transfer.389-397. P.81-89. 1986. pp. NY. 60. M. 8. ‘Heat Transfer’. Textile Res. Vol..1-12. LE and N. 10. pp. 1. Fohr J. September 2006 © AUTEX 7. H. T. Vol. C. pp. J. Vol. 6. Li Y. 11. J. pp. Sukigara S. 2003. Ward. Compression and Thermal Properties of Recycled Fiber Assemblies Made from Industrial Waste of Seawater Products’. Vol. 73.333-344. 1. No. P.pdf 161 . D.72. J. Yokura. Vol. 2002. ‘Heat and Mass Transfer in the Condensing Flow of Steam Through An Absorbing Fibrous Medium’. pp. Le. The Thermal-Expansion Behavior of Hot-Compacted Polypropylene and Polyethylene Composites. 6. Int.. ‘Mathematical Simulation of Heat and Moisture Transfer in a Human-Clothing-Environment System’. Fujimoto. No. J. 2000...

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