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JUNE 2007

The information presented in this publication has been developed by James M. Fisher, PhD, PE, Consulting Engineer for the Steel Joist Institute and Carl W. Pugh, Jr., PE, Engineering Manager, New Millennium Building Systems in conjunction with the SJIs Engineering Practice Committee and Perry S. Green, PhD, Technical Director and is produced in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is for general information only. The SJI and its committees have made a concerted effort to present accurate, reliable, and useful information on the structural design of steel joist roofs to resist ponding loads. The information contained in this digest should not be used or relied upon for any specific project without competent professional assessment of its accuracy, suitability and applicability by a licensed professional engineer or architect. The publication of the material contained in this Technical Digest is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of the Steel Joist Institute. Any person making use of this information does so at ones own risk and assumes all liability arising from such use. Federal Regulations Governing Erection of Joist Products Steel joists and Joist Girders must be erected in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety Standards for Steel Erection. The erection of Open Web Steel Joists is governed by Section 1926.757 of this Federal Regulation.

Copyright 2007 by Steel Joist Institute All rights reserved. This Technical Digest or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the Steel Joist Institute. Printed in the United States of America Second Edition First Printing June 2007

TECHNICAL DIGEST 3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF STEEL JOIST ROOFS TO RESIST PONDING LOADS

James M. Fisher, Consulting Engineer to the Steel Joist Institute Vice-President, Computerized Structural Design Milwaukee, WI

Carl W. Pugh, Jr. Engineering Manager, New Millennium Building Systems Salem, VA

Steel Joist Institute 3127 Mr. Joe White Avenue Myrtle Beach, SC 29577-6760 www.steeljoist.org

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank SJIs Technical Director, Perry S. Green, Ph.D., and the members of the Engineering Practice Committee of the Steel Joist Institute for their review and contributions to the writing of the second edition of this digest.

FOREWORD

This Technical Digest is another addition to the series of Steel Joist Institute publications designed to give the reader information regarding the application and usage of steel joists and Joist Girders. Technical Digest No. 3 concerns itself with the proper design of joist and Joist Girder roof systems for ponding instability and water accumulation. Much of the revised information in the second edition is a direct result of the changes that have been adopted by recent building codes. This and other SJI Technical Digests serve to highlight specific areas of design and/or application for the benefit of architects, building inspectors, building officials, designers, engineers, erectors, students and others.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FOREWORD ... TABLE OF CONTENTS . BACKGROUND .. GLOSSARY . i i ii iii iv

GENERAL NATURE OF PONDING .. ROOF DESIGN TO RESIST PONDING ....... RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURE .. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ....

1 3 10 13

REFERENCES

14

Nomenclature .............. Equations for Using Camber in Ponding Checks............ Calculating Effective Moments of Inertia for Steel Joists.... Design Examples ..... Selected Bibliography.......

15 17 20 24 44

ii

BACKGROUND

This Technical Digest outlines procedures for the selection of steel joists that are required to meet the stability requirements resulting from the accumulation of water on a roof system, i.e., ponding. This digest provides background information and discussion concerning the effects of ponding, and makes use of the SJI Load Tables as an aid in assisting designers to comply with the SJI Standard Specifications for Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series Section 5.10, Standard Specifications for Longspan Steel Joists, LH-Series and Deep Longspan Steel Joists, DLH-Series Section 104.11, Standard Specifications for Joist Girders Section 1004.8, and Appendix 2 Design for Ponding Section of the 2005 AISC Specification. The benefits of camber and pitch of joists in reducing the effects of ponding are discussed and a technique that accounts for these benefits is shown. Equations for the determination of reactions, equivalent uniform loads, and deflections for cambered joists subjected to water loads are provided in Appendix A. A method for calculating the effective moments of inertia for Standard SJI joist products is provided in Appendix B. Appendix C contains several design examples worked out in detail. A selected bibliography of journal articles, conference proceedings papers, research reports, and other miscellaneous publications related to ponding can be found in Appendix D.

iii

GLOSSARY

NOTES: Terms in Bold and their definitions come from the AISC AND AISI STANDARD Standard Definitions for Use in the Design of Steel Structures, 2004 Edition, First Printing April 2005. * These terms are usually qualified by the type of load effect, e.g., nominal tensile strength, available compressive strength, design flexural strength.

ASD (Allowable Strength Design). Method of proportioning structural components such that the allowable strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the ASD load combinations. Allowable Strength*. Nominal strength divided by the safety factor, Rn/. Available Strength*. Design strength or allowable strength as appropriate. Camber. An upward curvature of the chords of a joist or Joist Girder induced during shop fabrication. Note, this is in addition to the pitch of the top chord. Chords. The top and bottom members of a joist or Joist Girder. When a chord is comprised of two angles there is usually a gap between the members. Clear Span. The actual clear distance or opening between supports for a joist, that is the distance between walls or the distance between the edges of flanges of beams. Cold-Formed Steel Structural Member. Shape manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared from sheets, cut lengths of coils or plates, or by roll forming coldor hot-rolled coils or sheets; both forming operations being performed at ambient room temperature, that is, without manifest addition of heat such as would be required for hot forming. Design Load. Applied load determined in accordance with either LRFD load combinations or ASD load combinations, whichever is applicable. Design Strength*. Resistance factor multiplied by the nominal strength, Rn. End Diagonal or Web. The first web member on either end of a joist or Joist Girder which begins at the top chord at the seat and ends at the first bottom chord panel point.

iv

Instability. Limit state reached in the loading of a structural component, frame or structure in which a slight disturbance in the loads or geometry produces large displacements. Joist. A structural load-carrying member with an open web system which supports floors and roofs utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel and is designed as a simple span member. Currently, the SJI has the following joist designations: K-Series including KCS, LH-Series and DLH-Series. Joist Girder. A primary structural load-carrying member with an open web system designed as a simple span supporting equally spaced concentrated loads of a floor or roof system acting at the panel points of the member and utilizing hot-rolled or cold-formed steel. Load. Force or other action that results from the weight of building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement, or restrained dimensional changes. LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design). Method of proportioning structural components such that the design strength equals or exceeds the required strength of the component under the action of the LRFD load combinations. Material. Joists, Joist Girders and accessories as provided by the seller. Nominal Strength*. Strength of a structure or component (without the resistance factor or safety factor applied) to resist the load effects, as determined in accordance with the Standard Specifications. Ponding. Retention of water at low or irregular areas on a roof due solely to the deflection of flat roof framing. Required Strength*. Forces, stresses, and deformations produced in a structural component, determined by either structural analysis, for the LRFD or ASD load combinations, as appropriate, or as specified by the Standard Specifications. Resistance Factor, . Factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal strength, deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect and for the manner and consequences of failure.

Safety Factor, . Factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal strength, deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect and for the manner and consequences of failure. Serviceability Limit State. Limiting condition affecting the ability of a structure to preserve its appearance, maintainability, durability, or the comfort of its occupants or function of machinery, under normal usage. Span. The centerline-to-centerline distance between structural steel supports such as a beam, column or Joist Girder or the clear span distance plus four inches onto a masonry or concrete wall. Specified Minimum Yield Stress. Lower limit of yield stress specified for a material as defined by ASTM. Specifying Professional. The licensed professional who is responsible for sealing the building Contract Documents, which indicates that he or she has performed or supervised the analysis, design and document preparation for the structure and has knowledge of the load-carrying structural system. Stability. Condition reached in the loading of a structural component, frame or structure in which a slight disturbance in the loads or geometry does not produce large displacements. Standard Specifications. Documents developed and maintained by the Steel Joist Institute for the design and manufacture of open web steel joists and Joist Girders. The term SJI Standard Specifications encompass by reference the following: ANSI/SJI-K1.1 Standard Specification for Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series; ANSI/SJI-LH/DLH-1.1 Standard Specifications for Longspan Steel Joists, LH-Series and Deep Longspan Steel Joists, DLH-Series; and ANSI/SJI-JG-1.1 Standard Specifications for Joist Girders. Webs. The vertical or diagonal members joined at the top and bottom chords of a joist or Joist Girder to form triangular patterns. Yield Point. First stress in a material at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress as defined by ASTM. Yield Strength. Stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain as defined by ASTM. Yield Stress. Generic term to denote either yield point or yield strength, as appropriate for the material. vi

CHAPTER 1

GENERAL NATURE OF PONDING

Ponding is a condition where uncontrollable water (rain and/or snowmelt) fills and conforms to a deflected roof surface so that the normal design assumption of uniformly distributed live load becomes invalid. The centers of the ponds are at points of naturally low potential. Additional water gravitates to these low points, increasing deflections and stresses. During intense rainstorms, water may accumulate on the roof at a faster rate than it is being discharged; therefore, it becomes necessary to consider the increased water load and its distribution on the structural system. Ponding is a potential problem in northern as well as southern climates. Repetitive freeze-thaw cycles on a roof subject to snow loading can develop ponds. Heat from within a building can thaw areas of snow on a roof, producing melt water loadings which will tend to gravitate to the low points of a roof. The accumulation of rainwater on a roof is an important design consideration. Primary drains may become blocked (see Figure 1.1), and water may accumulate faster than it can be discharged by secondary drains. As the roof deflects under the water weight, the deflected shape allows the accumulation of even more water. Left unchecked, the possibility of a partial roof collapse may become a reality as shown in Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.1 Potential for Roof Ponding Instability due to Blocked Drains

(with permission from DEP Montgomery County, MD)

Figure 1.2 Partial Roof Collapses due to Ponding A comprehensive review of ponding requirements can be found in the American Institute of Steel Constructions AISC Steel Design Guide 3, Serviceability Design Considerations for Steel Buildings (AISC 2003). The AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 2005) states that unless a roof surface is provided with sufficient slope or adequate drainage, the Architect, Engineer of Record or other Specifying Professional must perform the ponding investigation. This technical digest will assist designers in performing the ponding investigation, and in solving some of the problems that may be encountered when designing roof systems comprised of open-web steel joists to prevent ponding.

CHAPTER 2

ROOF DESIGN TO RESIST PONDING

The best way to avoid a ponding condition is to construct a roof with sufficient slope and free drainage, so that ponds never develop. What is sufficient slope and what constitutes enough drainage? Rational analysis to answer these questions requires both the structural and hydrological characteristics of the roof. Roof slope, stiffness of the members supporting the roof membrane, as well as the location and size of drains, are all important in avoiding ponding instability. Designers have used roof slopes varying from 1/8 in. per ft. to 1/2 in. per ft. successfully in the past, but it cannot be stated that in all cases such slopes prevent ponds from developing. Adequate stiffness of the structural members is evaluated using the design recommendations contained in the AISC specification provisions for ponding (AISC 2005) and as modified in this digest. The selection of drain sizes is generally not the responsibility of the structural engineer; however, the structural engineer must either evaluate or be provided with, the characteristics of the secondary drainage system in order to determine the initial loads on the structure for ponding evaluation. Finally, it is the responsibility of the building owner to properly maintain the drainage system so that it will function properly. Recent building codes have established guidelines for ponding. These are cited below:

1507.10.1 Slope. Built-up roofs shall have a design slope of a minimum of onefourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage, except for coal-tar built-up roofs that shall have a design slope of a minimum one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope). 1611.1 Design rain loads. Each portion of a roof shall be designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumulate on it if the primary drainage system for that portion is blocked plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet of the secondary drainage system at its design flow. R = 5.2(ds+dh) In SI: R = 0.0098 (ds+dh) (Equation 16-36)

where: dh = Additional depth of water on the undeflected roof above the inlet of secondary drainage system at its design flow (i.e., the hydraulic head), in inches (mm). ds = Depth of water on the undeflected roof up to the inlet of secondary drainage system when the primary drainage system is blocked (i.e., the static head), in inches (mm). R = Rain load on the undeflected roof, in psf (kN/m2). When the phrase undeflected roof is used, deflections from loads (including dead loads) shall not be considered when determining the amount of rain on the roof. 1611.2 Ponding instability. For roofs with a slope less than 1/4 in. per foot [1.19 degrees (0.0208 rad)], the design calculations shall include verification of adequate stiffness to preclude progressive deflection in accordance with Section 8.4 of ASCE 7 [(ASCE 2005)].

1101.7 Roof design. Roofs shall be designed for the maximum possible depth of water that will pond thereon as determined by the relative levels of roof deck and overflow weirs, scuppers, edges or serviceable drains in combination with the deflected structural elements. In determining the maximum possible depth of water, all primary roof drainage means shall be assumed to be blocked. 1101.1 Secondary drainage required. Secondary (emergency) roof drains or scuppers shall be provided where the roof perimeter construction extends above the roof in such a manner that water will be entrapped if the primary drains allow buildup for any reason. Authors Comment: It should be noted that there is an inconsistency between the 2006 International Plumbing Code (IPC) and the 2006 International Building Code. The IPC indicates that the maximum depth of water should be calculated based on the deflected structure, whereas the IBC 2006 indicates the undeflected structure.

SECTION 7.10 RAIN-ON-SNOW SURCHARGE LOAD For locations where pg is 20 lb/ft2 (0.96 kN/m2) or less, but not zero, all roofs with slopes (in degrees) less than W/50 with W in ft. (in SI: W/15.2 with W in m) shall have a 5 lb/ft2 (0.24 kN/m2) rain-on-snow surcharge. This rain-on-snow augmented design load applies only to the balanced load case and need not be used in combination with drift, sliding, unbalanced, or partial loads. where: pg = Ground snow load as determined from Fig. 7-1 and Table 7-1; or a site-specific analysis, in lb/ft.2 (kN/m2) W = Horizontal distance from eave to ridge, in ft. (m) SECTION 7.11 PONDING INSTABILITY Roofs shall be designed to preclude ponding instability. For roofs with a slope less than 1/4 in./ft (1.19), roof deflections caused by full snow loads shall be investigated when determining the likelihood of ponding instability from rain-onsnow or from snow meltwater (see Section 8.4). SECTION 8.3 DESIGN RAIN LOADS Each portion of a roof shall be designed to sustain the load of all rainwater that will accumulate on it if the primary drainage system for that portion is blocked plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet of the secondary drainage system at its design flow. R = 5.2(ds+dh) In SI: R = 0.0098(ds+dh) (8-1)

If the secondary drainage systems contain drain lines, such lines and their point of discharge shall be separate from the primary drain lines. COMMENTARY SECTION C8.3 DESIGN RAIN LOADS The flow rate through a single drainage system is as follows: Q = 0.0104A i (In SI: Q = 0.278 x 10-6 A i ) (C8-1)

where: A = Roof area serviced by a single drainage system, in ft.2 (m2) i = Design rainfall intensity as specified by the code having jurisdiction, in./h (mm/h) Q = Flow rate out of a single drainage system, in gal/min (m3/s) The hydraulic head, dh, is related to flow rate, Q, for various drainage systems in Table C8-1. That table indicates that dh can vary considerably depending on the type and size of each drainage system and the flow rate it must handle. For this reason the single value of 1 in. (25 mm) (i.e., 5 lb/ft.2 (0.24 kN/m2)) used in ASCE 7-93 has been eliminated. The hydraulic head, dh, is zero when the secondary drainage system is simply overflow all along a roof edge. SECTION 8.4 PONDING INSTABILITY Ponding refers to the retention of water due solely to the deflection of relatively flat roofs. Roofs with a slope less than 1/4 in./ft (1.19) shall be investigated by structural analysis to assure that they possess adequate stiffness to preclude progressive deflection (i.e., instability) as rain falls on them or meltwater is created from snow on them. The larger of snow load or rain load shall be used in this analysis. The primary drainage system within an area subjected to ponding shall be considered to be blocked in this analysis. Comments: The key points from the cited documents are: 1. All roofs require a secondary drainage system. 2. All roofs must be designed for impounded water based on the primary drains being blocked. 3. Impounded water heights are to include the hydraulic head above the secondary drainage system. 4. Ponding instability checks are to be made using the larger of snow load or rain load (impounded water). 5. For roofs with snow loads of 20 psf or less, an additional 5 psf of rain on snow must be used in design. 6. Ponding instability calculations are required only for roof slopes less than 1/4 in. per ft.

The authors of this digest concur with the requirements of points 1 through 5. Calculations presented in this digest indicate that ponding instability can occur with roof slopes of 1/4 in. per ft. and greater. Thus, it is recommended in the digest that ponding instability calculations be made even for roof slopes greater than 1/4 in. per ft., unless the roof slope is greater than 1/4 in. per ft. and is free draining (free to drain over the edge of the roof). Accounting for Hydraulic Head: The hydraulic head is extremely important for ponding stability and impounded water calculations since it can account for a major portion of the load on a roof, especially in low snow load areas. The hydraulic head can be calculated from the ASCE 7-05 (ASCE 2005) provisions or from FM1-54 (FM 2001). A 100 year rainfall is typically used. Shown in Table 2-1 (ASCE 7-05 Table C8-1 with permission), are hydraulic heads for various drainage systems. Table 2-1 (from ASCE 7-05) TABLE C8-1 FLOW RATE, Q, IN GALLONS PER MINUTE OF VARIOUS DRAINAGE SYSTEMS AT VARIOUS HYDRAULIC HEADS, INCHES

Hydraulic Head dh, in.

Drainage System 1 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 in. diameter drain 80 170 180 6 in. diameter drain 100 190 270 380 540 8 in. diameter drain 125 230 340 560 850 b 18 50 90 6 in. wide, channel scupper a a 24 in. wide, channel scupper 72 200 360 a a 6 in. wide, 4 in. high, closed scupper 18 50 90 a a 24 in. wide, 4 in. high, closed scupper 72 200 360 a a 6 in. wide, 6 in. high, closed scupper 18 50 90 a a 24 in. wide, 6 in. high, closed scupper 72 200 " 360 " a Interpolation is appropriate, including between widths of each scupper. b Channel scuppers are open-topped (i.e., 3-sided). Closed scuppers are 4-sided. 4 1,100 140 560 140 560 140 560 4.5 1,170 a a a a a " 5 7 8

Accounting for Camber: The current AISC specification provisions for ponding (AISC 2005) are based on the flexural action of a two-way system with secondary members framing at 90 degrees into primary members spanning between columns. An initial pond is assumed to exist as a result of dead load and some portion of live load. This implies that all members are initially straight, having neither upward nor downward camber, but having dead load deflection at completion of installation. The analysis is based on a level roof with all bays simultaneously and equally loaded and only the structural action of the roof is considered. It can be demonstrated (see Appendix B) that a roof which is cambered (or pitched) upward has a greater resistance to ponding than an initially flat or deflected roof. A flexural member begins deflecting from its unstressed shape. If a flexural member is crowned upward after all dead and live load has been placed on it because of initial shape, its response to water loading will not be the same as that of an initially deflected member. This is apparent since water

loading will concentrate near the ends of the upward crowned member producing small flexural stresses, while for the initially deflected member the water collects near the center of the member magnifying flexural stresses. This results in relatively larger center deflections for the initially deflected member, which further increases its potential to retain water load. Camber is provided for LH- and DLH-Series joists in SJI Specification Section 103.6 and for K-Series joists in SJI Specification Section 4.7 (SJI 2005). The magnitude of the centerline camber ordinate for all long span series joists equals 0.00042 L2 in inches where L is the span length in feet. Where pitch is built into long span joist top chords, it has the same effect from a ponding standpoint, since pitch, like camber, is an upward deviation from a straight line connecting the chord ends. The standard pitch at the joist centerline equals 0.0625L in inches, where L is the span length in feet. For two-way framing systems, joists are usually supported on flexural members spanning between columns. When the support members are wide flange beams it is customary to place natural camber upward. After the dead load of such a roof is in place, the beams can very well be deflected downward thus creating initial ponds. For this framing condition, it is recommended that any benefit that camber or pitch of the joists may offer in relieving the ponding problem should be neglected in design since the shape of the roof under dead load cannot be accurately predicted. The situation where joists with a specified built-in camber rest on stiff supports (such as masonry walls or stiff girders) is another matter, since the roof surface elevations are as predictable as any of the other variables a structural designer considers. For this condition, camber used as a deterrent against ponding can be accounted for as illustrated by Examples 1 and 5 in Appendix D. The term stiff supports are used as opposed to rigid supports since it is a relative matter. There are fairly common framing conditions where long joists, having a center camber of up to 4 inches, will be supported by rather short end support girders which deflect (with the roof fully loaded) by less than 1/4 inch. The designer may elect to consider camber as an aid in relief of a potential ponding problem for such a condition. Checking Ponding for Conditions Not Directly Covered by the AISC Provisions: The AISC ponding provisions are based on the following: Flat roof construction. Beams or Joist Girders of equal length and equal stiffness supporting the joists. Identical framing exists in adjacent bays and the bay being checked. All members are simply supported.

Situations often occur where these conditions do not exist. For these cases, solutions can accurately be obtained by modeling the structure, and iterating using increasing water loads resulting from deflections until convergence, or until one or more of the supporting members is stressed to 0.8Fy. The limitation of 0.8Fy is an AISC Specification requirement. It is suggested that Appendix 2, Section 2.2 of the AISC provisions (AISC 2005) can still be used to obtain acceptable solutions for the following situations which do not meet the bases for the AISC ponding provisions: For low sloped roofs (those with slopes, approximately 1/4 in. per ft. and less): Determine the initial stress in the members, fo, based on the dead load plus the code required snow load, or the dead load plus the triangular water load based on the static head and the hydraulic head. For continuous framing: Use the moment of inertia of a simply-supported beam, which provides an equivalent deflection as that of the continuous beam. For roof framing on wall-bearing beams: The AISC Specification indicates that, For roof framing consisting of a series of equally spaced wallbearing beams, the stiffness shall be evaluated as follows. The beams are considered as secondary members supported on an infinitely stiff primary member. For this case, enter Figure A-2-2 with the computed stress index Us. The limiting value Cs is determined by the intercept of a horizontal line representing the Us value and the curve for Cp = 0. When joists are supported by a masonry or concrete wall at one end and bear at the other end on a beam or Joist Girder, and the roof slopes towards drains located at the beam or Joist Girder: Use the AISC procedure without modification. When joists are supported by a masonry or concrete wall at one end and bear at the other end on a beam or Joist Girder, and the roof slopes towards drains located adjacent to the rigid wall: Use the AISC procedure; however, double the calculated moment of inertia for the beam or Joist Girder for the calculation of Cp. Use only Figure A-2-2 for the refined ponding check. Doubling the moment of inertia for the beam or Joist Girder approximates the reduced deflection for the secondary members due to the non-deflecting wall.

CHAPTER 3

RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURE

A general procedure is recommended as follows: I. II. Select a joist system to carry the primary uniform design loads with the use of the SJI Load Tables (SJI 2005). Verify that the selection made in Step I. meets the requirements of the AISC Specification Appendix 2 DESIGN FOR PONDING (AISC 2005): A. If the requirements are met, the joist system selected in Step I. is satisfactory. B. If the requirements are not met, increase the flexural rigidity until provisions of the AISC Specification are satisfied by: 1. Decreasing the joist spacing for the original joist sizes. 2. Increasing the joist size for the original spacing. 3. Increasing the joist depth. Two general roof-framing conditions are considered herein: Case A. A two-way system where the flexibility of the members (beams or Joist Girders) supporting the joists must be taken into account. Case B. A one-way system where the flexibility of the joists themselves is primary in importance, and where the joists rest on stiff supports. Case A. Flexible Supports at Joist Ends: For this condition, it is recommended that the procedure described in the 2005 AISC Specification be followed. The effective joist moment of inertia can be computed for standard joists as shown in Appendix C. A table of effective moments of inertia for KCS joists is also provided in the Appendix C. To apply this technique, it is necessary to have a value for f0, the fiber stress under uniform dead load, plus the impounded water load or snow load assumed to be acting at the onset of ponding (application of water loading). For steel joists this value can be determined by taking the SJI load table value for load capacity as corresponding to 0.6Fy. Then,

S (w D + (w R or w S )) f0 = 0.6 Fy wT

Eq. 3-1

10

where: wD is the uniform dead load in psf wR is the impounded water load in psf wS is the snow load in psf S is the joist spacing in feet wT is the specified load capacity in the SJI Load Tables in plf Fy is the specified minimum yield strength in psi Case B. Stiff Supports at Joist Ends: The step-wise procedure recommended here for a ponding check (after selecting a joist from the SJI Load Tables) is as follows: 1) Compute 32SL4 Cs = 10 7 IE (IE = Effective moment of inertia of joist in in.4, see Appendix C) 2) Estimate h, the height in inches above the support that water can reach before draining freely. A minimum of 1 in. is suggested. See Chapter 8 Commentary of ASCE 7-05 (ASCE 2005) for the calculation of h. Compute the total centerline deflection under ponding from:

= Cs (0.244 w + 1.27 h c ) 1 Cs

Eq. 3-2

3)

where,

w = w D + (w R or w S )

The term c represents the centerline top chord ordinate above a horizontal datum connecting the top chord ends. If the initial ordinate is below the horizontal datum the term c becomes negative, and -c becomes positive. For parallel chord long span joists, c is equal to 0.00042L2 in inches where L is the span length in feet. For long span joists having the top chords pitched symmetrically about the centerline 1/8 inch per foot,

Eq. 3-5

Manufacturing tolerances for camber and/or pitch should be considered in computing c. 4) Compute R1 = S L [0.375 w + 1.95 h + 1.24 ( c )] (lbs) Eq. 3-6

11

This value must be less than the maximum reaction for the joist when calculated from the SJI Load Tables. The reaction R1 must be less than 0.5wTLL where wTL is the specified load capacity in the SJI Load Tables in plf. If it is not less than 0.5wTLL, joist capacity must be increased. 5) For standard SJI joists compute w 1 = S [0.750 w + 3.90 h + 3.16 ( c )] lbs/ ft. Eq. 3-7

This value must be less than the load capacity for the joist tabulated in the SJI Load Tables. If it is not, the flexural rigidity of the roof must be increased.

Ponding Load Strategies:

1. 2.

Provide roof systems to avoid ponding by sloping roof members, or by the use of tapered insulation or sloping fill. Stiffen the roofs structural members by selecting a combination of low flexibility constants which satisfy Equation A-2-1 of the AISC Specification Appendix 2 (AISC 2005). Conduct a more exact analysis for ponding following the procedures given in the AISC Specification Appendix 2. Counteract the ponding mechanism by providing upward camber in the joists, provided that drains are installed near columns (see Factory Mutual 1-54) (FM 2001). When designing roofs with low slopes, parallel chord joists with end supports at different elevations are more economical than providing pitch into the joist top chords. The web system of a non-parallel chord joist and the joist as a whole is more expensive to manufacture. The K-Series Specifications Section 5.13 and the LH- and DLH-Series Specifications Section 104.14 (SJI 2005) state, The span of a parallel chord sloped joist shall be defined by the length along the slope. Minimum depth, load-carrying capacity, and bridging requirements shall be determined by the sloped definition of span. The Load Table capacity shall be the component normal to the joist.

3. 4.

5.

12

CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

1) Steel joists are economical and efficient for roof systems, but their use requires that designers give close attention to deflections. What appears to be a negligible secondary effect, in the case of ponding, can become a necessary design consideration. Procedures have been presented in this digest for designing steel joist roof systems to prevent ponding. A technique has been presented to account for the beneficial effects of cambered and pitched chord joists resting on stiff supports in resisting ponding. Close attention by the designer is critical to prevent collapse due to ponding. It is important to understand how water is displaced on the roof system and where potential ponding situations might occur. Outcrops of building lines along the low side of a sloped roof can lead to potential problems if water displacement is not controlled. Location and size of drains are important as well as properly designed overflow scuppers. Maintenance of these drains and scuppers to keep debris from accumulating should be routine. Even though the International Building Code (ICC 2006) and ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE 2005) indicate that ponding instability need not be considered if the roof slope is equal to or greater than 1/4 in. per ft., it is the authors recommendation that all roofs be designed to preclude instability from ponding loads.

2) 3)

4)

5)

13

REFERENCES

AISC (2003), Fisher, James and West, Michael, Serviceability Design Considerations for Steel Buildings, Steel Design Guide 3, Second Edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL. AISC (2005), Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, March 9, 2005, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. , Chicago, IL. ASCE (2005), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE 7-05, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA. FM (2001), Factory Mutual Engineering Corp., Loss Prevention Data 1-54, Roof Loads For New Construction, (September 1994, Revised September 2001), Norwood, MA. ICC (2006a), 2006 International Building Code, International Code Council, Falls Church, VA. ICC (2006b), 2006 International Plumbing Code, International Code Council, Falls Church, VA. SJI (2005), 42nd Edition Catalog containing Standard Specifications, Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders: K-Series, LHSeries, DLH-Series, Joist Girders, Steel Joist Institute Myrtle Beach, SC.

14

APPENDIX A NOMENCLATURE

A C Cp Cs dh ds = Roof area serviced by a single drainage system, ft.2 = Ponding criterion ratio or stiffness factor =

SL4 144 4 EI

= Stiffness factor for primary member in a flat roof = Stiffness factor for secondary member in a flat roof = Additional depth of water on the undeflected roof above the inlet of the secondary drainage system at its design flow (i.e. the hydraulic head), in. = Depth of water on the undeflected roof up to the inlet of the secondary drainage system when the primary drainage system is blocked (i.e. static head), in. = Modulus of elasticity, lbs/ in.2 = Uniform load on the span due to dead load and a percentage of the live load acting at the onset of ponding, lbs = Uniform load on the span due to portion of the water load acting from the height above roof surface at the joist support to the level of water being contained, lbs = Sinusoidal load on the span due to the ponding of the water load, lbs = Specified minimum yield strength, ksi = Height above roof surface at point of support of joist to level of water, in. = Moment of inertia of flexural member, in.4 = Effective moment of inertia, in.4 = Moment of inertia of primary member, (e.g. Joist Girder, Ig), in.4 = Moment of inertia of secondary member, (e.g. joist, Ij), in.4 = Design rainfall intensity as specified by the code having jurisdiction, in./hr = Live load, lbs/ft.2 = Simple span length, ft. = Length of primary member, ft. = Length of secondary member, ft. = Maximum permissible joist moment under ponding conditions, lb-ft. = Ground snow load, lb/ft.2

E F1 F2

F3 Fy h I Ie Ip Is i L L Lp Ls M1 pg

15

Q R Rp R1 S W wD wR wS wTL w w1 c c

= Flow rate out of a single drainage system, gal/min. = Rain load on the undeflected roof, lbs/ ft.2 = End reaction of joist under ponding conditions, lbs. = Maximum permissible joist end reaction under ponding conditions, lbs. = Flexural member spacing; spacing of secondary members, ft. = Horizontal distance from eave to ridge, ft. = Uniform dead load, lbs/ft. = Impounded water load, lbs/ft. = Snow load, lbs/ft. = wD + (wR or wS) total load, lbs/ft. = (wD + (wR or wS))/S, total load, lbs/ft.2 = Maximum permissible joist load under ponding conditions, lbs/ft. = Centerline deflection of flexural member, in. = Centerline top chord ordinate from horizontal datum connecting top chord ends, in. Positive upward Negative downward. = 0.00042 L2 in inches for parallel chord long span and deep long span joists. This is the standard camber as provided in Table 103.6-1 of the Standard Specifications for Longspan Steel joists, LH-Series and Deep Longspan Steel Joists, DLH-Series. = 0.00042 L2 + 0.0625 L in inches for pitched chord long span and deep long span joists having the top chords pitched symmetrically about the centerline 1/8 inch per foot. = Specific weight of liquid, lbs/ft.3 (for water = 62.4 lbs/ft.3)

16

Determination of Reactions, Equivalent Uniform Load, and Deflections for Cambered Joists Subjected to Water Loads.

Assumptions (see Figure B.1):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A joist behaves elastically like a beam of uniform section, with a reduced effective moment of inertia due to web strain. The deflected shape of the joist due to ponding is sinusoidal. Superposition holds. The ends of the joist are simply-supported, and they rest on stiff supports. h c Cs < 1

Reaction:

R p = F1 + F2 + F3

Rp = wSL h SL ( c ) SL + + (2)(12) 2 12

R (p1) =

4 R1 3

Equivalent Uniform Load:

MCL = F1 L F2 L F3 L + + 4 4

_______________

(1)

Under ponding conditions AISC permits allowable stress to reach 0.8Fy compared to 0.6Fy for SJI Load Tables.

17

The ratio (0.8/0.6) accounts for the AISC increase in stress. w L2 MCL = 1 6 Equating and solving for w1, w 1 = S [ 0.75 w + 3.90 h + 3.16 ( c )] lbs per ft.

Centerline Deflection:

( c ) SL4 (1728)

12 4 EIe

18

= 1 + 2 + 3 or, =

4 4 5 wSL4 (1728) + 5 hSL (1728) + ( c4 ) SL (1728) 384 EIe 384 12 EIe 12 EIe

Figure B.1 Reaction, moment, and deflection for horizontal joist cambered upward under dead load, live load, and water load

19

The effective moment of inertia of a joist can be calculated using the SJI Load Tables: For K-Series joists: The approximate joist moment of inertia can be determined using Equation B-1 that can be found in the introduction to the Standard [ASD or LRFD] Load Table for Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series (SJI 2005),

I j = 26.767 (w LL ) L3 10 6 , in.4

( )(

Eq. C-1

where, wLL = nominal live load which will produce an approximate deflection of 1/360 of the span (red figure in the Load Table), lbs/ft. L = (Span - 0.33), ft.

The effective joist moment of inertia can then be determined. Ie = Ij 1.15 , in.4 Eq. C-2

The reduction factor 1/1.15 is introduced to account for that part of the deflection resulting in web member strain caused by shear deflection.

Example 1:

Given: 24K8 with inside of wall to inside of wall dimension = 35 ft. Find: Ij and Ie Span = 35 + 0.66 = 35.66 ft. wLL = 242 (242-222)(0.66) = 228.7 plf, (interpolated live load from SJI Load Tables) Design length L = 35.66 - 0.33 = 35.33 ft. Ij = 26.767(228.7)(35.333)(10-6) = 269.9 in.4 Ie = 234.7 in.4

20

For LH- and DLH-Series joists: The approximate joist moment of inertia can be determined using Equation C-3 that can be found in the introduction to the SJI Standard [ASD or LRFD] Load Table for Longspan Steel Joists, LH-Series or Deep Longspan Steel Joists, DLH-Series (SJI 2005),

I j = 26.767 (w LL ) L3 10 6 , in.4

( )(

Eq. C-3

where, wLL = nominal live load which will produce an approximate deflection of 1/360 of the span (red figure in the Load Table), lbs/ft. L = (Clear span + 0.67), ft.

Example 2:

Given: 40LH15 with inside of wall to inside of wall dimension = 72 ft. Find: Ij and Ie Clear span = 72 ft. wLL = 315 plf, (from SJI Load Table for 40LH15 @ 72 ft.) Design length L = 72 + 0.67 = 72.67 ft. Ij = 26.767(315)(72.673)(10-6) = 3236 in.4 Ie = 2814 in.4 The effective moments of inertia for older joists may be required when checking an existing roof for ponding. The J- and H-Series joists had no published live load values so the equations given above cannot be used. Table C-1 is provided as a reference when the joists effective moment of inertia is needed. For other older joists such as LJ- and DLJ-Series joists, the SJI published wLL in the standard Load Tables. Therefore, the above method for long span joists can be used in calculating the effective moments of inertia. Today, when KCS joists are specified and a ponding check is required, effective moments of inertia are needed. Table C-2 gives a summary of the effective moments of inertia for all standard KCS joists.

21

Table C-1 Effective Moments of Inertia for Standard J- and H-Series Joists Standard J- and H-Series Joists

Designation 8J3 12J3 12J4 12J5 12J6 16J4 16J5 16J6 16J7 16J8 8H3 12H3 12H4 12H5 12H6 16H4 16H5 16H6 16H7 16H8 Effective Moment of Inertia (in.4) 10.7 25.1 32.9 38.5 45.7 56.1 68.9 81.3 97.9 112.6 Designation 10J3 10J4 14J3 14J4 14J5 14J6 14J7 18J5 18J6 18J7 18J8 18J9 18J10 18J11 20J5 20J6 20J7 20J8 20J9 20J10 20J11 24J6 24J7 24J8 24J9 24J10 24J11 28J8 28J9 28J10 28J11 20H5 20H6 20H7 20H8 20H9 20H0 20H11 24H6 24H7 24H8 24H9 24H0 24H11 28H8 28H9 28H0 28H11 107.7 122.8 149.3 179.6 194.8 220.0 249.6 171.8 207.5 258.5 286.9 322.6 367.8 338.3 395.6 445.2 509.6 30J8 30J9 30J10 30J11 30H8 30H9 30H0 30H11 389.6 456.5 513.9 588.7 26J8 26J9 26J10 26J11 26H8 26H9 26H0 26H11 289.6 339.1 381.7 435.6 22J6 22J7 22J8 22J9 22J10 22J11 10H3 10H4 14H3 14H4 14H5 14H6 14H7 18H5 18H6 18H7 18H8 18H9 18H0 18H11 22H6 22H7 22H8 22H9 22H0 22H11 Effective Moment of Inertia (in.4) 17.2 21.3 34.9 45.6 53.4 63.6 74.9 88.3 104.2 124.8 142.9 155.6 175.6 199.1 143.6 174.3 215.3 239.1 268.7 306.1

22

Table C-2 Effective Moments of Inertia for Standard KCS Joists Standard KCS Joists

Designation 10KCS1 10KCS2 10KCS3 12KCS1 12KCS2 12KCS3 14KCS1 14KCS2 14KCS3 16KCS2 16KCS3 16KCS4 16KCS5 18KCS2 18KCS3 18KCS4 18KCS5 20KCS2 20KCS3 20KCS4 20KCS5 22KCS2 22KCS3 22KCS4 22KCS5 Moment of Inertia (in.4) 29 37 47 43 55 71 59 77 99 99 128 192 245 127 164 247 316 159 205 308 396 194 251 377 485 Effective Moment of Inertia (in.4) 25 32 41 37 48 62 51 67 86 86 111 167 213 110 143 215 275 138 178 268 344 169 218 328 422 Designation 24KCS2 24KCS3 24KCS4 24KCS5 26KCS2 26KCS3 26KCS4 26KCS5 28KCS2 28KCS3 28KCS4 28KCS5 30KCS3 30KCS4 30KCS5 Moment of Inertia (in.4) 232 301 453 584 274 355 536 691 320 414 626 808 478 722 934 Effective Moment of Inertia (in.4) 202 262 394 508 238 309 466 601 278 360 544 703 416 628 812

23

Example 1: LH Series Joists with Parallel Chords on Stiff Supports, Camber Included

Given: Simple span roof joists supported on masonry walls dh = 2 in. (calculated using the provisions shown in ASCE 7-05) Ls = 84 ft. Dead Load, wD = 15 psf (includes allowance for joist weight) Live Load, wL = 20 psf (reducible). Note live load will not control. Snow Load, wS = 20 psf wTL = wD + wS = 15 + 20 = 35 psf c = 0.00042 L2 in inches for parallel chord longspan joists Since the roof framing consists of a series of equally spaced wall-bearing longspan joists, they are considered as secondary members, supported on an infinitely stiff primary member (i.e. masonry wall). Determine: Load Capacity Try a 48LH10 (from the Standard ASD Load Table Longspan Steel Joists, LH-Series, wTL = 231 plf @ 84 ft. clear span Required joist spacing = 231/35 = 6.6 ft. Try 6-6 joist spacing. Snow Load Deflection Snow load per foot of joist = (6.5)(20) psf = 130 plf From the ASD LH-Series Load Table, wL = 127 plf (for LS/360) Snow load producing a deflection limit of LS/240 = (360)(127)/240 = 190 plf > 130 plf OK Allowable Reaction = 0.5 wTL LS = 0.5(231)(84) = 9700 lbs Where wTL is the total safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacity, i.e. available load from the Load Tables. Ponding Check: Assume a potential adverse manufacturing tolerance of 0.5 in. c = 0.00042 L2 0.5 in. = (0.00042)(842) - 0.50) = 2.46 in. See Appendix C for calculating Ie.

24

I j = 26.767 (w L ) L S 10 6 , in.4

3

( )( )

, in.4

Eq. C-3

( )(

Ie =

Ie = 2015 = 1752 in.4 1.15

Ij 1.15

Eq. C-2

Cs = 32 SL4 32(6.5 )(84) s = = 0.59 7 10 Is 10 7 (1752)

4

From Appendix B:

= Cs [0.244 w + 1.268 h c ] in. 1 Cs

R1 = (6.5 )(84) [0.375 (35) + 1.95 (2) + 1.24 (12.4 2.46)] = 16025 lbs

16025 > 9700 lbs NG Reduce joist spacing to 5-0 32 SL4 32(5.0 )(84) s Cs = = = 0.45 10 7 Is 10 7 (1752)

4

0.45 [0.244 (35) + 1.268 (2) 2.46] = 7.05 in. 1 0.45 9541 < 9700 lbs OK

R1 = (5.0 )(84) [0.375 (35 ) + 1.95 (2) + 1.24 (7.05 2.46)] = 9541 lbs

w 1 = (5.0 )[ 0.75 (35) + 3.90 (2) + 3.16 (7.05 2.46)] = 243 plf

243 > 231 plf NG By inspection use 48LH10 joists @ 4-9 spacing

25

Example 2: Two-way System K-Series Joists Supported on Joist Girders (Flexible Supports)

26

Project Description and Loading: The structure is located in Memphis, TN Girder Length, Lg = 40 ft. Girder Depth = 36 in. Girder Top Chord Panel Point Spacing, N = 8 Joist Length, Lj = 40 ft. Joist Spacing, S = 5 ft. Drain Elevation = -10 in. Overflow Elevation = -8 in. (secondary drains are 24 in. wide open channel scuppers) Dead Load, D = 18 psf Girder Dead Load = 1 psf Live Load, wL = 20 psf (reducible) Snow Load (roof), wS = 7 psf (requires 5 psf rain-on-snow surcharge load, wROS see IBC 1611.2 and ASCE 7-05, SECTION 7.10) Rain Load, R on the undeflected roof, psf (from the IBC Plumbing Code, the 100 yr. one hour rainfall for Memphis, TN is 3.75 in./hr) Joist loads: D + L: w TL,J = (D + L ) S w TL,J = (18 + 20)(5) = 190 plf w L,J = (L ) S w L,J = (20)(5 ) = 100 plf Water Loads: Calculation of the hydraulic head (from ASCE 7-05): Determine the flow rate: Q = 0.0104A i gals/min. A = (60)(80) = 4800 sq. ft. i = 3.75 in./hr Q = (0.0104)(4800)(3.75) = 187.2 gals/min. It can be seen from Table 2-1 (as shown in Chapter 2) that the hydraulic head for a flow rate of 187.2 gals/min. is between 1 and 2 inches for the 24 in. wide scupper. Interpolating from Table 2-1, dh = 1.9 in. Therefore, use 2 inches. (C8-1)

27

Figure D.2 Loading Diagram Determine the rain load on the undeflected roof: R = 5.2 (ds + dh )

R = 5.2 [(10.0 8.0 ) + 2.0] = 20.8 psf w 1 = (R )(S) w 1 = (20.8 )(5 ) = 104 plf

(8-1)

L1 = L1 =

(ds + dh )

roof slope

0.25

Peq = 0.5 (w 1 )(L1 ) Peq = 0.5 (104)(16) = 832 lbs Determine the reactions due to the rain load:

R L,J1 =

(L J L 2 ) (P ) eq

LJ

R L,J1 =

40.0

28

R L,J2 = LJ w 2 + R L,J1 2

R L,J2 =

R R,J2 =

LJ w 2 + R R,J1 2

R L,J2 =

Point of zero shear (based on the distance from the right reaction), R 1911 L 3 = R,J2 = = 21.23 ft. from right end. w2 90 Since the inflection point does not encroach into the water load, no adjustment to its location is required. Maximum moment, Mmax Mmax = (R R,J2 )(L 3 ) 2

2

29

w= 8 Mmax (8 )(20288) = = 101.4 plf L2 40 2 J

PD = (18 + 1)(S)(L J ) = (19)(5 )(40) = 3800 = 3.8 kips PL = (12)(S)(L J ) = (12)(5 )(40) = 2400 = 2.4 kips PS = (w S + w ROS )(S)(L J ) = (7 + 5 )(5 )(40) = 2400 = 2.4 kips PD+S = PD + (PS or PL ) = 3.8 + 2.4 = 6.2 kips

Joist Girder: 36G8N6.2K

Ig = 0.027 PL gNd = (0.027)(6.2)(40 )(8 )(36 ) = 1928 in.4

Pwater = (2)(R L,J1 ) = (2)(721) = 1442 = 1.44 kips (Does not control)

max = Imin

Lg

( )

OK

Joist size:

Ls = 40 ft. wTL,J = 190/100 From the SJI Standard ASD Load Table for Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series try a 24K7 (no bolted bridging reqd) wTL = 253 lbs/ft. > 190 lbs/ft. OK wL = 148 lbs/ft. > 100 lbs/ft. OK Allowable shear = (0.5)(253)(40) = 5060 lbs > RL,J2 = 2521 lbs OK L = Span 0.33 ft. = 40 0.33 = 39.667 ft.

)(

30

Ponding Check:

From the AISC Specification Appendix 2 Design for Ponding (AISC 2005): Cp + 0.9 C s 0.25 where,

Cp = 32 L sL4 p 10 7 Ip

(A-2-1)

Cs =

( )

( )

Cp + 0.9 C s = 0.20 + 0.9 (0.19) = 0.37 0.25 NG Therefore, further analysis is required. The improved design provisions found in the AISC Specification Appendix 2 will be used. For Joist Girders (primary members) the stress index is calculated: 0.8 Fy f0 Up = f0 p where, f0 = stress due to the load combination (D + (R or S)), ksi D = nominal dead load, ksi R = nominal load due to rainwater, exclusive of the ponding contribution, ksi S = nominal load due to snow, including any required rain-on-snow surcharge, ksi

P 6.2 f0 D+S fb = 30 = 30.0 ksi P 6.2 D +L

(A-2-3)

The Joist Girder is fully stressed. 0.8 (50) 30 Up = = 0.33 30 For joists (secondary members) the stress index is calculated:

0.8 Fy f0 Us = f0

(A-2-4)

s

31

f 0:

D + S = (18 + 7 + 5)(5) = 150 plf

150 D + S f0 = 30 = 17.8 ksi fb = 253 D+L where D + L is the total safe uniformly distributed load-carrying capacity of the joist from the Load Table. 0.8 (50) 17.8 Us = = 1.25 17.8 From the AISC Specification, Appendix 2, Fig. A-2-1: Cp = 0.10 < 0.20 C s = 0.35 > 0.19

NG

OK

A ponding problem exists. In general, it is most effective to increase the stiffness and strength of the most highly stressed members to avoid ponding. In this case the Joist Girders should be made stiffer.

32

Example 3: Two-Way System K-Series Joists Supported on Joist Girders (Flexible Supports)

Given:

Framing Plan shown in Figure D.4. This example is the same as Example 2 except the framing is turned ninety degrees.

33

Project Description and Loading: The structure is located in Memphis, TN Girder Length, Lg = 40 ft. Girder Depth = 36 in. Girder Top Chord Panel Point Spacing, N = 8 Joist Length, Lj = 40 ft. Joist Spacing, S = 5 ft. Drain Elevation = -10 in. Overflow Elevation = -8 in. (secondary drains are 24 in. wide open channel scuppers) Hydraulic Head, dh = 2 in. from Example 2 Dead Load, D = 18 psf Girder Dead Load = 1 psf Live Load, wL = 20 psf (reducible) Snow Load (roof), ws = 7 psf (requires 5 psf rain-on-snow surcharge load, wROS see IBC 1611.2 and ASCE 7-05, SECTION 7.10) Rain Load, R on the undeflected roof, psf (from the IBC Plumbing Code, the 100 yr. one hour rainfall for Memphis, TN is 3.75 in./hr) Joist loads (same as Example 2): D + L: w TL,J = (18 + 20)(5 ) = 190 plf w L,J = (20)(5 ) = 100 plf Water Loads (same as Example 2):

R = 5.2 [(10.0 8.0 ) + 2.0] = 20.8 psf

wTL,J = (5)(20.8) + 90 = 194.0 lbs/ft. Therefore, a 24K7 joist is still OK From Example 2, the 24K7 was stiff enough, but a stiffer less stressed Joist Girder was required.

I j = (26.767)(148) 39.673 10 6 = 247 in.4

)(

34

PD = (18 + 1)(S)(L J ) = (19)(5 )(40) = 3800 = 3.8 kips PL = (12)(S)(L J ) = (12)(5 )(40) = 2400 = 2.4 kips PS = (w S + w ROS )(S)(L J ) = (7 + 5 )(5 )(40) = 2400 = 2.4 kips PD+S = PD + (PS or PL ) = 3.8 + 2.4 = 6.2 kips By observation live load controls over impounded water for the Joist Girders. Joist Girder: 36G8N6.2K (same as Example 2) Now try a 36G8N8.0K

Ig = 0.027 PL gNd = (0.027)(8.0 )(40)(8 )(36) = 2488 in.4

Ponding Check:

From the AISC Specification Appendix 2 Design for Ponding (AISC 2005): Cp + 0.9 C s 0.25 where,

Cp = 32 L sL4 p 107 Ip =

(A-2-1)

Cs =

( )

( )

Cp + 0.9 C s = 0.15 + 0.9 (0.19) = 0.32 0.25 NG Therefore, further analysis is required. The improved design provisions found in the AISC Specification Appendix 2 will be used. For Joist Girders (primary members) the stress index is calculated: 0.8 Fy f0 Up = f0 p

P 6.2 f0 D+S fb = 30 = 23.25 ksi P 8.0 D +L

(A-2-3)

35

For joists (secondary members) the stress index is the same as calculated in Example 2. 0.8 (50) 17.8 Us = = 1.25 17.8 From the AISC Specification, Appendix 2, Fig. A-2-1: Cp = 0.26 > 0.20 C s = 0.35 > 0.28

OK

OK

36

For the roof shown in Figure D.5 determine if the roof is free draining under the total superimposed loads. Do not consider camber. Due to wall attachment assume the edge joist does not deflect. The roof has a slope of 1/4 in. per ft. to the right.

Dead Load = 15 psf (includes approximate Joist Girder weight of 1 psf) Snow Load = 25 psf

Joist Selection:

Joist Loading = (14 + 25)(6.25) = 244 plf Lp = 50 ft.; Ls = 40 ft.; S = 6.25 ft. Try 26K6 Joists From Standard ASD Load Table for Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series wTL = 247 plf wL = 157 plf Nominal load producing an approximate center deflection of L/240 = 1.5 (157) = 236 plf Live load = (25)(6.25) = 157 plf < 236 plf OK

37

Lg = 50 ft. Determine approximate girder depth = 1.1Lg = (1.1)(50) = 55; use 56 in. Panel point loading on Joist Girder = (15 + 25)(6.25)(40)/1000 = 10 kips. Try a 56G8N10.0K Live load deflection check: (25)(40) = 1000 plf = 1.0 k/ft. Ig = 0.027NPLd = (0.027)(8)(10.0)(50)(56) = 6048 in.4 Ie =6048/1.15 = 5259 in.4 Live load deflection =

4

Free Drainage Check: Joist Selection:

Ij = 26.767(157)(40-0.33)3(10-6) = 262/1.15 = 228 in.4 LJ = 40 ft. Use the full snow load for this check.

5 w TLL4 (5 )(0.244)(40 0.33) (1728) Total load deflection = = = 2.06 in. 384 EI j 384 (29000)(228)

4

Based on the roof slope, the first upslope joist is higher than the edge joist by (6.25)(0.25) = 1.56 in. Even without considering the deflection of the Joist Girders it can be seen that the joists must be stiffer to maintain free draining. Use a stiffer joist for the first upslope joist. The joist needs to be approximately 50 percent stiffer, or (2.18/1.56) = 1.40. Try an additional 26K6 joist placed 3.125 ft. upslope. Based on the roof slope, this 26K6 joist is higher than the edge joist by (3.125)(0.25) = 0.78 in. Joist deflection = (0.5)(2.06) = 1.03 in. Even without considering the Joist Girder deflection, free drainage will not exist. A stiffer joist needs to be used for the first upslope joist. Try a 30K12 joist, wTL = 438 plf wL = 315 plf

38

5 w TLL4 (5 )(0.244)(40 0.33) (1728) Total load deflection = = = 1.02 in. 384 EI j 384 (29000)(458)

4

Determine the deflection of the Joist Girder at the first upslope joist. Uniform load on Joist Girder, w = (15 +25)(40)/1000 = 1.6 kips/ft. The deflection x at any point, x, along the Joist Girder can be determined using the following equation: x = x = wx 3 Lg 2 Lgx 2 + x 3 24 EIe

Total deflection of joist = 1.02 + 0.57 = 1.59 in. 1.56 in. OK Check if positive drainage exists between the 30K12 joist and the next upslope 26K6 joist. The Joist Girder deflection at the 26K6 joist located 12.5 ft. from the eave is: x =

Total deflection of the 26K6 joist = 2.06 + 1.05 = 3.11 in. The final elevation of the 26K6 joist = (0.25)(12.5) 3.11 in. = 0.015 in. The final elevation of the 30K12 joist = 1.56 1.59 in. = -0.030 in. Positive drainage exists. Use the 30K12 joist at the first upslope location.

39

40

Loads:

Dead Load = 15 psf (includes approximate Joist Girder weight of 1 psf) Live Load = 20 psf The secondary drains consist of scuppers in the parapet walls. Design for impounded water per IBC. Assume a hydraulic head of 1 in. was calculated. Select Joist J1, and Joist Girder G1 for DL + LL and DL + Impounded Water. Water level at blocked drain = Hydraulic Head + Drain Elevation + Overflow: = 1 + 10 + 2 = 13 in. of impounded water at drain. Determine the rain load on the undeflected roof: R = 5.2 (ds + dh ) = 5.2 [12.0 + 1.0] = 67.6 psf

Joist J1:

Controls

(D + Water)S = [14 + (67.6 + 61.1)/2] 5 = 392 plf Water Load = [(67.6 + 61.1)/2] 5 = 322 plf

From the SJI Standard ASD Load Table for Open Web Steel Joists, K-Series try a 28K10 wTL = 424 plf > 392 plf OK wL = 284 plf (L/360) Use a 28K10 joist. The remaining joists sizes that were determined are shown on Figure D.6.

OK

Panel point load = (D + L) S LJ= (15 + 20) (5) (40) = 7000 lbs Use 36G8N7.0KSP See Dead Load + Impounded Water loading diagram for Joist Girder G1: Controls

Check ponding:

Based on the Joist Girder loading shown in Figure D.7, the maximum girder moment is 5424 kip-in. The gross moment of inertia can be estimated from the maximum moment. Assuming a stress level of 28 ksi in the top chord and bottom chord of the Joist Girder, the area of the girder would be the moment divided by the effective depth of the girder and the maximum stress in the girder. Thus, the top chord area equals 5424 / [(36 2)(28)] = 5.7 in.2, where 2 in. is used to adjust the total girder depth to an effective depth. The gross moment of inertia can be approximated from 2Ad2. Thus, Ig = (2)(5.7)(17)2 = 3295 in.4 For the ponding check use the 28K7 joist. wL = 203 lbs/ft. Ij = 26.767(203)(40-0.33)3(10-6) = 339 in.4

42

From the AISC Specification Appendix 2 Design for Ponding (AISC 2005): Cp + 0.9 C s 0.25 where,

Cp = 32 L sL4 p 107 Ip

(A-2-1)

Cs =

( )

( )

Ponding instability does not occur.

43

1. 2. Haussler, Robert W.(1962) Roof Deflection Caused by Rainwater Pools ASCE Civil Engineering magazine, Vol. 32, No. 10, October. Krenzi, Edward W. and Bohannan, Billy (1964) Increases in Deflection and Stresses caused by Ponding of Water on Roofs Forest Products Journal, September. Chinn, James (1965) Failure of Simply-Supported Flat Roofs by Ponding of Rain Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 2, No. 2, April. Marino, Frank J. (1966) Ponding of Two-Way Roof Systems Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 3, No. 3, July. Sawyer, Donald A.(1967) Discussion of Ponding of Two-Way Roof Systems Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 4, No. 1, January. Salama, Ahmed E. and Moody, Martin F. (1967) Analysis of Beams and Plates for Ponding Loads Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. ST1, February. Sawyer, Donald A. (1967) Ponding of Rainwater on Flexible Roof Systems Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. ST1, February. Sawyer, Donald A. (1968) Roof-Structure Roof-Drainage Interaction Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 94, No. ST1, January. Chinn, James, Mansouri, Abdulwahab H., and Adams, Stanley F. (1969) Ponding of Liquids on Flat Roofs Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. ST5, May. Pandit, G.S. (1970) Discussion of Ponding of Liquids on Flat Roofs Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 96, No. ST1, January. Chinn, James, Mansouri, Abdulwahab H., and Adams, Stanley F.(1970) Closure, Ponding of Liquids on Flat Roofs Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 96, No. ST9, September. Heinzerling, John E. (1971) Structural Design of Steel Joist Roofs to Resist Ponding Loads, Technical Digest No. 3, Steel Joist Institute, Myrtle Beach, SC. Burgett, Lewis B. (1973) Fast Check for Ponding Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 10, No. 1, January. Carter, Charles J. and Zuo, Jiahong (1999), Ponding Calculations in LRFD and ASD Engineering Journal, AISC, Vol. 36, No. 3, Third Quarter. Fisher, James, West, Michael, and Van De Pas, Julius (1991) Designing with Steel Joists, Joist Girders, and Steel Deck, Nucor Corporation. Patterson, Stephen and Mehta, Madan (2001) Roofing Design and Practice, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

12.

44

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