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Proofs in Geometry

Topic/Title Proving similar triangles/Pythagorean Theorem 1- 40-minute class period Grade Level Geometry Grade 10 Materials Standards Geometry Introduction During high school, students begin to formalize their geometry experiences from elementary and middle school, using more precise definitions and developing careful proofs. Later in college some students develop Euclidean and other geometries carefully from a small set of axioms. The concepts of congruence, similarity, and symmetry can be understood from the perspective of geometric transformation. Geometric shapes can be described by equations, making algebraic manipulation into a tool for geometric understanding, modeling, and proof. The definitions of sine, cosine, and tangent for acute angles are founded on right triangles and similarity, and, with the Pythagorean Theorem, are fundamental in many real-world and theoretical situations. The Pythagorean Theorem is generalized to non-right triangles by the Law of Cosines. Congruence Experiment with transformations in the plane 1. Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc. 4. Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations 2. Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides. G-SRT G-CO

Chalk or white board, computer with internet, student handouts Content Standards

3. Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar. Prove theorems involving similarity 4. Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle similarity. 5. Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures. Circles Understand and apply theorems about circles 2. Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, and chords. Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle. Mathematical Practices 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Observe and explain patterns to formulate generalizations and Conjectures Use multiple representations to represent and explain problem situations (e.g., spatial, geometric, verbal, numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations) G-C

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Choose an effective approach to solve a problem from a variety of strategies (numeric, graphic, algebraic) Construct various types of reasoning, arguments, justifications and methods of proof for problems Recognize and verify, where appropriate, geometric relationships of perpendicularity, parallelism, congruence, and similarity, using algebraic strategies

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Provide correct mathematical arguments in response to other students conjectures, reasoning, and arguments Apply inductive reasoning in making and supporting mathematical conjectures

Communicate logical arguments clearly, showing why a result makes sense and why the reasoning is valid

4. Model with mathematics. Use mathematical representations to communicate with appropriate accuracy, including numerical tables, formulas, functions, equations, charts, graphs, and diagrams Use mathematics to show and understand mathematical phenomena (e.g., use investigation, discovery, conjecture, reasoning, arguments, justification and proofs to validate that the two base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent) Support or reject arguments or questions raised by others about the correctness of mathematical work

5. Use appropriate tools strategically. Use physical objects, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, symbols, equations, or objects created using technology as representations of mathematical concepts Use representation as a tool for exploring and understanding mathematical ideas

6. Attend to precision. Support or reject arguments or questions raised by others about the correctness of mathematical work Use correct mathematical language in developing mathematical questions that elicit, extend, or challenge other students conjectures

7. Look for and make use of structure.

Draw conclusions about mathematical ideas through decoding, comprehension, and interpretation of mathematical visuals, symbols, and technical writing Understand and use appropriate language, representations, and terminology when describing objects, relationships, mathematical solutions, and geometric diagrams Understand and make connections among multiple representations of the same mathematical idea Understand and use appropriate language, representations, and terminology when describing objects, relationships, mathematical solutions, and geometric diagrams

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Understand the corresponding procedures for similar problems or mathematical concepts

Use mathematics to show and understand mathematical phenomena (e.g., use investigation, discovery, conjecture, reasoning, arguments, justification and proofs to validate that the two base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent)

Throughout the lesson the NCTM Standards for Teaching Mathematics will be paramount, i.e., The students will be engaging in worthwhile mathematical tasks both in class work and assigned work. All assigned work is relevant to the NYS standards and will involve realistic applications The teachers role in discourse will be positive, engaging, challenging, and inspiring. The students role in discourse will be encouraged, important, and mathematical and will fully satisfy the communication process strand.

The teacher will engage in constant analysis of teaching and learning pre- and postlessons to ensure that all objectives are met. Strength of the lessons will be identified as well as areas needing adjustment.

Multiple methods will be used for enhancing discourse including class work, technology and directed activities.
The learning environment will constantly be one that will foster each Students will be

encouraged and assisted in active problem solving, making connections, and in understanding and creating representations while employing strong reasoning and proof skills. Anticipatory Set Discussion I will start class with the video of Pythagoras which shows the history behind him. The video is about 4 minutes and explain that we will prove the Pythagorean Theorem at the end of class. Then we will move on to the first proof. Learning Activity The lesson will begin with a problem using similar triangles. I will draw the simple diagram on the board and will ask students to guide me through the proof. I will ask students to guide me throughout the proof. I will give the handout of the proof to the students with diagram included. Next, we as a class will use another diagram by drawing a circle and two intersecting chords. Then draw dotted lines an d label the angles. We will then label the angles by knowing that angle 1 is congruent because they are vertical and angle two 2 are congruent

because they are inscribed and subtend the same minor arc. The same then can be said about angels labeled 3. We would also label each line segment a , b, c and d. Then by using the AA property we can show that line a multiplied by line b is equal to equal line c multiplied by d. This shows the theorem that the product of segment of one chord equals the product of the segment of the other chord.

Finally, with the last 15- 20 minutes of class we are going to use the diagram that I had on the board at the beginning of class to prove the Pythagorean Theorem. We will derive the formula using the powerful theorem that we learn in class. I will give the handout of the diagram of the proof and lets students work on the proof in groups. Then after 15 minutes of being in groups we will cover the proof as a class and wrap up class with answering any questions that the students may have.

Provision for Diversity

Gearing Down If I find that some student or the class is having difficulty with the lesson. I will slow down and explain the information better. I will try to guide student through the information and problem throughout class. I will also have student help each other to find solutions to the problems. If some students are still struggling with the information learn in class I will ask student to come for additional help during a free period or after school. Gearing Up Those students who know the material learn today I will ask those students to help other with any questions they may have. However the material cover in class is very difficult so it is unlikely that there are many students that know all the material accurately.

Questions for Understanding

Knowledge

What property do you use for this?

What is the formula for Pythagorean Theorem? What is definition for chords? What is the definition of similar triangles? Comprehension What generalization can you make of this diagram? What can you infer from the diagram and the triangles?

Application What property do you apply here? How can you show that these sides are congruent? How does chords theorem apply here?

Analysis How can you use this diagram to prove the Pythagorean Theorem? How does this property relate to this triangle? What does this condition illustrate? What assumptions can you make on the diagram and proof?

Synthesis How does this explain proof explain the diagram? How does this tell you that these triangles are similar?

Evaluation What does this prove? Are there other ways to do the same exact proof? How does this proof the Pythagorean theorem?

Practice

Guided Students will work on problems in class together and with help by me. Independent Students will be asked to explore the power of theorem even more and reflect in a journal what they learn in class today and any question they have.

Technology Integration

We will watch a video at the beginning of class on Pythagoras. The video is about 4 minutes and describes his contributions in math and the world.

Closure

With the last 15-20 minutes of class we will work on the proof that I presented at the beginning of class using the theorem taught in class. We will prove as a class the Pythagorean Theorem using the theorem of chord that I taught in class. Finally, I will ask student for any question that they may have with todays lesson and summarize what was cover in class today. Students will be asked to explore the power of theorem even more and reflect in a journal what they learn in class today and any question they have for homework.

Assessment

Immediate Throughout class I will watch students and see how the react to my questions to see if they seem confused or do they seem like the material is too easy for them. I will make modifications to the lesson if I see this. I will also interview students by asking question well they are working in groups to see if they understand the material. I will also be able to see if students understand the material when asking questions throughout class. Finally, I will ask students to write about class and have them answer what they learn in class today and any question they are still confused about. The following rubric is how the journal will be grade and it is based on a 3 point scale. The journal will ask question on today activities and reflect on the activities done in class.

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The student answers all the questions ask in the journals and support their answers to the questions. The student answers some of the questions in the journal and use some support to answer the questions. The student answers very little of the journal and only answer one or two questions in the journal and put very little effort no effort, or not handed in

0Long Range

Students will have a test on the unit and I expect the unit to take about 10 days to complete. Also, students will be required to create a portfolio of all the proofs they have completed during the unit.