J A N U A R Y

6.

1941

TIME
THE WEEKLY NEWSMAGAZINE

MAN

OF T H E

YEAR

Blood, t o i l , tears, sweat—and u n t o l d courage.
(Foreign News)

METAXAS. BEVIN, HITLER, ROOSEVELT In 1040, runners-up.

Man of the Year
(See Cover)

GREAT

BRITAIN

Those w h o w r i t e h i s t o r y w i t h words sometimes forget t h a t h i s t o r y is made w i t h words. T h e course of the 20th Cent u r y has been shaped b y three stupendous m o v e m e n t s . E a c h m o v e m e n t has been led b y a m a n of words, w h o used words as i n s t r u m e n t s of p o l i c y , of persuasion a n d of power, w h o e p i t o m i z e d the character of his m o v e m e n t i n words of h i s t o r i c s i m plicity. • I n the a u t u m n of 1917. i n S m o l n y I n stitute i n Petrograd. N i k o l a i L e n i n quietly said: We shall now proceed to construct the Socialist State. • I n the a u t u m n of 1924, i n L a n d s b e r g Fortress i n B a v a r i a , A d o l f H i t l e r w r o t e i n Mein Kampf: I , however, resolved now to become a politician. • O n M a y 13, 1940, i n his first s t a t e m e n t as P r i m e M i n i s t e r t o the B r i t i s h H o u s e of C o m m o n s , W i n s t o n L e o n a r d Spencer C h u r c h i l l d e c l a r e d : / have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. Those eleven b u r n i n g words s u m m e d u p the n a t u r e of B r i t a i n ' s war, t u r n e d B r i t ain's back on the weaknesses of the past, set her face t o w a r d the u n k n o w n f u t u r e .

Because of t h e m the rest of t h a t speech has been f o r g o t t e n . I t should n o t be f o r g o t t e n , f o r i t is n o t o n l y a great example of W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l ' s eloquence, b u t the epitome of the m o v e m e n t w h i c h he leads. A f t e r a brief r e p o r t on the f o r m a t i o n of his G o v e r n m e n t , W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l said: " Y o u ask. w h a t is o u r p o l i c y ? I say i t is t o wage w a r b y l a n d , sea and a i r — w a r w i t h all our m i g h t a n d w i t h a l l the strength G o d has given u s — a n d to wage w a r against a m o n s t r o u s t y r a n n y never surpassed i n the d a r k and lamentable catalogue of h u m a n crime. T h a t is our p o l i c y . " Y o u ask. w h a t is our a i m ? I can answer i n one w o r d . I t is v i c t o r y . V i c t o r y at all costs. V i c t o r y i n spite of a l l terrors. V i c t o r y , h o w e v e r long and h a r d the road m a y be. f o r w i t h o u t v i c t o r y there is no survival. " L e t t h a t be realized. N o s u r v i v a l for the B r i t i s h E m p i r e , no s u r v i v a l f o r a l l t h a t the B r i t i s h E m p i r e has stood f o r , no s u r v i v a l f o r the urge, the impulse of the ages, t h a t m a n k i n d shall m o v e f o r w a r d t o w a r d his g o a l . " December 31, 1940, was n o t o n l y the end of a y e a r ; i t was the end of a decade — t h e m o s t t e r r i f y i n g of the 20th C e n t u r y . T h e decade w h i c h ended i n 1920 h a d seen a w a r t h a t was t o p r o v e inconclusive. I t

h a d seen a r e v o l u t i o n t h a t was to lie quiescent after establishing itself i n the largest c o u n t r y of the w o r l d . T h e decade w h i c h ended i n 1930 was one of confusion and wasted e n e r g y — t h e wasted energy of g a m b l i n g and g i n - d r i n k i n g i n the U . S., of c i v i l w a r i n the Far East, of m i s d i r e c t e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y effort f r o m the U . S. S. R., of the a t t e m p t i n E u r o p e t o h o l d resurgent peoples i n check. T h e decade w h i c h ended this week saw the f a i l u r e of t h a t a t t e m p t and the unleashing of ruthless war. I t saw the F a r East's b a t t l e of w a r lords t u r n i n t o a w a r for the supremacy of one people. I t saw the U . S. t u r n t o a feverish effort to p r o t e c t itself and i t s neighbors. I t saw, i n the B a t t l e of B r i t a i n , the l i f e - & - d e a t h struggle of the greatest empire the w o r l d has ever k n o w n . The C a n d i d a t e s of 1940. N o a r t i s t , no athlete, no scientist, o n l y a m a n whose place was on the stage of w o r l d p o l i t i c s , could be M a n of 1 9 4 0 — l a s t a n d stormiest year of a s t o r m y decade. T h e obvious U . S. candidate f o r t h a t t i t l e was F r a n k l i n D e l a n o Roosevelt, w h o got himself elected f o r an unprecedented t h i r d t e r m . B u t F r a n k l i n Roosevelt's other accomplishments of 1940 were n o t b r e a t h taking. O n the score of leadership Wendell

GAMELIN, MUSSOLINI, L E W I S , ALMAZAN In 1Q40, flops.

T I M E , January 6,

1941

A m o n g other Europeans w h o h a d made t h e i r m a r k i n 1940, one was s h o r t , squat General J o h n Meta.xas. P r e m i e r o f the Greeks, w h o had made a m o n k e y o f B e n i to M u s s o l i n i . A n o t h e r was B r i t a i n ' s U n i o n Leader Ernest B e v i n . w h o became a t o w e r of s t r e n g t h i n B r i t a i n ' s G o v e r n m e n t , w h o r a l l i e d L a b o r t o B r i t a i n ' s cause, w h o became a s y m b o l of the b r e a k d o w n o f class d i s t i n c t i o n s b y w h i c h B r i t a i n achieved a new u n i t y t o fight her b a t t l e . Y e t the curious fact was t h a t i n m o s t men's m i n d s e v e r y w h e r e — e v e n i n Germ a n y , t o judge b y N a z i d e n u n c i a t i o n s — W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l o u t r a n k e d a l l others as M a n o f 1940. H e came t o p o w e r as P r i m e M i n i s t e r j u s t as the B l i t z k r i e g descended u p o n B r i t a i n ' s outposts. I n his first f e w weeks i n office t h e y t o p p l e d a b o u t h i m like ninepins. N o r w a y had already been lost. T h e n f e l l T h e N e t h e r l a n d s , B e l g i u m , France. Against this r o l l call o f defeats, a l l the v i c t o r i e s w h i c h C h u r c h i l l gave h i s c o u n t r y m e n , aside f r o m isolated successes at sea, were such t h a t any C o c k n e y could c o u n t t h e m on his t h u m b s : 1) the gallant evacuation at D u n k i r k , r e a l l y a disaster i n w h i c h , a l t h o u g h u p w a r d s o f 335.000 m e n were saved, the e q u i p m e n t of v i r t u a l l y the e n t i r e B r i t i s h E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force was l o s t ; 2 ) the B a t t l e of the M a r m a r i c a w h i c h smashed the I t a l i a n A r m y i n E g y p t . B u t C h u r c h i l l was n o t w i t h o u t acc o m p l i s h m e n t . H e gave his c o u n t r y m e n exactly w h a t he p r o m i s e d t h e m — b l o o d , t o i l , tears, s w e a t — a n d one t h i n g m o r e : u n t o l d courage. I t was the last t h a t c o u n t e d , n o t o n l y i n B r i t a i n b u t i n democracies t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . One evening j u s t before year's end m i l lions o f U . S. citizens sat silent before t h e i r radios and heard t h e i r President i d e n t i f y the f u t u r e o f t h e i r c o u n t r y w i t h t h e f u t u r e of Great B r i t a i n (see p. p ) . B u t m o r e t h a n six m o n t h s before, w h e n France was t o t t e r i n g , i t was W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l w h o raised his b r a n d y - h a r s h voice a n d made t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n real, s a y i n g : " W e shall defend our island w h a t e v e r the cost m a y b e ; we shall fight on beaches, l a n d i n g grounds, i n fields, i n streets and on the h i l l s . W e shall never surrender a n d even i f , w h i c h I do n o t f o r the m o m e n t believe, t h i s island or a large p a r t of i t were subjugated and s t a r v i n g , then our e m p i r e b e y o n d the seas, a r m e d and guarded b y the B r i t i s h Fleet, w i l l c a r r y on the struggle u n t i l i n God's good t i m e the N e w W o r l d , w i t h a l l its power a n d m i g h t , sets f o r t h t o the l i b e r a t i o n and rescue of the O l d . " Anglo-American. As a s y m b o l o f A n g l o A m e r i c a n u n i t y W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l is a paradox because his A m e r i c a n i s m is m o r e British than American—more British, even, t h a n a v e r a g e - B r i t i s h . T h i s sevenm o n t h c h i l d of a B r i t i s h peer and an A m e r ican heiress w e n t back t o E l i z a b e t h a n times t o find his s p i r i t u a l forebears; he grew t o m a t u r i t y w i t h a s t o m a c h f o r s t r o n g food and d r i n k , w i t h a lust for a d v e n t u r e , w i t h a tongue a n d pen t h a t

GERMANY'S ARMY, AIR FORCE, NAVY* They dished it out. W i l l k i e , w h o , a l t h o u g h a businessman, conv i n c e d 22,500,000 voters t h a t he spoke f o r a v i t a l cause, p e r f o r m e d m o r e s t r i k i n g l y . B u t i n the end W i l l k i e d i d n o t succeed i n leading his crusade t o v i c t o r y . T h e great accomplishments of 1940 belonged, i f anywhere, across the waters as t h e y d i d i n 1938 w h e n M a n of the Y e a r H i t l e r conquered w i t h o u t f i g h t i n g i n Aust r i a and at M u n i c h , as t h e y d i d i n 1939 w h e n M a n of the Y e a r S t a l i n got h a l f of P o l a n d b y a shrewd deal and a free h a n d t o w o r k his w i l l on F i n l a n d . B u t 1940 d i d n o t f a l l l i k e a p l u m i n t o the l a p o f the D i c t a t o r s . One of t h e m , B e n i t o M u s s o l i n i , t h i n k i n g conquest was easy, p r o v e d the year's greatest flop. A n o t h e r , Joseph Stal i n , lost several teeth before he chewed off an edge of t o u g h l i t t l e F i n l a n d . A t h i r d , A d o l f H i t l e r , was m o r e successful. H i t l e r d u r i n g the year conquered five n a t i o n s b y a r m s — a m o n g t h e m France, h i s m o s t p o w e r f u l opponent on the C o n t i n e n t — a n d s u b j u g a t e d p a r t o f the B a l kans b y threats. H i s conquests were on a par w i t h those o f N a p o l e o n B o n a p a r t e . B u t i n one v i t a l respect he f a i l e d . H e d i d n o t master B r i t a i n , as scheduled, before the summer was o u t . H e d i d n o t b r i n g the w a r t o a v i c t o r i o u s conclusion. A t year's end he h a d a t i r i n g people at h o m e , and a w a r abroad, a war w h i c h , unless he could end i t s w i f t l y , m i g h t u l t i m a t e l y p r o v e Germany's u n d o i n g . A l l his v i c t o r i e s h a d n o t saved h i m f r o m j e o p a r d y nor w o n h i m real success. Before the end of f a t e f u l 1941 H i t l e r m a y be M a n o f the C e n t u r y — i f B r i t a i n falls. I f B r i t a i n s t i l l stands at the end o f 1941, A d o l f H i t l e r m a y be on his w a y t o j o i n the distinguished c o m p a n y of B e n i t o M u s s o l i n i , Generals G a m e l i n and A l m a z a n , and J o h n L l e w e l l y n L e w i s , those m e n of h i g h hopes w h o f a i l e d t o come t h r o u g h i n the crisis year o f 1940.
* F i e l d M a r s h a ] von B r a u c h i t s c h . Reich shal G o r i n g , G r a n d A d m i r a l Raeder. Mar-

T I M E , January 6,

1941

shaped the E n g l i s h language i n t o the v i r i l e p a t t e r n s of a D o n n e , a M a r l o w e or a Shakespeare. H i s f a t h e r he w o r s h i p e d , b u t never got close t o ; his m o t h e r he respectfully admired. H e h a d m o n e y , a name a n d a flair f o r p u b l i c i t y ; he had L o r d R a n d o l p h C h u r c h ill's " f o r c e , caprice and c h a r m " ; and he had an i n c o m p a r a b l e g i f t f o r words. D u r i n g his years of eclipse between the t w o W o r l d W a r s he was an a r t i c u l a t e and consistent c r i t i c of B r i t i s h E m p i r e p o l i c y , the m o s t feared p o l i t i c i a n i n B r i t a i n b y the n a r r o w - m i n d e d m e n w h o made t h a t p o l i c y . H e was the one m a n i n the B r i t i s h E m p i r e m o s t o b v i o u s l y equipped to lead the E m p i r e i n war. and i t was small credit t o B r i t a i n t h a t he was n o t chosen to lead i t u n t i l the E m p i r e rocked on its heels. T h e year 1940 f o u n d the m a n , as w e l l as the m a n the year. I t f o u n d h i m speaki n g , n o t o n l y as a B r i t o n , b u t as an A m e r ican, t a k i n g his words f r o m Oscar H " m m e r s t e i n a n d E d n a F e r b e r : "These t w o

great organizations of the English-speaking democracies, the B r i t i s h E m p i r e and the U n i t e d States, w i l l have to be somew h a t m i x e d up together i n some o f t h e i r affairs f o r m u t u a l and general advantage. For m y o w n p a r t , l o o k i n g o u t u p o n the f u t u r e , I do n o t v i e w the process w i t h any misgivings. N o one can stop i t . L i k e the Mississippi, i t j u s t keeps r o l l i n g along. L e t i t r o l l . L e t i t r o l l on i n f u l l flood, inexorable, irresistible, to broader lands and better d a y s . " W a r of Words. A d o l f H i t l e r a n d W i n ston C h u r c h i l l are the t w o m e n alive i n the w o r l d t o d a y w h o best u n d e r s t a n d the power of words as weapons of w a r f a r e . T h e i r techniques are different. H i t l e r uses words as poison gas; C h u r c h i l l uses t h e m as a b r o a d s w o r d . Y e t he, t o o , can be cunn i n g . Last M a y he w r o t e a l e t t e r to B e n i t o M u s s o l i n i couched i n the sort of language C a p t a i n J o h n S m i t h m i g h t have used to a savage c h i e f t a i n : " I . . . feel a desire t o speak words o f

good w i l l to y o u , as chief o f the I t a l i a n n a t i o n , across w h a t seems t o be a s w i f t l y w i d e n i n g g u l f . . . . W e can, no d o u b t , i n f l i c t grievous i n j u r i e s u p o n one another and m a u l each other c r u e l l y and d a r k e n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n w i t h our s t r i f e . I f y o u so decree, i t m u s t be so. B u t I declare t h a t I have never been the enemy o f I t a l ian greatness, nor ever at h e a r t the foe o f the I t a l i a n lawgiver. . . . D o w n the ages, above a l l other calls, comes the cry t h a t the j o i n t heirs of L a t i n a n d C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n m u s t n o t be ranged against one another i n m o r t a l s t r i f e . H e a r k e n t o i t , I beseech y o u i n a l l h o n o r and respect, before the dread signal is g i v e n . I t w i l l never be given b y u s . " T h i s plea f a i l e d , b u t last week W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l made i t again, this t i m e over the head of I I D u c e i n a broadcast d i r e c t l y t o the I t a l i a n people. T h i s t i m e he used his b r o a d s w o r d . H e s a i d : " O n e m a n a n d one m a n alone has ranged the I t a l i a n people i n deadly struggle against the B r i t i s h E m p i r e and has d e p r i v e d I t a l y o f the s y m p a t h y and i n t i m a c y o f the U n i t e d States o f A m e r i c a . . . . One m a n has arrayed the trustees and i n h e r i t o r s o f ancient R o m e upon the side o f the ferocious pagan barbarians. . . . T h e r e lies the t r a g edy of I t a l i a n h i s t o r y and there stands the c r i m i n a l w h o has w r o u g h t the deed o f f o l l y and of shame." H o w m a n y I t a l i a n s hearkened t o these words no one k n o w s , * b u t i t was necessary f o r K i n g V i t t o r i o Emanuele to make a plea f o r u n i t y t o his people and f o r C r o w n Princess M a r i e Jose p u b l i c l y to j o i n the Fascist P a r t y . The Men. Man-of-the-Year Churchill does n o t stand alone. N e i t h e r does R u n ner-up H i t l e r . Beside and b e h i n d H i t l e r stand the G e r m a n a r m e d forces, the sup e r b l y d e s t r u c t i v e machine fashioned b y G o r i n g , B r a u c h i t s c h , Raeder a n d hundreds of others. Beside and b e h i n d C h u r c h i l l stands a v e r y s m a l l m a n m u l t i p l i e d a m i l l i o n f o l d . H e is j u s t an E n g l i s h m a n . H e was b o r n i n the c o u n t r y , or i n one of the b i g cities of the M i d l a n d s , or i n a grey house i n a L o n d o n s u b u r b . T h e hands t h a t reared h i m were h a r d . H i s f o o d was t e p i d or c o l d : b u t t e r a n d bread, j a m a n d strong black tea, m u t t o n a n d w h a t was l e f t over of the Sunday j o i n t . H i s b o y h o o d was t o u g h . A t school he was caned. H e grew to k n o w h i s t o r y i n a simple w a y ; he grew to love his K i n g as he l o v e d the m i s t i n the p a r k on a summer's m o r n i n g , the hedges and the downs a n d the beaches. B u t he never spoke of these t h i n g s . W h e n the w a r came he d i d n o t l i k e i t . F o r a m o m e n t he k n e w fear, t h e n he l i t his pipe and p o u r e d h i m s e l f a w h i s k e y . W h e n the b l a c k o u t came he groused. C h u r c h i l l t o o k o v e r : the r i g h t m a n f o r the j o b . T h e n came D u n k i r k : a b l o o d y shame. T h e n the stuff f e l l : St. Paul's, the c l u b , w o m e n and c h i l d r e n , L o n d o n afire. H e got m a d , b u t he d i d n o t show i t . T h e r e was

BRITAIN'S L I T T L E MAN & FAMILY They took it.

* N a t i o n a l Broadcasting Co. p i c k e d up B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g Corp.'s broadcast of the speech i n I t a l i a n , rebroadcast i t over short wave to I t a l y .

T I M E , January 6,

1941

too much to d o : business to carry o n , c h i l d r e n to be sent t o the c o u n t r y , people t o be d u g out of shelters, sleep to be got somehow. A b l o o d y nuisance. O n his b e h a v i o r h u n g the shape of the f u t u r e . H i s civilized toughness, his b a l anced courage and his simple pride altered the course of h i s t o r y i n 1940. W i t h o u t h i m there could have been no C h u r c h i l l . "Their Finest Hour." Great h i s t o r y makes great l i t e r a t u r e . Seven years after the Spanish A r m a d a an E n g l i s h m a n w r o t e : This royal throne of kings, this scept'red isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, This other Eden, demi-paradise, This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war, This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall, Or as a moat defensive to a house, Against the envy of less happier lands; This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. . . . I n times of a c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e is the words of m e n of a c t i o n . A f t e r w a r d come the poets. T o the s m a l l m e n of B r i t a i n i n 1940 W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l spoke w o r d s t h a t m a y l i v e as long as Shakespeare's: Let duty British for a "This us therefore brace ourselves to and so bear ourselves that if Commonwealth and Empire thousand years, men will still was their finest hour!" our the last say

T H E KING "I have seen for myself."

T I M E , January 6,

1941

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